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Full text of "The Flow Of Gases In Furnaces"

EXPERIMENTS WHICH SERVE TO SHOW THE ANALOGY     3
A very clear idea of the differences in density which are caused
by great differences in temperature may be obtained by a con-
sideration of the air (gases) in an open-hearth furnace, of which
the temperature is in the neighborhood of 1638 while that of
the air is 0. If it is assumed that the density of the gases in the
furnace is equal to water, the density of the air at 0 will be
relatively equal to that of molten iron.
A furnace in its regular working condition may be considered
as being immersed in a glass tank filled with water, the heavy
liquid, while the interior of the furnace is traversed by a lighter
liquid; the action of the flame within the furnace may in this
manner be considered as similar to that of the lighter liquid
flowing within the heavier liquid.
A complete representation of the circulation of the flame or
hot gases within a furnace may be made in the following manner;
A model to scale of the longitudinal section of a reverberatory
furnace is constructed and immersed in a tank with glass sides; if
a stream of a lighter liquid, as for instance, kerosene, is now
passed through the model of the furnace, the movement of this
liquid will reproduce exactly the movement of the flames within
the furnace.
II. EXPERIMENTS WHICH SERVE TO SHOW THE ANALOGY
BETWEEN THE CIRCULATION OF THE FLAME AND THE MOVE-
MENTS OF A LIGHT LIQUID WITHIN A HEAVY LIQUID.(1)
A white metal model reproducing to scale a brick kiln is placed
between two sheets of glass and submerged in a glass tank; by
means of pipes a stream of colored kerosene is passed into the
model^ through the firebox from which the gases of combustion
enter the furnace.
(1)  The photographs for Figs. 1, 2, 4, 10, 19, 24, 29, 30; 31,32,116, and 117
were supplied by the Sotiet6 russe de metallurgie, whom the author desires to
thank for the same.
(2)  The illustration (Fig. 2) shows the general arrangement of the apparatus
which has been used in conducting the experiments made before the classes at
the Polytechnic Institute of Petrograd.    The model is a scale reproduction
of a brick kiln of the Motovillikha works, the drawing of which is shown in
Fig. 3.   This is submerged in a tank filled with water.   Tubes with control
valves serve to introduce streams of colored kerosene through the fireboxes
of the kiln, the kerosene flowing from a large bottle which acts as a high-
level reservoir.   The kerosene, having passed through the furnace, rises to