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Full text of "The history and construction of oyster riggings used on the Chesapeake Bay. published 1933 April 27"

-3- 

The decline of oysters since 1S90 has been gradual 
"but almost continuous. A flight change in the production 
due to a heavy catch of spat (young oysters), which sent it 
up to a million bushels or two, occurred now and then, to be 
followed by a still greater decline, until in the year 1939 
the production scarcely reached two million bushels. 

During the period from 187Q to 1330 no serious 
thought had been given to maintaining the supply of oysters 
in Chesapeake Bay. The ever increasing fleet of sailing 
craft and other types had worked with practically no restric- 
tion*., taking and destroying oysters regardless of size, and 
when the demand came from Northern markets for seed, they 
ruthlessly stripped the rocks, and shipped Northward millions 
of bushels . 

Following a bumper crop in 18?5, there was a gradual 
decline, and in 1878-1879 Lieutenant Francis Finslow, U. S. N. , 
was detailed by the United States Bureau of Fisheries to sur- 
vey the oyster bars of Tangier and Pocomoke Sounds, in Mary- 
land and Virginia, to determine their extent. Window*- re- 
port showed that oysters were still plentiful at that time, 
although the production had declined. Hie report, however, 
had the effect of arousing serious thought on the part of the 
Maryland Legislature, which in 188^ appointed a special com- 
mission to study the industry and to make recommendations for 
corrective measures. This commission was composed of three 

members— Dr. William K. Erooks of John Hopkins University, 



-7- 



HI8T0RY ^F OYSTER PRODUCTION ANP I.FG ILLATION IB MARYLAND 



(Diagram Showing History of Oyster Production and Legislation In Maryland 




1820 

I 

: ■-.'.'■:■<•; 
FRPHIBIfEC 



■BALTJ1I0HE 



Tlie following explanation of the diagram footnotes was provided by 
Swepson Farle, Conservation Commissioner: 
1820 — First oyster legislation passed, prohibiting dredging in county 

waters but permitting it in State waters. 
1830 — First restocking law passed. Known as "One Acre Planting 

Law." It gave landowners right to take up one acre of bottom 

adjoining their property for replanting. 
1836 — First raw packing plant established in Baltimore. 
1 848 — Steam packing plant established. 
1850— Scraping legalized in Somerset County with boats of less than 

ten tons. 
1865— Inauguration of license system for tonging, dredging and scrap- 
ing. "Five Acre Planting Law" passed almost simultaneously. 
1870 — Scraping legalized in Dorchester County, the Great Choptarik 

and Ilonga Rivers ami in Hooper .Straits. 
1847— Scraping legalized in Talbot County. Scraping today legal only 

in Somerset, Dorchester and Talbot. 



1878-79 — Survey of bars in Tangier and Pocomoke Sounds and in Vir- 
ginia waters by Lieut. Francis Winslow, U. S. N. Oysters found 
still plentiful but not so abundant as in earlier years. 

1882-83 — Reconnaisance of Maryland oyster beds by special Oyster 
Commission, which reported beds depleted and supply in danger 
of extinction if conservation measures were not taken. Private 
and State oyster culture recommended. Peak oyster crop — - 
15,000,000 bushels — came in following year and the report of 
the commission was ridiculed in many quarters. 

1886 — Passage of shell planting law requiring State to plant shells for 
culture. Never carried out efficiently, although sound in pur- 
pose. 

1890 — Passage of cull law, still in force, which requires that any oyster 
taken which is less than a Va inches from hinge to mouth be 
returned to water. 

1906 — Passage of Haman Oyster Culture Law, providing for survey 
and leasing of State beds and creating Shell Fish Commission. 



OKPARIBEHT 
HADE _ 

«;cf£ase:> yistee. 
:at m plant 

SllOiS ON DEPLMED 
BOTIOIIS 

1912 — Passage of Pi-ice- Campbell law to strengthen Haman law. 

1914 — Passage of Shepherd act, which virtually nullified oyster culture 
legislation by providing that any bottom resorted to once in five 
years by oyster fishermen was natural bottom. This was fol- 
lowed by the Reserve Area Law, permitting the closing and 
planting 1,090 acres for later reopening. 

191G — Reopening of reserved area to oystcrmen and creation of Con- 
servation Commission out of old State Fishery Force, Shell Fish 
Commission, Fish Commission and Game Warden. 

1917 — Extension of reserved areas to include 1,000-acre sites in tribu- 
tary waters to be closed for two years. 

1922 — Conservation Commission becomes Department of Conservation, 
with single commissicner at head. Oyster tax increased to pro- 
duce $18,000 revenue a year. Million bushels of shell since 
spread en 1,000 acres of depleted bottoms. Depletion stemmed 
without increase in production. 



-8- 





Bushels Oysters Inspected. 




i 


| 


Year. 


Md. 


Out State. 


1 
o 




g 








H 


EC 


Q 


1916 - - 


4,120,819 


687,585 


7299 


730 


446 


1917 


2,461,603 


366,792 


5562 


378 


309 


1918 


3,743,638 


288,924 


3688 


402 


222 


1919... 


4,592,001 


303,096 


5232 


407 


322 


1920 


4,959,962 


323,625 


5439 


455 


324 


1921 „ 


4,435,186 


563,445 


6230 


533 


261 


1922. 


3,687,489 


550,000 


5543 


460 


295 


1923 - 


8,440,810 


643,554 


5396 


420 


362 


1924 . 


2,787,047 


242,470 


5776 


389 


299 


1925 


2,453,904 


481,038 


5156 


406 


265 


19 26 















Above ie a comparative report illustrating the decline 
in the oyotering licences looued &nd the general decline of the 
oyotering bueineea that ha* teen a characteristic of the bu»- 
ine °° for the ps*»t forty year©. Thi*. decline io even apparent 
during the prosperous) times of the business cycle. 



-10- 
CRUDE IMPLEMENTS 

Oysters were first taken from the Che&apeake Bay by 
hand. The Indian* end early colonists* were able to wade into 
the clear shallow wstero and pick the bivalves from the bottom. 
Ao time continued on the Indians and some of the colonists 
would dive for the oysters just a« pearl divers of today dive. 
Those of the colonists who could not or would not dive, but 
wished to get the oyster a» a change in diet from the =ame of 
the woo d«> and products of their garden©, made crude fork like 
implements of wood end were able to pull or rake the oysters 
from the deeper water into the shallower water and then pick 
them up by hend. Later the fork like implements were improved 
on and the crude wooden reke was used. 

A crude wooden hoe was attached to another hoe by 
some ingenious colonist and a rair of nippers, was made. The 
nippers were a ecioaoro like arrangement consisting of two 
wooden handles about seven feet long held together by a pivot 
or dowl about five feet from the operating end. On the end 
of each handle w^s e narrow blunt blade, thus forming true 
pincers or nippers that would pick the oysters off the bottom 
when operated from above. The nippers became handy instru- 
ments and were improved on by putting teeth in the blade and 
the result was the first crude small tong. The smell tong 
was improved on by making the handles longer end placing a 
basket or cradle on the bottom which could gather and hold the 





u. 


S. B. R— Doc. 690. PLATE X. 






1 


fife- 










i^<S 


^\jf0^^ 




$$&&* .1 


V 


4, ■ 






FIG. 1.— MASS OF MUSSELS ATTACHED TO OYSTERS. 
(After Moore.) 




' te.*«^B f-j«is<*" „ 

■Vflr 

L'*"' *^B * ■- *^Tb hV* > T-f - vB 

B mJBl B«ur&r "it 

B ■■'^.- j ki-- 1 /bM BV - 
B. <c#«h v 4 B f • F« 5* *jk* - < Ji 

■r v* ■ ; -i- , b B ■ y3P» ° ■ i&fl 

■■w •V^aV^.. 1 Br *«'♦• *-v 

BLh>*"'- B Biv*.-'-- '••"j»3 




FIG 


2.— OYSTER SHELLS SHOWING PITS AND CHAMBERS MADE BY BORING CLAM. 

(After Moore.) 



U. S. B. F.— Doc. 890, 



PLATE XI. 




EIG~1.— TONGING OYSTERS, WORKING THE TONGS ON THE BOTTOM. 
(Photo from Prof, E. N. Cory, Maryland State University.) 




FIG. 2.— TONGING OYSTERS, LIFTING AND EMPTYING THE TONGS. 
(Photo from Prof. E, N. Cory, Maryland State University.) 



-11- 

oyeters. The tong itself which has* hardly been improved on de- 
veloped from the email tonga . 

TONGS ANT TONGIHG BOAT^ 

The ordinary hand oyster tonga are shown in Plate XI. 
There are two long, flat, smooth, wooden handle© about three 
inches wide and nearly one inch thick bolted, rivited, or 
pinned together with s wooden pin, ucioooro fashion, about 
four and one half feet from one end, leaving the long ends for 
handle^. To the short end of each shaft i© secured at right 
angles a light iron bar about three and one half feet long, 
bearing teeth, while above this bar are five or six still light- 
er bar* or heavy wire© parallel to the bar and attached to the 
shaft. The end© of the bare or wires are fastened together by 
ohort wires. The arrangement on each shaft is made with the 
teeth sloping inward and when the handle© are closed the two 

are brought together, the whole forming a basketlike affair, 

fec"J" 

three and one half inch-ao- long and about eight inches or ten 
inches deep. In operating the handles sra worked seizor** 
fashion, and the teeth are forced under the oysters, retained 
in the basket which is then lifted. Oyoter tongo vary in 
length with the depth of water in different localities. In 
some places oyoter© are tonged by hand at a depth of even 
twenty-five feet. 

Various styles of boats are u©ed in Tonging. The 
pictures shown illustrate the variou- styles of boats. The»e 



U. S. B, F.— Doe. 890. 



Plate XV. 




FIG. 1.— HAND DREDGES AND WINCHES FOR HOISTING THEM. 
(Photo from Prof, E, N, Cory* Maryland State University.) 




FIG. 2. — MACHINE-HOISTED DREDGE USED IN TAKING OYSTERS. 



U. S. B. F.— Doc. 890. 



PLATE XVII. 




FIG. ?.— LOWERING THE DREDGE. 
(Photo from Prof.E, N. Cory, Maryland Stats University.) 




FIG. 2.— EMPTYING THE DREDGE. 

In this case the dredge has been I lifted by a donkey engine, part of which may be seen at the 
(Photo from Prof. E. N. Cory, Maryland State University.) 



right 



U. S. B. F.— Doc. S90, 



PLATE XVI. 




FIG. 1. -SMALL SLOOP OR "SKIP-JACK" USED IN DREDGING OYSTERS IN CHESA- 
PEAKE BAY. 

The dredge shown lying on the roller is raised and lowered by the hand windlass over which 
the man is stooping. (Photo from Prof. E. N. Cory, Maryland State University.) 




FIG. 2.— OYSTER-DREDGING SCHOONER IN CHESAPEAKE BAY. 
(Photo from Prof. E. N, Cory, Maryland State University.) 



U, S. B. F.— Doc. 890. 



PLATE XVIII. 




FIG. 1.— OYSTER FLEET OPERATING FROM CAMBRIDGE, MD., LYING IN HARBOR. 

Cambridge Is only one of the several important oyster centers on Chesapeake Say. (Photo 
from Prof, E. N, Cory, Maryland State University.) 




FIG. 2.— ONE OF THE TWO LARGEST OYSTER STEAMERS IN THE WORLD, BOTH 
OWNED BY A NEW ENGLAND COMPANY. 

Three dredges lifting 30 bushels each are operated on each side. The capacity of the steamer 
isS.COO bushels per day. (Photo from H.C. Rows Co.) 



U. S. B. F.— Doe. 890, 




plate XIX. 


■llIiRS'-vf- 

KB yWyl ffl lillMl ^ , 


I 


-ltd |*MVf^H ^H^'^E 


F 


" fVfgqP 

1 .Mfc« T 



FIG. 1.— LARGE OYSTER HOUSE AT PROVIDENCE, R. I„ SHOWING DREDGE BOAT 
UNLOADING OYSTERS AT RIGHT AND ELEVATOR TO SHELL PILE AT LEFT. 




FIG. 2.— UNLOADING OYSTERS FROM THE BOAT AT ONE OF THE LARGE OYSTER 
HOUSES BY MEANS OF A BELT CONVEYER, 



THE HISTORY AND CONSTRUCTION OF OYSTER 

RIGGING^ U e ED ON THE CHESAPEAKE BAY 
* * * 



PRFPARFP BY 

CHARLFP W. OCKER^HAUSFN 
* * • 



FOR INITIATION INTO THE EFTA CHAPTER OF 

MARYLANP OF TAU BETA PI FRATERNITY 

* * * 



APRIL 27, 1933 



SUMMARY 

From the time of planting of the colony at St. Mary's 
City and the colony et Jamestown oysters have teen a depend- 
able oouroe of food for people living along the Chesapeake Bay. 
There was, apparently, no industry in the states of Maryland 
end Virginia until early in the nineteenth century when, with 
the development of such nearby cities as Philadelphia, Balti- 
more, and Washington, there sprang up a demand for oyster* which 
resulted in the perfection of device*, for the capture. Ey 1B40 
the industry had developed to a point that attracted attention 
in this country and abroad. However, the peeY cf production 
in Maryland's oyster industry was not reached until in the de- 
cade of 1880-1890, when ir a single year more than fifteen 
million bushels were produced. During the early part of the 
decade many crews were shanghaied and later in the decade there 
weie a number of minor oyster war* with ^.orre casualties. Be- 
cause of the ever increasing harvest watermen had come to feel, 
by tMt> time, that the oyster resources of the Chesapeake 
were ir exhaustible. Since that period, however, there has been 
a gradual diminution in the supply, with an occasional favor- 
able year, albiet, until the present low level has been reach- 
ed. There has teen a challenge to the best in science end 
legislature to check the depletion and effect restoration. 
Legislature in its erdeavor to check depletion hs» enacted law© 
which have limited the evolution end development of oystering 



machinery, however , there were some early development*. 

The first t implements were crude rekeo which gra dually 
developed into tongs. Tongs were not efficient in the very 
deep waters O o an implement celled the patent tongs was u=.ed 
in deep water. Dredges were invented to reach the oyoters in 
the deep waters. There have been many typeo of dredges but all 
ere of the characteristic uoe End const ruction. Motors have 
teen uc-ed in hoisting the dredger end patent tongs into the 
boats*. The early hand rowed boats were improved on by 08 il 
boats ?nd later motor boats. The further development in oyoter- 
ing implements car be inspired only by an increase and uptuin 
in the oytttering industry which may come about through planting 
of cultch end seed oysters on oyster ffr?:o sufficiently large 
and using methods that are not too restricted by state lav. 



machinery, however, there were ©ome early development©. 

The first implement© were crude rake© which gradually 
developed into tongs, Tonga were not efficient in the very 
deep water© ©o en implement called the patent tonge wa& u©ed 
in deep water. Dredge© were invented to reach the oyoter© in 
the deep waters, There have teen many type© of dredge© hut all 
ere of the characteristic u©e end con© true t ion , Motor© have 
teen u©ed in hoisting the dredge© and patent tong© into the 
toets. The early hand rowed boats were improved on by ©ail 
boat© end later motor boets, The further development in oy©ter- 
ing implement* car be inspired only by a» incree©e end upturn 
in the oyotering industry which may come about through planting 
of cultch and seed oyster© on oy©ter farms sufficiently large 
and using methods that ere not too re© trie ted by btste law. 



OUTLINE 

THE HISTORY AND CONSTRUCTION OF OY^TFF, 
RIGGINGS USED OX THE CHESAPEAKE BAY 

A. HISTORY OF OY^TFFING IN MARYLAND 

F. HISTORY OF OY n TFF PRODUCTION J :,' n LEGISLATION IN MARYLAND 

C. DEVELOPMENT AND PF°CRIPTION a OF THF RIG* U e ED IN OY^TFRING 

IN THF CHESAPEAKE FAY 

1. CRUDE IMPLEMENTS 

3. TONGS AN! TONGING FOA T e 

3. ^ATFNT TONGS AND BOATS 

4, DREDGE* AND DREDGING BOAT 

D. PATENT ILLUSTRATING DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF DREDGES 







-1- 










EI^TOFY 


OF OISTIBIHG IK MAHTLANI5 








Certain old 


paintings found 


in Virginia bu! 


3»tantiate 


the 


belief that the 


intripid explorer, Captain John 


Smi th , 


was 


the first white 


man in America to est the luscious b: 


i. valve , 


The 


s»e rictuieo rep recent the Indiana 


bringing oyatero to 


Cap- 


tei 


n Smith and the early settlero of 


Virginia. 








Thio quaint 


yet important incident wao hut 


a prologue 


to 


the drama of the 


oyeter, which hac 


i played ouch a 


vital part 


in 


the Chesapeake Fa 


y country . Each 


ouooeoeive incident 


be- 


ceme more a stirring 


and more robust. 


In the early 


seventies* 


of 


the nineteenth century activities 


aooumed proportion© 


of 


cha 


otic lawleJoneob, 


This period produced many feei 


leou 


Gtea— 



faring men. Little did Ceptfin Smith realize that the delic- 
ious «*ea food given him ty the Indiana would ir later year** 
cause battles**" bloodshed and the loe© of lives. 

No doubt the greatest period in the history of the 
oyoter industry in Chesapeake Bay was during the time of 

res test oyster production, when the great flee to of pungies, 
ochocnero, skipjacks*, and hugeyeo, maned by rough and fear- 
leofa skippers with obangheied crew*, roamed the bay,' taking 
oysters from the restricted zoneo in a very lawless fashion. 
The«e men, taken s Q s class, formed perhaps* one of the moot 
depraved bodies of workmen found in the country. They were 
gathered from jails, workhouses, penitentiaries*, sr.6 the low- 
est dens of the city. They were principally whites and 



-3- 

mootly foreigners, representing practically every European 
nation, often unable to apeak more than a few words* of English, 
They were worked from dawn until sun»et and many .succumbed to 
exposure on the wintry, icy deck*,; oorne of those who escaped 
this fate were paid off "by a jib,, of the boom, left on stoma 
unknown chore or inland, or killed with a belaying pin. 

In reviewing the history of the oyster industry in 
Maryland records give the first packing house established in 
the city of Baltimore in 1836 and the first steam packing 
house in 1848. The demand for oysters was still small at 
that time; even up to 1850 only 1,30", 000 bushels a year were 
taken, and it was not until after the Civil War that great 
activity in the oyster business commenced, caused by the in- 
creased demand from other Gtatea and improved shipping facil- 
ities. It was in 18S6 that a license was first required for 
the taking of oystero with tongs, sc rapes, and dredges, and 
a police force to check poaching was not created until 1368, 
when the oyster crop harvested from the waters of Maryland 
reached 7,500,000 bushels. 

This wao the beginning of the period of great fleets 
of dredging vessels — perhaps as many as two hundred — and they 
gradually increased in numbers until in 1883 there were seven 
hundred boats engaged in taking oysters from the bottom of the 
Chesapeake, The greatest production was reached in 1385, when 
15,000,000 bushels were marketed. 



-4- 
Jameo I. Waddell, and William Henry Legg of the Eastern Shore. 

Dr. Brooks, an outstanding biologist of his. day, re- 
commended in the strongest terms the return of the oyster -shell© 
to the natural rocks, to provide cultch for the young oyoter 
to grow upon. This, valuable report of the commission was thrown 
into the discard; the outburst of disapproval over the shell 
planting proposal was unanimous from tidewater Maryland, and 
there was no ection taken by the Legislature. In 1386, however, 
the Legislature provided for shell planting in a ©mall way, but 
it was never carried out with any degree of system and the bene- 
fits* which accrued are questionable. 

The State Fishery Force, which was established in 1668 
was gradually augmented by additional boats in an effort to en- 
force the lawo and control the oyster fleets, and protect the 
ton^ing or county watero from raids, by the dredging fleet. Two 
iron steamer* patrolled the Bay end the Potomac River and were 
equipped with rifles and in addition fitted with crescent-shap- 
ed sections of iron in front of the wheels to protect the steers- 
man from rifle balls. 

The year 1888 was one of the most outstanding in the 
history of the oyster industry. In reality it marked a turn- 
ing point in the industry. Touring the oyster season more 
dredge boa to were engaged in harvesting the bivalve than were 
before and the Bay skippers were bolder in their disregard of 
the law. It was during this very period when many crews were 
shanghied to turn the four men hand windlisses that raised the 



-5- 

dredge from the do t torn, for gasoline motors had not teen put 
into practical use until sometime later. The Maryland Oyster 
Navy had countless encounters with the dredging fleet in for- 
bidden water* which were finally climaxed by the oyster battle 
of Chester River on December 10, 

The battle of Chester River attracted wide notice in 
the newspapers. This battle was a turning point in the history 
of the oyster industry. It had the effect of subduing the 
dredger's activity in the tributary or illegal waters of the 
State of Maryland, and it was shortly after this that the Ger- 
man Society of Baltimore succeeded in its efforts to have the 
Government take a hand in preventing the shanghaing of crews 
on dredge boats. 

The Maryland Legislature then passed the first im- 
portant law for the conservation of the oyster. This act was 
known as the cull law, and it required that all oysters less 
than two and a half inches from hinge to mouth be returned to 
the water© of Maryland. Except in the enforcement of the law 
the catcher was permitted to have as much as five per cent of 
shells and oysters less than two and a half inches in his cargo, 
The cull law had done more than any other law to maintain the 
oyster bars still existing in the waters of Maryland, and if 
this law could have been augmented by an active shell plant- 
ing campaign, Maryland's production would be three or four 
times greater than it is today. This law has become more 
effective year by year with the decrease in the supply, until 
today the present cull law, which is three inches from hinge 



-6- 

to mouth, is generally observed. Maryland laws now include 
a shell-planting law and many tone of shells have been put 
back into the waters of the Chesapeake in an effort to re- 
store the oysters in abundance and again make Maryland the 
greatest oystering state in the United States* At the pres- 
ent time Maryland is the fourth largest producing state. 

The Chesapeake Bay was the moot extensive and pro- 
lific oyster territory in the world, today it show^ eigne of 
depletion in many places. Efforts are being made to restore 
the supply thru strict legislation and under the present sys- 
tem, Maryland can have only small planters who may succeed 
one year and fail another. Holdings are not large enough to 
warrant the employment of suitable boats and equipment. Moot 
of the oyoters will be tonged or ©craped after the old fash- 
ion, and only in good weather is ouch work poooible. If 
leaoeo of the ground*, should become numerous, much litigation 
will arise becauoe boundaries are insufficiently surveyed and 
charted. Prices will rise and fall as many or few bring in 
their harvest, and these small and poor planters will have 
the greatest difficulty in protecting themselves against 
dredging vessels. In the course of time the tonger and the 
dredger of the natural crop will have disappeared. All op- 
position to oyster culture having vanished, the Chesapeake, 
rich with food for an unlimited oyster growth, free from the 
most destructive of oyster enemies, with its safe and unvarying 
natural conditions, will prove to be of greater value to the 
people on its shores than it ever has been. 



-9- 



PFVFLOPMFNT AKP PFSC FICTION* OF THF PJG° UPEE 
IN OY°TFFING IN THF CHF°APFArF BAY 



U. S. B. F.— Doc. 890. 



Plate XII, 




FIG. 1.— .PATENT TONGS, USED TO SOME EXTENT IN TAKING OYSTERS 
IN THE LOWER PART OF CHESAPEAKE BAY. 




FIG. 2.— UNLOADING OYSTERS BY MEANS OF A CRANE OPERATED BY A 
DONKEY ENGINE IN THE SMALL BUILDING AT THE RIGHT. 

(Photo from Prof. E. N, Cory, Maryland State University.) 



U. S. B. F.— Doc. 890. 



Plate XIII. 




FIG. I. — SMALL SAILING BOAT USED IN TONGING OYSTERS IN 
QUINNIPIAC RIVER, CONN. 




FIG. 2.— SMALL SAILING BOAT USED IN TONGING OYSTERS IN RIVERS 
ON THE COAST OF ALABAMA. 



-13- 

boata often carry sn auxiliary gaooline engine beoideo the 
Bail©. Such a boat is *hown on Plate XIV figure 1, returning 
with a load of oyotero which have been tonged. Some gasoline 
engine powered boat** are uoed without the oailo. On these 
*»mall boato, in compliance with State laws, the oyster* are 
culled on a board placed acrooe the boat ac i* shown on Plate 
XI figure 1. 

PATENT TOMGS AKP BOAT^ 



Certain localities in Maryland permit the u©e of 


patent tonga or 


i natural bar*.. Except that their handle* ere 


sturdier, shorter end of iron instead of wood, and the t the 


basket fee ture 


of the tongo is much larger, patent tongs are 


made along the 


»ame lines as ordinary tongo. Patent tongo are 


ohown on Plate 


XII figure 1. They are used in water* of depths 


which commonly 


employ dredgeo but, because of rolicc difficul- 


tieo, in which 


dredge boat© are rot allowed to operate. The 


length of the basket i« about forty- two inches. Patent ton go 


are lowered and 


raised by windlasses either by hand or by the 


power of s otes 


m or gsooline driven deck engine, end they can- 


not be uoed from a moving eraft. In the upper ends of the six 


foot iron handl 


eo are eyeo for the attachment of ropes for 


lowering and re 


ioing the tongo. While being lowered the tonga 


are locked open 


by the short hook *een or. one of the handleo 


ju«-t above the 


center pin. When they strike bottom, the con- 


sequent release 

* 


of the weight of tbe ba*ket* on the handle* 
i 



U. S. B. F.— Doc. B90. 



Plate XIV. 




FIG. 1.— SMALL SLOOP USED IN TONGING OYSTERS NEAR APALACHICOLA, 
FLA., RETURNING WITH LOAD OF OYSTERS, SHOWING OYSTER CAN- 
NERIES IN BACKGROUND. 




FIG. 2.— GASOLINE BOAT USED IN DREDGING OYSTERS IN LONG ISLAND 

SOUND. 

Jn the center is the post to which are attached the pulleys through which pass the chains 
leading to the dredges on each side. When the dredges are being raised and lowered, 
the chains move over the rollers on the gunwale. 



U.S. B. F.— Doc. 890. 



Plate XIX. 




FIG. 1.— LARGE OYSTER HOUSE AT PROVIDENCE, R. I., SHOWING DREDGE BOAT 
UNLOADING OYSTERS AT RIGHT AND ELEVATOR TO SHELL PILE AT LEFT. 




FIG. 2.— UNLOADING OYSTERS FROM THE BOAT AT ONE OF THE LARGE OYSTER 
HOUSES BY MEANS OF A BELT CONVEYER. 







-13- 




allows 


the hoo 


k to become di^enga 


red. The tongs are then 


jigged 


by jerk 


ing upon the rope * 


eversl time*, causing the 


teeth 


to *irk 


more deeply, and th 


en lifted by the windless. 


The*e 


tongo ha 


ve tee' found very 


efficient. The toet* u^ed in 


pa tent 


tonging 


and very similar t 


o tho*e u*ed ir hand tonging 


except 


that ir. 


patent tonging the 


toat i* equiped with either 


a moto: 


r or han 


d operated wir.dla** 


for lifting the tonga end 


8 1*0 8 


tee v.. , o 


upper ting a r ulley, 


which carrier the tong* 


over the wide 


of the boat a* illu 


otreted in the figure. 






FRFPGFS ANP PREPGING FOATP 




Predg 


es ere the most mod 


ern improvement in the oyster- 



ing rig*. Pledging i* the comr/on, general and moot practical 
method of harvesting oyster* wherever the water io deep enough 
to operate. Since this in the moot efficient method of takir.g 
oyster* from the bottom*, dredging area* in the Che*apeeke were 
the first to "become depleted and barren. 

A dredge ("Plate XV figure 2^ con*i*ts of two iron 
triangular structures, stoutly made and united at their apexes, 
the lower one of which ha* a tlede-like ta*e of heavy construct- 
ion and carrie* stubbed teeth. The*e triangular structure* are 
held apart securely by two curved bar-, one on each side of the 
dredge, running from the apexes of the ca*e angle* of the 
triangle*. From the two ta-e*, or cross tar*, and the curved 
part of the dredge the "tag is suspended, the bag being of differ- 
ent design* of cotton rope and iron ri^g*. The rope i* u*ed to 
make the bag more flexible and i* meshed. The triangle bear- 
ing the teeth, usually wider 



-14- 

and longer than the other one, io the lower part of the dredge, 
I to croos bar io t>et st an angle that aooureo maximum att&eH 
for the teeth that it heart. . The iron ring, part of the bag io 
attached, to this her O o that the metal tether than cotton rope 
is exposed to the rugged conditions* of the bottom*. Dredge** 
run ir. oize from ~o celled "hand ocrppeo", with a capacity of 
one bu«hel, to in.mer.be oizeo with a sixty inch tooth bar end 
in which ten or more buohels of oyotero mpy be taken at one 
haul. In 1936 a reoolution wee made in the Maryland Legis- 
lature to control the si^e of dredges and make the maximum 
forty-two inche© wide which would be about seventy-five pounds, 
in weight oo a© rot to cruoh or deotroy the oyotero on the 
bottom ao come of the heavy dredge** cannot avoid doing. Us- 
ually the larger dredgeo are traced with metal baro and rods. 
in oeverel places oo that they may withstand "hang-" end other 
violent strains while being dragged on the bottom. Oft times, 
and eopeci&lly with lighter dredgeo, a"wing" io Uoed to hold 
the dredge on the bottom. Thio consist© ©imply of a thin 
oheet of metal tied in the upper triangle of the framework in 
such a fashion as to cut downward in the water a© the dredge 
moves forward. The "wing" or "devil dive" was outlawed by the 
192? oeouion of the Legiola.ture of Maryland, however. Very 
few actual and beneficial improvements have been made en the 
dredge oince its invention. The general description above in- 
cludes practically all dredges, however , I have inserted some 
patent copies of vfriou© dredge* invented or improved on since 



-15- 

1865, at the end of this thesis. The picture© fend description^, 
are easily understood and would te interesting to read and 
comprehend. All practical dredges h^ve teen of the drag or 
©craper type tut at, addition?! information I heve elao insert- 
ed two impractical type* of dr edges, one s suction opens t ion 
End the other a loader operation which were never used in the 
Chesapeake. State ]aw© have never allowed the Use of such 
machine© and they are impractical becau©e they bring up too 
much mud , 

Plate XVI ; figure 1, shows a small dredging sloop 
or "ship jack" under sail on the Chesapeake Bay, the dredge on 
the port side being lifted and the hand windlass visible te- 
yond it. Heavier dredges than this are operated by the use of 
a donkey engine placed on the deck of s ©ailing ves©el (Plete 
XVII, figure 2). Plete XVI, figure 3, ©how© such a dredging 
©chooner at work. These ve©©els are propelled entirely by 
sails, it being illegal to dredge with other than c-ails a« 
motive power; the engire merely operates the dredge. From one 
to three dredges are u©ually operated from each side of the 
boat j each dredge being raised and emptied in turn. The boat 
i© equiped with the raising mechanism and a roller on the side 
over which the chain or rope move© in raising and lowering the 
dredge. Sometimes the oyster© are culled on the dect or they 
may be dumped from the dredge onto a culling table where the 
oyster© are oepereted from the mud, old half oy©ter ©hells, or 
any other matter brought up^ f rom the bottom. 



- 16- 
Th e improvement in dredging in the Chesapeake Bay wao 
the change from the hand windless to the motor driven wirdl^os. 
In ooae parts of the United ftatea ©team operated boats have 
teen allowed and proved «e tie factory both for towing: the dredge© 
and lifting the dredge from the bottom. The first ©teem driven 
boat wau operated in 1874 since that time many have been used 
but none on the Chesapeake. Gasoline motor powered boat© hsve 
been u©ed in some parte of the country very effectively but not 
in the Chesapeake Bay. Maybe in the future when oyster culture 
end oyster law** of the bay attract larger capital investment© 
the oyster ing implements will be of the most modern types and 
a good industry maybe an incentive for continuous improvements, 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

CONSERVATION BULLETIN NO . 4 P. V. TR TT ITT 

BUREAU OF FI^HERTF DOCUMENT NO. 880 

ANNUAL PT^ORT OF THF CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT OF MARYLAND 

MARYLAND EITHER IF Q PUPLISHED FY CONSERVATION DEPART VENT ^F 
MARYLAND 

°HFLI-FI^H INDUSTRIE 6 ' J. L. KELLOGG 

THF OYSTER T. Y. PRO^E^ 

Much irfromation wee secured personally from the 
following; men: 

SFEPSOn'eaRLE, CONSERVATION COMMISSIONER OF MARYLAND 

F. V. TRUITT, PROEESPOR 0* A§J\I CULTURE, UNIVERSITY 
OF MARYLAND 

MR. FEO^N, °EAPCH ROOF U. °. PATENT OFFICF 







y 




JKteset. 



fafwtidJax./z/m. 



. 






y^z^e^A 





Xf/a&C. 






AM. PHOTD-LITHO.efttf^.CSBQSNti PffWESS} 



United States Patent Office, 

WM. BELBIN, OF BALTIMORE, MARYLAND. 
IMPROVEMENT IN OYSTER-DREDGES. 



Specification forining pari of Letters Patent No, 45,ft04, dated Jarranrj IT, 18BS. 



To all whom it iixu/ concent: 

Be it Known that I, Wiluam ISelbin, of 
the city and county of Baltimore, in the State 
of Maryland, have invented a new and useful 
Improvement in Oyster-Dredgers, of which the 
following is a lull, clear, and exact deserip- 
tion, reference being hud to dm aecninpuny- 
ing drawiug, which makes part of this speci- 
fication, and which represents a view, in per- 
spective, of my improved oyster-dredger. 

It is the object of my invention so to con- 
struct an oyster-dredger that while its teeth are 
free to move imohstructeilly ever the oyster- 
beds it can also readily he hoisted over the 
Stern of the boat without catching thereon; 
and to (his end my improvement consists it 
constructing the front rods, which sustain the 
rake, with such u curvature and so combining 
them with the other parts of the dredger that 
i hey do not obstruct the passage of the rake- 
teeth over the oyster-beds, and at the same 
time cany the rake over the stern of the, heat 
without permitting the teeth to catch upon the 
roller or boat, as hereinafter more fully shown. 

The dredger shown in the accompanying 
drawing consists of a strong wrought-iron liar, 
A, curved in the arc of a circle of large radius, 
and having a series of rake-teeth, I>, inserted 
into it on its upper side and projecting in 
front of the bar, dipping slightly forward, so 
as to pass under and rake up the oysters with 
greater certainty. The rake - bar A likewise 
has a row of boles, a, in it, in which to insert 
the rings to which the oyster-hag is attached. 

The rake-bar is attached to a frame consist- 
ing of four wrought-iron rods, C D, uniting at 
their upper ends in a head or socket, E, bar- 
ing an eye in it. A ring-bolt or Link, F, is 
pivoted to this head, so as to play freely back 
and forth, and to this link the drag rope or 
chain is attached. 

The front rods, C,are straight from the head 
E nearly to the level of the rake-bar A, at 
which point they are flattened, as shown in the 
drawing, so as to present a sharp i dge on the 
advancing side, and bent backward at a right 
angle, while the rear rods, 1), are curved more 



gradually and to a greater extent than the 
front ones, and extend beneath the rake-bar 
A, which is placed between the ends of the 
front and rear rods, and the whole securely 
fastened together by a nut and screw, O, or a 
rivet. The two rear bars are likewise connect- 
ed by a cross-brace, 11. 

Prom the improved form of the front rods, 
0, it readily will he seen that, while they in 
no wise obstruct the action of the teeth « lien 
the rake is in motion over the bottom, the pro 
jectiou of their curves at the sides of the 
dredger causes it easily to rise over the roller 
without permitting the teeth to catch thereon, 
ami thus to deliver the oysters close to the 
stern of the boat without spilling any. 

The dredger operates as follows: A bag to 
contain the oysters is secured to I he back of 
the rake-bar A by rings in the holes a. A 
rope is attached to the link Fund the dredger 
thrown overboard and dragged after the ves- 
sel, the rope passing over a roller on the taff- 
rail. As the dredger advances the teeth catch 
ill* tbe oysters, which pass back into the bag, 
and in case of encountering an obstacle the 
yielding of the link permits the rake to free it- 
self more readily than it would otherwise do, 
and diminishes the liability of the rake to be 
broken, bent, or injured. In drawing tip the 
dredger the front rods, 0, slide over the roller 
and protect the rake-teeth from catching upon 
it, being made to project beyond die teeth es- 
pecially for that purpose. 

What I claim as iny invention, and desire to 
secure by Letters Patent of the United States, 
is — 

The combination, in an oyster-dredger, of 
the rake-bar A, front rods, C, and rear rods, 
1), with the head K and swiveling link F, 
when the rods C are curved, constructed, ami 
arranged as and for the purposes described. 

In testimony whereof I have hereunto sub- 
scribed my name, 

WILLIAM BELBIN. 

Witnesses: 

Solomon J. Mailiioy, 
Walter Moxley, Jr. 



nited States Jat^nt <$ffi«* 



TH0MA8 ¥. MAYHEW, OK POKT NORMS, NEW JERSEY. 



Letter* Patent No. 97,420, dated November 30, 1SG9. 



OYSTER-DREDGE. 



The Schedule referred to in these Letters Patent and making part of the same. 



To all whom il may concern : 

Be it. tmran Unit I, Thomas F, Mayhkvv, of Port 
Norris, Cumberland county, New Jersey, have in- 
vented certain Improvements in Oyster-Dredges; ami 
I do hereby declare the following to be a full, clear, 
and exact description of the same 

Nature ami Object of the Intention. 
My invention consists — - 

Kiret, in (lie employment, in an oyster-dredge, of 
a light indexible bag of wire gauze, or its equivalent, 
in place of the usual heavy chain-hag; 

Secondly, of certain guards or' fenders, arranged be- 
neath the said indexible bag ; and 

Thirdly, in bringing (lie tooth-bar and the said in- 
dexible liag to the front portion of the dredge, and in 
a peculiar construction of the latter. 

The object of uiv invention is (o dispense with the 
objectionable flexible hag, and to simplify and reduce 
the weight of the dredge. 

Description of the Accompanying Drawing. 
Figure 1 Is a perspective view of my improved 
oyster-dredge. 

Figure 2, a sectional view of the same. 
Figure 3, a view of the dredge us it appears when 
being drawn over the side of a vessel ; and 
Figure +, an inverted plan view. 

General Description. 
The frame, of an ordinary oyster-dredge consists of 
four bai*s, welded together at the front, so as to form 
an eye, to which the openiting-rope or chain may he 
attached, and spread apart from each other at the rear 
end of the dredge, so that the usual tooth-bar and 
flexible chain-bag, into which the oysters are raked, 
may be secured to the in. 

The chain-bag, owing to its flexibility, always sags 
downward, and rests upon the bottom of the oyster- 
bed, as the dredge is drawn forward, so that, although 
made of the stoutest and heaviest material, the bag 
soon becomes worn through and unlit for use. 

The (i-ame also, in order to sustain the weight of 
(he hag, and to distend it properly, must be much 
stouter and more complex than if the bag were made 
of some light indexible material. 

To overcome the above objections, and to conse- 
quently simplify and reduce the weight of the dredge, 
has been I he object of my present invention, which 1 
will now proceed to describe. 

The, general form of the ordinary dredge is retained, 
but the upper liars of the frame are dispensed with, 
and the lower bars A A only employed, the latter be- 
ing welded, or otherwise seemed together, at the 
trout end, where there is a link, a, and having se- 
cured to their rear ends the tooth-bar B, which is 
furnished with the usual teeth c. 



In place of the usual heavy bag of S-hooks and 
rings, 1 employ a light inflexible bag,/, of stout wire 
gauze, the mouth of Ibis bag being supported by a 
metal frame. It, secured to the tooth-bar, and being 
protected at the bottom by guards or fenders t, which 
are also secured to the tooth-bar, and which pass be- 
neath and around the said bag, as best observed in 
figs. 2 and 4, the Upper ends of these guards or fen- 
ders, after passing around the bag, being attached to 
the lop of the frame h. 

The frame h is attached to the bare A A by light 
chains m m, which determine the angle, in respect to 
the said bare, of the tooth-bar B and the bag. 

When the dredge is dragged forward, it will assume 
the position shown in fig. 2, the tooth-bar and fenders 
only resting upon the bottom, the fenders effectually 
protecting the light materia) of the bag. 

When the dredge is drawn on to the roller X, on 
the side of the vessel, its teeth c will strike on the 
said roller, and will turn the tooth-bar and bag to the 
position shown in tig. 3, thus emptying the oysters on 
to the deck of the vessel, without the usual necessity 
of drawing the dredge entirely over the roller. 

This method of emptying the dredge, which would 
1m- impossible with the flexible bag, enables the fenders 
For warding off the tooth-bar from the roller, to be 
dispensed wilh, and much facilitates the operation of 
the apparatus. 

Although I prefer that the frame, &c, for support- 
ing the inflexible bag, should be constructed as above 
described, yet it will be evident that the bag can be 
applied with advantage to any of the flames in com- 
mon use. 

Claim*. 

1 . The use, in an oyster-dredge, of a bag, /, of wire 
gauze, or its equivalent, for the purpose spec! lied. 

2. The guards or fenders i i, arranged, in respect to 
the bag/, substantially in the manner described. 

3. The tooth-bar B and the b;ig / and its frame, so 
hinged to the bars A A of the dredge, and so con- 
nected (o the same by chains vi m, or their equiva- 
lents, that the' said tooth- bar and bag may be tilted, 
for the purpose of emptying the latter, substantially 
as herein set forth. 

4. A frame for oyster-dredges, consisting of two 
bars A A, connected together, and hinged U> the 
tooth-bar B, substantially in the manner described. 

In testimony whereof, 1 have signed my name to 
this specification, in the presence of two subscribing 
witnesses. 

THOMAS F. MAYHEW. 
Witnesses: 

John White, 
Habby Smith. 



¥ 77 if '~z 



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/BUM ' Jfrr,3?./mp. 



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>»*///£■, 






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t HTtW. ™ofO-Li.TH«S*i^rtES. 



WWUMBTRIK D C 



{No Model.) 



2 Sheets— Sheet I. 



T. THOMAS. 

COMBINED DRILL AND OYSTEE DKEDGE. 

No. 589,047. Patented Aug. 31, 1897. 



Tia.j 




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THf 4QftWM IhLTLWTj L> ..." ^ ..■ ■.'V.TD*. Ci 4 



(No Model.) 



T. THOMAS. 

COMBINED DKILL AND OYSTER DREDGE. 



2 Sheets— Sheet 2, 



No. 589,047. 



Patented Aug. 31, 1897. 




fessEs: 



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i.p[ ■»!'«■". p- i L"rt CC , "n[-m .THf^mmrj.-j, .-. t 



United States Patent Office. 



THOMAS THOMAS, OF NEW IIAVKN, CONNECTICUT. 
COMBINED DRILL AND OYSTER DREDGE. 



SPECIFICATION' forming part of Letters Patent No. 589,047, dated August 31, 1807. 

Application filed January 10, 1897. Serial No, 61 B,4 13, < No model,'' 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be ii known that I, Thomas Thomas, a citi- 
zen of ihe United St airs, and a resident of 
New Haven, in the comity of New 1 faven ami 
5 State of Connecticut, have invented certain 
now and useful Improvements in ,a ( Jombined 
DriU and Oyster Dredge, of which tbefollow- 
ing is a specification. 
My invention relates to n device designed 

io to rid oyster-beds of drills or borers, and it 
is also adapted to take up oysters and per- 
form all the requirements of the ordinary 
dredge. 
Of all the enemies of the oyster with which 

15 the oyster-planter has Io contend none are 
so destructive, by reason of their size, and 
therefore iliitiriili nf capture, as I lie "oyster- 
drill," a small marine gasteropod thai bores 
doles through the shell of the oyster. Here- 

20 fcofore all efforts to rid an oyster-bed of these 
pests lias resulted in failure. 

My device consists of a network structure 
provided 'with a forward blade adapted to 
raise objects from the ground and deposit 

25 them on a screen, the meshesof which screen 
will allow ili-ills to pass tli rough into the body 
portion or receptacle of the dredge, while 
oysters and other larger objects, will be car- 
ried over the screen and fall on the ground 

30 back of such dredge. 

To enable others to understand my inven- 
tion, reference is had to the accompanying 
drawings, in which — 
Figure 1 represents a perspective view of 

35 my improved dredge with Ihe eoi er or screen 
dropped into an inclined position in readiness 
to catch drills. Fig, 2 i.~ a perspective view 
of Ihe dredge with screen elevated, in which 
condition the device is used to take oysters, 

40 also broken view of the draft-iron. Fig. 3 is 
a perspective view of the dredge with the 
screen thrown back. Fig. -I is a cross-sec- 
tional view of the frame of the dredge and 
blade, eml elevation of one endof said dredge, 

45 and one of the end frames of the screen in 
an inclined position, and broken view of the 
draft-iron. Fig. 5 is a detail end view of the 
screen-frame and .sectional view of the upper 
rail of the dredge. Fig. t) is a detail broken 

50 view of the screen-frame and sectional view 
of the upper rail of the dredge. 



Its construction and operation areas fol- 
lows: 

The dredge shown is a rectangular-shaped 
const ruction, whose ends 1, back i.', and Sot- 55 
lorn 3 are made of wire-netting, bounded by 
the iron frame 4, 

5 is the wire screen, bounded by the rectan- 
gular frame '!. Tins screen is detachably 
hinged to the upper rail of the frame of the 60 
back -2 by means of the projections 7, Fig-. 
!. 5, and ( '>, inserted in the lugs 8 of such up- 
per rail. 

are claws mounted on the forward part 
of the screen to engage with the network of 65 
the bottom of the dredge, Fig. i, and thus 
prevent the screen being forced back under 
the "-eight of a body of oysters, 

10 are ears mounted upon the ends of the 
sereen-framo, and they are provided with the 70 
hole 11 to receive the ends of the threaded 
bolts 1-, which bolts are inserted in threaded 
holes of the end frame of the dredge. This 
arrangement is used to maintain the screen 
in an elevated position when the dredge is 75 
used for the purpose of catching oysters. 

13 is the blade fastened to the lower for- 
ward rail of the dredge-bottom by means of 
the rings it. 

15 is the draft-iron, attached to such blade. 80 

In operating the device tbe screen is ele- 
vated, as shown at Fig. 2, and the dredge 
thrown over and a haul made for oysters In 
order to see their condition. If the work of 
drills appear, then the screen is lowered, as 85 
shown at Fig. 1, and the dredge returned to 
the bed, assuming, when in operation, the 
position as shown. The blade F! will scrape 
the surface of the ground clean of every kind 
and quality of material. The stones, oysters, 90 
and other matter too large to pass through 
the screen will be carried up the incline and 
over the back of the dredge by the force of 
111*. 1 water, while the drills will fall through 
the screen into the dredge and will remain 95 
there, as the meshes of the dredge-body are 
smaller than the drills, and from which they 
can be dumped out and destroyed when the 
dredge is hauled aboard. As the drills are 
hen vy and pointed and the mesh of the screen 100 
is fully large enough to take in full -grown 
drills, which arc about one inch in length, it 



589,047 



will readily be seen, and which lias also been 
practically demonstrated, thai they will all 
pass through the screen before they reach the 
top of the incline. 
5 If required, the baci rail of the dredge- 
frame may extend above the semen, as sbown 
at Fig. 6, so as to hold any of the drills thai 
may have passed over the screen and reached 
this point long enough to allow them 1<> fall 

10 through said screen al this point, bu) it is ex- 
tremely doubtful if any drills will be able to 
reach this point. 

It will be understood that the size of the 
mesh of the screen will vary according to the 

15 ground to be worked. When the oysters are 
two or three years old, or more, the mesh can be 
made larger and reduced for smaller oysters, 
always, however, maintaining a mesh large 
enough to catch full-grown drills. For this 

20 purpose the screens are made readily allacli- 
ableand detachable from the dredge, as shown 
and previously described. Thisdevice — i. < .. 
tbe woven-wirc holding- receptacle — can be 
attached to an ordinary oyster -dredge, in 

25 which case the screen would be elevated and 
the wire receptacle would take the place of 
the bags now used for holding the oysters that 
pass over the blade of the ordinary dredge, 
in which case, also, the blade of the wire 

30 holding-receptacle could be dispensed with. 

It will be observed that the screen, sides, 

and bottom of my device are made of woven 

wire. This is done because this material is 

cheaper and easy to obtain; hut il will be 

35 understood, however, that perforated-metal 
plates can be substituted forsuch woven wire, 
and I hold myself at liberty to do so, without 
departing from the spirit of my invention. 
Also, if found desirable, more than one screen 

4° can be used. Also the inclination of the 
screen may be changed without departing 
from the spirit of my invention, the gist of 
which consists in a dredge for removing drills 
from oyster-grounds by lifting the drills and 

45 other matter from the surface of the ground 
and passing such matter over a screen, the 
oysters and other matter passing over the 
screen, while the drills fall through the same 
and into a receptacle for that purpose. 

50 Theobjectof making the sides of my dredge 
of woven-wire netting is that the water will 
readily pass through the dredge and not re- 
tard it. 
The device as above described is cheap and 



effectual for the purpose required, and it will 55 

work equally as well on a mud bottom as a 
hard one. 

[laving Dins described my invention, what 
1 claim iis new, and desire to secure by Letters 
Patent, is — do 

1 . The combination, in a dredgeof the char- 
acter described, of a holding-receptacle and 
a screen overlying such receptacle adapted to 
retard drills and other objectionable matter 
and deposit them into the receptacle, and 65 
permit larger bodies to pass freely over the 
said screen, for the purpose set forth. 

2. The combination, in a dredgeof the char- 
acter described, of a holding-receptacle and 

a screen overlying the same, and a blade or 70 
scraper to remove objects from the ground so 
Hint they may be deposited on the screen for 
the purpose described and set forth. 

'■>. The combination, in adredge,of the char- 
acter described, of an open work holding-re- 75 
ceptacle, an inclined open-work screen of 
larger mesh adapted to close the mouth of 
such receptacle, a blade forward of said re- 
ceptacle so thai objects may be removed from 
the surface of Hie ground by such blade and So 
be deposited on the said screen, the larger 
objects passing over while the smaller ones- 
like drills ttc. — are forced through the mesh 
of the said screen into the receptacle, for the 
purpose set forth. 85 

4. The combination, in adredge,of the char- 
acter described, of a network receptacle, an 
overlying network screen of larger mesh than 
the receptacle, said screen adapted to bo read- 
ily attached to and be detached from said re- 90 
ceptacle, means whereby said screen can be 
maintained in an elevated position, a forward 
blade adapted to scrape the surface of the 
ground, removing oysters, drills &c, there- 
from which are passed over the said screen 95 
by the forward movement of the dredge when 
the said screen is in an inclined position, the 
drills and other small matter passing through 
the scree 11 in tot lie receptacle, while the larger 
objects will be deposited back of saiddredge, 100 
as described and for the purpose set forth. 

Signed at Bridgeport, in the county of Fai r- 
field and Stale of < 'onneetient, this Cth day of 
January, A. l>, 1897, 

THOMAS THOMAS. 

Witnesses: 

A. .1. Tan-neb, 
M. J. Ke.vxe, 



March 10, 1931. 



B. FAGAN ETAL 
OYSTER DREDGE 
Filed Dec. 22, 1927 



1,795,768 



2 Sheets-Sheet 1 



4* 



_F"lG- 



£.5 





WITNE6SES : 



INVENTORS : 
J}ayd Fafian &. 
Charles Fag an. } 



BY 



ft ATTORNEY 



March 10, 1931. 



B. FAGAN ETAL 

OYSTER DREDGE 
Filed Dec. 22, 1927 



1,795,768 



2 Sheets-Sheet 2 



_Fit. 3 




'ie- . 4 




WITNESSES : 



BY 



INVENTORS : 
Boyd Fag an «C 
Charles Fagan , 




ATTORNEY , 



Patented Mar. 10, 1931 



1,795,768 



UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 



BOYD PAGAN AND CHABLES PAGAN, OP BIVALVE, NEW JEBSEY 

OYSTEB DBEDGE 
Application filed December 22, 1927. Serial Ho. 241,774. 



Our invention relates to oyster dredges and 
has for an object the provision of :i light, 
rugged dredge which possesses all the ad- 
vantages of a heavy dredge without the at- 
Q tending objectionable features thereof. 

A further object of the invention is to pro- 
vide a dredge which will be prevented by its 
construction from landing cither in the 
oyster bed or on the deck of a vessel other than 
Id in a right-side-tip posit inn. 

A further object of the invention i$ to 
provide an increased bagging capacity for a 
dredge of given dredging are;!. 

The above objects are accomplished by p"o- 
13 viding an upper and a lower frame connected 
together by struts, the upper frame being of 
greater width and length than the lower 
frame so as to overhang the same in all di- 
mensions thereof and to provide side ami end 
"0 frames sloping from the upper frame end 
converging inwardly toward the lower 
frame, the lower frame being provided with 
a suitable tooth bar having teeth thereon. 
The particular construction may be made 
25 light by forming the same of small gauge ma- 
terial and connecting the same with a gen- 
erous number of struts. 

As an oyster bed must be dredged over 
several times, a heavy dredge will kill or 
so weaken the oysters therein and it follows 
thai a light weight dredge is of considerable 
importance provided that it possesses the 
requisite strength and rigidity anil is capable 
of gathering the oysters. 
'S3 In the drawings; 

Figure 1 is a top plan view of an oyster 
dredge embodying our invention. 

Figure 2 a rear end view thereof. 

Figure 3 a side view of the dredge shown 
40 in Figure 1, and 

Figure 4 a longitudinal sectional view 
taken on line 4—4 on Figure 1, 

Briefly, our improved dredge consists of 
relatively light frame members, struts and 
46 braces connected to them and forming top, 
bottom and side frames, truss rods for hold- 
ing the bottom frame members against de- 
flection in either a vertical or lateral direc- 
tion; all of which are welded together to 
co form a light but exceptionally rigid frame ; 



a tooth bar for loosening the oysters from 
the bed, and tension rods for relieving the 
strain of the bag on the tooth bar and rear 
cross bar. 

Referring now in detail to the drawings. r>~> 
the dredge has a pair of bottom frame mem- 
bers 5 and 6, which are preferably rectangu- 
lar in cross section, and a pair of top frame 
members 7 and 8, which are preferably cir- 
cular in cross section, having their forward oo 
ends welded together and bent downwardly 
to form a neck 9, as shown in Figures ;■> and 
4, which is provided with a clevis 10 by means 
of which the dredge may be towed. 

From neck 9, bottom frame members 5 and 65 
G diverge and have struts 11 and 12 welded 
between them so as to form a bottom frame. 
From neck 9, top frame members 7 and 8 
slope, upwardly and diverge from one an- 
other and have cross bars 13. 14 and 15 7<J 
welded between them so as to form a top 
frame, which is wider than the bottom frame. 

This is an important feature of the inven- 
tion in that it insures the landing of the 
dredge on board the vessel in a natural posh "■'> 
tion. Much trouble and annoyance has been 
experienced by oysfernien in the past with 
dredges in which the top and bottom frames 
arc of the same width owing to the dredges 
landing bottom side up or on their sides ■ B!) 
which is detrimental to the lasting qualities 
of the dredge. The projecting top frame 
prevents the turning of the dredge either 
onto its side or onto its top side when so 
landing. '■"> 

It is obvious from the above that the con- 
struction as set forth results in a saving of 
labor in turning of the dredges and prolongs 
the life of the dredge. By this arrangement 
also the considerable increase in bagging ea- BO 
parity of the dredge ran be effected for a 
given dredging surface which is of decided 
advantage where a limitation of the dimen- 
sions of the tooth bar and of the lower frame 
are prescribed by law or arc otherwise ! ' : > 
desirable. 

It 'will be noted that the side frames de- 
fined by the struts connecting the top and 
bottom frames slope, in a convergent man- 
ner from the top to the bottom frame. This im 






1,795,768 



is also true of the rear end frame which is 
also rounded in order that should the dredge 
strike first on this end, the tendency thereof 
•will be to fall forward landing "with the 
_ lower frame downward. This construction 
will be hereinafter sot forth more in detai I . 

Braces 16, 17 and 18 have one end of each 
welded to a bottom frame member, extend 
upwardly and outwardly and have their 

1(J other ends welded to the top frame members, 
thus forming the side frames in each of 
which also a. diagonal brace 19 extends from 
the junction of (lie bottom frame member' 
and brace 18 to the junction of the top frame 

j 5 member and cross bar 15. 

Intermediate the ends of braces 17 and 18, 
a suitable support for a truss rod. such a.-, a 
hook 20, is provided. A truss rod 21 is sup- 
ported in hooks 20 and lias its ends welded to 

20 bottom member 5 and a second truss rod 22 
is similarly connected to the other side frame 
so that the dredge is stiffened and strength- 
ened against venieailv directed loads u n ■■ I 
strains. The truss rods may. of course, be 

2 5 welded to braces 17 and 18 instead of em- 
ploying hooks 20 or other fastening means. 

A pair of truss rods 23 and 24 have their 
ends welded to bottom frame members '■'< and 
6 anil their intermediate portw&ns welded 

30 otherwise secured to struts 11 and 12 inter- 
mediate the ends thereof so as to stiffen the 
dredge transversely. The ell'm o! th;> ;;■:. 
rods is to" allow the use of much lighter mate- 
rial in the dredge frame, while producing a 

35 strong, rigid dredge which will function as 
efficiently as a heavier dredge without the 
objectionable effects on the oysters and the 
lighter weight permits of much easier 
handling. 

40 The rear ends of top fr:ime members 7 and 
8 are bent downwardly and inwardly toward 
the bottom frame to form end posts 25 and 
26 between the lower ends of which and the 
rear ends of bottom frame members 5 and 6 

45 a tooth bar 27 is secured in any suitable man- 
ner, as by bolts 28; tooth feat 27 being prefer- 
ably detnehably secured to the dredge frame 
so as to allow its removal for sharpening or 
repairing its teeth. 

60 Secured to each bolt 28 is a guide 29 hav- 
ing a clevis 30 formed oh its forward end and 
encircling a bottom frame member. The 
bag (not shown), in which the oj'stcrs are 
gathered, is attached to tooth bar 27, end 
posts 25 and 26, cross bar 15 and guides 20, 
In order to assist cross bar 15 and tooth 
bar 27 in supporting the weight and pull, of 
the bag and its contacts, a draw bar 31 is 

6J ] welded into neck 9 and provided with an 
eye at its rear end for receiving a bolt ~-Vl in 
which is attached, on either side of the draw 
bar, a back brace 33 sloping inwardly from 
the top to the bottom frame and a. bottom 

05 brace 34 Which have clevises 35 and 36 secured 



to their rear ends and encircling cross bar 15 
and tooth bar 27, respectively. 

It is to be understood that the above de- 
scribed embodiment of the invention is to be 
considered as illustrative of the principles 70 
thereof and that various changes may be 
made in the construction as hereinbefore 
outlined within the spirit of the invention 
as set forth in the specification and herein- 
after claimed. ? 5 

We claim : — 

1. An oyster dredge including top and bot- 
tom frame members fastened together at 
their forward ends and diverging therefrom, 
cross bars, braces and struts joining the 80 
frame members to form the top, bottom and 
side frames, a tooth bar connected between 
(lie side frames, and means for still'ening the 
side frames whereby lighter frames may be 
used; the top frame being considerably wider 85 
than the bottom frame. 

2. An oyster dredge including top and bot- 
!um frame members fastened together at 
i !icir forward ends and diverging therefrom, 
cross bars, braces and struts joining the B0 
frame members to form top, bottom and side 
frames, a tooth bar connected between the 
side frames, and means for stiffening the 
bottom frame whereby lighter frames may be 
used : the top frame being considerably wider 8S 

n the bottom frame. 
ST. An oyster dredge including a triangular 
bottom frame, a triangular top frame, of 
considerably greater width than the bottom 
frame, having its forward end connected to 10 ° 
the forward end of the bottom frame and its 
rear ends bent downwardly and connected to 
the rear ends of the bottom frame, a tooth 
bar connected between said rear ends, braces 
separating each side of the fop frame from 105 
the corresponding side of the bottom frame, 
truss rods secured to certain of said braces 
and to the sides of the bottom frame, struts 
connecting the two sides of the bottom 
frame, and truss rods connected to the struts 110 
and to the sides of the bottom frame. 

4. An oyster dredge having a bottom 
frame and a top frame, spaced apart, said top 
frame being wider than the bottom frame. 

5. An oyster dredge having spaced tup and 
bottom frames and side members converging 
from the top frame to the both an frame. 

C. An oyster dredge, having spaced top and 
bottom frames, and end and side parts, con- 
necting the top and bottom frames and con- 
verging from said top to sal.] bottom frame. 
In testimony whereof we have signed our 
names to this specification. 

BOYD PAGAS". 
CHARLES FAG AX. 



125 



130 



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1 

1 






IMPRACTICAL, NEVER USED IN 


1 


CHESAPEAKE r AY 




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j 


- 



No. 705,975. 



(No Muriel.) 



W. A. THOMPSON. 

CLAM OR OYSTER DREDGE. 

'Application .:;™i Oct. as, toot.-. 



Patented July 29, 1902. 



2 Sheets-^Sheet 2. 




United States Patent Office. 



WILLIAM A. THOMPSON, OF LA CROSSE, WISCONSIN. 
CLAM OR OYSTER DREDGE. 



SPECIPlCATIOMf forming- part of Letters Patent No. 705,975, dated July S9, 1902. 

Application filed October 28, 1901, Serial No. 50,301. (No model.) 



To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Willi am A. Thompson, 
h citizen of the United States, residing at La 
Crosse, in the county of La Crosse and State 
5 of Wisconsin, have invented a new and use- 
ful Clara or Oyster Dredge, of which the fol- 
lowing is a specification. 

My invention is an improved clam and oys- 
'ter dredge adapted to raise clams and oysters 

to from the beds of rivers, bays, and streams by 
suction and to separate the clams and oys- 
ters from the sand and mud raised therewith; 
and it consists in the peculiar construction 
and combination of devices hereinafter fully 

15 set forth and claimed. 

In the accompanying drawings, Figure 1 is 
top plan view of a clam and oyster dredge 
constructed in accordance with myinvention. 
Fig.2 is an end elevation of the same. Fig. 

as 3 is partly a transverse sectional view of the 
same, taken on a plane indicated by the line 
a a of Fig. 1, Fig, 4 is a detail longitudinal 
sectional view taken through the discharge- 
pipe and showing the separating - screen 

25 therein. .Fig. 5 is a detail transverse sec- 
tional view taken on a plane indicated by the 
line b b of Fig. 4. 

In the embodiment of ray invent ion here 
shown a eentrifngal suction or other suitable 

;□ form of pump 1 is mounted for operation on 
a float or barge 2, 3 being the suction-pipe, 
which in practice extends to the bed of the 
stream, bay, or other body of water on which 
the dredge is used, and 4 being the discharge- 
pipe, which leads from the said pump. For 
the purpose of illustration I have here shown 
the centrifugal pump provided with a power- 
pulley 5, by which it may be driven. The dis- 
charge-pipe 4 is provided at a suitable dis- 
tance from its outer end with a member 6, 
coupled therein, which member 6 is provided 
with a vertical discharge branch 7. A sepa- 
rating-sereen 8 is located and secured in the 
discharge-pipe at a suitable distance beyond 

45 the discharge branch 7. As here shown, the 
said separating-screen comprises a series of 
bars spaced apart a suitable distance to pre- 
vent the shells of clams or oyste rs from passi ng 
between them.' Within the scope of my inven- 

50 tion, however, said screen may be of any suit- 
able construction, and I do not desire to limit 
myself in this particular, A suitable frame 



35 



40 



9 is shown on the barge or float, over which 
frame the discharge-pipe 4 extends, and in „ 
the said frame is an endless movable separat- 55 
ing-screen 10. The same is here shown as 
composed of a pair of endless chains 11, con- 
nected together by transversely-disposed bars 
12, which are appropriately spaced apart to 
prevent clam or oyster shells from passing 60 
between them, and suitable revoluble ele- 
ments, here shown as rollers 13, which have 
their bearings in the sides of the frame and 
which carry the said chains 11. For the pur- 
poses of illustration I have here shown one O5 
of the rollers 13 provided with a power-pul- 
ley 14, by means of which the said endless 
movable screen 10 may be caused to operate 
in the direction indicated, by the arrows in 
Figs. 1 and 3, Whereby the said endless mov- 70 
able screen is caused to carry the clam and 
oyster shells discharged thereon toachute or 
inclined plane 15, adapted to discharge the 
same into a barge or other suitable recepta- 
cle or vessel. A. mud-chute 16 is disposed 75 
transversely under the endless traveling car- 
rier-screen 10 and is adapted to discharge ma- 
terial overboard. 

In the operation of my invention the clams 
and oysters raised from the bed, together 80 
with a quantity of sand, mud, or silt, and a 
volume of water by the puns p and discharged 
therefrom through the pipe 4, are separated 
from the foreign matter by the screen S and 
discharges through the branch discharge 7 85 
onto the endless traveling carrier-screen 10. 
A portion of the foreign matter is discharged 
directly overboard from the pipe 4, and such 
of the foreign matter as is discharged upon 
the endless traveling carrier-screen is washed go 
and separated from the clams or oysters and 
falls through the said carrier-screen onto the 
mud -chute 16, which discharges the same 
overboard, while the clams or oysters which 
have been separated from the foreign matter 95 
by the acticfn of the stream of water from the 
pump and the screens 8 10 are discharged 
from the latter onto the chnte 15, as will be 
readily understood. 

My invention is particularly adapted for 100 
dredging the clam -beds of the Mississippi 
river and other streams from the shells of 
which the so-called "pearl" buttons are 
made. Iferetofore these clams have*been 



705,9TB 



'5 



raised by fishermen by hooks and lines, and 
such dredges as have been tried for doing 
the work have been discarded, because it was 
found more costly to pick out the shells from 
the mud and sand with which they were com- 
mingled than to obtain the shells in the man- 
ner above stated. My improved dredge sepa- 
rates the mud and foreign matter from the 
she' Is, and hence avoids this objection. 

Having thus described my invention, I 
claim— 

1. A dredge having a discharge -conduit 
provided with a depending discharge branch, 
and a screen beyond the latter, whereby ma- 
terial carried through the conduit to the 
screen, will by its own gravity drop through 
the depending discharge branch, substan- 
tially as described. 

2. A dredge having a discharge -conduit 
provided with a discharge branch and a screen 
beyond the latter, in combination with a 
screen onto which s>aid branch discharges, 
substantially as described. 



3. A dredge having a discharge -conduit 
provided with a discharge branch and a se recti 25 
beyond the latter, in combination with an 
endless traveling carrier-screen onto which 
said branch discharges, substantially as de- 
scribed. 

4. A dredge having a discbarge -conduit 30 
provided with a d Ischarge branch and a screen 
beyond the latter, in combination with a car- 
rier-screen onto which said branch discharges, 

a chute under said carrier-screen to discharge 
the material that passes through the latter 35 
and a chute on which the material carried by 
said carrier is discharged by the latter, sub- 
stantially as described. 

In testimony that I claim the foregoing as 
my own I have hereto affixed my signature in 40 
the presence of two witnesses. 

WILLIAM A. THOMPSON. 

Witnesses: 

J. P. MgDokouoh, 

GERTRUDE. IIUBBARI'. 



T. B. WEBSTER. 
OYSTER DBEDGE. 

AFFLIOATIOH TILED FEB. 18, 1909. 



Patented July 27, 1909. 

2 BHEETfl— BHEET 1. 



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T. B. WEBSTER. 
OYSTEE DBEDGE. 

APPLICATION FILED FEB. 18. 1809. 



939,355. 



Patented July 27, 1909. 



2 SHEETS— SHEET 2. 



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j oft, PH«nQ^it"aoflwrt"- wwwhotw. a a 



UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE. 



THOMAS H. WEBSTER, OF BALTIMORE, MARYLAND. 
OYSTER-DREDGE. 



No. 929,355. 



Specification of Letters Patent. Patented July 27, 1909. 

Application filed February 18, 1909. Serial No. 478,717. 



To "II whom it may ameem: 

lie ii known thai I. Thomas B, \\ kuktkh. 
ii citiaen of the United States of America, 
residing at Baltimore, Maryland, have iu- 

5 vented certain new and useful Improvements 
in ( lyster-Drcdges, of which the following is 
:i specification. 

This invention relates to oyster dredges. 
Such dredges as now in use in the art con- 

10 sist of a frame having n transverse blade 
armed with teeth, hi the rear of the blade 
is a chain bag secured to the frame, with its 
mouth distended, '! lie dredge is adapted to 
lie drawn over the bottom, the teeth extend- 

15 tug down to engage ilie oysters and tear ihein 
Eroin die rocks or oilier bottom formation 
in which they are attached. The bag is 
placed to catch the oysters as they are rc- 
moved and serves to hold them and nil other 

20 .solid material which is turned up by the 
teeth. In I he dredges as now built, the teel h 
are made of wrought iron and cadi tooth is 
supplied with a pin which is integral there- 
with :u id generally at right angles to the 

25 length of the tooth. The blade is provided 
will) an aperture io receive I he pin of each 
tooth and the teeth are secured in place by 
heating them to a high temperature, passing 
each pin through the corresponding hole in 

30 (he blade, and heading it over. The opera- 
tion of mounting (he teeth on the blade is 
one thai must be performed by a blacksmith 
at a considerable expense, and as the teeth 
of a dredge are subject to such wear thai 

35 they must be replaced after each trip, the 
blacksmith work on the dredges is a very 
considerable item of expense in harvesting 
oysters. Another defect of the dredges in 
use is that the chain hags which hold the 

40 oysters are. allowed to drag on the bottom 
with their load, and as I lie oyster beds are 
very rough and covered with jagged stones. 
the life of the bags is always short, and they 
frequently break when loaded and cause a 

45 loss lit the oysters which have already been 
gathered. With the dredges now used, it is 
an incident of each haul that when the bag 
becomes partly loaded, the teeth are pushed 
down into the mud or shells, so that while 

H -' the oysters in the bottom of the bag are 
'■lean, those later dredged are mixed with a 
large proportion of mud and stones or shells. 
It also frequently happens thai in throwing 
the dredge overboard, the chain bag becomes 

' '• canghi on the teeth and its capacity thus re- 
duced, so that at the end of the haul it is 



found that vny few of the oysters which 
have been displaced from the hot loin are in 
the bag, the rest havingbeen wasted. 

To overcome the first difficulty and reduce 60 
the eosi of blacksmithing, I have provided a 
tooth which may be easily removed and se- 
cured in place by the oystermen without the 
service oi a blacksmith. This tooth is pro- 
vided with a shank, shown as flattened, to en- 65 
gage a face of (he blade, and slotted longi- 
tudinally or diagonally to receive a bolt 
which passes through the blade and shoul- 
dered transversely to engage one and pref- 
erably both edges of the blade to prevent TO 
side motion. The blade is apertured to re- 
ceive the bolt of each tooth and the length of 
the slots in the tooth shanks makes accurate 
placing of the bolt holes in the blade and 
finishing of the blade unnecessary. To pro- 75 
tect the bag and overcome the other difli- 
cidlies referred to, I have provided a thin 
plate which is seemed to the blade and ex- 
lends to the rear beneath the bag to main- 
lain it out of contact with the bottom. This so 
plate not only protects Ihe bag. but if serves 
as a guard to prevent the (ee(h and blade 
I'l'oni being sunk into the bottom, so as to 

ape ii]) mud and shells, and reduces the 
■ (rain on the bag so thai economy may be ex- R r > 

e -i in using lighter chains and hooks to 
form the bag. The plate prevents the bag 
From swinging down and forward against 
teeth, so that fouling of the hag on the 
teeth is obviated. The applicant's plate is 90 
also of use in dumping the oysters. The 
dredge is drawn up over a roller on the side 
of the boal and moved forward until the rear 
of the plate re-Is on (he roller and the nose 
of the dredge on the deck. In this position, 95 
the plate is lilted forward and the oysters 
may be easily removed. In order to conform 
to different conditions of bottom, (he plate 
may be hinged and made adjust able. 

The applicant is aware that numbers of 10 ° 
dredges have been produced and patented 
in which a rigid cage is substituted for a 
bagj Such cages have never come into com- 
mon use by the oystermen because (hey must 
be made exceedingly cumbersome and heavy 105 
in order to support the heavy loads of 
oysters which are handled ill each haul. 
Light material, as wire, netting, when sup- 
ported upon a rigid frame soon yields to the 
weighl of the oysters within and Ihe contact 110 
with the rough bottom without The de- 
vice which lias been universally adopted by 






939,355 



the oystermen to hold the catch while the 
teel U are being hauled over the bed is a chain 
bag, generally composed of S hooks and 
rin<£s. Ft is to I he support and protection 
"> of this hag tlml the applicant's plate is in- 
tended to be applied. 

An oyster dredge to which my invention 
has been applied is illustrated in the ac- 
companying drawings: 

10 Figure l is a perspective view oft lie dnei 
Figi 2 is a fragmentary cross-section through 
the blade, plate and bag; showing a tooth in 
elevation; Fig. 3 is a i'mm elevation of a 
tooth detached-; Fig, I is a sectional eleva- 

15 lion of another modification of my device^ 
Fiji. ■"> is an elevation of the tooth used Ihere- 
witlt : Fig. 6 is an elevation of a slightly dif- 
ferent tooth; Fig. 7 is a longitudinal section 
of another type of tooth: Fig. 8 is an eleva- 

20 Hon of the same: Fig, Si shows detail-- of the 
plate adjusting means, grouped lo indicate 
their cooperative relation. 

Referring to the drawings, lie* dredge 
consists of a suitable' frame I having.a trans 

2"> verse bar or hlade 2 on which are mounted 
the depending teeth ;; and lo which the plaic 
4 is secured. As shown, an angle iron 5 on 
the rear of the blade carries hinges 6, also 
attached to the plnle. so the latter swings in 

SO a vertical plane. The bag 7 shown as real 
ing on Ihe plate, is attached at its mouth to 
the frame, (he lower edge of the mouth of 
the bag being shown in Rig. 2 as engaging 
a rod 8 which extends across the dredge just 

35 above (he blade 2, If the plaic he hinged, 
some means must lie provided to hold ii in 
adjusted position. The preferred mean 
shown in (he form of hows or hands 11. ( hie 
end of eaoh ham I is shown as secured to the 

40 plate near its rear portion, ami from Ihis 
point Ihe hands extend hack ami up over 
the hag. The upper cxt remit ies of t he hand- 
are adjustably secured lo (lie frame, prefer 
ably in the manner to he described. The 

*8 transverse rod 10 lo which the upper edge of 
the has is attached is provided with slotted 
lugs II, pierced with a series of holes \-2. 
The end of each hand 9 is turned up ver- 
tically at 18 and the member 13 passed 

50 through the slot II. The member 13 is 
pierced al 15 to admit- the pin L6 passed 
through a hole 12. In Ibis way the plate 
is made adjustable by moving the end 18 
of iho hands in the slots and pinning them. 

■''" This allow* Ihe position of the plate lo lie 
changed to suit different comlil ions of dredg- 
ing. 

Having reference to Figs, 2 and :i, il will 
he noted that I lie blade 2 is shown as rcc- 

<,ri tangidnr and the shanks of ihe teeth are 
flattened at 17 ami shouldered transversely 
near (he teeth proper on their rear sides at 
is. The flat shank of each tooth is slotted 
diagonally at 19 and the hlade is apertured 

8 '' at 2J0 with holes, one cor responding to each 



tooth. To mount I he teeth, each one is 
placedon ihe Made uhh its rear flat surface 

21 on the front surface of the hlade and ihe 
shoulder is is pressed against (he lower face 

22 of the blade. Aholl'-Jl is passed through 711 
the slot of Ihe tooth and through the cor- 
responding hole 20, and the nut -Ii is tight- 
ened on Hie boll, holding the looili in place 
with the shoulder 18 in close contact with 
Ihe lower surface 22 of the blade. U will 75 
be noted lhal the length of the slot I'' pro- 
vides for the positioning of the tooth with 

its shoulder in contact with the hlade and 
makes it unnecessary to finish the Wade oe 
remove irregularities from its surface in 80 
order lo secure a rigid setting of the te 

The angle iron 5 to which the plate I is 
hinged may Ii" 1 iirned eitl er do ' n. as .-hewn 
in Fig. .. or up, as shown in Fdgv 1. One 
flange of each" angle iron, apertured with SB 
holes to correspond to and register with 
those of' the Made, is placed against the rear 
surface of Ihe hitler 1 - 2 1 which 

have been described as holding the teeth, 
are passed through ihe [dale and flange and 00 
the mils 26 are screwed onto the bolts in the 
rear of the flange. In this way, a single set 
uf holts is inside to hold lioth the teeth and 
ihe plates to the hlade. hi Figs, I and ;», I 
have shown the shank 29 with the slot 30 05 
therein extending above ihe hlade. This 
projecting portion of the shank forms an 
eye 3] lo which ihe lower portion of ihe 
mouth of the bag may be secured. Fig; 6 
shows a tooth shank slotted diagonally and 100 
provided with a lug : ">^ apei+inwl al "I to 
form an eye Cur ihe same purpose as eye 81. 

Figs. 7and 8 illustrate still another type of 
loolh fastening. The -hank:- of the teeth of 
lite style shown in these figures are flattened I"'" 1 
al :!7 lo engage the blade lace ami slotted 
longitudinally at 35, as described in connec- 
tion with Figs. I and 5, bill the dot prefer- 
ably docs not extend above the hlade. The 
end of the -hank is provided with a lug d:S 11( > 
apertured al 34 to engage the bag. To pee* 
vent the tooth from working loose. I have 
provided, in addition to ihe shoulder is cu- 
ing she lower edge 22 of the hlade, n 
shoulder 86 engaging the upper edge of ihe ' LB 
hlade. Idie holt is shown as passed through 
the tooth and plate and angle iron, tail of 
course Ihe teeth described may he used with- 
out the protecting plate and angle iron. 

The operation of my device will he appar- l -° 
cut from the, foregoing description of its 
construction and the statement of ils fune 
thai. In connection with this description, 
1 would have it understood lhal whili I set 
forth numerous minor details of the dredge '-■"' 
to which my device has been applied, I do 
not desire 10 limit myself to these details. 
but 

What I claim and desire lo secure by 1 -tet- 
ters Patent is: 130 



089,355 



U 



1. In nil oysli'i' dredge having a tooth 
blade, a tooth to be removably and rigidly 
secured to the blade, the tooth having a flat- 
tened shank and two transverse shoulders 

' mi the shank to engage the blade from above 
and below the shank between the shoulders 
1 icing slotted to receive a bolt, 

2. !n an oyster dredge Inning a tooth 
blade, a tooth to be removably and rigidly 

10 secured to ilie blade, the tooth having a flat- 
tened shank shouldered transversely to en- 
gage the blade on two opposite ed; 
shank between the shoulders being slotted 
to receive a bolt, the upper end of the shank 

to having an eye to be engaged by the bag. 

3. In an oyster dredge, a frame Slaving 
teeth and a bag. the mouth of the bag sc- 
cured to the frame, the bag otherwise bang- 
ing free and extending to the rear, a plate 

20 pi vol ally mounted on the frame and extend- 
ing to i lie rear beneath the bag, and means 
for securing the plate in adjusted position, 

4. In an oyster dredge, a frame including 
a transverse blade ami teeth, the latter se- 

25 cured (o the blade, a flexible bag, the mouth 
of which is secured to the frame in distended 
position, a plate which normally rests on the 
bottom extending to the rear of the blade to 
support the bag. and a band secured to the 

30 rear of the plate extending upward and in- 
closing the real' of the bag. 

.">. In an oyster dredge, a frame including 



a transverse blade and teeth, the latter se- 
cured to she blade, a plate pivotally mounted 
(■n the frame, the body of the plate extend- 15 
ing to the rear, a flexible bag, the mouth of 
which is secured to the- frame rind which 
hangs freely on the plate, protected thereby 
from the bottom, and bands secured to the 
rear of the plate bent up to inclose the rear 10 
of the bag and adjustably secured at their 
upper extremities to the frame. 

6, In an oyster dredge, a frame having a 
support for teeth, a tooth having ,i llattened 
shank shonldered transversely to engage the •:::■ 
edge of the support, the -hank slotted be- 
yond the shoulder, and. at its extremity, pro- 
vided with an eye to which a dredge bag 
may be fastened. 

T. In an oyster dredge, a frame having a 
support for teeth, a tooth having a llat- 
tened shank shouldered transversely to en- 
gage the edge of the support, the shank 
slotted beyond the shoulder, the shank, at its 
extremity, provided with an eye to which 
the dredge bag may be fastened, and a boll 
passing through (he slot to secure the tooth 
to the support. 

Signed in me at Baltimore, Maryland, 
ibis 15th day of February, 1909. 

THOMAS' B. WEBSTER. 

Witnesses: 

Edward L. Bash, 
S. Ralph Warnkejt. 



BO 



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(.No Model, i 2 Sheets— Sheet I, 

H. R. HILTON & J. E, WILSON. 

CLAM OK OYSTER RAKE OR DREDOE. 

No, 484,715, Patented Oct. 18, 1892. 







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H. E. HILTON & J. E. WiLSOK. 

CLAM OR OYSTER RAKE OR DREDGE. 

No. 484,715. Patented Oct. 18, 1892, 







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United States Patent Office. 



HENRY R. HILTON, OF JERSEY CITY, XK\Y JERSEY, AND JAMES E. WILSON, 

OF NEW YORK, N. Y. 

CLAM OR OYSTER RAKE OR DREDGE. 



SPECIFICATION' forming part of Letters Patent No. 484,715, dated October 18, 1892. 
Application Sled Angust 1, 1891. Serial No. 401,437. (Mo model.) 



D 



To all whom it mat/ concern: 
Ee it known that we, Henry It. HlLTON.of 

Jersey City, county of Hudson, State of New 
Jersey, and James E. Wilson, of New York, 
5 county and State of Now York, citizens of 
the United States, have jointly invented a 
new and useful Clam or Oyster Rake or 
Dredge, of which the following is a specifi- 
cation. 

io Our invention belongs to the class of dredg- 
ing and excavating devices which employ a 
series of rakes or scoops attached to one or 
more endless chains which are stretched 
around sprocket- wheels rotated by any suit- 

15 able power. 

Our invention relates to a provision to en- 
able the gathering and raising from ocean- 
beds or water bottoms of any substances 
lying thereupon or embedded therein, the 

20 provision being more particularly intended 
for the gathering of clams and oysters. 

Our invention can also be utilized for scari- 
fying or "cultivating" such bed -surf ace pre- 
paratory to the planting of oysters or other 

25 shell-fish therein. 

Referring to the accompanying drawings, 
which form a part of this specification, Fig- 
ure 1 is a side elevation of an apparatus em- 
bodying a simple form of our invention. Fig. 

30 2 is a front elevation of the same, the endless 
chains and their attached rakes being omit- 
ted. Fig. 3 is an inside view of one of the 
rake-deflecting cams. Fig. 4 is a front view 
of one of the rakes and portions of the car- 

35 rying-chaius. Fig. 5 is a side view of a rake- 
tooth. Fig. G is a top view of the same. Fig. 
7 is a side view showing foot and colter at- 
tachments. Fig. 8 is a front view of said col- 
ter an d f 00 1 . Fig.Drepresents a modification 

40 of the cam adjusting and locking mechanism. 
Fig. 10 shows by side elevation a form of our 
dredge slightly differing from that shown in 
Fig. 1. Fig. 11 is a front elevation of the 
"boot" of such dredge, omitting the rakes. 

45 Fig, 12 is a top view of a rake. Fig. 13 is 
an inner side view of one of the rakes in its 
socket, together with a portion of one of the 
endless chains. Fig. 14 is a top view of the 
same. Fig. 15 represents the rake in au up- 

50 tipped position. 



W may represent a scow or other water- 
craft. 

A A' is the frame of the machine, shown as 
constructed of ordinary water-piping, braced 
with rods, anil supporting at its ends and at 55 
an intermediate point shafts a n' <i" . the last- 
named preferably non-rotative. On thisshaft 
the revolving parts are sleeved. The inter- 
mediate shaft o' also serves as the axis of a 
hinge, for the purposes hereinafter explained. 60 

h b' b" are sprocket-wheels. 

1! 1!' are endless chains or belts, of which 
the chains 15' carry a series of forwardly 
pointing or directed rakes, scoops, or combs C 
by means of sockets or ears c, attached to the 65 
linksof said chain. These sockets constitute 
bearings for the rake-trunnions c'. 

r'" represents a grated back, which while 
permitting escape of mud and water serves 
to retain the oysters or other matter which it 70 
is desired to elevate. 

Sleeved upon shaft a" are side cams I)', 
connected by the sleeve D. The office of these 
cams is to control the position to be assumed 
by the rakes while passing around the lower 75 
sprocket-wheels ?/', being drawn by the end- 
less chain to which they are jonrnaled. 

V>y reference to Figs. 4, 5, G, 13, 14, and 15 
it will be seen that the trunnions o'form the 
axes about which each rake is at liberty to 80 
vibrate upward in said sockets, but is pre- 
vented from depression below a horizontal 
position in its loaded and ascending condi- 
tion by stops or lugs c" on the sockets against 
which the rake-arms / are brought to rest. 85 
In order to secure the desired vibration, each 
rake has two arms/, that terminate with in- 
wardly-extending lags g, which occupy eccen- 
tric grooves d in the cams D'.and thus servo 
to direct the rake-points so as flrst to secure 90 
the proper penetration of the sea-bed and then 
to emerge from the bed in the horizontal po- 
sition best adapted to retain and carry up the 
load or "take" thus collected. (See Figs. 1 
and 3.) 9$ 

To enable the person in charge to adjust 
the cams 1>' for a greater or less rake pene- 
tration while the boot is submerged, we pro- 
vide the following means: II is a shaft sup- 
ported in bearings in the plane of shafts 100 



United States Patent Office. 



HENRY R. HILTON, OF JERSEY CITY, NEW JERSEY, AND JAMES E. WILSON, 

OF NEW YORK, N. Y. 



CLAM OR OYSTER RAKE OR DREDGE. 



SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 484,715, dated October 18, 1892. 
Application filed August 1, 1891. Serial Ho. 401,437. (No model.) 



To all wham it may coneerri: 

Be it known that we, IIenrv R. IhLTON.of 
Jersey City, county of Hudson, State of New 
Jersey, and James E. Wilson, of New York, 
5 county and State of New York, citizens of 
the United States, have jointly invented a 
new and useful Clam or Oyster Rake or 
Dredge, of which the following is a specifi- 
cation. 

ro Our invention belongs to the class of dredg- 
ing and excavating devices which employ a 
series of rakes or scoops attached to one or 
more endless chains which are stretched 
around sprocket-wheels rotated by any suit- 

15 able power. 

Our invention relates lo a provision to en- 
able the gathering and raising from ocean- 
beds or water bottoms of any substances 
lying thereupon or embedded therein, the 

20 provision being more particularly intended 
for the gathering of clams and oysters. 

Oar invention can also bo utilized for scari- 
fying or "cultivating" such bed-surface pre- 
paratory to the planting of oysters or other 

25 shell- fish therein. 

Referring to the accompanying drawings, 
which form a part of this specification, Fig- 
ure 1 is a side elevation of an apparatus em- 
bodying a simple form of our invention. Fig. 

30 2 is a front elevation of the same, the endless 
chains and their attached rakes being omit- 
ted. Fig. 3 is an inside view of one of the 
rake-deflccting cams. Fig. 4 is a front view 
of one of the rakes and portions of the ear- 

35 rying-chaius. Fig. 5 is a side view of a rake- 
tooth. Fig. 6 is a top view of the same. Fig. 
7 is a side view showing foot and colter at- 
tachments. Fig. 8 is a front view of said col- 
ter and foot. Fig. represents a modification 

40 of the cam adjustingaud locking mechanism. 
Fig. 10 shows by side elevation a form of our 
dredge slightly differing from that shown in 
Fig. 1. Fig. 11 is a front elevation of the 
"boot" of such dredge, omitting the rakes. 

45 Fig. 12 is a top view of a rake. Fig. 13 is 
an inner side view of one of the rakes in its 
socket, together with a portion of one of the 
endless chains. Fig. 14 is a top view of the 
same. Fig. 15 represents the rake in an up- 

50 tipped position. 



55 



Go 



W may represent a scow or other water- 
craft. 

A A' is the frame of the machine, shown as 
constructed of ordinary water-piping, braced 
with rods, and supporting at its ends and at 
an intermediate point shafts n a' a", the last- 
named preferably non-rotative. On thisshaft 
the revolving parts are sleeved. The inter- 
mediate shaft a' also servos as the axis of a 
hinge, for the purposes hereinafter explained. 

b (>' b" are sprocket-wheels. 

I! 11' are endless chains or belts, of which 
the chains 11' carry a series of forwardly 
pointing or directed rakes, scoops, or combs C 
by means of sockets or ears c, attached lo the 65 
links of said chain. These sockets constitute 
bearings for the rake-trunnions e'. 

c"' represents a grated back, which whMe 
permitting escape of mud and water serves 
to retain the oysters or other matter which it 70 
is desired to elevate. 

Sleeved upon shaft o" are side cams I)', 
connected by the sleeve I). The ollico of these 
cams is to control the position to be assumed 
by the rakes while passing around the lower 
sprocket-wheels 6", being drawn by the end- 
less chain to which they are joumaled. 

By reference to Figs. 4, 5, (3, 13, 14, and 15 
it will be seen that the trunnions c' form the 
axes about which each rake is at liberty to 80 
vibrate upward in said sockets, but is pre- 
vented from depression below a horizontal 
position in its loaded and ascending condi- 
tion by stops or lugs c" on the sockets against 
which the rake-arms / are brought to rest. S5 
In order to secure the desired vibration, each 
rake has two arms/, that terminate with in- 
wardly-extending lugs ;/, which occupy eccen- 
tric grooves d in the cams D',and thus serve 
to direct the rake-points so as first to secure go 
the proper penetration of the sea-bed and then 
to emerge from the bed in the horizontal po- 
sition best adapted to retain and carry up the 
load or "take" thus collected. (See Figs. 1 
and 3.) 

To enable the person in charge to adjust 
the cams I)' for a greater or less rake pene- 
tration while the boot is submerged, we pro- 
vide the following means: II is a shaft sup- 
ported in bearings in the plane of shafts 



75 



95 



100 



484,715 



a' a" and carrying at its lower end bevel- 
pinion h, which engages with bevel-gear /*■', 
which is rigidly attached to the shaft a", car- 
rying sleeve I). The shaft II carries at its 
5 upper end a like bevel-pinion /, which en- 
gages in a cogged segment j, that can be made 
fast to tin; frame by means of an arm L\ which 
carries a nutted bolt /, that traverses a slolted 
plate m upon the frame. 

10 The shaft a and its attached sprocket- 
wheels b are driven by any suitable means — 
such as chain or belt connection Z — either 
with a hand-winch X, Fig. 1, or with a steam- 
engine X', Fig. 10, which may be the engine 

15 which is employed to propel the scow W 

through the instrumentality of any suitable 

propeller O, the scow being kept head-on by 

a rudder Q. 

In the form above described the contents of 

20 the rakes may be removed by an instrument 
io the hands of an attendant, as shown in 
Fig. 1. 

The above-described form or type of our in- 
vention is susceptible of various modifica- 

25 tions. For example, there may (sec Fig. 10) 
be a forward extension T of the frame which 
carries the shaft a" that does duty as the 
hinge be! ween the two main pints of the frame. 
Associated with this are two additional shafts 

30 a'" a !V , which carry "idle" sprocket-wheels 
b'" b lv . Indentations o v in the periphery of 
the sprocket-wheel 6 IV permit the passage of 
the rake-sockets in the manner shown. By 
this arrangement the rake-chains as they 

35 reach the point of discharge are deflected 
forward and downward, as shown in Fig. 10, 
so as to dump or discharge the take onto a 
suitable ehute tr, which conducts the matters 
into the scow. A crane V, furnished with 

40 suitable tackle Y, enables the person in charge 
to suspend the machine at any desired height 
and position. In some cases an adjustable 
foot or drag It (having, preferably, the trans- 
versely-concave sole r) may bo employed to 

45 limit the penetration of 1 lie rakes. Both foot 
and a colter, to be hereinafter described, may 
be attached to and adjusted simultaneously 
with the gearing It', as shown in Fig. 7, or, as 
shown in Fig. 10, said foot may depend from 

50 an arm n, that vibrates loosely about shaft a" 
aad be forced and held downward by a rod 
j >, whose upper end bears against a nut q on 
a screw r upon the shaft II, 

S, Fig. 7, shows a colter, also adjustable, 

55 which may be associated with such foot. 

/', Fig. 9, shows a worm movement for use 
instead of the parts ij Je I m. 

The operation of the machine is as follows: 
It being placed in position as shown in Fig. 

60 1, the lower or boot end resting upon the sur- 
face of water bottom, sufficient weight hav- 
ing attached to it to resist the thrust of the 
rakes, the upper or boat end being attached 
to a suitable frame on said boat or float, the 

65 outboard or hinged portion being supported 
by suitable rigging y, power is applied by 
meausof a hand-winch, a steam-engine crank- 



shaft, or any other convenient rotary motion 
to sprocket-wheel F, thence via endless chain 
or belt B in the direction indicated by arrows, 70 
and through shaft «' to the endless chain or 
belts B', carrying rakes or combs c c, Ac. 
As the rakes approach earns D' I.)' the lugs g 
g enter the cam-grooves, thus converging or 
diverging the points, as may be most desir- 75 
able. Straight line U' represents the bed-sur- 
face, upon which the boot rests. Dotted lines 
1' represent the depth below said surface to 
which it is desired the rake-teeth shall pene- 
trate. Should it be desirable to thrust the So 
blades or teeth of the rakes to a greater or less 
distance below the surface, it is accomplished 
by adjustment of cams D' D', as explained 
above. The position of the cam-grooves in re- 
lation to the center of rotation of the rakes is S5 
such that the rake-teeth assume nearly a hori- 
zontal position as they pass the lower center 
and remain in that position through the re- 
mainderof their re volution about the sprocket- 
wheels b" . .Said tectl 1 are thus caused to pone- 90 
trate the ground, and by remaining in such 
relative position whatever they may have 
gathered is elevated and delivered above the 
surface of the water. Clams lie a few inches 
under the surface; oysters on the surface; 95 
roots of vegetables penetrate below the sur- 
face. Much refuse is often on the surface, 
and by the means of the adjustment above 
described the take of the rakes is at all 
times under the control of the operator, A 100 
forward movement of the float, as indicated 
by arrow, carries forward the machine, which, 
being weighted at the bottom, will always pre- 
serve about the same relative position. It 
being hinged, rise or fall of the tide, waves, 105 
or greater or less depth of water within cer- 
tain limits is provided for. The main frame 
may be made extensible and by lengthening 
or shortening the same, as well as the chains 
or belts, as great range of depths may be pro- 1 10 
vided for as desirable. 

For use on mud bottom when the boot end 
would be liable to sink too deep it is proposed 
to attach a shoo or foot It to the frame ex- 
tending to the rear of tiie boot, which, drag- 115 
ging on the bed and covering a large surface, 
shall prevent deeper penetration than is de- 
sired. It may be found desirable in some 
cases to also attach to the lower end of the 
frame suitable blades, preferably in the form izo 
of revolving disks or colters S, which shall 
be extended ahead of the general movement 
of the machine to cut the ground to depth 
being worked, the same as is used on turf- 
plows. The said siioo It and coltors S are 125 
preferably arranged and connected to the 
foot-f ranie in the manner shown in Figs. 7 and 
8 or as in Figs. 10 and 11. 

Having thus described our invention, the 
following is what we claim as new therein and 130 
desire to secure by Letters Patent : 

1. The combination, with a self-propelled 
scow, of a rotary submarine rake or dredge 
having the frames, substantially as shown and 






484,715 



25 



3° 



described, with endless chains armed with 
tines which engage the water bed in the di- 
rection of travel of the scow, constructed and 
operated substantially as set forth. 

2. The combination of the hinged frame A 
A' with a rotary dredge or elevator in which 
the positions of the buckets, rakes, of combs 
are controlled by the cam or cams D within 
the boot of same, substantially as described. 

3. In a rotary dredge or elevator, the com- 
bination of the hinged frame A A', the end- 
less elevator having teeth adjustable in pitch 
or angular presentation with the adjustable 
cam or cams, substantially as described. 

4. In a rotary dredge or elevator, the com- 
bination, with a scow, of the hinged frame A 
A', the endless chain or belts B, armed with 
lines, rakes, or combs c c, pointed in direction 
of travel of Ihe scow, and the adjustable cam 
or earns 1)', substantially as described. 

• 5. In a rotary dredge or elevator, the com- 
bination of hinged frame A A', endless chain 
or belts B, the forwardly-directed rakes or 
combs c, cam or cams D' D', operating-gears 
h and ?;', shaft II, pinion i, and segment j, 
substantially for the purpose as described. 

G. In a submarine dredge or elevator, the 
combination of the frame A A', endless chain 
or belt B,aud forwardly-directed rakes, teeth, 
or combs c, with the arms/' and the stops c", 
substantially as described. 

7. In a submarine dredge or rake, the com- 
bination of the frame A A' and the endless re- 
volving chains armed with tines, with the foot 



or drag attached to the lower end of the frame, 35 
for the purposes set forth. 

8. In a submariuo dredge or rake, the com- 
bination, with a scow, of the frame A A', rotat- 
able endless chains armed with tines, and the 
cutting disks or colters, substantially as de- 40 
scribed. 

9. In a submarine dredge, the combination, 
with a supporting and dragging scow pro- 
vided with frame A A' and belt R, of the boot 

or outer hinged frame having the forward and 45 
downward projection T, in combination with 
the rake-bearing chains B', the drivinsr sprock- 
et-wheel h', and the "idlers" b'" b. " 

10. In a submarine dredge having the sup- 
porting and dragging scow, the combination 50 
of the frame A A', the belt B,the endless ele- 
vator B', having forwardly-directed teeth or 
tines C, shaft a", loosely-vibrating arm n, rod 

p, nut q, and screw-threaded shaft II r. 

11. In an oyster-dredge, the combination of 55 
the frame A A', belt B, endless chains B', hav- 
ing the forwardly-directed teeth or tines C, 
the attached sockets c, having stops or lugs 
c", and the vib ratable rakes 0, having arms /. 

12. In combination with the oyster-dredge, 60 
substantially as hereinbefore shown, the boot, 
and the foot R, having transversely-concave 
sole r. 

HENRY R. HILTON. 
JAMES E. WILSON. 
Witnesses: 

Geo. II. Knight, 
IIarky E. Knight.