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Full text of "The history of the development of the capital parks / by Foster E. Lipphard."

THE HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CAPIT;^ PARK 

Til* 



presented to 



MARYLAND BETA CHAPTER 
Of 

TAU BETA PI 

by 

Foster E. Llpphard *30 
January 10, 1930 




SUMMARY OF THESIS 

The City of Waohlngton tiaa always been known as one of 
the most beautiful cities In the world with her broad avenues and 
many circles and parks. In the future we shall see this changed to 
the Most Beautiful City In the world* 

Part of this development which will culminate In the new 
title Is the enlargement of the present Capitol Grounds toward the 
north. It Is this development about which I will speak In this 
paper. 

The history of this development up until recent years is 
almost entirely legislative and congressional history* I have 
followed this history step by step from 1901 when the Idea was 
first thou^t of, up to the present. The plans proposed and the 
plans adopted are given and the present status of the development 
is also stated. 

I want to thank the Architect of the Capitol for his 
aid in gathering material for this paper. The maps and plans shown 
are taken from the National Park and Planning Commission! Report 
of 1928. 



-1- 

THE CAPITOL PARK DEVELOPBiENT 
When Pierre Charles L' Enfant stood on the heights now 
known as Mount St. Alban in March, 1791, and visioned a magnificent 
city spread out on the plain before him, he laid the plans for that 
city which have been followed more or less by all of his successors. 
He envisaged a beautiful city with broad avenues, large parks, and 
marvelous buildings. These dreams of L'Enfant were not realized in 
his lifetime, nor did they bear fruit until late in the next century* 
The City Beautiful, that was the brain-child of the Frenchman, developed 
slowly and unevenly, and during the early years of the 19th century 
was a small aquallld city to which it was hard to get men to come 
who were competent to govern the growing nation* 

THE FIRST STEP IN ADVANCE 

Until after the Civil War there was no driving force in 
our government which took charge and carried on any systematic 
improvement of the Capitol City, Then during Grant's Administra- 
tion, Alexander B. Shepherd was made Commissioner of Public Works* 
Under this man's rule the City of Washington first began to plan 
for the future, &nd the first steps were taken toward the improve- 
ment of the city* The transformation of Washington into a modern 
city was seen in Improved sanitary conditions, the paving and grad- 
ing of streets, the installation of modern lighting facilities, and 
the razing of unsightly buildings which had been erected* 

The next big step taken In the direction of the fulfill- 
ment o£ L 'Enfant 's dream was in 1900, when the one-hundredth 
anniversary of the founding of the seat of government in Washing- 
ton was celebrated. At the invitation of president McKlnley there 



-2- 

was a conference held In the White House of high government 
officials and members of the American Institute of Architects* 

THE MCMILLAN PLAN OP 1901 

Out of this conference at the White House came a revival 
of interest la the original plan as made by L*Enfant, and as a result 
of the interest, authorization was secured from Congress by Senator 
McMillan for the formation of a committee to make further surveys and 
to make recommendations for the further development of the City. 
This committee was formed of such eminent men as Daniel H. Burnham 
and Charles F* McEim, Architects; Augustus Saint-Graudens, Sculptor; 
and Frederick Law Olmstead, Landscape Architect. 

The program as laid down by this committee is commonly 
known as the McMillan Plan or the Plan of 1901, and after close to 
thirty years It has only been realized in part. The McMillan Plan 
reaffirmed the earlier plan In Its broader outlines, enlarging it 
where new conditions had arisen and modifying where opportunities 
for development had been entirely lost. The foresight which the 
original planner had used was cited and the conclusion reached by the 
committee was "no plan could be devised that would insure a nobler 
future than that prepared by Major L' Enfant in collaboration with 
Washington and Jefferson." 

A SUITABLE OATEWAT 
One part of this development of the original plan was the 
development and erection of a suitable gateway into the city. At 
the time there were two passenger stations In the city, which are 
shown In the acconpanylng illustrations. The first steps were taken 



THE OLD BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAILWAY 
STATION AT NEW JfiRSEY AVENUE AND C STREETS, 
- N. W. REMOVED WIffiN THE UNION STATION 
WAS ERECTED. 



THE OLD PENNSYLVANIA STATION AT SIXTH 
AND B STREETS, N. W. PRESIDENT GARFIELD WAS 
SHOT m THIS STATION. REMOVED WHEN THE 
UNION STATION WAS BUILT. 



THE UNION STATION BUILT AS RESULT OF 
THE ACT OF 1903. LOOKING ACROSS THE UNION STATION 
PLAZA THE POST OFFICE BUILDING CAN BE 
SEEN IN THE BACKGROUND 



H 



-3- 

toward this development before the McMillan Plan in Its entirety 
was worked out. On February 12, 1901, a bill was passed in 
Congress whioh provided for the reaoval of the old Baltimore and 
Ohio Terminal at New Jersey Avenue and C Streets, N. W*, and the 
erection of a new terminal within the area bounded as follows; 
starting at the intersection of the south line of H Street north 
and a line forty feet east of and parallel to the east building line 
of Delaware Avenue; from there the line proceeded along the parallel 
to Delaware Avenue to the west line of First Street east; then along 
the west line of First Street east to the north line of C Street 
north; then by the north line of C Street north to the east line of 
North Capitol Street ; then north by the east line of North Capitol 
Street to the south line of Massachusetts Avenue; from there by a 
straight line to the intersection of the west line of First Street 
east and the south line of H Street north; and from there to the 
starting point. This bill also set the location of the shops and 
main tracks of the Baltimore and Ohio. In order to help the rail- 
road in the erection of the new terminal Congress appropriated one 
million five hundred thousand dollars ($1,500,000) in consideration 
of the surrender by the railroad of its rights under previous Acts 
of Congress and under any contracts made with the authorities of 
Washington* 

This bill opened the way toward the ultimate construction 
of the Union Station and the present plaza but the actual construc- 
tion was not authorised until February 28, 1903, when a bill was 
passed in Congress as follows: "An Act to provide for a union 
station in the District of Columbia and for other purposes." 

This bill, instead of providing for the establishment of 



4 



■i 



-4- 

a terminal for the B & Railroad, brought all the railroads enter- 
ing into the District of Columhla into one station to be called the 
Union Station. This Station was to be built and run by a corpora- 
tion to be known as the Washington Terminal Company. The Phila- 
delphia, Baltimore, and VHaahington Railroad Company, a subsidiary 
company of the Pennsylvania Railroad, was authorized and required 
by this bill to move their terminal and tracks from the position 
occupied on the Mall, and to connect with the new terminal by means 
of tracks passing to the south of the Mall which were to go under the 
surface of the ground by means of a tunnel, the direction of which 
was provided for, and connect with the tracks of the Washington 
Terminal Company at the new terminal, from there the tracks were to 
proceed on the easternmost side of the viaduct of the Terminal 
Company to a point on the north line of Montana Avenue projected* 
From this point the Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington Railroad 
was authorized to construct a line of two or more tracks to connect 
with the tracks of the company near Magruder Station in th^ state of 
Maryland. 

The position of the new terminal was changed to the 
present location which moved it away from close proximity to the 
Senate Office Building* The new area designated for the station 
was as follows: the starting point was designated as being on the 
north side of Massachusetts Avenue at a distance of three hundred 
feet northwest from the west side of Delaware Avenue, measured ■ 
perpendicularly; then by a line parallel to Delaware Avenue through 
this point to a point in the south line of I Street, Northeast; then 
by a straight line northeastwardly to a point in the intersection 



-s- 



of the west line of Delaware Avenue with the south line of L Street, 
Northeast; then eastwardlyf along the south line of L Street, North- 
east, to a point In the Intersection with the west line of Second 
Street, Northeast; then south, along the west line of Second Street, 
Northeast, to a point about eighty feet north of the north line of 
H Street, Northeast; then by a line parallel to Delaware Avenue and 
through a point three hundred feet perpendicularly frora the east line 
of Delaware Avenue, southwestwardly to a point in the north line of 
Massachusetts Avenue; then by the ncrth line of Massachusetts Avenue 
to the starting point • 

The bill also provided that the Philadelphia, Bait., and 
Washington Railroad could construct all their tracks south of the 
point on Montana Avenue either in conjunction with the Terininal 
Coaipany, sharing the cost of the joint construction in such propor- 
tions as might be agreed upon by the two companies, or the whole or 
any portion of the authorized construction could be constructed and 
owned by the Washington Terminal Cdmpanyi but if the latter plan be 
used the P B 3e W should acquire by purchase one-half of all the 
issued capital stock from the B & Railroad Coti^)any and should 
acquire one-half of any stock Issued thereafter by the Terminal 
Company* Congress also contributed the sum of one million five 
hundred thousand dollars toward the work to be done by the P B & W, 
thus making a total sum of three million dollars which the Government 
gave the Railroads to construct the Union Station besides land 
which Uncle Joe Gannon is an authority for saying was worth five 
million dollars* 

Of more direct interest to us in considering the develop- 



-6- 



ment of a suitable gateway for the city we find In this bill 
that the Terminal to be built must be monumental In character 
and shall coat not less than four million dollars. Also the 
bill authorized the construction of a plaza or circle at the 
intersection of Massachusetts Avenue and Delaware Avenue and 
the laying out and grading of the streets leading into the 
circle which now is known as the Union Station Plaza. 

The construction of this Terminal is the starting 
point for the development of the area lying north of the 
Capitol into what is now known as the Enlargement of the 
Capitol Grounds or the Union Station Plaza Development. 

FIRST LEGISLATIVE STEPS 

April 18th, 1908, saw the first bill presented 
in Congress with this purpose in mind. Senator Wetmore 
introduced a bill authorizing the obtaining of the ground 
not already owned by the Government within the boundaries 
of Hassachuaetta Avenue, North Capitol Street, B Street, 
and First Street, all northeast. For the p\irpose of 
obtaining this land and for its improvement a sum of two and 
one-half million dollars was appropriated. The bill was 
referred to the Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds 
but there was no further action taken* 

On May 12, 1908, a similar bill was proposed in the 
House which also failed to obtain any consideration. This 
bill called for eight additional squares than the Senate bill did 



-7- - 

and also provided for the construction of a Lincoln Memorial 
on the land to be acquired. For the purpose a sum of five 
million dollars was deemed sufficient. 

Although efforts were renewed In each session of 
Congress it was not until the Sundry CItII Act of June 25, 
191CV was passed that anything was done toward the develop- 
ment of the ground, when this bill reached the Senate, 
Senator Wetmore's proposal was added as an amendment and went 
through with the Bill. There was no limit of cost proposed 
and five hundred thousand dollars was appropriated as a 
starting sum with the general tenure of the act being that 
a like amount would be appropriated each year. It also 
provided the manner in which the land should be obtained 
and named the Vice President of the United States, the 
Speaker of the House, and the Superintendent of the Capitol 
Buildings and Grounds as a commission to obtain this land. 
The following squares were named: 632, 633, 634, 680, 681, 
682, 683, 684, 686, 721, 722, and 723. The Sundry Civil 
Act of Uarch 4, 1911, saw an additional five hundred thousand 
dollars appropriated for the purpose of acquiring the land 
and it also renaioed the same commission. There was an 
effort made in the House to replace that commission with a 
select committee of five, consisting of three Democrats and 
two Republicans, but the effort was not successful. 

The Commission as first formed continued its work 
and on May 28, 1912, they asked for another yearly appropria- 



-s- 

ti^n of one -half million dollars , which would give them a 
total of one and one-half million dollars to draw upon. 
This sum was carried In the Sundry Civil Act of that year. 
Mfftntlme the commission had advertised for sealed proposals 
for the property In the squares to be acquired. On August 
10, 1910, proposals for about 11% of the land were opened 
and then turned over to the Department of Justice for «x- 
amlnatlon and report. In October of the same year the Act- 
ing Attorney General stated that he thou^t that it would be 
to the interest of the Qovernment to institute condemnation 
proceedings to acquire the land. 

FIRST LMD ACQUIRED 

An effort was made to secure better proposals 
but the effort was useless and on Mty 9, 1911 » it was 
decided to follow the advice of the Department of Justice. 
Accordingly the Attorney Oeneral was asked to start proceed- 
ings to acquire squares 634 and 685 > situated immediately 
north of the Capitol, and in August of that year proceedings 
were started which ended on April 22, 1912, with an award 
of 11,119,035.50 for the two squares. On May 18, 1912, 
the commission approved the report of the Attorney General 
and ordered him to take the necessary steps to acquire the 
property. 

As a result of the first effort to get reasonable 



-9- 

proposals for the land the conimi salon decided that the 
most economical method the Qovernment could use to acquire 
the rest of the land would be to secure an appraisal of the 
whole in one proceeding. The Idea was that the land should 
be taken up as appropriations were made, in accordance with 
the act of June 10, 1910* 

CONDEMNATIOM PROCEEDIHOS xaAINST REST OF LAND 

The Department of Justice accordingly started 
proceedings on all the rest of the land except the part of 
square 633 west of Arthur Place which, the commission decided 
was not needed. The proceedings were concluded on January 
29, 1913, with a total appraisal of ^3,204,434.78, The 
coiBffllssion therefore made a report on February 6, 1913, and 
recommended that Congress appropriate $2,323,972.35, which 
with the available balance from the first proceedings, 
would be enough to acquire the land. 

As it was required by law, the findings of the 
commission were sent to President Taft and approved by him 
on February 26, and the Sundry Civil Act of June 23, 1913, 
carried the ne cess try appropriation. 

PROCEEDINGS STOPPED BI PRESIDEHT WILSON 

This should have finished the work of acquiring 
the land but on March 18, 1914, president Wilson Issued a 
statement, part of which is as follows: 



-10- 

"I, TNoodrow Wllaon, President of the United States, 
by virtue of the authority vested in me by law, do hereby 
declare that the public interest requires that said real 
estate shall not be acquired by the United States for the 
sum fixed in said appraisement as confirmed by the court, 
and I accordingly direct that the said proceedings to condemn 
said lands to the use of the United States be dismissed.'* 
This immediately halted all proceedings and in 
some cases it undoubtedly caused much embarrassment where 
property owners had made arrangements to turn their property 
over to the Government and were awaiting the money from the 
commission in order to close deals for other land. The 
action was taken, however, because it was thought that the 
B & Railroad both directly and through its holding company, 
the Heal Estate & Improvement Company of Baltimore City, was 
given too high an appraisement on its land in the desired 
squares. 

COHaRESSIONAL ACTIOU 

To give legislative sanction to the decision of 

the President, and to remove the hardships which had been 

imposed on many private owners a bill was passed in the 

cases 
Senate providing that All/ as were not In controversy be paid , 

Beaerving the others for future consideration. Instead of 

passing this bill and giving Immediate relief for such cases 

as were not In controversy, the House argued on the bill. 



-IX- 

Amendments were proposed and several substitute bills offered, 
but it was not until October 20th tbat a bill was finally 
passed. Everyone seemed to be agreed on the fact that some- 
thing should be done, but it was just as we so often find at 
present, that "most august body" could not decide how it 
should be done* 

A short discussion of the act and its main pro- 
visions will be sufficient for our purposes. The court *- 
wards, notwithstanding the advice of the Depart:3ient of 
Justice and the first commission, were set aside and dismissed. 
The President was authorized to appoint a second commission 
of three men who must have had no interest in any of the 
land in question and who must not have been involved in any 
discussion which might have been held In Gongresa up to the 
time of the forming of the commission. This commission was 
impowered to purchase any of the real estate desired at what 
the commission thou^t a fair market price for the land, not 
exceeding, however, the amount of the award made in the 
condemnation proceedings. In tl^ case of the land owned by 
the B & and its holding company, the commission was instruct- 
ed to pay no more than the original cost of the land plus six 
per cent interest on the land from the time of purchase up to 
the date on which the court confirmed the awards made in the 
condemnation proceedings instituted by the first commission. 

Exeroialng his authority, president Wilson appoint- 
ed the commission on November 11, 1914, and it started work 



-12- 

cn November 13. The members were as follows: W. W. Spauld- 
Ing, Chalrmanj A.. Coulter Wells^ and Quy Mason* Tills 
comraisKlon continued Its work until January 19, 1916, when a 
report was given to the President of all the conunisslonla 
activities and the results of its work. 

REPOHT OF THE COMMISSION 

The comnl salon succeeded in acquiring all of the 
land except several scattered parcels which were held up 
for various reasons* some land which the District of Coluabla 
used fol? school purposes, and the land held by the Baltimore 
and Ohio and its holding company. The land belonging to the 
private owners and the District was going through the process 
of being acquired and slowness on the part of owners or court 
action was all that was holding It up, but the land belonging 
to the two corporations was an entirely different matter. 
The Commission offered the maximum amount allowable under the 
ruling of the act for the land but it was turned down. The 
coimnlssion In acquiring the land incurred the following 
expenses: 

Awards made for property $1,381,415.00 

Salaries, and necessary supplies 24,708.36 

Total expenses*»TT»'---fl, 406,123. 36 
Upon handing in this report, the comnlssion adjourned subject 
to call of the chairman. The coamlsslon was later called to 



^ 



PLAN OF CITY AROUND UNION STATION 
AND PLAZA AS IT WAS DQRINa THE WAR. GOVERN- 
MENT HOTELS ARE SHOWN IN PLAN 



Plate n 



MAI.L 








IllVtiii 


^^ '• ■■ W i ^^^^^^ 


■ 1 


lilBIS 


■ ■■hi .<<^.!W 


if 
II 






'lOHlB 


■1 


iiBiiaiiHkv::^ 


^1 


'■■^■ggi 


bZoiAl ■ 


ifti 


fljHgyjimnii 




ii?Sflii>;viiDa 


■■01 



I 

ttUfM ^ ^ i 

'^ 8S» W«^ HR «f iMfi ■■ 1^11 1 










UtiO" of the Mlii p;,i 

venue and B Sire*: 



sed in 1901. Trese temporary buildmg* are to tie re pi seed 




1 



AIRPLANE PICTURE OF THE 

LAND AS IT WAS DURING THE WAR 

WITH THE GOVERNMENT HOTELS. 



-13- 



act upon the several awards made to the private owners which 
were In process of completion at the time of adjournment* 

WOHLD WAR 

Tlwj entrance of the United States Into the World 
War caused a suspension of all activity toward the completion 
of the work of the comiiii8sion# and it was not until after 
the final ratification of the Treaiiy of peace that any further 
steps were taken* During the war the housing problem became 
difficult because of the ^eat number of people brought here 
to take care of the work of the Qovernment and to relieve 
conditions, what are now known as the Qovernment Hotels were 
erected. Some of these were erected on property owned by 
the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. There was an agreement made 
with the Railroad Company that the land would be used until 
one year following the declaration of peace and the 
compensation paid the railroad would be by the way of the 
reimbursement of the taxes on the land. This ag;reement was 
effective until Hovember 14, 1922 • At that time an agreement 
was made which lasted until December 31, 1925, In which the 
Government agreed to pay |75, 000 annual rental for the use of 
the land. From that date no rental was paid the railroad for 
the land* 

FORMATION OF NEW COMitllSSIOH 
Early in 1923 a Senate Resolution was adopted which 



-14- 



c ailed upon the Attorney General to inform tlie Senate of the 
necessary stepa to acquire the rest of the land. This was 
done and the report was received by the Senate In April of 
that year. Following the report a bill was submitted but 
nothing was don© with it until early in 1926. This bill 
provided for the acquisition of all lands not in the 
possession of the Qovernment and established a commission 
which was the same as the original commission* The members 
of the commission were the Vice President of the United states^ 
Hon. Charles G. Dawes; the Speaker of the House, Hon. IJicholas 
Longworth; and the Architect o f the Capitol, Hon. David Lynn. 
The bill was passed by the Senate early in the year and was 
made a law after passage through the House on June 25, 1926. 

PURCHASE OF LAND FROM RAILRQiDS 

The new commission held its first meeting on the 
26th of the same month and by the 30th of that month had come 
to terms with the railroad's representatives and set the sum 
for the transaction. It was agreed upon that the Government 
ahould pay $5,129, 597. 64» this sum represents the original 
condemnation award plus the taxes on the land from January 
29, 1913, to April 1, 1926, less such Income that had been 
received from the property in that time, plus the interest 
on everything up to date. 

There was in the Treasury a balance from the pro- 
ceeding appropriations of :|1,798,139.27, and Congress 



1 



-15- 

approprlated the necessary funds to liquidate the contract 
price* The deal was closed on January 26, 1927, except for 
certain parcels of land which awaited perfection of title, 
and the deal for these parcels was closed on August 17, 1927, 
concluding the purchase which was described In a bill *. little 
over 1? years before. When the deal was closed it was 
found that the Washington Terminal Company owned one parcel 
of land but this deal was carried through with the rest of 
the transaction. Of the original description there were 
several parcels which awaited legislative action before 
they could be acquired. They were In possession of the 
District but the District did not have the power to convey 
the land. Congressional action is necessary. 

FIRST ACTUAL WORK ON DEVELOPMENT 

February 23, 1927, saw the first step taken toward 
the improvement of the land. Congress gave authorization 
for the removal of the buildings not occupied by Government 
activities, and the preparation of plans for the development 
of the area as a park. During the year 1927, the buildings 
in squares 635,633, and 684 were razed and the excavations 
filled. 

ENLARGEMENT OF COMMISSION 

Then on April 11, 1928, a new act was passed 
which changed the commission a little and authorized the 







SCEEME k 



THE ORiaiNJOi PLAN OF THE DEVELOPMENT. 



"% 



-16- 

preparatlon of plans for the development and asked for 
reconimendatlons as to whlcli plan would be tlie best in 
relation to the proposed treatment of the Kail area. The 
commission as changed is the "Cominisslon for the Enlarging 
of the Capitol Grounds, and for other purposes", and it 
consists of the Vice President of the United States, the 
Speaker of the House, the chairman and ranking minority 
member of the Senate Committee on Public Buildings and 
Grounds, the chairman and ranking minority member of the 
House Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds, the 
minority leader of the Senate, the minority leader of the 
House, and the Architect of the Capitol* 

REPORT AND PLANS OF COMMISSION 

The Commission returned a report on April 24, 
1928, and gave two plans to pick from. These two plana are 
known as Scheme A and Scheme 6. 

SCHEME A 

Scheme A can be easily followed by looking at the 
accompanying map. It is proposed to run an avenue from the 
western fountain in front of Union Station to the Peace 
Monument at the foot of the Capitol Grounds. This plan, with 
the contemplated improvements, will cost $1,585,465. There 
are several disadvantages in this plan, which are as follows: 



THE CAPITOL PLAZA 

PLAN OF THE DEVELOPMENT 

ACCORDING TO SCHEME B 




'"'- lAlHi 




THE CAPITOL PLAZA 
AIRPLANE VIEW OF PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT 

—LOOKING NORTH 



AIRPLANE VIEW OF PROPOSED 
DiiVEIiOPMENT—LOOKINQ SOUTH 




viRw or fKuroAia imKi.o>Mr> 






-17- 

The cutting off of a section of the present Capitol 
around 9* 

The bisecting of the area acquired making a suit- 
able treatment of the area extremely difficult* 

The new avenue would cross B Street, H* W>t where 
there Is a 7 per cent grade, making traffic conditions very 
dangerous. 

3C HEli^ B 

Scheme 6 was recommended by the Commission as the 
bdtter plan. It provides for a marginal avenue running from 
the western • fouiitjainii in the Plaza to that portion of 
Pennsylvania Avenue between Second and Third Streets, to be 
known as Union Square in the proposed Mall Development. This 
avenue will deflect travel from the Capitol Qrounds and provide 
something which has been needed in the city, a direct 
connection between Union Station and Pennsylvania Avenue. 
This scheme will allow the rearrangement of the squares 
and the landscaping of a large area which can be more easily 
done than the landscaping of small, divided areas. The 
original plan was to have the street cars hidden from sight 
in subways so that they could not be seen. 

This plan passed the House on May 28, 1923, one 
week after it was presented. The Street Railway Companies 
did not like the disposal of their tracks as provided for in 



^ 



-la- 
the plan and when the bill came before the Senate they asked 
for a hearing. In this hearing it was brought out that there 
would be some problems and difficulties In the carrying out 
of the plan which would make the cost run very high and that 
several dangerous conditions would be established. The 
Street Car Companies claimed that they would at one point be 
forced to uae a 10 per cent grade. They claimed that 
congestion would result from this condition and that where 
the grade ended they would have a sharp blind turn to make. 
They also claimed that special work would be necessary on 
First Street, Northeast to clear the tunnel of the Washington 
Terminal Company which inins under this street. 

The Street Railway Companies won their plea and the 
plan was changed and modified slightly. The bill as it finally 
passed contained the following provisions: 

1. Provision for an avenue extending from the 
western fountain In front of the Union Station southwester- 
ly to Pennsylvania Avenue, Joining said avenge between Second 
and Third Streets, Northwest, 

2. Closing of North Capitol Street south of D 
Street, 

3. Closing of C Street to vehicular traffic 
between New Jersey Avenue and Delaware Avenue, and the re- 
moval of street-car tracks from c Street and relaying them 

\ 
in a depression and subway between New Jersey Avenue and 

Delaware Avenue, and extending the street-car tracks on C 



I 



-19- 

Street from Delaware Avenue to First Street, Northeast. 

4. Removal of street-car tracks from Delaware 
Avenue and B Street (Including the spur from Delaware Avenue 
Into the Capitol Orounda) and relaying them on First Street, 
Sortheast. 

5. Construction of an underground garage extend- 
ing from Delaware Avenue to New Jersey Avenue. 

6. Acquisition of private property and removal 
of existing buildings ^ as hereinafter provided; and 

7. Construction of terraces and fountains, grad- 
ing, landscaping, and architectural treatment. 

This plan calls for the acquisition of some more 
land, and Congress authorized the acquisition of certain 
lands needed in squares 574, 575, 630, 631, 633 and reserva- 
tion numbered 12. Authorization was also given for the re- 
moval of all buildings necessary and the commencement of 
work. To carry out this work Congress appropriated $4,912,414i 

The last formal act of President Coolldge before he 
left the White House was the signing of this bill. 

CONCLUSION 

At the present time the whole development is await- 
ing the acquisition of the land authorized by Congress* When 
this land Is acquired work can be started on the plan and I 
have no doubt that in the near future we shall when entering 
the Capitol of our Nation see in front of us a beautiful park 
at the far end of which will be visible that structure which 



-20- 



draws people from over the entire world juat to gaze at It 
— The Capitol. 



-21- 



BIBLIOaRAPHT 

1* House Document Mo. 125 - — 70th Congress^ 1st Sfiaslon* 

8. House Document No. 252 --- 70th Congress, let Session. 

3. House Report No. 1810 70th Congress, 1st Session. 

4. Report of Hearing before the Senate Committee on Public 
Buildings and Grounds --- 70th Congress, 2nd Session. 

5. Senate Report No. 1457 --- 70th Gongreaa, 2nd Session. 

6. Plans and Studies Washington and Vicinity, 1928 

National Park and Planning Commission. 

7. The Washington Post, December 1, 1929. 

8. The Saturday Evening Post, October 19, 1929. 

9. Washington, The Nation's Capitol 

Charles Ifoore and E. H. Suydam. 
for 

10. Agreement providing /is e of Washington Terminal Station 

between railroads running into Washington. 

Southern Railway Company File Copy* 



These three pictures give a very good panortmic 
view of the proposed development. 

In Picture I can he seen the northern boundary 
of the park, the Union Station. The Government Hotels 
can also be seen and the ground lying directly to the 
south of them. 

In Picture 2 is the proposed site of the main 
plaza of the park. This is to be located at the 
present intersection of North Capitol Streets. The 
street -car line which can be seen going up C Street 
will run in a subway under this plaza. To the right 
of this picture can be seen the ground which was 
razed in 1927. The proposed diagonal avenue will 
cut the corner off of the square which can bee seen 
in the foreground passing approximately where the 
second lamp post la located on the north side of 
C Street, 

In Picture 3 can he seen the southern terminus 
of the park* the Capitol. In the foreground of this 
picture can he seen some of the buildings which must 
be razed. The new avenue will cut througja the fore- 
ground of this picture. 

These pictures were taken from the Acacia Mutual 
Life Insurance Building at First and Indiana Avenue. 




UNION STATION 






The Fountain in center of picture Is 
the northeastern terminus of the new 
diagonal avenue. 




THE POST OFFICE 



These two buildings will form the 
northern boundary of the Park. 



I 




The new avenue will come 
througti the ground shown in 
thia pict'ore. It will pass 
Just to the right of the 
Continental Hotel, the tall 
building on the left, and 
over the ground occupied by 
the Power House which will 
be removed* The camera is 
approximately on the west 
line of the proposed avenue. 



. / 







Group of hotel buildings on North Capi- 
tol Street. These hotels #ill benefit great- 
ly from the new avenue which will pass right 
in front of them. 




Looking down Delaware Avenue from 
Capitol to the Union Station with the 
Senate Office Building*, on the rlgjat* 




Square to the northeast of Dela- 
ware Avenue and C Street. 






I 



Two views of present Capitol Grounds 
showing the House Office Building. This 
building with Its proposed annex will be 
on the southern boundary of the future 
grounds . 



^ 



THE CAPITOL PLAZA OR UNION STATION 
PLAZA DEVELOPSJENT ; ALSO THE NEW MUNICIPAL 
CENTER AND UNION SQUARE 




1 



Plate 12 



MALL 



1 




L; [_i 






i 



a 



i^ 




__ 1 



Cutive offices; 2. The Capilol Plaza or Union Statior P:aia Jeveiopmefit. between the Union 
^lington Mennorial Bridije; 6. Widaning and extension of B Street north from the Capitol to 




1 



I 

J 



i 



PLAN SHOWING ENTIRE DEVELOPMENT 
OF THE CITY IN THE MALL-CENT HAL AREA 



COTtimtMto*' 



Plate i6 



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W.\ S II I v<; T«> N l> <" 

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