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Full text of "The history of the early development of mining and manufacturing in Western Maryland."

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THE HISTORY OF THE EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF MIMING AND 
MANUFACTURING IN WESTERN MARYLAND. 

Mining in Western Maryland has seen its clay, <vhile 
manufacturing ia out in its infancy. To folio.? through the 
history of the former ana. a survey of the latter, is to fina 
an answer to the continued progressiveness of the whole re- 
gion, from the time of the first enterprise up to the present 
day. A gradual decay of the fining interests has oeen wit- 
nessed since shortly after the Civil War, though even today 
they attain to soils importance. Manufacturing ia ever in- 
creasing in importance and promises great industrial activity 
in the near future. 

Uncertainty as to the exact date of coal discovery 
in Western Maryland is emphasized oy several conflicting 
writings in the reports of the Marylanu Geological Survey 
for 1^05 and laOO. 

The first states that coal was disooverea near 
Frost ourg, at least aa early as 1783, citin fe aa authority a 
French statement, which in substance reads, "A general map 
of the Thirteen United States and Dependents of America, in 
Septemoer , according to Mr. Bonne, 1733, shows a coal mine 
at the mouth of Georges Cree*." (o) 

In the 1905 report it is said:- "Coal was discov- 
ered in Western Maryland oy a Mr. Riser near the aite of 
Frost ourg in 1804, ana although various openings were maue 



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\ 



from time to time, it did not become of commercial importance 
until about 1330. " (d) And in corroboration of this statement 
an oft-copied "History of the Maryland Coal Region", by B.S. 
Randolph 3ays, "a recently published journal of a journey on 
horseoaok, made in 1310, during which the traveler passed 
over the old colonial road, just south of Fro3tourg, and 
stayed over night at what is now known as the 'Uusselman Farm 1 , 
owned oy the Consolidated Coal Company, makes no mention of 
the coal, although the writer was evidently a close observer 
and his notes on other matters are uncommonly full. It is 
therefore to be inferred that the ouainess was not as yet 
sufficiently developed to attract xhe attention of the casual 
traveler. " 

Openings of commercial importance were made in the 
Pittsburg Seam in aoout 1330 at Eckhart, the first oeing tne 
old Heff mine, The coal was transported oy wagon to the 
banks ox the Potomac at Cumberland, where it was stored in 
large pi lea awaiting a rise in the water on which it would 
be possible to navigate their flat bargaa with aafety. 
Twenty boats have oeen known to depart in one fleet ana. as 
many aa forty in one day. Such a departure was an event in 
i the life of the town and uaually brought to the river banks 

crowds of sightseers. The coats were frail affairs ana to 
touch a rock usually meant the loss of a coat, ana occasion- 
ally the drowning of one or more of the crew. They were sold 
at their destination for what they would bring and the orsw 
returned on foot, 



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Market prices for coal ranged from seven to eight 
cents per bushel at Cumberland and from fifty to sixty cents 
at Georgetown. 

Though profitable fur a time, this method of trans- 
portation gradually disappeared in the faoe of railroaa com- 
petition, and ceased entirely on completion of the canal to 
Cumberland, in 1850, 

The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad was complete a to 
Cumberland in 1342 and for some time coal was brought to Dam 
*t, (Great Caoapon) to which point the oanal had o&en com- 
pleted, and there loaded on canal boats for shipment to 
tide water. The Mt. Savage and Cumoerlana Railroad w^s 
built in 1344 oy the Maryland and New York Mining Company; 
and a line from Cumberland to Eckhart, now known as the 
Eckhart branch of the Cumberland and Pennsylvania Railroad, 
was built a few years later Dy the Maryland Mining Company. 
This company, chartered in 1838, was the first chartered, 
company in the region. It operated what is now known as the 
Eckhart Mine and before completion of its railroad, ae..t its 
product to Cumberland oy wagon. Upon completion of the 
railroad to Mt. Savage, tramways were ouilt from the mines 
north of Frost burg to there and the coal was then transported 
in mine oars to be loaded into railroad oars at the latter 
point. 

About this time, an interesting experiment was 
made by the construction of a flume or sluiceway from Vale 



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Summit to Clarysville, on the Maryland Mining Company's 
railroad, for the purpose of transporting coal oy a stream 
of water. Owing to its fragile nature, the ooal was so 
much damaged by this operation that the scheme was promptly 
abandoned, 

In i860, the Frostburg Coal Company had extensive 
coking yards at Mt, Savage and the practice of ooking *as 
followed oy this and other companies in the region. This 
coke was usea oy the local iron furnaoes at that time in 
operation and >vas also shippea East for locomotive use. Mr. 
Rooert G. Rankin, in 1355, states that, "The opinion sesma to 
.prevail among northern railway operators, that this (Georges 
Creek) coal is only fitted for northern engines .vhen in is 
ooked; out when prejudice gives -vay to fair lnve3ti fe ation 
and experiment, it is confidently oelievea that the crude 
Cumoerlana coal will oe founa to contain more oomcustiole 
matter, pound for pound, than the coke." 

The companies in ouainess ana shipping oy rail in 
1850 were the Frost burg Minin s Companies and the Allegany 
Mining Company, loading at Mt. Savage; and the Maryland 
Mining Company and the Washington Coal Company, loading at 
Eckhart on the Maryland Mining Company T s railroad. 

Mining rate was twenty-eight cent3 in the Pi^tsourg 
Seam and fifty-five in the smaller seams, a difference well 
calculated to keep tne latter out of the market. 

The Pitts our g Seam, known generally as the "Big 



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Vain" and. averaging about fourteen feet in thickness, .vas 
being rapidly oought up, in aome caaea, largely aa a a pecu- 
lation. Much of it was ootainea as low as ten dollars an 
acre. 

In 1853, ownership of a total of eighteen thouaand 
acraa was distri outset as follows :- 

Oumoerland Coal and Iron Company 6,000 

(successor to Maryland Mining Co.) 

Georges Creek Coal ana. Iron Company 3, OjO 

Smaller companies aoout Frostburg 2, 5 j0 

Baltimore Capitaliata 3, 000 

Original owners 4, 500 

to) Total 18,000 

Although coal is ana has oeen the most important 
mineral mined in Dies tern Maryland, iron ore ana clay demand 
attention. 

As early aa 13? 5, a oompany waa organized an- 
oegan the mining of iron ore. This ooaipany, the Georges 
Creek Coal and Iron Company, ia responsible for founding 
the town of Lonaconin 6 . Two years later, they oegan erection 
or' a furnace at Lonaconing, fifty feet high aud fourteen and 
a half feet wiae at the ooshea, whioh upon completion was 
making aoout aeventy tons of gooa foundry iron per day, 
usin & coke, maae in their own plant, as a fuel. 

■ 

In tnis year aleo, tne He* York Coal ana Iron 
Company ouilt two l^rge Dlaat furnaces at Ait. Savage, (d) 






Theaa continued in operatic iW ^ u ,e time, out; gradually 
oaanging conditions of the iron trade oauaed their final 
abandonment anortly after tne Civil War. (i8fc;3) 

Fire day w,a,3 first uisoovered in 1337 at Mt, 
Savage, ana used in lining the two olast furnace a mentioned 
acove. Originally, the fire orick useu in this country was 
imported from En^lana, out while prospeoting, the same type 
of clay was found in workable deposits at Mt. Savage, (z) 
Thus, in 1841, the -iarylana and New Yorjs. Iron ana fining 
Company waa formed, ana oegan mining the day on a coioner- 
cial scale and the production of a fire orick that later 
oecame famous, ^d) After two reorganizations, it oecame 
the Union Mining Company in 187 1. {%) 

The clay mined here has oeen declared by geolog- 
ists to oe the oast in tne country oeaidea having the com- 
mercial advantage in the fact that Doth ooaj, ana clay are 
minea in aajacent seams simultaneously. Representing the 
olaeat fire olay deposits oein 5 wurkea t^aay, there are at 
present, oeing operated, seventeen kilns with an avera a i 
proauction of fifty thousand oriels per aay. Famous the 
country over as well as aor^au, at one time, specifications 
of the Navy Department, oefore they oecame technical, atatea 
that all fire clay used oy them must oe of a &raae equal to 
or oetter than that mined at Mt, Savage, tz) 

Upon completion of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 
to Piedmont, West Virginia, in 135^, the Georges Creak Coal 



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and Iron Company built a railroad up the valley of Georges 
Greek to Lonaconing, ana. aoanaoned its tramway to Clarysville. 
Its operations had previously oeen confined to the manufacture 
of iron, out it now oecame a shipper of coal also. 

The lit, Savage cold Cumoerland Railroau was extended 
to Frostburg in ld53 and recognized as its shippers the 
Frost ourg Coal Company, Borden kining Company, Withers fin- 
ing Company, Parker Vein Coal Company and tne Chesapeake 
Coal Company, (&) 

Tne accompanying map of lands in tne Cumberland, 
Coal Basin shows the holdings of the several companies in 
1856. (z) 

In 1857, the tracks were extended to Lonaconing 
and in 1.364 the Georges Creek Coal ana Iron Company 1 3 road 
to Piedmont was purchased and consolidated under the oharter 
of the Cumberland and Pennsylvania Railroad. 

Little effort appears to have oeen made up to this 
time looking to consolidation among the various operators. 
With the exception of the Georges Creek ana Cumo^rlana Coal 
ana Iron Companies, the various properties embraced tracts 
of a few hundred acres only. 

In id 60 an act was passed incorporating the 
Consolidation Coal Company of wary land, and in ld64 the 
company was organized, consisting, of the properties of the 
Ocean Steam Coal Company, the Frost ourg Coal Company ana 
the )kt. Savage Iron Company, *hioh latter o^vnea the 



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Cumoeriand and Pennsylvania. Railroad. These properties 
included a total of nine thousana acres, four thousand of 
which were underlain oy the Pitts ourg Scam. 

This movement to.«*rd consolidation is ^eneraxiy 
creaited to Ur. W.H. Aspinwall,of Mew York, who with hia assoc- 
iates had recently purchased a tract in the neighborhood of 
Squirrel Neck Run ana organized una Ocean Steam Coal Company, 
A further move toward consolidation w»3 made in 136^ when the 
following circular was issued, ahich, Incidentally, ar<*ws an 
interesting picture of the coal trade conditions. 

TO THE STOCKHOLDERS OF THE COMPANIES MINING 

CUMBERLAND COAL IN ALLEGANY COUNTY, MARYLAND. 

An experience of t.venty-f ive years ha3 convinced 
many of the most practical ana sagacious persons, whose 
interests have been identified with the development of the 
Cumberland coal mines, that those interests can only oe made 
rsa3onj,oiy remunerative oy a complete change in the system 
of management. The total product of 1708 tons in 1343 has 
oeen increased, oy the legitimate demands of trade, to 
1,T*0,443 tons in 1863, with a prospect of 1,500,000 tons 
in 1869, and yet, of the immense capital that has oeen 
invested in Allegany County, ho-v large a portion has been 
swept away, ana of that now representing the minin 6 inter- 
ests, how insignificant is the portion which, even occas- 
ionally makes any return to the proprietors. 

Three reasons may oe given to explain these 



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unaat is factory results. First, remoteness from oux prin- 
cipal markets, with insufficiency and high coat of tran- 
portation thereto; aeoond, heavy expenses of multiplied 
administration, and third, ruinous and, under existing 
circumstances, uncontrollable competition. 

The first of these oostacles would inevitably 
suCaide, if not disappear, under a systematic and unified 
apportionment of production to demand; the aacono. and third 
would ooviouaiy vaniah oy the substitution of a single 
management, in the common interest, for the twenty-one 
separate organizations which, with their complicated and 
expensive machinery, now absorb the modicum of profit which 
is left to the owners of the mines. 

Five of the largest companies having, with others, 
tried for years, out in vain, to remedy the evils aoove 
averted to, oy harmony of action, have at length determined 
to find, if practicable, a solution of the problem oy uniting 
their properties under one organization, permanent and homo- 
geneous. A suitable agent has been selected to investigate 
the relative areas and values of their reapective coal lands 

preliminary, it is hoped, to the adoption of an equitable 
basis of incorporation. These five companies are now moving, 
in perfect accord, toward that object, and have estaolishea 
a joint oommittee on consolidation. Within a month it is 
hoped that they will toe prepared to proceed to the consid- 
eration of such a basis. To this end it is earnestly aesired 



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th at as many companies as possible now operating in the 
Cumoerland ooal region of Allegany County should unite in 
having, their land.3 surveyed and appraised; or if not that, 
that they will, at least, appoint a representative or more 
than une ana nut more than three, to meet iritn tne joint 
committee ana disouss with them the oearin^, of this scheme 
on their various interests. Stockholders are earnestly 
request ea to press this important subject upon the consid- 
eration of their aireot-rs. 

Communications may be =taareased to either of the 
officers of the joint conm.it tee, whose names are affixed, 
representing tne American, Borden, Consolidation, Cumberland 
Cuai ana Iron, and Hampshire and Baltimore Companies. 

Allan Campoeli (Pres. C.C&IC) 
Ch, Joint Committee, aG Broadway 

James S. Jackie tV.P. Consol.CC) 
Sec'y Juint Oommittee, 7i Broadway 
Mew York, May 3i, 1869. 

A suitaole agent was selected ana suomitted an 
excellent report, which, however, wa^ very unsatisf uctory to 
a numoer of the parties interested and put an eriJL to the 
"perfect accora" of the signatory companies. The scheme 
failed utterly with the exception of the acquisition of the 
property of the Cumberland Coal and Iron Company by the 
Consolidation Coal Company, which took place in 1370, and 
included the railroad from Cum oer land to Ec^hart. This 



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brougttt to the Consolidation Coal Company more than half 
the coal lands and all the railroad facilities. In 1872 
the Allegany Coal Company was acquired and a few years 
later the coal under the Wright Farm, which, with the 
jiicCuliocK property, (1871) practically completes the holdings 
of this company as they now exist. 

1372 found the Pennsylvania Railroad attempting 
to tat- this important source of traffic with a oranch from 
Bedford. To winich the Baltimore and Ohiu promptly countered 
oy ootainin 6 a controlling interest in the Cons^lidati ,n 
Coal Company. 

Previous to the year 18jQ the Pittsour^ Sear.', had 
supplied practically all the tonnage of the region, out with 
its gradual exhaustion, supply from other sources oecame 
imperative, anj. the smaller seams oegan to oe worked. After 
acout 1870, production decreased steaaily, although in lrfQl 
general activity stimulated development of the lower seams. 
However, all the companies having any consideraole ousiness 
to provide for, have oeen ooliged to secure properties in 
other regions; and thus Maryland Coal has assumed a place 
in the background of present day industry, (c) 

MANUFACTURING 
As late as the oeginning of the nineteenth century 
manufacturing in Western Maryland was practically unknown. (b) 
The only settlement of importance oeing Cumberland and the 



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vijlage Dlacksmlth taxing oy hand ail things necessary in 
the standard of living of those days. 

Histories, however, refer often to Shryer's Tan 

Yard *ihere leather was produced on a small scale. And one 
states that, "A grist mill stood at the mouth of the race 
where the wharf of the Consolidation Coal Company is located, 
This mill was built somewhere aDout 1800 at a cost of about 
$8,000 and was regarded as one of the finest mills in the 
state. " I o) 

The next development in manufacturing came in 1816 
when Thomas and Roger Perry ouilt a glass factory on Center 
Street at the case of Hills Mountain. The sand, which i3 
said to be the oest in America for glass manufacture, ..as 
ootaineo, from the mountain close by, and the main proauot, 
^reen glass bottles, was sold in Pittsburg and Eastern cit- 
ies. .Due to financial difficulties, operations ceaseo in 

law (b) 

As before mentioned, Iron was being manufactured 
in Lonaconing from 1835 on, and in 1843 the two olast fur- 
naces at Mt, Savage led to the erection of the J.<t. Savage 
rolling mill which was built especially to roll iron rails, 
and during the summer of 1844 it rolled the first heavy iron 
rails in America. In honor of this event, the Franklin 
Institute of Philadelphia awarded a medal to the proprietors 
in Ootober, 1844. The rails were of the inverted U form 
and weighed forty-two pounds to the yard. The first few 



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hundred tons *ere laid on the railroad oetween lit. Savage 
and Cumoerland. J. k. Swank, in his "History of the 
Manufacture of Iron in all Ages", saV3 that Allegany County 
is entitled to two of the highest honors in connection with 
the American iron trade: "It ouilt the first successful coke 
furnace and rolled the first heavy iron rails", (d) 

In 1336 a cement mill was estaolished on Wilis 
Creek at Valley, under the name of the Cumberland Hydraulic 
Cement and Manufacturing Company, and the mining and manu- 
facturing of natural cement was, for a while, a thriving 
industry. The plant burned four times and was rebuilt three, 
the last being in 1904 after which aotivity ceased, natural 
cement having been displaced in the market by Portland 
Cement, {£) 

J axties E. Jones purchased from Wm. Lynn, in 1840, 
two acres on the west bank of Will's Creek and began the 
erection of a plant known as Will's Creek Tannery. A part 
of the original building still stands. It has operate d 
continuously, changing hands several times, ana finally 
oeooming a part of the United States Leather Company, *hich 
operates it under the name of the Union Tanning Company, a 
subsidiary corporation, covering the operation of fifteen 
or twenty plants south of Pennsylvania, Hides are obtained 
from Western slaughter houses and the Argentine, ana tanning 
materials, consisting of oak barks, from local sources. The 
process has been improved from time to time ana the output 



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gradually increased frorc thirty at the start to two hundred 
hides per day at present. A good grade of leather is made 
and shipped to, principally, New England where it is used 
in the manufacture of high grade shoes, (e) 

Another glass factory was known to exist aoout 
this time an Paoa Street, out nothing ever came of it. (u) 

In 1841 the Cumoeriand Foundry and Machine Shop 
began the manufacture of first class bevel and spur gears, (b) 
About this time also the crick plant in Mt. Savage was 
erected, {z) 

In 1853 the McKaigs, who proved to oe pioneers 
in numerous industrial enterprises, organized a stock com- 
pany and oullt a cotton factory on North Centre Straet. Its 
duration was not long however and nov« the 3ite is occupied 
oy the Cumberland Brewing Company. This company, organized 
in I38i? with a capital stock of fifty thousand dollars, 
flourished oefore prohibition, and at the time when shutdown 
occurred had a surplus of seven hundred thousand dollars. 
The plant now produces ice ana near-beer on a small scale, (k) 

What was probably a continuation of the old grist 
mill, was Degun by Colonel R.D.Johnson in 1857. The plant 
still stands and has increased its production of flours and 
feeds from twenty-five barrels then to three hundred and 
fifty per day now. Supplying flour within a radius of a 
hundred miles, it occasionally exports to South America and 
Europe, (g) 



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In the early day3 of railroad, transportation, • 
little confidence was placed by private enterprises in the 
permanency of the roads. Railroads were thus compelled to 
ouild their own rails and equipment, and even hotels ana 
eating houses. (;}) 

So in 1367 the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad sig- 
nifies, its Intention of building a rolling mill in Cumber laud. 
The city granted land for the mills, which on completion in 
1870, markea the beginning of an era of prosperity for the 
town. It employed an army of workers at high wages, and 
continued in operation, the major industry of the town, until 
the panic in 1876. Work was resumed in l37j to cease perm- 
anently in 1383 (a) when the steel companies forced the rail- 
roads to give up their secondary enterprises. (j) In two 
years came the Johnstown Flood in Pennsylvania, due to which 
the Cambria Iron Company of that city temporarily moved its 
plant to Cumberland ana occupied the rolling mill property. 
Idle again after IBs*"?, it Was leased in 1898 by the 
Sohoenthal Steel Company, who manufactured small iron rails 
until ld05. At this date it was taken over oy the Maryland 
Rail Company, whioh haa oeen operating in South Cumberland 
since aoout 1887, and whose plant had just been destroyed 
by a flywheel explosion. The Baltimore and Ohio re-ac quired 
it in idS4 and since has been using it in the reclamation of 
iron scraps. 1 3) la) 

A lumber company was started in Cumberland as early 



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as 1374. It was operated oy Landweir and Hines and located 
along the Baltimore and Ohio on Commerce Street, (y) liertens 
Sons, who owned several large lumber tracts east of CuinDerland, 
bought it shortly afterward and built a narrow gauge railway 
from their lands to the plant, {,&') The company discontinued 
cuainess at the outset of the World Tiar. (y) 

One of the important Industries of Western Maryland 
began in 13?? when a, charter was granted to the Cumberland 
Caat-ateei Company. A plant was ouilt on the present site 
of the kcKaig Foundry at a cost of ,$50,000 and ■ ith A Cap- 
acity of 13,0004 per day. lb) kerwir. McKaig, a pioneer 
capitalist in tnis section, took it over in 1876 and in— 
creaaeu the capital stock from $100,000 to $500,000. Due 
to the inventive genius of the for man, J. J.Munoaster, 
several machines and processes were ueveluped fur the manu- 
facture of "Turned ana Ground" shafting. 

Having obtained patents, McKaig and Muneaster 
organized a separate company irlth the latter as vice-preai- 
iient and general manager, and erect ea a plant for the sole 
production of this shafting. Operating at present under the 
name of the Cumberland Steel Company, it produces trie "Ch^u- 
ScOii tons per month ol steel shafting which is sola all 
uver the ..orla. ^c 1 ) 

The foundry uf lioKaigs is still operating and is 
the largest proaucer of machine parts in the ./est end of the 
state. 



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In 1830 another glass factory was opened in South 
Cumoeriand Known as the Warren Glaaa Works, (b) Five years 
later it was ouned oy ita former secretary, L.P.Whiteman and 
manufactured Dottles and press work. The i^ertena people 
tooK it over in lido and operated it successfully until laQ3 
when after a orief shutdown it ue^an again as the Eastern 
Glas3 Company. In ls*l3 it oeeame the Aiaryland Glass C-mpany 
capitalized at $130,000 and sinoe has Deen producing taole 
glassware. (d 1 ) 

Paper has been manufactured in We 3 tern Maryland 
since 1334, when James Luke, a pioneer in the state, ouilt 
the Luke Paper Mill on a site caileu "The Isles". A town of 
the same name has sprung up as a result of the mill which, 
in the early days enjoyed prominence, and at one time had a 
contract for supplying the United States Government nitfa 
post-cards. The company has sales agencies in New York and 
ChicafcO, and produces eight hundred tons per day, some by 
secret process, (h) 

1337 orought another 6 rain mill and a brick yard. 
Don and Ezra Deal made corn and oats feeds, shipping locally 
about fifty tons a aay. The plant burned ana was rebuilt 
in id 10. Production today ia aoout one hundred tona al^n^ 
with a small quantity of flour, (i) 

The orick plant was begun oy Blaul and White, and 
produced aoout ten thousand handmade cricks per aay. When 
Blaul Jr, took charge ana machine methods -vers introduced. 



-18- 



the capacity was increased to thirty thousand per day. Today 
it is only ali & htly active. ^) 

A small mat r ess factory has been in operation in 
Cumberland since 1833. It was ouilt by Charles N. Thomas on 
and is now handled by R. Wlegand ana Son who ootained it in 
1919. (n) 

The sejond limber company of note was the South 
Cumoerland Planing kill, ouilt in I8a6, Incorporated in 
iyiH at $175,000, it3 sales have increased from approximate- 
ly $ 7 Q,0Q0 a year at "Che start to a maximum to date of 
$3£5,QQ0. ^r) In the year a to follow a number of these 
companies sprung into existence. Amon B which the Cessna, 
lyOOj Western niarylana, IdOl; Cumoerland, lo05 ^1); ana the 
fiuohanan in 1^13 ^q) are important. 

A small soap ousiness was oegun oy -at tern cUia 
Geroig also in 1*?0O. v3) The site Is now occupied oy the 
main plant of Footers Dye Wor&s, the lar e e t aye forks in 
the country. 

Ana in 1301, also, two other plants were inaug- 
usate^. The German L>re.*ing C—.^ny, organized oy Hi. C. White, 
.^as then plaoea in operation *na produced seventy-five 
thousand oarrels per year. Upon our entry into the war, 
its name was changed to the Queen City 3re.ving Company, the 
reason being obvious. Immediately prior to the adoption of 
the Eighteenth Amendment, the demand for its product was so 
great that the plant was unable to meet it. Converted to 



-19- 



an ice plant after that event, it has sinoe been producing 
one hundred, ton3 of ioe per day and a small quantity of 
near- Deer, (a) 

The Klots Throwing Company had its inception in 
190 i, but did not occupy the present ouilding at the loot 
of Old Town Road until 1903. It is but one of a group of 
fourteen mills, in the vicinity.operated oy the same corpor- 
ation and doing commission work. Three hundred pounds of 
silk per week in the beginning as compared to seven thou- 
sand now shows a rapid growth, (p) 

The Cumoerland Granite Briok Company functioned 
as auoh from 1903 to 1914 obtaining its material from the 
other side of Wills fountain. When the granite became 
worked out, the plant was changed to a shale orick producer 
and is still operating at present, (f) 

A barrel factory a ^s erected in 1911 cy W. R.E.King 
starting production with aoout thirty thousand a day. Peak 
production was reached just before Prohioition and aince,the 
maximum has been seventy-Bi/w thousand in 1933. Supply is 
mainly local although some shipments are made via the 
Baltimore and Ohio to adjacent states, (x) 

Near the same location on Valley Street , the 
Williams Foundry, making grey iron castings for local use, 
was built in the same year, (w) 

In 1916 the five Nevy brothers began the manu- 
facture of macaroni and shipped about twenty-five carrels 



-20- 



a lay. Semolina, obtained from Dakota wheat, Is the raw 
produot. This company sells Ita product mainly to the for- 
eign element in the country and exports a large quantity 
to Porto Rice and Santo Domingo. Present production is 
thirty tnousand pounds per day. (m) 

The extensive orchards in Western Maryland were 
mainly responsible for the construction of a cox factory 
at Cumberland in 1U17. Production has increased ten-fold 
since then and a ne.. larger building is at present under 
construction. {%) 

The Kelly-Springfield Tire Company in i^l4 oper- 
ated plants at Akron, Wooster and Buffalo. In 1916 it 
became evident that it was necessary to increase production 
materially; and it was decided, rather than to enlarge 
existing plants, to select a ne-.- location ideally situated 
and there erect a complete new unit. Thorough studies were 
made oy eminent engineers, ana Cumberland, Maryland, due to 
its excellent geographic position, was finally selectea as 
the site for the new plant. The erection of the new plant 
was begun in the same year-l9l£~but owing to the war, pro- 
gress was slow and the plant was not put into operation 
until early in 1931, Since that date production in Cumberland 
has steaaily increased until at present it is the main plant 
of the Kelly group ana one of the largest in the oountry. 
Three thousand five hundrea men are employed at peak pro- 
duction which is aoove ten thousand tires and fifteen thou- 



-21- 



3 and tubes par day. The capital stock of this company is 
twenty million dollars, (.b 1 } 

Cumberland is fortunate in having, located near 
the city, the factory of the Celanese Corporation of America, 
this large firm having just recently adopted this name for 
purposes of better identification with its product. The 
Celanese Corporations are wall known in ooth hemispheres, 
a factory at present being located at Derby, England aud 
employing seven thousand people. The Canadian company has 
just been completed and is ready to start production of 
yarn Hi-most immediately. The American Cellulose and Chemical 
Company, as it was originally called, was Drought to tnis 
vicinity at the beginning of 1935 and as early as September 
of 1936 nine hundred people were employed. Expansion of 
builaings and duplication of equipment has o&en continuous 
since production started ana nineteen hundred are employed 
at the factory today - leas than three years since the 
first production of celanese at Amcelle. Contracts were let 
during 1937 for builaings to house the necessary machinery 
with which to double the present production; and this equip- 
ment will start coming into commission early in 1933. It is 
expected that oy the end of 1938, no less than three tnousand 
people will be employed. Still further developments are 
expected soon, in that, the Celloid Company of Newark, *,ew 
Jersey has oeen acquired by the Celanese Corporation and 
has announced its intention of building a twc and one half 






million dollar plant adjacent to that already at Amcelie. 
Thus one of the moat progressive industrial corporations 
in the world has eeen fit to locate its plant in Western 
Maryland. (g») 

From all the foregoing facts it is quite oovious 
that the main occupation of the western region of Maryland 
has oeen gradually changing from mining to manufacturing, 
until, at present, mining occupies a position somewhat in, 
the cackground, and manufacturing has become of such iu«- 
portance as make the region noted as an industrial center. 



Ae a review of the complete history of manufactur- 
ing, as given herein, the author has prepared the fullowing: 

CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE 
1300 Manufacturing almost unknown. 

Shryer's Tan yard and a grist mill in Cumberland 
1816 Perry's Glass Factory 

1335 Iron mills of the Georges Creek Coal ana Iron Company 
at Lonaconing 

1336 Cumberland Hydraulic Cement ana Manufacturing Company 
1840 Wills Creek Tannery. Glass factory on Paca Street, 

Cumberland. 
1341 Cumberland Foundry and Machinery Shup 



-23- 



1343 Mount Savage Rolling Mill. 

135? Cotton factory in Cumberland. 

1357 R.D.Johnson Milling Company, 

1867 Baltimore and Ohio Railroadfe rolling mill. 

1873 Cumberland Cast-steel Company. 

1874 Landweir ani Hines, lumber. 
1330 Warren Glass Works 

1334 Paper mill at Luke, Maryland. 

1337 Deal Brothers Milling Company. Maryland Rail Company. 

Queen City Brick and Tils Company. 

1339 Cumberland Brewing Company. 

1332 Mattress factory. 

1893 Cumberland Steel Company organised. 

1396 South Cumberland Planing Mill. 

1300 Mattern ani Gerbig, soap. 

Cessna Lumber Company. 

190l Western Maryland Lumber Company. 

German Brewing Company. 

Klota Throwing Company , silk. 

1903 Cumberland Granite Brick Company. 

1305 Cumberland Lumoer Company. 

1911 W. R.E.King, barrels. William's Foundry. 

1913 Suohanan Lumoer Company. 

Id 16 Cumberland macaroni Company. 

1317 Cumberland Box Company. 

1931 Kelly-apringfield Tire Company. 

1924 Celaneae Corporation of America. 



-34- 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

The first part of this paper ia practically a 
raviefl of the work of Mr. B.S.Randolph on mining in Western 
Mary land, inter t voven with a numoer of facta oDtained from 
reports of the Maryland Geological Survey and ay direct 
conneotion with a numoer of present day ooal operators. 

The section dealing with manufacturing has oeen 
compiled from a multitude of facta collected from among 
the leading manufacturers in the region and several ola 
residents , aole to recall eventa of days gone oy. 

The following are referred to oy guide letters 
affiled in the text:- 



A Hiatory of Allegany County, Maryland, 



B Hiatory of Western Maryland, 



Volume I 
THOMAS 

Volume II 
SCHARF 

Volume V 

Volume - 



C. . , Maryland Geological Survey. lt*05. 

D Maryland Geological Survey. 1^00. 

A1LEGANY COUNTY 

..George Brotemarkle, Chief Clerk, Wills Creek Tannery. 

..J.W.Cook, Cumberland Cement ana Supply Company. 

..M.B.Coffey, manager, R.D.Johnson Milling Company. 

..Judge O.H.Bruce, former resident of Luke, Maryland. 

. . P. H. Ingles, chief clerk, Deal Brothers. 



E 

F, . . . . 

"" * • a ■ a 

H 



-35- 



J . . • 



K. 



L. .. 
M. ., 
H.., 

0... 
P.. . 

R. . . 

S. . . 
T... 
U. .. 
V.,. 



w . , * 

Y 

Z. .. 
A 1 
S 1 . . 

C>.. 



D'.. 
E\, 

G'.. 



..Henry Schriver, president, First National Bank of 

Cum aer land. 
. . 11, L.Feaenmyer, former vioe-praaident, Cumoariand 

Br awing Company. 
. .H. R,killer, o.vner, Cumoariand Luu.oer Company. 
. ,M. J.Clement, manager, Cumoariand Macaroni Company. 
. .M.Wiegand, partner, Cumoariand Mattress Factory. 
. .J.M.Rhind, treasurer, Cumoerlano. Steal Company. 
. .C.T.Jett, superintendent, Kiota Throwing Company. 
.. H, Buchanan, president, Buchanan Lumoer Company. 
. . A. J.Weoer, secretary, South Cumoariand Planing Mill. 
..W.P.Riaer, secretary, Queeno Company. 
..F.P.Smith, owner, Cumberland Box Company. 
. . J. P.Sheihouse, president, Potomac Glass Company. 
..History of Cumberland. LOUDERMILK. 
. . J.B.Williams, owner, Williams Foundry. 
. .1. R.E.King, owner, oarrel factory. 
. . L.R.Boward, former for man, Martens Sons. 
. .H.R.Alaridge, Union Mining Company. 
. .P. A.Nioklin, Allegany County Treasurer. 
..Mr. Granger, Kelly-Springfield Tire Company. 
. . I. J.Muncaater, former vice-president, Cumberland 

Steel Company. 
., J.M.Conway, secretary, Maryland Glaas Company. 
..D. Annan, president, Weatarn Maryland Lumber Company. 
..Henry Paupe, manager, Cumoariand Brick Company. 
..Cumberlana Evening Times, December 38, 1937.