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Full text of "The history and construction of Fort Cumberland at Cumberland, Maryland."

THE HISTORY AND CONSTRUCTION OF FORT CUMBERLAND 
AT CUMBERLAND, MARYLAND 





j . 



igfjfliai»iigiiMm]«Mi 




..ISH GOVERI 
.HE DUKE OF C 
TAIN GENERAL OF THE BRITI 
iS THE BASE OF MILITARY 
OF GENERAL EDWARD BRAD 
.AD COLONEL GEORGE WASHI 
IN THE FRENCH AND INDIAN 



■ 



i n . ' ■ KT1HM 






.,." 




I. 



A Thesis For Initiation Into The 
MARYLAND BETA CHAPTER, TAU BETA PI 

by 
H. Hume Mathews 
April 8, 1933, 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 
Frontispiece 
Summary 

The Site of the Fort (1) 

The Construction of the Fort (2) 
The Fort (3) 

The Site of the Fort Today (4) 



This thesis is developed in four parts, as numbered 



above. 



The first part includes the history of the locality 
around the (junction of Will's Creek and the North Branch of 
the Fotomao river, in Maryland; from 1733, at which time the 
written history of this particular region begins, to 1774, 
during which year the construction of Fort Mount Pleasant, 
later called Fort Cumberland, w<*s begun. 

Under the second heading the actual construction 
and conformation is disoussed, while the third portion tells 
of the history of the Fort from the time of its construction 
to its abandonment. 

The thesis is concluded with a description of the 
site of the Fort ag it is today. 



-1- 



THE HISTORY AND CONSTRUCTION OF FORT CUMBERLAND 
AT CUMBERLAND, MARYLAND 



THE SITE OF THE FORT 

The earliest recorded history of the territory 
around tne Caiuotucuo, now Will's Creek, and the Cohongaronta, 
now the North Branch of the Potomac river, tells of an Indian 
village whion was in existence in 1728, located at the junc- 
tion of these two streams. At what time the village of 
Caiuctuouo was deserted is lest to oonjeoture, as the earliest 
map of this region, made in l?5i and is now to be seen in the 
congressional Li orary at Washington, simply marks tne design- 
ated territory as "abandoned Shawanese lands". 

as the white settlements in America expanded from 
the East to the West, this region at the mouth of Will's creek 
became of great importance as a fur trading center. In 1748, 
a number of energetio Pennsylvanians haa succeeded in estab- 
lisning extensive trace with the Indians throughout the valleys 
along the Aiieghenya and the headwaters of the Ohio. Traders 
employed backwoodsmen and bartered blankets, rum, guns, trinkets, 
etc., for furs. The trade became so profitable it attracted 
others. In the year l?49, in order to participate in the fur 
trade and gain a foothold in the desirable Ohio region, enter- 
prizing men of Virginia and Maryland procured a grant of land 
beyond the Alleghenys for the purpose of settlement. This group 
of men was onartered by the King as the' Ohio Company, and num- 
bered among its members suoh men as Thomas Lee of the Virginia 



-3- 

uouncil, Laurence Washington, and Col. Thomas Cresap. Includ- 
ed in the charter wag a grant of land of 5000 acres to be loca- 
ted between the Monogelela and Kanawha rivers, west of the 
Allegheny's . The Company issued orginaHy 20 snares of stock, 
some of wnioh onanged hands, Gov, Dinwiaaie of Virginia and 
ueorge Mason becoming puronasera. One of the requirements of 
the charger wag that the Company must seieot a large proportion 
of their lands at once, some two hundred thousand acres, settle 
upon them 100 families in seven years, erect a fort and maintain 
a garrison against the Indians. When these terms were Complied 
with the land was to be Held free of quit rent for ten years. 
They accordingly set about exploring the country without delay, 
employing an experienced woodsman, Christopher Gist, for this 
purpose. 

Tae first white settlement at Will's Creek was a 

small storehouse built by the Ohio Co. in 1750, stocked with 

v 
gooda to tna value of *,40QQ from London. This storehouse was 

iocated on the West side of the Creek, North of the fiiver. In 
1753 the Co. concluded to make Will's Creek a permanent trading 
post and witn that object in view thay erected another store- 
house and magazine, whion came to oe known throughout tne coun- 
try as "the Mew Storehouse". This building was looated on the 
Virginia side of the river, near the point occupied now by the 
abutment of the Potomac briage, at the fo4t of the bjuff. The 
location at Will's creek »ag regarded as a very tavoraoie one 
ana extensive trading was carried on from thes^two storehouses 

of the Ohio Co. The ground was surveyed on both sided of the 
oreeK, and laid out into a town, with streets, lanes, etc, the 



-3- 

squares being aubdiviaea into lota. Thia town was named 
uhar lot tc burg, in honor of Unarlott Sophia who Decania tne wile 
of ueorge Third and tne last Queen of America, but seemed to 
exist in name only. 

ine charter of the Ohio Co, gave tne members thereof 
important advantages in trading with the Indians, and as this 
was a grant which must drive out of the market many otner trad- 
ers, tne latter, of course, felt greatly aggreived thereby, 
and undertook to get rid of this monopoly oy inciting the Indians 
to hostility against the Co, and formenting trouDles of such a 
character as to make it unsafe for the Go. to sena goods further 
Meat than Will's Creek. y 

ihe lands granted the Ohio, were claimed by both the 
critish and the French Governments. The operations of the Ohio 
Company and the English rulers aroused the jealously of the 
Frenoh, and tnay forthwith undertook to estaolish their claims 
in the Olio vaney. The trouoies between the French and. English 
put a stop to the activities of the Ohio Co., but Will's Creek 
oust led even more than before, as an English Headquarters in 
the resulting struggle between the French and Kngiish Kings for 
this apparently boundless land West of the Aiieghenya. 

THE CONSTRUCT IOl\) OF THE FORT 
Washington, during the first part of 1753, had gone 
West from Will's Creek on an expedition against the French. 

On the 3rd of July, 1753, he was beaaiged by the French in a 

c \ 

Fort he had built, called Fort wessessity. Washington capi- 
tulated on the night of the third of Ju^.y and returned to Will's 



-4- 

Creek, going to Williamsburg from there. Runner ford's and 
uiark'e Independent Companies from Mew York, wnion had been 
sent to join Washington but had not gotten to Will's Creek 
until after his capitulation, remained encamped at the Creek, 
uolonel Jame3 Innss, a scotcnman by birth and at the time he- 
was commissioned a resident of North Carolina, was sent to 
take command of tnese two oompanies on September l, i?54. On 
his arrival at Will's Creek he set about building a fortifica- 
tion, and choose for that purpose a hill lying between the 
Potomac river =tnd the Creek, near the mouth of the latter. 
Maokaye'a Independent Company of South uaroliniane, about ninety 
men, who had been left at the Creek by Washington on his return 
irom Fort Nee'seaaity, asaiasted in building the fortifications, 
which were commenced on the iSth of September and completed 
about the middle of October. Colonel Innea named this Fott, 
which was built of stoccadoes, "Fort Mount Pleasant 1 ', Upon 
finishing that work he set his men building barracks for them- 
selves, ft hi oh were greatly needed, as the weather was already 
quite cold, and there were indications of a severe winter, 

oy Christmao they haa succeeded in construct log a 
sufficient number of log houses to aocommodate the entire 
force, and that day was celebrated by auoh festivitiea as were 
possible under the circumstances. 

Governor Sharpe, of Maryland, had been commissioned 
in July of l?54 as a Lieutenant Colonel in tne Royal Army. 
About the 1st of December he viaited Will's Creek and inspect- 
ed the forces there. On his return to Annapolis he wrote to 
Governor Dinwiddle advising that the n independents were pre- 



-5- 



paring fox themselves oarraaks, having already completed 
the small atocoade fort, about -which you were advised they 
haa been employed, out aa the fort they have finished ia exceed- 
ingly small, ita exterior side not exceeding 130 feet, I oon- 
ceived it requisite or rather absolutely neaaessary to have 
another much larger raised on an adjacent and more elevated 
peice of ground, which I have already oraered the Maryland Go. 
to proseed on, and I hope tney will oe aoie to finiah it this 
winter. The eminence on wnion it will oe situated gives it an 
entire command of that already completed and will derend a 
face of the small fort to whion an enemy mignt at present 
approach witnout oeing much annoyed, or hardly aeen from with- 
in. However, that on which the troops have been employed may 
De useful at present, and will serve to enclose storehouses 
or magazines after the otner Is completed, which, I think, by 
an advanced outwork or tw<b will be easily defended against a 
considerable number of troopa that may presume to attack it 
with only a lignt train - - -", 

Governor Shappe exerted himself to make everytning 
at the Kort satisfactory. He aecured a numoer of teams for 
transporting supplies from the East and for service in haul- 
ing logs for the new fort and buildings he had ordered con- 
structed. These teams were paid for at the rate of a,?5 for 
a wagon, harness, and four horses, though the farmers who 
furnished them asked orginally *£Q each for their teams. Gov- 
ernor Din.vidaie was asked to send a few ship carpenters to 
the Fort, as their services were needed in the woltk of build- 



-6- 

ing; also some cartridge paper , moulds for musxet and awan 
shot, ivire for screws, and prickers, flints, and some wam- 
pum, the supply of the latter having been almost exhausted. 

I'hers were at this time at Fort Mount Pleasant 
three Captains, eight Lieutanfiants, one Ensign, twelve Ser- 
geants, thirteen Corporals, seven Drummer a, and two hundred 
ana ninety five soldiers, all under the command of Colonel 
Innes, The supply of artillery was limited, to a few small 
guns of 3 7/10 inch bore. 

Shortly after Governor Sharpens visit to Fort lit. 
Pleasant, Governor Din.viuaie received from the King instruc- 
tions to proceed at once to the erection of a iort at Will's 
Creek, whicn should be of sucn dimensions and character of 
construction aa the importance of the position seemed to re- 
quire, in view of the more extensive military operations in 
the direction of *ort Duquesne, at Pittsourg, j Governor 
Dinwiduie at once transmitted these instructions to Colonel 
Innes, who was directed to comply with the orders without 
delay. General Bradaook, who had Deen designated by the Duke 
of Cumoeriand aa the Commander-in-Chief of the expedition the 
tsritlah were planning for 1755, and who had oeen privately 
instructed by the Duke as to his wisnes, also requested the 
Governor to have the Fort put in condition to accommodate 300 
men and announced that it snould be named "FORT CUMBERLAND" in 
honor of the Captain General of the Britisn Army, who had 
honored him with so important a mission. 

me orders of the King ^ere ooeysd with alacrity by 
Colonel innes, and under his supervision Fort Cumoeriand was 



-7- 



ereoted and garrisoned, during the winter of 1754-1755, 




The above sketch of Fort Cumberland was found by 
Will Lowaermilk, autnor of "The History of Curnoerland", 
amongst tne King 1 a' manuscripts in the Library of the British 
museum, in London. It was drawn oy one of the officers in 
the Fort, at the time of General Braddock's arrival at the 
Fort during the oampaign of 1755, or Braddook'a Expedition. 
The fortifications are drawn to a scale, but the purport iona 
were not observed in mapping out the river, oreek, and sur- 
rounding grounaa. This fact made it difficult to eataoliah 
tne exact lines of the wofck, but Lowdermilk, in hia Hiatury 
of Cum oar land says of a resident of Cumberland at that time, 
"Mr. Jesse. Korns has a diatinot recollection of Climbing 
over the remaining eartnworka when a boy, and he fixea the 
eaaterltj lincDof the Fort, unat portion of it whlcn runs to 
a point nearest Will's Creek, at some forty feet east of 




*c^\ 




_> 









3CAI& 



A PPW. 100 '/!«■ 



-8- 

Emmanuel Church" Emmanuel Church is at ill located on the 
site of the Fort, The confirmation of the ground at tnat 
3pot ia strongly confirmatory of tnat opinion, a-s well ae 
other cirouma ta.no es, which fix the western line of the Fort 
near Proapeot street. 

The sketch shown on the adajcent page shows tne 
Fort located on tne preaent plat of Cumoeriand, ag from 
the knowledge and computations of Earnest Brackett, at pre- 
sent a Civil and Mining engineer of Cumoerland, a man who 
is throughly familiar with the hiatory of Fort Cumoerland, 

xne greater portion or Fort Cumberland was a 
pallisado work, all of it in fact, except tne small orib 
worK, bastionea atruoture on the Western end, xne palli- 
sadea were loga out to a length of 18 feet, and planted in 
the earth to a depth of 6 feet, forming a close wooden wall 
IS feet in height. These logs were apitted togetner, with 
3tnps and pins on tne inner side, ana. the wall was pierced 
with openings for musketry along its entire face. There 
were two water gates, and from each of these a trench was ex- 
cavated leading to the Creek, so tnat the men might secure 
* supply of water without oeing exposed to the fire of the 
enemy. In 1756, after Braaoook's defeat, the Indiana became 
so numerous and bold as to approach near enough to fire upon 

6 

toae who ventured to thw,. water's edge, and in conaequence 
thereof a well was sunk inside the pallisado near the main 
gate on the Soutn side. About the ysar l?99, after the ab- 
anuonment of the ffot-t, the well was cleaned out and several 
gun carriages, etc., were removed. The reaaina of the well 
may still be seen on the property of Dr. Johnson, 



-9- 



Insiae tne atoOKaae were built barracks sufiioient 
to furnisn quarters for 300 men and tne ooinpnay ot ofucers. 
mere was also a parade or drill ground for the companies, 
looated about where the present Acaaemy and uourt House atana. 
At the West end of tne stocxade was built a fort, with bastions, 
parapets, ana di tones, wnere 16 guns were mount ea, wnion 
commanded all the ground Nortn, West, and South, as well as 
tne Nortn and Soutn lines of the stooxaae. Tnes guns were of 
uiiterent can ore, 4 of tnem Ming 13 pounaers =tnd 13 of them 
4 pounaers. besiaee tnese, tnere were several swivels. A 
part of tnis armament was ship's guns, Drought from Admiral 
Keppel'a fleet. On tne West face was a sally port, and inaiae 
tne fort were the houses usea as quarters for the commanding 
officer, for storing provisions, ana for the guard details 
while on duty. The entire work waa 400 feet in length, and 
ibO reet in width, extending from the point indicated below 
itmmanual Uhurcn to within a snort distance of Prospect street, 
the northerly line extending along nearly the center of Wash- 
ington street. The Fort proper occupies tne position on which 
now stanaa tne Jewisn Synagogue. 

ihls f ortiiioation was of considerable strength, 
and commanded the approacnes from the North, Kast, and South, 
rne ground to the worth- West was somewhat higher, but a small 
earth work of a temporary character was construct ea on the 
crest. The ground on the South side of tne river, opposite 
tne Fort, was high enougn to overlook tne worx, and somewnat 
intenerea witn its efiiciency. S|uite a number of log houses 



-10- 



I'or oa.rra.yKs wars built on tne or eat, as far back as Small- 
wood, s tree j but these were made use of only when there was a 
greater force present than could oe accommodated in the Fort 
and the barracks immediately adjoining. 



THE FORT 

me campaign, led by Wasnington, which had termin- 
ated so unfortunately at Fort nessesaity, had been w atoned 
closely by the English autnorities, but they did not receive 
intelligence of the disaster until August, 1?54, Tne news 
created muon excitement in tne cabinet. It became apparent 
tnat in-as-muon as the colonies seemed to oe fatally slow in 
providing tne nessessary means of defense, the urown must 
fur iii an both troops ana supplies. 

in the resulting campaign of 1755, generally known 
as " araddock's Expedition", jrort Cumoer land wag ths moat pro- 
minent point oocupieu on tne line of mar en, and was the scene 
of important military operations. It had been chosen as the 




-11- 



rallying point lor an tne troops participating in tne move- 
ment against the French on the Ohio river, its location oeing 
naturally advantageous for this purpose, aitnough as a post 
or deienoe for the frontier settlers further East it was prac- 
tically oi little vaiue. Situated, as it was, upon tne very 
outskirts of civilization, surrounaed by only a rew haray 
pioneers and trappers, it was a favorite piace of resort for 
tnose friendly Indians who had peltries to barter at the Fort. 
At the same time it was well adapted as a plaoe of rendezvous 
i'or suon forues as might be designed for operations further 
west. It was located in tne very heart of tne wilderness, witn 
virgin forests all around it, and roaas of tne most interior 
Character reaching caus to the settlements, nearry eignty miles 
away, while tne single roau, leading to the West could scarcely 
oe caned suon. In the organization of Braddoctc's forces, the 
supplying of men and animals, and the events that followed 
until the close or tne contest with the drench, the scenes that 
transpired here rendered historic every foot of ground aoout 
tne place. Throughout the pages of History frequent reierenoe 
is maae to Fort Cum oar tod, in connection with tne progress of 
plans and operations to which so muoh importance was at tnat 
time attached. 

On the 30th of January, l?5b, Governor Snarpe again 
visited Fort uumoerland, and on tne Sbth Sir John St. uiair 
arrived. They made an examination of tne worics, tne supplies 
and the arms; and two days were spent in inspection and con- 
sultation as to tne additions that were nessessary to the 



-13- 



atores, ana the best method of getting them to oainp. Governor 
Bhappe found military an airs in a very unaatisiactory oondi- 
tion; the Virginia Companies were unruly, diacontenxed and. 
mutinioua, wniie tne Maryland Oo, was of little value, Deoauae 
of their limited numoera and xaok of diaipiine. Tne 01 Hoars 
of tne coioniai companies ana thoae holding King's ooramiaaiona 
were at dagger 'a point a Deoauae of a dispute ae to rank. Sir 
John Bt Clair inspected the aoidiera at the Fort, and disonar- 
ged no leas than twenty from Captain Rutneriord'a Co, cecause 
01 tneir unfitness for service. 

ueneral Braauoole left Alexandria on his mar on to 
Fort lJuqueane on the 30tn of April, 1755. he arrived at Fort 
CumDerlana, alter a atop at Freaerloktown, Md. , on the 10th 
of May, in hie onariot, one of the oumoeraome carnages oi 
tnat day, wnicn he haa pur anas ed of Governor Bnarpe before 
leaving Alexandria, 




ueneral BraddooK'a Arrival 



-13- 

ine rorces then at Fort CumDeralna, oesiaes tne 
garrison, were tna ,44th and 4tJth British regiments, two New 
ioric Indepenaent Companies, five Virginia Companies of Bangers 
ana two oi carpenters, one Maryland Company of rangers, two 
flortn ana Soutn Carolina Companies of rangers, ana tnirty sea- 
men, in all SiyQ men. 

■me enoampn.ent at Fort Cumoexjana, ana everything 
in connection with it, was in every detail in accordance with 
tne most approved English military metnoas and councils of 
war-ana it anoraea Colonel wasnington, wno hau oeen invited 
oy uenerai araaaocic to join him as an Aide ae camp, nis first 
opportunity to stuay military tactics and minutiae of war in 
their strictest form, a stuay wraon was to oe lnvaiuaoie ooth 
to himself ana to his country. 

eraoaocJc's Army remained at the Fort until June, 1755, 
when they maronea in three divisions, on the ?th, dtn, and lUtn, 
colonel mnes oeing appointed Governor oi tna Fort by bradoock 
on his aeparture, witn instructions to noid it and protect the 
country arouna it with tne remmants of the colonial forces. 

Alter BrauaooJc's disastrous deieat at Monongonela, 
his shattered army, under Colonel- Dun oar, found its way baok to 
Fort Cumberland, after a short wniie continuing tne maron to 
i'hllaaeiphia, uespite the entreaties of the Governors of Mary- 
land, Virginia, and Pennsylvania tnas they remain at the Fort 
and protect tne frontier, i)unoar*s ignoninous retreat excited 
tne indignation or the wnole countryside and created great 
alarm, Governor snarpe visited tne uort and gave the innaoitante 
arouna suon assurances as he could, out he aia not remove tneir 



-14- 



iaar ol tne tomanawk aria scalping fcaiie, and. many of them aoana- 
ouea everything ana ilea for tnBir lives. 

Washington returned to Mount Vernon aiter tne aeieat 
ana was snort ly appoint e a oy Governor uinwiauie Cornmanaer-in- 
cmef ol ail tne Virginia forces. 

in Kovemoer colonel innes was cidiea to nis home in 
worm Carolina, ana lie left tne *ort in onarge ox Colonel 
Stephens, Lieutenant uoionei oi trie Virginia torees, captain 
i^agwortny was also at Jort cumuerlana in cooimana 01 a small 
aetaanment oi Marylana troops, ana almost immediately axter 
innes departure, issuea an oraer assuming commanu 01 tne Fort, 
in spite of tne taut tnat uoionei innes was its Governor ana 
uoionei Stephens nis representative. However, Washington took 
tne master up with Governor Shiriet 01 Massachusetts, srauuooK: ' s 
successor as Major-uenerai of nis Majesty's forces in the 
ooiorues, ana captain uagwortny was oraerea irom the rort. 

in tne May following uoionei innes was again oaiiea 
to North Carolina, tnis time leaving Major James liivlngston 
in onarge of tne *ort. iiiarly in tne spring, snort ly aiter tne 
aepariure oi colonel Innes, tne Indians oegan to give trouoie 
oy firing into tne rort from tne aurroanaing hills, Tnis was 
stoppea oy Major Livingston wnen he mar one a to trie foot of 
wnat is known as McKaig's hill with seventy live men on a 
oiouaiy nignt, ana suprlzea ana kiiiea most ot tne maioon tents, 

in January, l?b?, Wasnington again took up nis quar- 
ters at j)ort uumoeriana, etna remaineatnere until Mar on, out 
nothing oi special moment transpirea, ana it was not until 
the entry 01 William Pitt in tne oritlan Ministry tnat deiirute 



-lb- 



plans weee aettiea upon tor a vigorous enort to retrieve tne 
rniarortunea 01 tne ora-cuiooic campaign, ana wnen *ort uumueria,nu 
again oecame tne center oi marxea military aotivity. 

"i'ne expedition against *ort Duqueane was tnis time 
entruatea to ^9119x^.1 Jonn roruea, wno naa uuuer nim, including 
tne coiomai ioruea, aoout oQUu men. 

Wasnmgton reaonea *ort uumoeriana, wiun trie Virginia 
lorues, some HOvO strong, on tne itfna oi July, iyo8, to lorm 
a juncture witn tne Britian Army, wniie tnere ne procuraa tne 
ear vices oi several nunareu. inuiana ana aiso put nis men in 
inaian areas, to nave tnem aa ne said "proceed as iignt as 
any inaian in tne wooaa" — proo&oiy a lesaou ne naa learnea 
irom tne mi si or tunas or uenerai araaaocit. Leaving ron Uumo- 
eriana in cnarge oi Governor Snarpe ana m« Maryland troops, 
ne jolnea General forces at nays town on septemuer 30tA, from 
wnenoe tne start to *ort Duqueane *as siaue on tne l4tn oi 
Uctouer, ana wnere tne imai struggle xor wortn American su- 
premacy was triumpnantiy won oy tne ontisg ana American loruea, 
rne Treaty oi Far is ana tne ena oi tne rrenun ana inaian war 
immediately followed, 

irouoies oetween tne inaiane ana wnitee naving prac- 
tically ceaeed, and tne garrison at iort uumueriana oemg no 
longer neaseaaa-ry, il was I'ormaiiy turnea over to Maryiana 
<*atnontiea up tne critian uoverument May M, iVbb, tne troops 
iorming tne garrison leaving for tne Soutn sixty aays later. 

*ort (Jumoeriana was never again usea as a military 
poet, except in !Vy4, wnen it *as orougnt into requisition 



-lb- 



once more in tne auppreasion oi wnat is known as tne wmatcey 
neoelnon. it was tnen tnai warning ton paia nis lasi, via it 
to JJ'ort uumuenana ana revived his association with the scenes 



so filled with memories for him. 




it was fitting that here he 
should don for the last time, officially, his continental 
uniform — to review the troops he had ordered there — on the 
spot where he had obtained his first real lesson in the art 
of war an art of which he became the master, distin- 
guishing himself as the pre-eminently great Amerioan Soldier, 



THE SITE OF THE FORT AS IT IS TODAY 
in i8l6 subscriptions were solicited by the members 
of the Episcopal and Presbyterian^ congregations of Cumberland 
for the erection of a church on the site of Fort Cumberland, 
The church was finally tfefiilt and used by the Episcipals, but 



-17- 



was torn down and replaced by a much finer edifice, which 
was consecrated on October 16, 1851. 

The present church is one of the most famous and 
beautiful in the oountry. It is built of native yellow sand- 
stone, is of Gothic architecture, and wtts designed by John 
Not man, the noted Piiladelphia Architect of that time. 

Underneath the Church may be seen a series of three 
tunnels, which, it is claimed by several people prominent in 
historical matters in Cumberland, are a remna.it of the old 
Fort. However, there are many differences of opinion among 
Cumberland residents familiar with the history of the Fort, 
and the matter will probably never be settled; the only re- 
ference which might point to their existence as a part of the 
Fort being Will Lowdermilk'e mention of ditohes dug from 
the Fort to the Creek, in his History of Cumberland, Per- 
sonally, judging from the conformation and location of these 
stoort tunnels, they are limited to the confines of the Church, 
the Author believes they iveee dug at the time of building of 
one of the two churches which have existed on that 





The Ink Bar Shows The Relative Position Of The Fort 




HBAUgi x i : 111: i 

i m 4 ■! 





In the above picture, taken from the Northwest, the 
building with the spire in the center is the Court House,- 
while the Eimanuel Church is directly below on the aai&e side 
of the street. The Jewish Synagogue, where the main stockade 
was located, is the square building with pillars between the 
Ocurt House and the Church. The Easterly line of the Fort 
was 40 feet to the left and back of the spire of the Church. 



Bibliography 

History of Cumber land- Low derail Ik 

History of Allegany County- Thomas 

History of Western Mary land- Scharf 

tiistory of Maryland-Stark 

A Colonial Officer and Hie Times-Waddell 

A History of Forte and Military Reservations 

of the United States 

Encyclopedia Americano 

Personal 

Earnest Bracket t, Civil and Mining Engineer 

Cumberland, Md. 

Miss Mary Robbing, Cumberland, Md. 

J. C. Wolverton, direot descendant of Col. uresap 

Cumberland, Md, 

Also 
A Paper on George Washington Written for the 

Cumberland Chapter of the D.A.R. by 
Miss Fan Lloyd, Cumberland, Md. 

Pictures of paintings are from works by 
uertrude DuBrau, Cumber ii nd, Md,