HISTORY OF GOAL EXPORT PROM 3 ALT I MORE , MARY LAND . A THESIS SUBMITTED FOR ENTRANCE TO PHI MU FRATERNITY ROBERT EVANS ON MAY, ?, 1928. THE HISTORY OF COAL EXPORT FROM BALTIMORE, MARYLAND. The coal shipped .from Baltimore in normal years has a value from 100 to 200 millions of dollars, engaging the labor of some 25,000 men; hence it is fitting that a subject of euch importance in the industrial field should engage the study of one contemplating entering the engi- neering profession. In opening this subject, it Is well to consider the reasons back of shipment . rom 3altimore- First and forenoBt, is the proximity of the city to the mines. This is clearly and forcefully illustrated in the accompanying diagram published by the Sureau ofi Mines, Department of commerce. Further, some figures used by the Interstate Commerce Commission in determining coal rates are; Average Coal Haul Distances (in miles) To 1024 1Q25 New York 353-5 359.4 Philadelphia 316.3 314.? Baltimore 231.7 231.8 Hampton Roads 413.1 414-5 The sources of supply of coal for exporting from Baltimore are Central Pennsylvania, Western Maryland and Northern West Virginia for low volatile coal, with _9_ V. e stern Pennsylvania, and Northern 'Vest Virginia for high volatile coal. COAL FREIGHT RATES FOR EXPORT The study of coal freight r::tes is very complic- ated. It requires an expert to understand and explain rate differentials, etc. Agreements entered into l^y the railroads 100 years ago, relative to the eastern markets, policies of the Interstate Commerce Commission, conpetltion between the railroads, and other factors, enter in to the rate determin- ation. But a few general statements may be maJe as follows: There are two coal railroad freight rates, one for export coal and one for coal used locally, the export coal rate is in general, about two-thirds of the local coal rate, the rate is built originally proportionally to the distance of haul, but if the grade of the railroad is down hill from the mines, or if quantities are consigned for through shipment, a substantial decrease In the rate can be obtained. Decreases can also be obtained If a consumer can show he is at a disadvantage in obtaining coal. For example, a factory is built on the Chesapeake 3ay, not contigeous to a railroad, It is necessary then for the coal to be loaded at Ealtimoee on scows, and be towed to the factory. The rate can be so adjusted so that the coal will cost no more than factories -3- ln Baltimore who do not pay for towing or scows. These reasons, and others, produce rates that some- times appear paradoxical. Baltimore coal dealers pay an export rate of *2.25 for coal hauled 240 miles and Hampton Rords coal dealers pay a rate of 2-52 for coal hauled 4^ r miles . (Baltimore shippers are now fighting for a aore pro- portional rate before the Interstate Commerce Commission. ) Some figures on prevailing, rates are as follows: To ?ate Mew York, Lower Piers 2.7^ New York, Upper Piers 2.79 Philadelphia 2.32 Baltimore 2.25 Hampton Roads 2.52 Ocean freight rates are regulated according to supply and demand. If there is a demand for ships, their rates increase proportionally; and if there is no demand decrease proportionally. A ship may cost $ 2.50 a ton for coal today and next week be | 5-00 a Ton. When the British coal strike was on in 1926, ocean freight rates went sky high and in some instances were , ; 10.00 a ton. The greater distances a ship must go in coming fc to Baltimore to load coal offsets the lesser prevailing BUREAU OF MINES BULLETIN 76 PLATE t Base map [rom map of U, S. Geological Survey. Scale f OD 100 200 300 400 soo M/'fes t -r-Fi-t-i- i — _ — i i i -j ■ MAP OF THE UNITED STATES SHOWING FIELDS CONTAINING COAL AVAILABLE FOR EXPORT AND THE SHIPPING PORTS FOR THE FIELDS. The numbers refer to the groups mentioned In the text. -4- railroad freight rate to Baltimore as against Hampton Roads. Thus it will be seen that the total cost of coal shipment for exporting from Baltimore and Hampton Roads are equal. From other Atlantic ports, the rate is greater than from either of these two. '•urther, Baltimore occupies a favorable position on the seaboard. Being at the head of Chesapeake Bay, it is the most inland port of the United States. It '-.as a deep channel to the sea, the natural channel teinp deepened by dredging pro- moted by federal and city aid. r !he railroads were not long in seeing its possibilit- ies and erected in Baltimore immense coal piers, and today one of the leading reasons for shipment from Baltimore is in its coal handling facilities. Large exporters realizing no delay will be encountered in shipment from Baltimore, route large ruantities thusly. GROWTH OF TRADE An examination of the accompanying figures reveal that Baltimore has enjoyed a continual growt v in coal export- ing from 1863. These figures were obtained from the annual reports of the Departments of Commerce, then of the Department Labor and Commerce, and previous to that of the Treasury -5 ■ Tons of Coal Exported froa Baltimore (Gross Tons ) Year Tons Year Tons ear Tons 1927 350,327 1^05 266,109 1333 43,344 1926 5,773,025 1^04 115,660 1882 4^,430 1925 300,763 1"'03 126,986 1881 29 , 079 1924 583,642 1902 375,358 1888 44,888 1°23 1,410,345 1901 526,086 1879 ,348 1922 92,626 1 Q 00 384,310 1378 27,390 1^21 1,468,051 1899 234,497 1877 20,858 1920 4,404, 808 1898 98,856 1876 18 ,454 1919 1,717,342 1897 50,391 1375 31,131 1918 116,5"'° 396 43,524 1874 69,264 1Q17 £27,074 18^: 115,844 1^73 70,504 1916 1,340,192 1894 174,682 1872 13,016 1915 1,455,901 1893 136,878 1871 17,054 1914 °26,370 1892 97,385 1870 5,145 1913 751,163 1801 106,366 1869 13,759 1912 626,936 1890 § 1368 4,924 1911 ^70,472 1839 27,442 1910 450,591 1888 49905 icno 270,251 55,562 1908 528,874 18? 55,822 1007 489,293 ie r 46 , 817 1006 3 "1,216 1^84 36, n 47 § Figures not available. -6- Pepartment- It was necessary in order to compile them, to eesrch the volumes for each year containing the reports of the above departments and Involved considerable research work in the Look stacks of the Congressional Library. Figures previous to 1867 are, in so far as I. know, unattainable. In the period presented, there have been wars, industrial depressions, over productions, panics, and labor disturbances, and while it is not my purpose to do a piece of Interpretative economies, the figures bear mute evidences of those periods. These conditions have caused corresponding increases and decreases in the trade; but always in the normal years followlnr, • It will be observed that Baltimore has contin- ued its steady growth and a few more thousand of tons have been added to its exports of coal. Nor must It be thought that conditions in the United States alone affect the tonage shipped. For example, It will be noticed, 300,000were shipped in 1925 and 5,773,025 tons in L926( That Is, 1Q times more coal in 1926 than in 1925). This abnormal condition was caused by the labor strike in the coal mines of Great Britian, eliminating Eritlans competition in the world market. Tt is worthy of note In passing that more coal would ^ave been shipped from Baltimore in this year had more facilit- ies have been provided. (Baltimore has the best and most -7- nodern facilities in the world). 8£r- C. W. Hendley, of the Hendley coal company, one of the largest coal exporters In America, said he had eleven ships in the harbor at one time waiting to be loaded, and hence was compelled to direct coal through other ports particularly Mobile And New Orleans to care for the trade. FACILITIES OF THE PORT Three of the leading railroaus in America MakB Baltimore their shipping port for coal, the Pennsylvania, the 7,'estern Maryland, and the Baltimore and Ohio. Each of these have spent millions of dollars in developing and building plants to care for coal shipped over their lines. Goal formerly \.as handled as follows: the coal cars were run up an inclined trestle and the coal dumped into chutes which were let into the vessel, the coal running into the ship by gravity. As coal tends to form a conical cylinder, it was necessary to have men shoveled it back under hatches and to distribute it uniformly over the vessel, this required the labor of a large force of men and took considerable time to load a normal size vessel. With the growth of the trade, it became apparent to all Curtis Bay, Mel., Docks of Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. Coal pier, showing 60-inch rubber belts conveying coal to movable coal loading towers. Capacity 7,000 tons of coal per hour loaded into vessels. .±. Awarded Gold Medal at Louisiana Purchase Uni- versal Exposition, St. Louis, 1904 Awarded Gold Medal of Honor at Panama- Pacific International Exposition, San Francisco, 1915 FOREWORD In January 1915, The Consolidation Coal Company issued 150,000 copies of four booklets entitled "INDUSTRIAL COALS", "GAS COALS", "DOMESTIC COALS", and "SMITHING COALS". The demand for these booklets has been steady and the issue having become exhausted, the Company has published another edition under titles: INDUSTRIAL COALS GAS AND BY-PRODUCT COALS DOMESTIC AND SMITHING COALS to meet the continuing demand for such publications. The subject presented in this booklet is INDUSTRIAL GOALS Either of the other booklets named may be had on application to one of the Sales Offices. It is hoped that the subject matter may prove of sufficient interest to give this booklet a place in your files. Any further information desired will be furnished by the Sales Office most convenient to vou. CONTENTS Page Introduction 5 Features of Service 9 Description of Mines 10 Export Coals 13 Preparation of Coals 14 Bunker Coals 15 Producer Practice 16 Boiler Practice 18 Locomotive Boiler Praci ice 20 Page Powdered Coal Practice 22 Cement Clinker Practice 23 Air Furnace Practice 24 Kiln Burning Practice. 27 Foundry Facings 28 Foundry Practice 28 Furnace Practice 30 Hot House Heating .30 Baking, Roasting and Heating Plants 31 Invitation 32 -8- ol serves that the volume of coal traffic had reached such proportions that new means for transferring the coal from cars to vessels must be developed. The different railroads concerned accordingly placed their engineering staffs on the were problem and the following methods/employed. The Baltimore and Ohio constructed the largest and greatest coal pier in the world, costing three millions of dollars. The coal is dumped into hoppers, not by being let out of the bottom, but the car is revolved through ninty degrees and the coal dumped out of the top. It is fed onto an endless belt, made of rubber and running the entire lenght of the pier, which dumps it on a crossfeed belt. This belt dumps it into a chute with a revolving schuttle at the bottom which throws the coal back under the hatches of a boat. The Western Maryland Railroad has a car dimping outfit. The railroad cars are dumped Into hoppers, rnd smaller electrical operated cars cartthe coal from the hoppers to the boats where it is dumped into the vessel. The Pennsylvania Railroad enlarged its facilities also. -0_ DESTINATION OF GOAL EXPORTED FROl* BALTIMORE Pratically all coal exported from Baltimore is export- ed to countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. The great coal exporting country of the world is Great Britian, and slowly but surely we are gaining on then. Our coal is of better quality than theirs and though at at present the larger part of our coal used in foreign countries is used only for the manufacturing of Illuminating gas because of its increased cost nevertheless, It will undoubtly Lecoine used more and m^re extensively for other purposes. England has the business at present and controls it t in various ways. For instance, the Argentine Railroads director meetings are held in London, and on that board are English gentlemen fincially interested in English coal mines. Has an American Coal Company an opportunity to sell coal to the Argentine Railroads? The answer is negative. The accompanying figures of the destination of coal from Ealtimore were furnished by the Bureau Of Mines. -10- ■ 1923 1924 1923 192$ 1927 Austria 6,104 t-elgium 10,008 27,234 Denmark & Faroe Is. 11,714 223 France 463 , 584 125,109 20,633 174,675 Gen. any 196,353 707 Gi craltar 5,564 °,Q22 28,597 Greece 20,623 Irish Free State 307,327 17,640 Italy .16,321 273 , 446 95,744 659,110 121,507 Malta, Gozo,& Gyrus Is. 13,298 Netherlands 83,227 5, n 92 Norway 7,981 3^,082 Portugal 4,274 6,431 Spain 25,555 Sweden 1^,062 4,483 Turkey 16,41° United Kingdom 5,861,865 43,841 Cana*. 114,108 22,371 50,513 12,104 2,252 -133- 1924 1925 1Q26 1927 3.017 4,011 ■ 24,816 11,774 37,15o 29,347 37,607 46,235 1923 Costa Rico 2,Q Q Newfoundland Cuba 37,274 French West Indies 2,220 1,344 3,312 2,423 Argentina 32,061 50,454 11,853 178,816 35,556 Brazil 5,830 55,863 20,979 Chile 20,900 11,769 3871 3,516 Uruguay 6,000 11,304 6,002 16,304 Egypt 8,091 15,882 181,610 38,146 Algeria & Tunisia 15,351 23,449 30,538 37,014 6,553 lorroco 3,440 Other Africa 20,65° Canary Islands 31,272 Totals 1,459,432 5 q 8,755 290,887 5,773,025 350,327 -12- QUALITY OF COAL AND ITS USES "Several volumes," saya Mr. Thomas of the Consolid- ation Coal Company, "might be written on Mi is subject." It will be my purpose merely to mention the outstanding coals and pass on. Georges Creek Coal from the Georges Creek field in ryland is the highest quality smokeless coal produced n the United States. Its calorific value Is due to its high percentage of combustible, 91| %. Where the object is to get the largest amount of heating value into the smallest space, as for instance, on a battleship destined for a long cruise, this coal has no superior. In fact,, It has been extensively used for steamship power by both Merchant Marine and Wavy. But unfortunely, I am given to understand that the vein is rapidly being exhausted and real Georges Creek Coal will soon be a thing of the past. "From the Fairmont district in northern '.Vest Virginia, and from the Connellsville, Pittsburgh, and West- moreland districts in Pennsylvania, coals are produced containing a greater proportion of volative matter than in the coals, mentioned above. These coals are especially valuable for gas making and coking, and they re used In -13- in industrial steam plants, and locomotives," says the bureau of Mines in their Bulletin No. 76 pp 11. COKPARISION OF ATLANTIC PORTS AS GOAL EXPORTING PORTS Before closing this subject, it is fitting; that the rank of Baltimore as a coal shipping center should be ascertained. "Figures showing the shipments from leading, Atlantic ports for several years previous as given by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. are as follows: Baltimore 1927 350,327 192" 5,773,025 1925 300,763 1924 583,642 1Q23 1,419,345 1^22 02,000 1Q21 1,463,0511 20 4,404,808 Charleston Hampton Roads Philadelphia 205,901 2,311,27-° 303,531 518,489 10, ^97, 506 1,035,766 165,022 3,203,356 173,345 121,163 3,243,064 147,036 234,341 2,330,574 303,147 122,121 1,004,023 125,847 300,506 6,018,254 613,7^2 662,172 11,380,008 2,461,153 -14- Vron these data, it will immediately tie observed that the order of shipping importance in amount of coal shipped is, Hampton Roads, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and rleston. The End. The author wishes to acknowledge and to express gratitude for aid received from the following in pre paring this paper. Mr. :i. C. Thomas Consolidation Coal Company. Mr. G. H. Pouder Baltimore Association of Commerce Mr. W. I. Bishop Baltimore & Ohio Railrodd Co. Mr. C. W. Hendley ■ idley Coal Company Mr. Killer 3aker-7hitley Coal Company Mr. Knight Hall Bros. Coal Company Mr. Price Rapid Goaling Transport Co. Mr. John R. Bradley Bureau of Foreign Ss Domestic Commerce Mr. Keisler Bureau of Mines.