THE HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CAPIT;^ PARK Til* presented to MARYLAND BETA CHAPTER Of TAU BETA PI by Foster E. Llpphard *30 January 10, 1930 SUMMARY OF THESIS The City of Waohlngton tiaa always been known as one of the most beautiful cities In the world with her broad avenues and many circles and parks. In the future we shall see this changed to the Most Beautiful City In the world* Part of this development which will culminate In the new title Is the enlargement of the present Capitol Grounds toward the north. It Is this development about which I will speak In this paper. The history of this development up until recent years is almost entirely legislative and congressional history* I have followed this history step by step from 1901 when the Idea was first thou^t of, up to the present. The plans proposed and the plans adopted are given and the present status of the development is also stated. I want to thank the Architect of the Capitol for his aid in gathering material for this paper. The maps and plans shown are taken from the National Park and Planning Commission! Report of 1928. -1- THE CAPITOL PARK DEVELOPBiENT When Pierre Charles L' Enfant stood on the heights now known as Mount St. Alban in March, 1791, and visioned a magnificent city spread out on the plain before him, he laid the plans for that city which have been followed more or less by all of his successors. He envisaged a beautiful city with broad avenues, large parks, and marvelous buildings. These dreams of L'Enfant were not realized in his lifetime, nor did they bear fruit until late in the next century* The City Beautiful, that was the brain-child of the Frenchman, developed slowly and unevenly, and during the early years of the 19th century was a small aquallld city to which it was hard to get men to come who were competent to govern the growing nation* THE FIRST STEP IN ADVANCE Until after the Civil War there was no driving force in our government which took charge and carried on any systematic improvement of the Capitol City, Then during Grant's Administra- tion, Alexander B. Shepherd was made Commissioner of Public Works* Under this man's rule the City of Washington first began to plan for the future, &nd the first steps were taken toward the improve- ment of the city* The transformation of Washington into a modern city was seen in Improved sanitary conditions, the paving and grad- ing of streets, the installation of modern lighting facilities, and the razing of unsightly buildings which had been erected* The next big step taken In the direction of the fulfill- ment o£ L 'Enfant 's dream was in 1900, when the one-hundredth anniversary of the founding of the seat of government in Washing- ton was celebrated. At the invitation of president McKlnley there -2- was a conference held In the White House of high government officials and members of the American Institute of Architects* THE MCMILLAN PLAN OP 1901 Out of this conference at the White House came a revival of interest la the original plan as made by L*Enfant, and as a result of the interest, authorization was secured from Congress by Senator McMillan for the formation of a committee to make further surveys and to make recommendations for the further development of the City. This committee was formed of such eminent men as Daniel H. Burnham and Charles F* McEim, Architects; Augustus Saint-Graudens, Sculptor; and Frederick Law Olmstead, Landscape Architect. The program as laid down by this committee is commonly known as the McMillan Plan or the Plan of 1901, and after close to thirty years It has only been realized in part. The McMillan Plan reaffirmed the earlier plan In Its broader outlines, enlarging it where new conditions had arisen and modifying where opportunities for development had been entirely lost. The foresight which the original planner had used was cited and the conclusion reached by the committee was "no plan could be devised that would insure a nobler future than that prepared by Major L' Enfant in collaboration with Washington and Jefferson." A SUITABLE OATEWAT One part of this development of the original plan was the development and erection of a suitable gateway into the city. At the time there were two passenger stations In the city, which are shown In the acconpanylng illustrations. The first steps were taken THE OLD BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAILWAY STATION AT NEW JfiRSEY AVENUE AND C STREETS, - N. W. REMOVED WIffiN THE UNION STATION WAS ERECTED. THE OLD PENNSYLVANIA STATION AT SIXTH AND B STREETS, N. W. PRESIDENT GARFIELD WAS SHOT m THIS STATION. REMOVED WHEN THE UNION STATION WAS BUILT. THE UNION STATION BUILT AS RESULT OF THE ACT OF 1903. LOOKING ACROSS THE UNION STATION PLAZA THE POST OFFICE BUILDING CAN BE SEEN IN THE BACKGROUND H -3- toward this development before the McMillan Plan in Its entirety was worked out. On February 12, 1901, a bill was passed in Congress whioh provided for the reaoval of the old Baltimore and Ohio Terminal at New Jersey Avenue and C Streets, N. W*, and the erection of a new terminal within the area bounded as follows; starting at the intersection of the south line of H Street north and a line forty feet east of and parallel to the east building line of Delaware Avenue; from there the line proceeded along the parallel to Delaware Avenue to the west line of First Street east; then along the west line of First Street east to the north line of C Street north; then by the north line of C Street north to the east line of North Capitol Street ; then north by the east line of North Capitol Street to the south line of Massachusetts Avenue; from there by a straight line to the intersection of the west line of First Street east and the south line of H Street north; and from there to the starting point. This bill also set the location of the shops and main tracks of the Baltimore and Ohio. In order to help the rail- road in the erection of the new terminal Congress appropriated one million five hundred thousand dollars ($1,500,000) in consideration of the surrender by the railroad of its rights under previous Acts of Congress and under any contracts made with the authorities of Washington* This bill opened the way toward the ultimate construction of the Union Station and the present plaza but the actual construc- tion was not authorised until February 28, 1903, when a bill was passed in Congress as follows: "An Act to provide for a union station in the District of Columbia and for other purposes." This bill, instead of providing for the establishment of 4 ■i -4- a terminal for the B & Railroad, brought all the railroads enter- ing into the District of Columhla into one station to be called the Union Station. This Station was to be built and run by a corpora- tion to be known as the Washington Terminal Company. The Phila- delphia, Baltimore, and VHaahington Railroad Company, a subsidiary company of the Pennsylvania Railroad, was authorized and required by this bill to move their terminal and tracks from the position occupied on the Mall, and to connect with the new terminal by means of tracks passing to the south of the Mall which were to go under the surface of the ground by means of a tunnel, the direction of which was provided for, and connect with the tracks of the Washington Terminal Company at the new terminal, from there the tracks were to proceed on the easternmost side of the viaduct of the Terminal Company to a point on the north line of Montana Avenue projected* From this point the Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington Railroad was authorized to construct a line of two or more tracks to connect with the tracks of the company near Magruder Station in th^ state of Maryland. The position of the new terminal was changed to the present location which moved it away from close proximity to the Senate Office Building* The new area designated for the station was as follows: the starting point was designated as being on the north side of Massachusetts Avenue at a distance of three hundred feet northwest from the west side of Delaware Avenue, measured ■ perpendicularly; then by a line parallel to Delaware Avenue through this point to a point in the south line of I Street, Northeast; then by a straight line northeastwardly to a point in the intersection -s- of the west line of Delaware Avenue with the south line of L Street, Northeast; then eastwardlyf along the south line of L Street, North- east, to a point In the Intersection with the west line of Second Street, Northeast; then south, along the west line of Second Street, Northeast, to a point about eighty feet north of the north line of H Street, Northeast; then by a line parallel to Delaware Avenue and through a point three hundred feet perpendicularly frora the east line of Delaware Avenue, southwestwardly to a point in the north line of Massachusetts Avenue; then by the ncrth line of Massachusetts Avenue to the starting point • The bill also provided that the Philadelphia, Bait., and Washington Railroad could construct all their tracks south of the point on Montana Avenue either in conjunction with the Terininal Coaipany, sharing the cost of the joint construction in such propor- tions as might be agreed upon by the two companies, or the whole or any portion of the authorized construction could be constructed and owned by the Washington Terminal Cdmpanyi but if the latter plan be used the P B 3e W should acquire by purchase one-half of all the issued capital stock from the B & Railroad Coti^)any and should acquire one-half of any stock Issued thereafter by the Terminal Company* Congress also contributed the sum of one million five hundred thousand dollars toward the work to be done by the P B & W, thus making a total sum of three million dollars which the Government gave the Railroads to construct the Union Station besides land which Uncle Joe Gannon is an authority for saying was worth five million dollars* Of more direct interest to us in considering the develop- -6- ment of a suitable gateway for the city we find In this bill that the Terminal to be built must be monumental In character and shall coat not less than four million dollars. Also the bill authorized the construction of a plaza or circle at the intersection of Massachusetts Avenue and Delaware Avenue and the laying out and grading of the streets leading into the circle which now is known as the Union Station Plaza. The construction of this Terminal is the starting point for the development of the area lying north of the Capitol into what is now known as the Enlargement of the Capitol Grounds or the Union Station Plaza Development. FIRST LEGISLATIVE STEPS April 18th, 1908, saw the first bill presented in Congress with this purpose in mind. Senator Wetmore introduced a bill authorizing the obtaining of the ground not already owned by the Government within the boundaries of Hassachuaetta Avenue, North Capitol Street, B Street, and First Street, all northeast. For the p\irpose of obtaining this land and for its improvement a sum of two and one-half million dollars was appropriated. The bill was referred to the Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds but there was no further action taken* On May 12, 1908, a similar bill was proposed in the House which also failed to obtain any consideration. This bill called for eight additional squares than the Senate bill did -7- - and also provided for the construction of a Lincoln Memorial on the land to be acquired. For the purpose a sum of five million dollars was deemed sufficient. Although efforts were renewed In each session of Congress it was not until the Sundry CItII Act of June 25, 191CV was passed that anything was done toward the develop- ment of the ground, when this bill reached the Senate, Senator Wetmore's proposal was added as an amendment and went through with the Bill. There was no limit of cost proposed and five hundred thousand dollars was appropriated as a starting sum with the general tenure of the act being that a like amount would be appropriated each year. It also provided the manner in which the land should be obtained and named the Vice President of the United States, the Speaker of the House, and the Superintendent of the Capitol Buildings and Grounds as a commission to obtain this land. The following squares were named: 632, 633, 634, 680, 681, 682, 683, 684, 686, 721, 722, and 723. The Sundry Civil Act of Uarch 4, 1911, saw an additional five hundred thousand dollars appropriated for the purpose of acquiring the land and it also renaioed the same commission. There was an effort made in the House to replace that commission with a select committee of five, consisting of three Democrats and two Republicans, but the effort was not successful. The Commission as first formed continued its work and on May 28, 1912, they asked for another yearly appropria- -s- ti^n of one -half million dollars , which would give them a total of one and one-half million dollars to draw upon. This sum was carried In the Sundry Civil Act of that year. Mfftntlme the commission had advertised for sealed proposals for the property In the squares to be acquired. On August 10, 1910, proposals for about 11% of the land were opened and then turned over to the Department of Justice for «x- amlnatlon and report. In October of the same year the Act- ing Attorney General stated that he thou^t that it would be to the interest of the Qovernment to institute condemnation proceedings to acquire the land. FIRST LMD ACQUIRED An effort was made to secure better proposals but the effort was useless and on Mty 9, 1911 » it was decided to follow the advice of the Department of Justice. Accordingly the Attorney Oeneral was asked to start proceed- ings to acquire squares 634 and 685 > situated immediately north of the Capitol, and in August of that year proceedings were started which ended on April 22, 1912, with an award of 11,119,035.50 for the two squares. On May 18, 1912, the commission approved the report of the Attorney General and ordered him to take the necessary steps to acquire the property. As a result of the first effort to get reasonable -9- proposals for the land the conimi salon decided that the most economical method the Qovernment could use to acquire the rest of the land would be to secure an appraisal of the whole in one proceeding. The Idea was that the land should be taken up as appropriations were made, in accordance with the act of June 10, 1910* CONDEMNATIOM PROCEEDIHOS xaAINST REST OF LAND The Department of Justice accordingly started proceedings on all the rest of the land except the part of square 633 west of Arthur Place which, the commission decided was not needed. The proceedings were concluded on January 29, 1913, with a total appraisal of ^3,204,434.78, The coiBffllssion therefore made a report on February 6, 1913, and recommended that Congress appropriate $2,323,972.35, which with the available balance from the first proceedings, would be enough to acquire the land. As it was required by law, the findings of the commission were sent to President Taft and approved by him on February 26, and the Sundry Civil Act of June 23, 1913, carried the ne cess try appropriation. PROCEEDINGS STOPPED BI PRESIDEHT WILSON This should have finished the work of acquiring the land but on March 18, 1914, president Wilson Issued a statement, part of which is as follows: -10- "I, TNoodrow Wllaon, President of the United States, by virtue of the authority vested in me by law, do hereby declare that the public interest requires that said real estate shall not be acquired by the United States for the sum fixed in said appraisement as confirmed by the court, and I accordingly direct that the said proceedings to condemn said lands to the use of the United States be dismissed.'* This immediately halted all proceedings and in some cases it undoubtedly caused much embarrassment where property owners had made arrangements to turn their property over to the Government and were awaiting the money from the commission in order to close deals for other land. The action was taken, however, because it was thought that the B & Railroad both directly and through its holding company, the Heal Estate & Improvement Company of Baltimore City, was given too high an appraisement on its land in the desired squares. COHaRESSIONAL ACTIOU To give legislative sanction to the decision of the President, and to remove the hardships which had been imposed on many private owners a bill was passed in the cases Senate providing that All/ as were not In controversy be paid , Beaerving the others for future consideration. Instead of passing this bill and giving Immediate relief for such cases as were not In controversy, the House argued on the bill. -IX- Amendments were proposed and several substitute bills offered, but it was not until October 20th tbat a bill was finally passed. Everyone seemed to be agreed on the fact that some- thing should be done, but it was just as we so often find at present, that "most august body" could not decide how it should be done* A short discussion of the act and its main pro- visions will be sufficient for our purposes. The court *- wards, notwithstanding the advice of the Depart:3ient of Justice and the first commission, were set aside and dismissed. The President was authorized to appoint a second commission of three men who must have had no interest in any of the land in question and who must not have been involved in any discussion which might have been held In Gongresa up to the time of the forming of the commission. This commission was impowered to purchase any of the real estate desired at what the commission thou^t a fair market price for the land, not exceeding, however, the amount of the award made in the condemnation proceedings. In tl^ case of the land owned by the B & and its holding company, the commission was instruct- ed to pay no more than the original cost of the land plus six per cent interest on the land from the time of purchase up to the date on which the court confirmed the awards made in the condemnation proceedings instituted by the first commission. Exeroialng his authority, president Wilson appoint- ed the commission on November 11, 1914, and it started work -12- cn November 13. The members were as follows: W. W. Spauld- Ing, Chalrmanj A.. Coulter Wells^ and Quy Mason* Tills comraisKlon continued Its work until January 19, 1916, when a report was given to the President of all the conunisslonla activities and the results of its work. REPOHT OF THE COMMISSION The comnl salon succeeded in acquiring all of the land except several scattered parcels which were held up for various reasons* some land which the District of Coluabla used fol? school purposes, and the land held by the Baltimore and Ohio and its holding company. The land belonging to the private owners and the District was going through the process of being acquired and slowness on the part of owners or court action was all that was holding It up, but the land belonging to the two corporations was an entirely different matter. The Commission offered the maximum amount allowable under the ruling of the act for the land but it was turned down. The coimnlssion In acquiring the land incurred the following expenses: Awards made for property $1,381,415.00 Salaries, and necessary supplies 24,708.36 Total expenses*»TT»'---fl, 406,123. 36 Upon handing in this report, the comnlssion adjourned subject to call of the chairman. The coamlsslon was later called to ^ PLAN OF CITY AROUND UNION STATION AND PLAZA AS IT WAS DQRINa THE WAR. GOVERN- MENT HOTELS ARE SHOWN IN PLAN Plate n MAI.L IllVtiii ^^ '• ■■ W i ^^^^^^ ■ 1 lilBIS ■ ■■hi .<<^.!W if II 'lOHlB ■1 iiBiiaiiHkv::^ ^1 '■■^■ggi bZoiAl ■ ifti fljHgyjimnii ii?Sflii>;viiDa ■■01 I ttUfM ^ ^ i '^ 8S» W«^ HR «f iMfi ■■ 1^11 1 UtiO" of the Mlii p;,i venue and B Sire*: sed in 1901. Trese temporary buildmg* are to tie re pi seed 1 AIRPLANE PICTURE OF THE LAND AS IT WAS DURING THE WAR WITH THE GOVERNMENT HOTELS. -13- act upon the several awards made to the private owners which were In process of completion at the time of adjournment* WOHLD WAR Tlwj entrance of the United States Into the World War caused a suspension of all activity toward the completion of the work of the comiiii8sion# and it was not until after the final ratification of the Treaiiy of peace that any further steps were taken* During the war the housing problem became difficult because of the ^eat number of people brought here to take care of the work of the Qovernment and to relieve conditions, what are now known as the Qovernment Hotels were erected. Some of these were erected on property owned by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. There was an agreement made with the Railroad Company that the land would be used until one year following the declaration of peace and the compensation paid the railroad would be by the way of the reimbursement of the taxes on the land. This ag;reement was effective until Hovember 14, 1922 • At that time an agreement was made which lasted until December 31, 1925, In which the Government agreed to pay |75, 000 annual rental for the use of the land. From that date no rental was paid the railroad for the land* FORMATION OF NEW COMitllSSIOH Early in 1923 a Senate Resolution was adopted which -14- c ailed upon the Attorney General to inform tlie Senate of the necessary stepa to acquire the rest of the land. This was done and the report was received by the Senate In April of that year. Following the report a bill was submitted but nothing was don© with it until early in 1926. This bill provided for the acquisition of all lands not in the possession of the Qovernment and established a commission which was the same as the original commission* The members of the commission were the Vice President of the United states^ Hon. Charles G. Dawes; the Speaker of the House, Hon. IJicholas Longworth; and the Architect o f the Capitol, Hon. David Lynn. The bill was passed by the Senate early in the year and was made a law after passage through the House on June 25, 1926. PURCHASE OF LAND FROM RAILRQiDS The new commission held its first meeting on the 26th of the same month and by the 30th of that month had come to terms with the railroad's representatives and set the sum for the transaction. It was agreed upon that the Government ahould pay $5,129, 597. 64» this sum represents the original condemnation award plus the taxes on the land from January 29, 1913, to April 1, 1926, less such Income that had been received from the property in that time, plus the interest on everything up to date. There was in the Treasury a balance from the pro- ceeding appropriations of :|1,798,139.27, and Congress 1 -15- approprlated the necessary funds to liquidate the contract price* The deal was closed on January 26, 1927, except for certain parcels of land which awaited perfection of title, and the deal for these parcels was closed on August 17, 1927, concluding the purchase which was described In a bill *. little over 1? years before. When the deal was closed it was found that the Washington Terminal Company owned one parcel of land but this deal was carried through with the rest of the transaction. Of the original description there were several parcels which awaited legislative action before they could be acquired. They were In possession of the District but the District did not have the power to convey the land. Congressional action is necessary. FIRST ACTUAL WORK ON DEVELOPMENT February 23, 1927, saw the first step taken toward the improvement of the land. Congress gave authorization for the removal of the buildings not occupied by Government activities, and the preparation of plans for the development of the area as a park. During the year 1927, the buildings in squares 635,633, and 684 were razed and the excavations filled. ENLARGEMENT OF COMMISSION Then on April 11, 1928, a new act was passed which changed the commission a little and authorized the SCEEME k THE ORiaiNJOi PLAN OF THE DEVELOPMENT. "% -16- preparatlon of plans for the development and asked for reconimendatlons as to whlcli plan would be tlie best in relation to the proposed treatment of the Kail area. The commission as changed is the "Cominisslon for the Enlarging of the Capitol Grounds, and for other purposes", and it consists of the Vice President of the United States, the Speaker of the House, the chairman and ranking minority member of the Senate Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds, the chairman and ranking minority member of the House Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds, the minority leader of the Senate, the minority leader of the House, and the Architect of the Capitol* REPORT AND PLANS OF COMMISSION The Commission returned a report on April 24, 1928, and gave two plans to pick from. These two plana are known as Scheme A and Scheme 6. SCHEME A Scheme A can be easily followed by looking at the accompanying map. It is proposed to run an avenue from the western fountain in front of Union Station to the Peace Monument at the foot of the Capitol Grounds. This plan, with the contemplated improvements, will cost $1,585,465. There are several disadvantages in this plan, which are as follows: THE CAPITOL PLAZA PLAN OF THE DEVELOPMENT ACCORDING TO SCHEME B '"'- lAlHi THE CAPITOL PLAZA AIRPLANE VIEW OF PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT —LOOKING NORTH AIRPLANE VIEW OF PROPOSED DiiVEIiOPMENT—LOOKINQ SOUTH viRw or fKuroAia imKi.o>Mr> -17- The cutting off of a section of the present Capitol around 9* The bisecting of the area acquired making a suit- able treatment of the area extremely difficult* The new avenue would cross B Street, H* W>t where there Is a 7 per cent grade, making traffic conditions very dangerous. 3C HEli^ B Scheme 6 was recommended by the Commission as the bdtter plan. It provides for a marginal avenue running from the western • fouiitjainii in the Plaza to that portion of Pennsylvania Avenue between Second and Third Streets, to be known as Union Square in the proposed Mall Development. This avenue will deflect travel from the Capitol Qrounds and provide something which has been needed in the city, a direct connection between Union Station and Pennsylvania Avenue. This scheme will allow the rearrangement of the squares and the landscaping of a large area which can be more easily done than the landscaping of small, divided areas. The original plan was to have the street cars hidden from sight in subways so that they could not be seen. This plan passed the House on May 28, 1923, one week after it was presented. The Street Railway Companies did not like the disposal of their tracks as provided for in ^ -la- the plan and when the bill came before the Senate they asked for a hearing. In this hearing it was brought out that there would be some problems and difficulties In the carrying out of the plan which would make the cost run very high and that several dangerous conditions would be established. The Street Car Companies claimed that they would at one point be forced to uae a 10 per cent grade. They claimed that congestion would result from this condition and that where the grade ended they would have a sharp blind turn to make. They also claimed that special work would be necessary on First Street, Northeast to clear the tunnel of the Washington Terminal Company which inins under this street. The Street Railway Companies won their plea and the plan was changed and modified slightly. The bill as it finally passed contained the following provisions: 1. Provision for an avenue extending from the western fountain In front of the Union Station southwester- ly to Pennsylvania Avenue, Joining said avenge between Second and Third Streets, Northwest, 2. Closing of North Capitol Street south of D Street, 3. Closing of C Street to vehicular traffic between New Jersey Avenue and Delaware Avenue, and the re- moval of street-car tracks from c Street and relaying them \ in a depression and subway between New Jersey Avenue and Delaware Avenue, and extending the street-car tracks on C I -19- Street from Delaware Avenue to First Street, Northeast. 4. Removal of street-car tracks from Delaware Avenue and B Street (Including the spur from Delaware Avenue Into the Capitol Orounda) and relaying them on First Street, Sortheast. 5. Construction of an underground garage extend- ing from Delaware Avenue to New Jersey Avenue. 6. Acquisition of private property and removal of existing buildings ^ as hereinafter provided; and 7. Construction of terraces and fountains, grad- ing, landscaping, and architectural treatment. This plan calls for the acquisition of some more land, and Congress authorized the acquisition of certain lands needed in squares 574, 575, 630, 631, 633 and reserva- tion numbered 12. Authorization was also given for the re- moval of all buildings necessary and the commencement of work. To carry out this work Congress appropriated $4,912,414i The last formal act of President Coolldge before he left the White House was the signing of this bill. CONCLUSION At the present time the whole development is await- ing the acquisition of the land authorized by Congress* When this land Is acquired work can be started on the plan and I have no doubt that in the near future we shall when entering the Capitol of our Nation see in front of us a beautiful park at the far end of which will be visible that structure which -20- draws people from over the entire world juat to gaze at It — The Capitol. -21- BIBLIOaRAPHT 1* House Document Mo. 125 - — 70th Congress^ 1st Sfiaslon* 8. House Document No. 252 --- 70th Congress, let Session. 3. House Report No. 1810 70th Congress, 1st Session. 4. Report of Hearing before the Senate Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds --- 70th Congress, 2nd Session. 5. Senate Report No. 1457 --- 70th Gongreaa, 2nd Session. 6. Plans and Studies Washington and Vicinity, 1928 National Park and Planning Commission. 7. The Washington Post, December 1, 1929. 8. The Saturday Evening Post, October 19, 1929. 9. Washington, The Nation's Capitol Charles Ifoore and E. H. Suydam. for 10. Agreement providing /is e of Washington Terminal Station between railroads running into Washington. Southern Railway Company File Copy* These three pictures give a very good panortmic view of the proposed development. In Picture I can he seen the northern boundary of the park, the Union Station. The Government Hotels can also be seen and the ground lying directly to the south of them. In Picture 2 is the proposed site of the main plaza of the park. This is to be located at the present intersection of North Capitol Streets. The street -car line which can be seen going up C Street will run in a subway under this plaza. To the right of this picture can be seen the ground which was razed in 1927. The proposed diagonal avenue will cut the corner off of the square which can bee seen in the foreground passing approximately where the second lamp post la located on the north side of C Street, In Picture 3 can he seen the southern terminus of the park* the Capitol. In the foreground of this picture can he seen some of the buildings which must be razed. The new avenue will cut througja the fore- ground of this picture. These pictures were taken from the Acacia Mutual Life Insurance Building at First and Indiana Avenue. UNION STATION The Fountain in center of picture Is the northeastern terminus of the new diagonal avenue. THE POST OFFICE These two buildings will form the northern boundary of the Park. I The new avenue will come througti the ground shown in thia pict'ore. It will pass Just to the right of the Continental Hotel, the tall building on the left, and over the ground occupied by the Power House which will be removed* The camera is approximately on the west line of the proposed avenue. . / Group of hotel buildings on North Capi- tol Street. These hotels #ill benefit great- ly from the new avenue which will pass right in front of them. Looking down Delaware Avenue from Capitol to the Union Station with the Senate Office Building*, on the rlgjat* Square to the northeast of Dela- ware Avenue and C Street. I Two views of present Capitol Grounds showing the House Office Building. This building with Its proposed annex will be on the southern boundary of the future grounds . ^ THE CAPITOL PLAZA OR UNION STATION PLAZA DEVELOPSJENT ; ALSO THE NEW MUNICIPAL CENTER AND UNION SQUARE 1 Plate 12 MALL 1 L; [_i i a i^ __ 1 Cutive offices; 2. The Capilol Plaza or Union Statior P:aia Jeveiopmefit. between the Union ^lington Mennorial Bridije; 6. Widaning and extension of B Street north from the Capitol to 1 I J i PLAN SHOWING ENTIRE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CITY IN THE MALL-CENT HAL AREA COTtimtMto*' Plate i6 :•'.'<] W.\ S II I v<; T«> N l> <" \i.i.~(:k.\tk\l akk \ i ;.'i- -f -O^l r, .