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Full text of "The history of coal export from Baltimore, Maryland / by Robert Evans"

HISTORY OF GOAL EXPORT PROM 
3 ALT I MORE , MARY LAND . 



A THESIS SUBMITTED 

FOR ENTRANCE TO PHI MU FRATERNITY 

ROBERT EVANS 
ON 
MAY, ?, 1928. 



THE HISTORY OF COAL EXPORT FROM BALTIMORE, MARYLAND. 



The coal shipped .from Baltimore in normal years 
has a value from 100 to 200 millions of dollars, engaging 
the labor of some 25,000 men; hence it is fitting that a 
subject of euch importance in the industrial field should 
engage the study of one contemplating entering the engi- 
neering profession. 

In opening this subject, it Is well to consider 
the reasons back of shipment . rom 3altimore- First and 
forenoBt, is the proximity of the city to the mines. This 
is clearly and forcefully illustrated in the accompanying 
diagram published by the Sureau ofi Mines, Department of 
commerce. Further, some figures used by the Interstate 
Commerce Commission in determining coal rates are; 
Average Coal Haul Distances (in miles) 
To 1024 1Q25 

New York 353-5 359.4 

Philadelphia 316.3 314.? 

Baltimore 231.7 231.8 

Hampton Roads 413.1 414-5 

The sources of supply of coal for exporting 
from Baltimore are Central Pennsylvania, Western Maryland 
and Northern West Virginia for low volatile coal, with 



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V. e stern Pennsylvania, and Northern 'Vest Virginia for high 
volatile coal. 

COAL FREIGHT RATES FOR EXPORT 
The study of coal freight r::tes is very complic- 
ated. It requires an expert to understand and explain rate 
differentials, etc. Agreements entered into l^y the railroads 
100 years ago, relative to the eastern markets, policies of 
the Interstate Commerce Commission, conpetltion between the 
railroads, and other factors, enter in to the rate determin- 
ation. But a few general statements may be maJe as follows: 
There are two coal railroad freight rates, one for export 
coal and one for coal used locally, the export coal rate 
is in general, about two-thirds of the local coal rate, the 
rate is built originally proportionally to the distance of 
haul, but if the grade of the railroad is down hill from the 
mines, or if quantities are consigned for through shipment, 
a substantial decrease In the rate can be obtained. Decreases 
can also be obtained If a consumer can show he is at a 
disadvantage in obtaining coal. For example, a factory is 
built on the Chesapeake 3ay, not contigeous to a railroad, 
It is necessary then for the coal to be loaded at Ealtimoee 
on scows, and be towed to the factory. The rate can be so 
adjusted so that the coal will cost no more than factories 



-3- 



ln Baltimore who do not pay for towing or scows. 

These reasons, and others, produce rates that some- 
times appear paradoxical. Baltimore coal dealers pay an 
export rate of *2.25 for coal hauled 240 miles and Hampton 
Rords coal dealers pay a rate of 2-52 for coal hauled 4^ r 
miles . (Baltimore shippers are now fighting for a aore pro- 
portional rate before the Interstate Commerce Commission. ) 
Some figures on prevailing, rates are as follows: 

To ?ate 

Mew York, Lower Piers 2.7^ 

New York, Upper Piers 2.79 

Philadelphia 2.32 

Baltimore 2.25 

Hampton Roads 2.52 

Ocean freight rates are regulated according to 
supply and demand. If there is a demand for ships, their 
rates increase proportionally; and if there is no demand 
decrease proportionally. A ship may cost $ 2.50 a ton for 
coal today and next week be | 5-00 a Ton. When the British 
coal strike was on in 1926, ocean freight rates went sky 
high and in some instances were , ; 10.00 a ton. 

The greater distances a ship must go in coming fc 
to Baltimore to load coal offsets the lesser prevailing 



BUREAU OF MINES 



BULLETIN 76 PLATE t 




Base map [rom map of U, S. Geological Survey. 



Scale 



f OD 100 200 300 400 soo M/'fes 

t -r-Fi-t-i- i — _ — i i i -j ■ 



MAP OF THE UNITED STATES SHOWING FIELDS CONTAINING COAL AVAILABLE FOR EXPORT AND THE SHIPPING PORTS FOR THE FIELDS. 

The numbers refer to the groups mentioned In the text. 



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railroad freight rate to Baltimore as against Hampton Roads. 
Thus it will be seen that the total cost of coal shipment 
for exporting from Baltimore and Hampton Roads are equal. 
From other Atlantic ports, the rate is greater than from 
either of these two. 

'•urther, Baltimore occupies a favorable position on 
the seaboard. Being at the head of Chesapeake Bay, it is the 
most inland port of the United States. It '-.as a deep channel 
to the sea, the natural channel teinp deepened by dredging pro- 
moted by federal and city aid. 

r !he railroads were not long in seeing its possibilit- 
ies and erected in Baltimore immense coal piers, and today one 
of the leading reasons for shipment from Baltimore is in its 
coal handling facilities. Large exporters realizing no delay 
will be encountered in shipment from Baltimore, route large 
ruantities thusly. 

GROWTH OF TRADE 

An examination of the accompanying figures reveal 
that Baltimore has enjoyed a continual growt v in coal export- 
ing from 1863. These figures were obtained from the annual 
reports of the Departments of Commerce, then of the Department 
Labor and Commerce, and previous to that of the Treasury 







-5 ■ 








Tons of Coal Exported froa 


Baltimore 


(Gross Tons 


) 


Year 


Tons 


Year 


Tons 


ear 


Tons 


1927 


350,327 


1^05 


266,109 


1333 


43,344 


1926 


5,773,025 


1^04 


115,660 


1882 


4^,430 


1925 


300,763 


1"'03 


126,986 


1881 


29 , 079 


1924 


583,642 


1902 


375,358 


1888 


44,888 


1°23 


1,410,345 


1901 


526,086 


1879 


,348 


1922 


92,626 


1 Q 00 


384,310 


1378 


27,390 


1^21 


1,468,051 


1899 


234,497 


1877 


20,858 


1920 


4,404, 808 


1898 


98,856 


1876 


18 ,454 


1919 


1,717,342 


1897 


50,391 


1375 


31,131 


1918 


116,5"'° 


396 


43,524 


1874 


69,264 


1Q17 


£27,074 


18^: 


115,844 


1^73 


70,504 


1916 


1,340,192 


1894 


174,682 


1872 


13,016 


1915 


1,455,901 


1893 


136,878 


1871 


17,054 


1914 


°26,370 


1892 


97,385 


1870 


5,145 


1913 


751,163 


1801 


106,366 


1869 


13,759 


1912 


626,936 


1890 


§ 


1368 


4,924 


1911 


^70,472 


1839 


27,442 






1910 


450,591 


1888 


49905 






icno 


270,251 




55,562 






1908 


528,874 


18? 


55,822 






1007 


489,293 


ie r 


46 , 817 






1006 


3 "1,216 


1^84 


36, n 47 






§ Figures not available. 









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Pepartment- It was necessary in order to compile them, to 
eesrch the volumes for each year containing the reports of 
the above departments and Involved considerable research work 
in the Look stacks of the Congressional Library. Figures 
previous to 1867 are, in so far as I. know, unattainable. 

In the period presented, there have been wars, 
industrial depressions, over productions, panics, and labor 
disturbances, and while it is not my purpose to do a piece 
of Interpretative economies, the figures bear mute evidences 
of those periods. These conditions have caused corresponding 
increases and decreases in the trade; but always in the normal 
years followlnr, • It will be observed that Baltimore has contin- 
ued its steady growth and a few more thousand of tons have been 
added to its exports of coal. 

Nor must It be thought that conditions in the United 
States alone affect the tonage shipped. For example, It will be 
noticed, 300,000were shipped in 1925 and 5,773,025 tons in 
L926( That Is, 1Q times more coal in 1926 than in 1925). This 
abnormal condition was caused by the labor strike in the coal 
mines of Great Britian, eliminating Eritlans competition in 
the world market. 

Tt is worthy of note In passing that more coal would 
^ave been shipped from Baltimore in this year had more facilit- 
ies have been provided. (Baltimore has the best and most 



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nodern facilities in the world). 8£r- C. W. Hendley, of the 
Hendley coal company, one of the largest coal exporters In 
America, said he had eleven ships in the harbor at one time 
waiting to be loaded, and hence was compelled to direct coal 
through other ports particularly Mobile And New Orleans to care 
for the trade. 

FACILITIES OF THE PORT 



Three of the leading railroaus in America MakB Baltimore 
their shipping port for coal, the Pennsylvania, the 7,'estern 
Maryland, and the Baltimore and Ohio. Each of these have spent 
millions of dollars in developing and building plants to care 
for coal shipped over their lines. 

Goal formerly \.as handled as follows: the coal cars 
were run up an inclined trestle and the coal dumped into chutes 
which were let into the vessel, the coal running into the ship 
by gravity. As coal tends to form a conical cylinder, it was 
necessary to have men shoveled it back under hatches and to 
distribute it uniformly over the vessel, this required the labor 
of a large force of men and took considerable time to load a 
normal size vessel. 

With the growth of the trade, it became apparent to all 




Curtis Bay, Mel., Docks of Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. Coal pier, showing 60-inch rubber belts conveying coal to 
movable coal loading towers. Capacity 7,000 tons of coal per hour loaded into vessels. 







.±. 




Awarded Gold Medal at Louisiana Purchase Uni- 
versal Exposition, St. Louis, 1904 



Awarded Gold Medal of Honor at Panama- Pacific 
International Exposition, San Francisco, 1915 



FOREWORD 



In January 1915, The Consolidation Coal Company issued 150,000 copies of four booklets 
entitled "INDUSTRIAL COALS", "GAS COALS", "DOMESTIC COALS", and "SMITHING 
COALS". 

The demand for these booklets has been steady and the issue having become exhausted, 
the Company has published another edition under titles: 

INDUSTRIAL COALS 

GAS AND BY-PRODUCT COALS 

DOMESTIC AND SMITHING COALS 

to meet the continuing demand for such publications. 
The subject presented in this booklet is 

INDUSTRIAL GOALS 

Either of the other booklets named may be had on application to one of the Sales Offices. 

It is hoped that the subject matter may prove of sufficient interest to give this booklet 
a place in your files. 

Any further information desired will be furnished by the Sales Office most convenient 
to vou. 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Introduction 5 

Features of Service 9 

Description of Mines 10 

Export Coals 13 

Preparation of Coals 14 

Bunker Coals 15 

Producer Practice 16 

Boiler Practice 18 

Locomotive Boiler Praci ice 20 



Page 

Powdered Coal Practice 22 

Cement Clinker Practice 23 

Air Furnace Practice 24 

Kiln Burning Practice. 27 

Foundry Facings 28 

Foundry Practice 28 

Furnace Practice 30 

Hot House Heating .30 

Baking, Roasting and Heating Plants 31 

Invitation 32 



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ol serves that the volume of coal traffic had reached such 

proportions that new means for transferring the coal from 

cars to vessels must be developed. The different railroads 

concerned accordingly placed their engineering staffs on the 

were 
problem and the following methods/employed. 

The Baltimore and Ohio constructed the largest and 
greatest coal pier in the world, costing three millions of 
dollars. The coal is dumped into hoppers, not by being let out 
of the bottom, but the car is revolved through ninty degrees 
and the coal dumped out of the top. It is fed onto an endless 
belt, made of rubber and running the entire lenght of the pier, 
which dumps it on a crossfeed belt. This belt dumps it into 
a chute with a revolving schuttle at the bottom which throws 
the coal back under the hatches of a boat. 

The Western Maryland Railroad has a car dimping 
outfit. The railroad cars are dumped Into hoppers, rnd smaller 
electrical operated cars cartthe coal from the hoppers to 
the boats where it is dumped into the vessel. The Pennsylvania 
Railroad enlarged its facilities also. 



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DESTINATION OF GOAL EXPORTED FROl* BALTIMORE 

Pratically all coal exported from Baltimore is export- 
ed to countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. The great 
coal exporting country of the world is Great Britian, and 
slowly but surely we are gaining on then. Our coal is of better 
quality than theirs and though at at present the larger part 
of our coal used in foreign countries is used only for the 
manufacturing of Illuminating gas because of its increased cost 
nevertheless, It will undoubtly Lecoine used more and m^re 
extensively for other purposes. 

England has the business at present and controls it t 
in various ways. For instance, the Argentine Railroads director 
meetings are held in London, and on that board are English 
gentlemen fincially interested in English coal mines. Has an 
American Coal Company an opportunity to sell coal to the 
Argentine Railroads? The answer is negative. 

The accompanying figures of the destination of coal 
from Ealtimore were furnished by the Bureau Of Mines. 



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■ 


1923 


1924 


1923 


192$ 


1927 


Austria 








6,104 




t-elgium 


10,008 


27,234 








Denmark & Faroe Is. 








11,714 


223 


France 


463 , 584 


125,109 


20,633 


174,675 




Gen. any 


196,353 


707 








Gi craltar 


5,564 




°,Q22 


28,597 




Greece 


20,623 










Irish Free State 








307,327 


17,640 


Italy 


.16,321 


273 , 446 


95,744 


659,110 


121,507 


Malta, Gozo,& Gyrus Is. 








13,298 




Netherlands 


83,227 






5, n 92 




Norway 


7,981 






3^,082 




Portugal 








4,274 


6,431 


Spain 


25,555 










Sweden 


1^,062 






4,483 




Turkey 








16,41° 




United Kingdom 








5,861,865 


43,841 


Cana*. 


114,108 


22,371 


50,513 


12,104 


2,252 



-133- 








1924 


1925 


1Q26 


1927 


3.017 




4,011 


■ 


24,816 




11,774 




37,15o 


29,347 


37,607 


46,235 



1923 

Costa Rico 2,Q Q 
Newfoundland 

Cuba 37,274 

French West Indies 2,220 1,344 3,312 2,423 

Argentina 32,061 50,454 11,853 178,816 35,556 

Brazil 5,830 55,863 20,979 

Chile 20,900 11,769 3871 3,516 

Uruguay 6,000 11,304 6,002 16,304 

Egypt 8,091 15,882 181,610 38,146 

Algeria & Tunisia 15,351 23,449 30,538 37,014 6,553 

lorroco 3,440 

Other Africa 20,65° 

Canary Islands 31,272 

Totals 1,459,432 5 q 8,755 290,887 5,773,025 350,327 



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QUALITY OF COAL AND ITS USES 

"Several volumes," saya Mr. Thomas of the Consolid- 
ation Coal Company, "might be written on Mi is subject." 
It will be my purpose merely to mention the outstanding 
coals and pass on. 

Georges Creek Coal from the Georges Creek field in 
ryland is the highest quality smokeless coal produced n 
the United States. Its calorific value Is due to its high 
percentage of combustible, 91| %. Where the object is to 
get the largest amount of heating value into the smallest 
space, as for instance, on a battleship destined for a 
long cruise, this coal has no superior. In fact,, It has 
been extensively used for steamship power by both Merchant 
Marine and Wavy. But unfortunely, I am given to understand 
that the vein is rapidly being exhausted and real Georges 
Creek Coal will soon be a thing of the past. 

"From the Fairmont district in northern '.Vest 
Virginia, and from the Connellsville, Pittsburgh, and West- 
moreland districts in Pennsylvania, coals are produced 

containing a greater proportion of volative matter than 
in the coals, mentioned above. These coals are especially 
valuable for gas making and coking, and they re used In 



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in industrial steam plants, and locomotives," says the 
bureau of Mines in their Bulletin No. 76 pp 11. 



COKPARISION OF ATLANTIC PORTS 
AS GOAL EXPORTING PORTS 

Before closing this subject, it is fitting; that 
the rank of Baltimore as a coal shipping center should be 
ascertained. "Figures showing the shipments from leading, 
Atlantic ports for several years previous as given by the 

Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. are as follows: 



Baltimore 

1927 350,327 

192" 5,773,025 

1925 300,763 

1924 583,642 

1Q23 1,419,345 

1^22 02,000 

1Q21 1,463,0511 

20 4,404,808 



Charleston 


Hampton Roads 


Philadelphia 


205,901 


2,311,27-° 


303,531 


518,489 


10, ^97, 506 


1,035,766 


165,022 


3,203,356 


173,345 


121,163 


3,243,064 


147,036 


234,341 


2,330,574 


303,147 


122,121 


1,004,023 


125,847 


300,506 


6,018,254 


613,7^2 


662,172 


11,380,008 


2,461,153 



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Vron these data, it will immediately tie observed 
that the order of shipping importance in amount of coal 
shipped is, Hampton Roads, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and 

rleston. 



The End. 



The author wishes to acknowledge and to express 
gratitude for aid received from the following in pre 
paring this paper. 

Mr. :i. C. Thomas 

Consolidation Coal Company. 
Mr. G. H. Pouder 

Baltimore Association of Commerce 
Mr. W. I. Bishop 

Baltimore & Ohio Railrodd Co. 
Mr. C. W. Hendley 

■ idley Coal Company 
Mr. Killer 

3aker-7hitley Coal Company 
Mr. Knight 

Hall Bros. Coal Company 
Mr. Price 

Rapid Goaling Transport Co. 
Mr. John R. Bradley 

Bureau of Foreign Ss Domestic Commerce 
Mr. Keisler 

Bureau of Mines.