DESIGN OP OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES
and the size of the turbulent eddy is considerably increased. If a
second stream of water be directed so that it impinges upon the
first stream just before the first stream impinges on the plafce the
condition of the formation of the flames in the furnace will be
approximated. The main difference between the action of the
two streams of water and that of the streams of air and gas forming
the flame will result from the fact that as the reaction of combus-
tion takes place there is a great increase of temperature which
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SECTION THROUGH AIR PORTS
FIG. 146. — Arrangement of Ports on Many American Furnaces.
velocity and high gas velocity.
makes the volume of the flame approximately double that of the
A study of the effect of the velocities of the two streams upon
their mixing will reveal many interesting facts, particularly if the
streams are colored so as to supply a contrast while they remain
distinct and a third color by their complete mixture. The degree
of the mixing at various points will be revealed by the various
tints formed as one or the other color predominates.
The function of the ports is to bring the combustible and the