There is a blueprint too large to scan. file:///X|/Special%20Collections/purgatory/Phi%20Mu/Scott,%20Robert%20E/blueprint.txt[5/16/2011 10:50:21AM] THE HI3T0RY AND CONSTRUCTION OP THE POPE'S ARBEIT BRANCH OF T f IS PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD. A thesis prepared and written by Robert Edward Scott as an Initiation i-eiuirement of the Maryland Beta Chapter of the Tau Beta PI Fraternity, and presented by him to that organization January 13, 1°33. A great deal of appreciation is expressed to Mr. J. F. A 1,! art1n, who enjoyed forty-five years ser- vice with the road, Mr J. A. Relnhart, the Station ftgent at Marlboro, and ''.r. Horace Anderson of the T^shington Terminal for thei^ helpful information Credit for munh of the material must be given to a host of ^embers of the official staff of the Pennsylvania Railroad whose courteous coooeration was a pleasant experience. 3IHLI0GSAFHT "The Pennsylvania Railroad System" , an historical and descriptive pamphlet with an annotated map, "The Growth and Development of the Pennsylvania Railroad nompany" by Howard Ward Schotter. "History of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company" in two volumes . "The Pennsylvania Railroad" by C. D Fox and F. Fox. The "American Railway* edition of 1889. A SHORT SHUMA^Y OP THE T^S T^ . The first railroad connecting the two cities of Balti- more, lid. and Washington, D 6. was ths Baltimore a nd Ohio The planters of the lower counties of Maryland early realized the great necessity of a railroad through Southern Maryland "'hie 1 -' would afford them transportation to these two great commercial centers. The Baltimore and Ohio refused to listen to t^eir pleas and the natives desiring such a ro3d were forced to orga ize into a stock "omnany. After a tre m endou« amount of work they were formed into a "ompany known as the Baltimore and Potomac %»Urosd Company. This organization was granted a charter in 1853 for th« construction of a railroad from Baltimore, Md. to the Potoraa^ Riv«™ *>**ween Liverpool Point and the mouth of q t. Mary* a River, Under th« terms of the charter permission was g^ven for the construction of branches not exceeding twenty "lies in length. The distance from Bowie, Md. to Washington, D-". f s only eighteen miles, so the railroad, as originally built, consisted o^ the -^ain line from Baltimore to Pope f s nreek, a distance of seventy- three miles, and the rt branch" from Bowie to Washington. The road was placed in service between Baltimore and Washington in July 1879, but the main line from Bowie to "Pooe's Creek was not opened to traffic until the following year. The Pennsylvania Railroad Company had been seeking for many years an Independent route to ^ltimore, Washington and the <*outh. The Baltimore and Ohio by their lack of cooperation un- wittingly aided the Pennsylvania in their efforts. As a result -2- the Pennsylvania Railroad Company became the re^l power behind the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad fie* piny, hut it wis not until November 1, 1902 that It assumed entire control of tbe latter company. The advent of the motor truck vms a prime f-ictor in the decline of the business enjoyed by this road, but it *s still op- erating at a profit to-day. THE HISTORY AND HONSTRUCTION OF THE POPF'3 CREEE BRANCH OF THE PEN?IS YLV^NIA RAILROAD, INTR STATION. Perhaps in no other industry is the romance and daring of the great engineering profession so magnificently demonstrated as in the far reaching sphere of railroading. Here the physical attributes of brawn and muscle have played a coordinated part with vision, courage, and ambition which together have accomplished feats never before witnessed in the history of the world. Progress and expansion have ridden hand ^n hand over the thousands of miles of iron roads laid down by the countless millions of men whose de- voted lives changed dreams into reality. To-day, when many are predicting the fading of the glories that once belonged to the railroads, it is only fair that we pause a moment while we prepare a retrospect of those early conditions and problems which formed the beginning of so vast an industry. Near the University of Maryland is located a compara- tively short branch of a great railroad system around which is entwined a glorious history. No better example of the methods, and even trices, employed by the various companies in their remarkable expansion could be found. Let us tr^ce, therefore, the evolution of what is now known as the "PoDe's Creek Branch of the Pennsylvania Railroad" . RAILROAD SERVICE BETWESH TASKING? ON AND BALTIMORE IN T'TS 50'S. Prior to the year 1850, and for seven 1 ye^rs later, the -2- Balt Ignore and Ohio Railroad was the only company ever to o-n, operate, -and maintain a railroad between the two flourishing cities of Washington, D.n and Rilti^ore, Md. indeed, their hansome monopoly proved so rich financially that in their endeav- ors to hold it the Baltimore and Ohio unwittingly followed an over zealous course which ultimately destroyed their monopoly and and permitted another system to establish transportation facilities between the two cities, Sven before its line was completed between Harrisburg, Pa, and Pittsburgh, Pa. the Pennsylvania Railroad CoT?an- was looking forward to carrying to Baltimore and the '.^outh the trade from the West which was naturally dun there, and made every possi- ble effort in that direction with the S'jsa iehanna Railroad and Ha successor, the Northern Central Railway Company. But nothing of a satisfactory nature could be accomplished until the latter company had passed into the control of the Pennsylvania, when the Pennsyl- vania P*ilT»oart gained the control of the Northern Centrnl Railway a very satisfactory connection with the business interests of Baltimore was secured. However, since access to the National Capi- tal was via the Washington Branch of the Baltimore ^nd Ohio Rail- road, and the management of the latter unfriendly, a formidable barrier was presented to future progress in a southerly direction THE BALTIMORE 1 AKD Q4I0 RAILROAD RSFrjJZS TO ;uOPRR4TE WITH TH3 NORTHERN CENTRAL Ra tt .WAY. -5- It was at this time tkat the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad committed a aeries of errors which finally destroyed thei" monopoly between Baltimore and Washington and caused the competitive system to be introduced between two great companies for the rontrol of the transportation business of the South. Instead of cooperating with the Northern Central Railway, later controlled by the Pennsylvania Railroad (Torapany, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company adopted an arbitrary coarse relative to the Interchange of travel and traffic • and threw ail kinds of obstacles in the tot of the northern Central transacting business with Washington City, "It refused to sell through tickets, or check baggage through from there (Washington) to points on or via Northern Cen- tral, or to accept such going thru, and so arranged its schedules that connections were rendered uncertain. It made rites of freight on the latter* s traffic that were really prohibitory. To overcome to some degree the annoyance their patrons were put to, the North- ern Central management arranged, as their southbound trains approach- ed Baltimore, to hand thru passengers destined to Washington, md who held through tickets, a small envelope containing cash sufficient to pay for their transfer through Baltimore, and to purchase a local Baltimore and Ohio ticket to Washington. The envelope contained also an explanation why the company and the passengers were put to this trouble." Naturally, a policy of this nature caused the "Pennsylvania Railroad to seek a new and independent route to Washington and the -4- South. Several other factors aided the company in their project among which were the tightening chains of a railroad autocracy which were beginning to be felt by Baltimore, and the necessity for a railroad through Southern Haryland which would enable the people to reach the cities of Washington and Baltimore with their products. A RAILROAD THROUGH SOUTHERB IUBZUBD 13 PROPOSED, The planters of the lower counties of Maryland, ^nd especially those of Prince George's, were particularly anxiou« to have constructed a railroad ^hich would connect Baltimore on ths north and the Potomac River on the south Sentiment for this construction was so strong that a movement w^s started for the purpose of organizing a stock company which would make such a project possible. Among the earliest and most zealous advocates of the enterprise 'vere Colonel ''illiam D Bowie, Robert Bowie, of nedar Hill, and General T. F. Bowie. Mr Robert Bowie was perhaps the most active of this group. He traveled through the lower counties making speeches, attending meetings, and in every possible way presenting inducements which would interest men of means in the scheme. He was ably assisted by Walter W. f. Bowie, whose elo- quent speeches and gifted pen (his nom de plume was *' Patuxent Planter") contributed no little to fie earlier success of the or- ganizers. As a result of their efforts a stock company was finally organized. At this time General Thomas "P. Bowie was the recognized leader of the Southern Maryland bar, and he aided the newly formed -5- corapany by contributing his- legal experience and influence in the. halls of legislation. The outgrowth of all this was the formation of the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad Company, two of whose char- ter members were Walter W. W. Bowie and Thomas F. Bowie. Among the directors elected were Colonel William D. Bowie and his son, Oden Bowie. The last named, young, energetic, and possessing withal, sound judgement, was selected as president of the new ro^d. Tbe Civil War followed almost immediately and neither money nor men to build the road could be obtained until peace again had settled over tbe distracted region. But President Bowie had the company's interests at heart and upon the cessation of hostili- ties again brought the project before the public. Oden Bowie fre- quently visited the capitalists of the north. He approached John W. Garrett, President of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company, but meeting with a cold reception from that official, at tbe In- stance of John B. Clark,, of Missouri, visited Colonel Thomas A, S^ott, of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, whote alertness caused him to grasp the situation, and led to his securing the control of the charter. Oden Bowie lived to see his pet scheme triumph be- yond his most sanguine expectations and the Board of Directors continued to elect him President of the Company each year until his death in 1394. A CHARTER FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OP ft, RAILROAD FROM BALTIMORE TO SOOTHERS MARYLAND 15 GRANTED. -6- Qn the sixth day of May, In the ye3V 1853, the Governor of Maryland approved a charter which authorized the construct inn of a railroad frora some suitable r>oint In or near the elty of Baltimore, and through or near Upper Marlboro and Port Tobacco to the Potomac River bet-ween Liverpool Point and the mouth of St. Mary's River, and the right to construct branches not exceeding twenty miles In length. It was the charter of which Colonel 3cott later gained control. Under the terms of the charter the road was to be commenced in six and finished In ten years, -with a capital stock fixed at $1,000,000. Before the incorporation of the com- pany could become effective, the charter provided that 2500 shares had to be subscribed for. The tlm« limit for securing the enabling subscriptions was set at five years from the time the Commissioners who were named in the Act effected their organization. On March 10, 1854, the Act was amended so that the capital w^s divided into 2000 shares at par value of $50-00 each, and made 1000 a*? the num- ber of shares to be subscribed as the ^ondtlion precedent to the incorporation of the e-cmnany. & further amendment, passed Mar«h 10, 1856, provided for the commencement of the work to be made on or before March 10, i860, and completed -vlthln four years of that time, fin February 17. 1860, the tiiie limit was extended; the com- mencement to March 10, 1870, and completion to within four years thereafter. The distance from Baltimore to Pope's Creek is about seventy-three miles; the distance frora Bowie to Washington is -7.- about eighteen iilles. Thus, when the construction of this road was begun In 1868 by the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad Company, the railroad was being built to Pope' 3 Creek and a "branch" eighteen miles long was being constructed from Bowie to Washington. So it ia seen from this that what Is now part of the main line of the Pennsylvania Railroad between Bowie and Washington was originally built as a "branch" of the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad. On July 2, 1872, the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad was, with the ex- ception of the tunnel in Baltimore, completed and placed In service between the latter city and Washington. The tunnel was not com- pleted and opened for traffic until June 29, 1873, at which time the road f^om Bowie to Pope's Greek, a distance of <*bout forty- eight miles, was also completed and placed In operation. THE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD SEEKS CONTROL OE T'lE BALTIMORE AND POTOMAC RAILROAD. Thus far in the history of the development of the Pope's Creek Railway it has been emphasized that the Pennsylvania Railroad was the power behind the organisation Then followed a long series of mergers and stock manipulations which some thirty years later gave undisputed control to the Pennsylvania Rail- road of a right-of-way from Washington to Philadelphia via Balti- more. In 1873 i the year in which the road from Bowie to Pope's Creek was opened to traffic, the Pennsylvania Railroad Company was the owner of 36,572 shares of tie Capital Stock of the Balti- -7.- about eighteen miles. Thus, when the construction of this road was begun in 1868 by the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad Company, the railroad was "being built to Pope's Creek and a "branch" eighteen miles long was being constructed from Bowie to Washington. So It Is seen from this that what is now part of the mala line of the Pennsylvania Railroad between Bowie and ^ashinpton was originally built as a "branch" of the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad, On July 2, 1872, the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad was, with the ex- ception of the tunnel in Baltimore, completed and placed in service between the latter city and Washington. The tunnel was not com- pleted and opened for traffic until June 2 9, 1873, at which time the road f>»om Bowie to Pope's Creek, a distance of about forty - eight miles, was also completed and placed in operation. THE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD SEEKS CONTROL OF THE BALTIMORE AND POTOMAC RAILROAD, Thus far in the history of the development of the Pope's Creek Railway It has been emphasized that the Pennsylvania Railroad was the power behind the organization Then followed a long series of mergers and stock manipulations which some thirty years later gave undisputed control to the Pennsylvania Rail- road of a right-of-way from Washington to Philadelphia via Balti- more. In 1873 i the year in which the road from Bowie to Pope*s Creek was opened to traffic, the Pennsylvania Railroad Company was the owner of 36,57? shares of the Capital Stock of the Balti- -8- more and Potomac Railroad Company, which had cost it *876,880, and on which the committee placed a nominal value of 51.00 per share. The entire receipts of that road in 1873 were, it w?s stated, only $381,536.73, and its net earnings 169.93, so that for a number of years it could not "be expected to do anything more than pay the interest on Its $4,500,000 of 6% mortgage bonds. It was pointed out, at this time, that the entire business of th» well established Baltimore and Ohio Railroad between Baltimore and Washington had not reached $500,000 in any one year since the termination of the ^ivil War. It must be kept in mind that the figures for the earnings of the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad include the entire system from Baltimore to Pope's Creek and the "branch" from Bowie to Washington. Figures on the earnings for the present Pope's Creek Branch from Bowie to Pope's Creek are not available for this reason. It must be pointed out, however, that for many years the road from Bowie through Southern Maryland to Pope* 3 Creek did a very profitable business. This section of the state was devoted principally to the raising of tobacco, corn, wheat and fruits. Long freight trains hauled tons of supplies to the stations along the way and returned heavily laden with the rich produce of the planters. For many yeara this .road furnished the only raenns of transportation for the natives to Baltimore and Washington, and in its heyday as many as ten passenger trains per day made the 48 mile run. It is not amazing, then, that the Pennsylvania Railroad wts desirous -,9- of obtaining absolute control of this road. The total cost of the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad wis represented by the Issue of securities to the amount of §9,888,736, or over $107,000 per mile including the tunnel under the city of Baltimore consisting of $3,503,900 of stock, $4,500, 000 of bonds and a floating debt of $1,884,836. The Pennsylvania Railroad Company owned $1,3? 8, 600 of this stock and jointly guaranteed the bonds with the Northern Central Railway Company. THE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD 91 TNS CONTROL 0? THE BALTIMORE AND POTOMAC RAILROAD. In March, 1901, a 33-1/3$ allotment of capital stock was made by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company at $60.00 per share, resulting In the addition of $50,500,800, par value, to the out- standing capital stock. This waB the first time in the history of the company that it sold its stock at a premium, and it was the largest issue It had made up to that time. The premium rea- lized amounted to over $10,000,000, The proceeds received from this allotment were used for the purpose of meeting maturing obli- gations, to provide capital for the construction and equipment ex- penditures on the company's lines, and for other proper corporate purposes. A portion of the proceeds from the foregoing sale of capital stock of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company was used for the purpose of acauirlng the remaining stock in the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad Company not already owned by -10- the former company. It already held over 90£. of Its capital stock, and, In conjunction with the Northern Central Railroad Company, owned all the stock of the Baltimore and Potomac Rail- road Company. On November 1, 19Q2, the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad and the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad companies were merged and consolidated Into a corporation known as the Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington Railroad Company, thua placing under one ownership the line between Philadelphia »nd Washington. Since the capital stock of this company was practically all owned by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company th* long cherished independent route from Philadelphia to Washington was realized. THS FSSSB8T FOFS'S CREEK BRANCH OF THE PENNS YLVAHIA RA ILR OA D. Thus far the events of the past have been chronologi- cally reported in order to clearly illustrate the gigantic part that the little railroad from Bowie to Pope's Creek has played In the expansion of the great Pennsylvania Railroad System. It is hard to realize, as one watches, the lone train that makes the trip each week day, that without the granting of the original char- ter to the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad Company the Nation's Capital would be deprived of the service of a great transportation company. To say that the advent of the motor truck has decreased -li- the amount of business enjoyed -by the Pope* a Creek Branch would be minimizing the damage that has been done. In place of the sev- eral trains formerly operated over the road there is but one to -day. It Is a combination freight and passenger train which travels to Pope's Creek In the morning and returns In the evening. Ten to fifteen freight cars with one combination passenger and baggnge car pulled by a single locomotive is the average train operated at the present time. The tremendous amount of tobacco formerly hauled by the railroad has been entirely lost to the trucking companies. In fairness to the railroad company it must be admitted that the present basis of completion between the railroad and trucking agencies discriminates in favor of the latter. The railroads form the greatest individual group of taxpayers in the nation. They have built and maintained their own private roads for years, yet, the trucking companies are allowed to operate over roads built by the taxes of the individual man. Little, if any, extra taxation is placed upon the various trucking agencies. For thi* reason they are able to haul the producer's tobacco at a far lower rate than the railroad couid ever hope to attain. Until this condition is remedied the railroad will never be able to regain one of Its chief sources of revenue. Despite the decrease In business the road is still showing a net profit for its operation, The chief freight now hauled over the road consists almost entirely of farm machinery, automobiles, and farm supplies with a small amount of food stuffs *12- which the farmers of that area are unable to grow. A mail con- tract ia still enjoyed by the company. Because of the schedule of operation used on the road no signal equipment Is necessary. All train operation is direct- ed by telephone from Bowie. The road is divided into five blocks and at the principal station In each block the conductor phones to Bowie for his orders before proceeding. Under the terms of the charter the Pennsylvania Railroad must continue to maintain train service over the Pope's Creek Branch as long as it continues service between Washington and Baltimore, for in the eyes of the law this little branch is still the main line of the Pennsylvania Railroad. Although a track crew is employed whose job is to main- tain the track In good serviceable condition the present equip- ment is badly in need of repair. Several of the photographs accompanying this report will substantiate that statement. The history of this little road Is a clear explanation of the rise of the powerful railroad trusts. Indeed, problem* which closely parallel its own may be found present in other com- panies throughout the country. Present conditions undoubtedly point to a decline in the prominence enjoyed by the railroads in the transportation industry but the glorious history entwining their rise and expansion will never be displaced. THE BEG INNING OF THE POPE'S CREEK BRANCH OP THIS PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD AT THE 307 IE JUNCTION. LOOKING SOUTH JUST OUTSIDE OF BOTTE. E* ^JfekJLi ran ^Mm^r- A SECTION OF THE ROAD BETWEEN BOW IS AND MARLBORO. NOTICE THE GRA3S GROWING BETWEEN THE TIES. THE GRADE GROSSING AT M4RLB0R0. AN OLD TRESTLE NEAR THE MARLBORO STATION. 1 LOOKING NORTH PROM THE TRESTLE. LOOKING NORTH AT THE MARLBORO STATION SHOWING THE GRADE-CROSSING. ■ THE STATION AT MARLBORO, THE SWITCHING ARRANGEMENT U33D TO TURK THE LOCOMOTIVE AT POPE*S CREEK* LOOKING NORTH FROM THE POPE'S CREEK " SARir . THE STATION AT POPS* 3 3R53K. "THE END OF THE LINEf . THE POTOMAC RIVER 15 SEEN IN THE FOREGROUND. *l THE STATION AT LA PLATA LOOKING SOUTH ,J HO"! TH? LA PLATA STATION. AN OLD TATSR TOWER AT COX. THIS STATION IS BETWEEN LA PLATA AND POPS 1 3 r!R3EK. THE STATION AT COX, SHOWING THE WATER TOTER IN THE DISTANCE. POPE'S CREEK BRANCH Explanation of Character*. Stops week-days only, f Stops only on signal or notice to Agent or Conductor to receive or discharge passengers. H Will not run Nov, 24, Dee. 26, Jan. 2 or Feb. 22, k Stops Saturdays only. y Stops daily except Sundays and holidays, KB No Baggage Service, The Pennsylvania Railroad is not responsible for errors in time tables, nor for inconvenience or damage resulting from delayed trains or failure to make connections. The ,, schedules shown herein are subject to change without notice. The time from 12.01 A. M. to 12 o'clock, noon, inclusive, is indicated by light-face type; from 12,01 P. M. to 12 o'clock, midnight, inclusive, by heavy-Face type. 6131 Week- days H Miles Week- days H P M 5 ID 4 34 5 on f 440 ~4~20 4 10 4 00 f 3 50 f 3 45 3 30 f 3 01 1 2 56 f 2 61 2 4:5 f 2 25 f 2 17 1 2 DO f 1 34 M 03 12 65 M2 45 12 30 r u AH 735 8 10 Leave Arrive .Baltimore, Md. (Pcnna. Sta.)._. Ar. ..Bowie, Md.— Lv. 7 45 Lv...Wash.. D. C. (Un. Sta.J.Ar. Ar. ...... ..Bowie, Md. .__ Lv. f 3 06 825 a 37 .0 3.1 6,1 6.S IO.0 Xt.7 Lv. ' Bowie, Md. Ar. 8 48 _MuIlikin. Md. f 8 54 ...Hall. Mr], ( 9 01 i HiH, Md 9 25 13.3 WS lO.J 22.0 ISO f 9 33 ( S 43 f 9 55 10 20 in as 27.3 31-1 340 Osborne, Xfd HO 45 ..Waldorf, Md. . (11 10 Whit^ Plain. Md, fll 35 33.3 40-3 43 4 45.2 48.7 La Plata. Md.. , 111 41 111 54 H2 05 12 10 l' M .. Port Tobacco, Md .Cox, Md. Pope's Creek, Md. Arrivi Leave THE PRESENT SCHEDULE OF TRAIN OPERATION PLACED IN EFFECT OCTOBER 30, 1952 .