PREFACE BY TRANSLATOR INTO ENGLISH vii
or indirectly by the successive use of two forms of apparatus.
The only difficulty consists in obtaining this heat in such form,
or at a thermal potential (temperature), which will permit its
utilization, or in finding the methods of recuperation^ which will
avoid the waste of the energy."
According to these conditions the problem may be stated as
follows: "To find the most advantageous means of transforming
energy under any of its various forms, chemical, thermal, electrical,
mechanical, etc., either singly or in combination, within the chamber
of a furnace, into heat, utilizable for effecting a particular industrial
All industrial heating operations fall within four principal
" (./) Those in which the temperature at which the particular
reaction occurs is sufficiently low, and the chemical energy of the
reaction is sufficient, to release enough heat for the propagation of the
reaction and to more than cover all radiation and other cooling effects"
This case covers the burning of sulphur to sulphur dioxide, the
combination of nitrogen with calcium carbide in the manufacture
of cyanamicle, the making of steel in the Bessemer converter.
" (#) Those industrial operations in which a certain amount of
heat is released, but whose heat energy is not sufficient to maintain
the ruling temperature necessary for the reaction"
This case is the most general one: Nearly all operations release
some heat. A characteristic example in this class is the open-
" (3) The operation possesses no special chemical energy or is
This case comprises many reheating and some melting opera-
"(4) The chemical energy peculiar to the operation is negative.71
All the heat must be supplied from an external source.
In translating this work, no effort has been made to transform
the formulas and tables from the metric to the English system, of
units. Such a transformation would introduce many complicated
constants into the formulas and, in addition, would greatly
increase the numerical work required in computation. Moreover,
by translator. — As used here, this does not necessarily mean regene-
ration, but the economic utilization of the heat by direct or indirect recov-
ery of waste heat.