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Carlos Whitlock Porter, Editor 

Historical Review Press 1988 


War crimes trials are characterized by the assumption that rules of 
evidence are a technicality designed to enable the guilty to evade 
punishment. In fact, however, their purpose is to protect tribunals from 
errors in judgement. 

Centuries ago, it was common to prosecute women for performing sexual 
acts with the Devil. These acts were described in minute detail in 
thousands of trials, in millions of pages of sworn testimony. It was 
established, for example, that Satan's ejaculatory fluid is cold. 

Thousands of women stood fast in their confessions to the very foot of the 
stake, proving the truth of the matter stated; others recanted, proving the 
contumacy of the Tempter. 

Thousands of men were burned for signing a Compact with the Prince of 
Darkness. This was a written contract, binding on both parties, the exact 
text of which was known to jurists for centuries; yet the original document 
was never found. Secondary evidence was accepted as to its existence and 

Satan's existence was proven by his many appearances in the form of a cat 
or a goat; his failure to fulfil his contractual obligatians was seen as a 
simple breach of faith. 

Scientific experiments were performed. Women known to have participated 
in the Black Mass were found not to have left their beds during the night, 
proving that transportation is spiritual, rather than physical. 

Professional witnesses denounced thousands of people; defendants were 
condemned on the basis of ex parte affidavits signed by unknown persons; 
hallucinations and dreams were introduced into evidence in sworn 

Persons defending the accused could only be motivated by secret 
sympathy with Satan's conspiracy or Common Plan. 

Respected people entered prison defiant, confident that God would prove 
them innocent; only to emerge a month later, prepared to confess publicly 
and be burned alive for kissing the anus of a goat. 

Slimilar procedures and rules of evidence were used after the last war to 
convict Germans of killing millions of Jews in a toxicologically absurd 
manner, using an insecticide requiring 24 hours to kill moths. 

It is characteristic of modern thought that man is heid to be progressing in 
some manner, a concept which was foreign to the medievai worid. 

Part I 
As a "proven fact" protected by special laws not applicable to other "proven facts", the 
Holoco$t must be considered as something of an endangered species 

All one needs to endanger the species a bit further or perhaps even drive it into 

extinction is to get the Nuremberg Trial transcript and read some of it. 

If Germans gassed millions of Jews, did they also 

1. Steam people to death like lobsters in 10 steam chambers at Treblinka 

2. Zap them to death with mass electrical shocks 

3. Blast them into the twilight zone with atomic bombs 

4. Beat people to death, then carry out autopsies to see why they died 

5. Force people to climb trees, then cut the trees down 

6. Kill 840.000 Russian POWs at Sachsenhauseii. and burn the bodies in 4 portable 

7. Bash people's brains in with a pedal-driven brain-bashing machine while listening 
to the radio, then burn the bodies in 4 portable ovens 

8. Torture and execute people in time to music at the Yanov camp in Russia — shoot 
every member of the orchestra 

9. Grind the bones of millions of people in portable bone-grinding machines 

10. Grind the bones of 200 bodies [^/t ton1 at one time as described in photographs 
and documents which have disappeared — study bone grinding in special 10-day 
crash-course seminars 

11. Whup people with special spanking machines 

12. (Note that photographs of German leaders, concentration camps, etc.. are in full 
supply, but that photos of bone grinders, portable ovens, etc., have all 

13. Make lampshades of human skin 

14. Cut people's heads off and then shrink them — make pocketbooks and driving 
gloves for SS officers out of human skin 

15. Paint pornographic pictures on canvasses made of human skin 

16. Bind books in human skin 

17. Make saddles, riding breeches, gloves, house slippers, and ladies handbags out of 
human skin 

18. Drive Jews to cannibalism in all those freight cars 

19. More "scientific experiments" — another ridiculous accusation — another bizarre 
hallucination — another example of German efficiency 

20. Torture people in specially mass-produced "torture boxes" made by Krupp 

21. Kill people for sleeping in their underwear — kill people for wearing dirty 
underwear — wear underwear stolen from gassed persons — (didn't they have any 
underwear in Germany?) — kill people for having armpit hair — stuff chairs with 
human hair — (an objection from defendant Goring) — make socks out of human 

hair — (actually, the correct translation should be hair-yarn "booties" for U-boat 
crews) — (commentary) — collect seven tons of hair for human sock making — 
collect 293 hair bales (net weight seven thousand kilograms) at Auschwitz for 
mattress stuffiiifi and making hair socks — gas them to death, then destroy the 
bodies with quicklime at Auschwitz 

22. Use human ashes for repairing the roads — mix human ashes with manure and sell 

23. Bum human bodies using human fat for fuel — burn human bodies using no fuel 
at all after removing them from the gas chambers without wearing gas masks — 
burn 8Q.QQQ bodies in 2 old ovens 

24. Burn human bodies in holes dug in a swampy plain which is frozen in January 
where it rains and snows constantly and there is mud everywhere — what did they 
do when it was raining? 

25. Kill people with poisoned soft drinks — shoot 135.000 people in Smolensk and 
bury them Katyn-style — shoot 200.000 people in the Lisenitz forest — using the 
same methods of concealment they used at Katyn 

Part II 
As a "proven fact" protected by special laws not applicable to other "proven facts", the 
Holoco$t must be considered as something of an endangered species 

All one needs to endanger the species a bit further or perhaps even drive it into 

extinction is to get the Nuremberg Trial transcript and read some of it. 

If Germans gassed millions of Jews, did they also 

1. Shoot the Polish officers at Katyn — (this document describes how "confessions" 
are obtained in Communist show trials, but says that the Germans did it) — (Here 
we have the cynical Nazis chuckling about how they will exterminate the Poles at 
Katyn) — (The Americans had an English translation of this at trials, so why did 
they translate it into German for the document volumes?) — Frame the Russians 
for Katyn — Torture "witnesses" into signing statements written by Gestapo 
interrogators and "interpreters" to frame the Russians for Katyn — Torture 
"witnesses" into testifying falsely before international delegations to frame the 
Russians for Katyn — Torture "witnesses" into signing "statements" written in 
foreign languages to frame the Russians for Katyn — Torture "witnesses" into 
signing "statements" they were not allowed to read — Torture "witnesses" into 
raising their right arm and swearing falsely under oath to frame the Russians for 
Katyn — Dig up the bodies at Katyn and put false documents in their pockets to 
make it look like the Russians did it. then bury them again — (Here are the 500 
Russian labourers rummaging through the pockets of 1 1.000 corpses) — Transport 
thousands of bodies from mass graves all over Poland and bury them at Katyn to 
frame the Russians for Katyn — Here we have stinking bodies fallling out of the 
trucks and flopping all over the road on the way to Katyn... Now comes 13 pages 
of "forensic evidence" "quoted" in the "report" written by the prosecutor: the only 
forensic evidence at trial 

2. Boil the fat from 40 male and female human bodies for 3-7 days to get 25 kilos 
of soap — (every one of the documents and exhibits mentioned has disappeared) — 
with one exception, every one of the "human soap" documents has disappeared... 
the "confession" of "human soap maker" Sigmund Mazur (spelled 3 different 
ways) has disappeared... the human soap samples have disappeared; the tanned 
human skin samples have disappeared... The "human soap recipe" does not 
contain the word "human"... that has been added by the translator"... With a turn 
of a page 86 documents having "probative value", including 3 "human soap" 
documents, have disappeared, yet the charges were upheld... 

3. Reading the indictment, one is struck by the dramatic nature of Soviet atrocity 
charges... All these charges were to be "proven true" after a lengthy "trial" 
involving "evidence"... and yet the only "evidence" involved turns out to be 
"reports" which the Russians have written themselves. The "proof" of the five- 
pointed star cut or burnt into people's bodies turns out to be just another Soviet 
"report" which has disappeared... The "proof of the mass-shootings at Baba-Yar 
turns out to be just another Soviet "report" which has disappeared... Don't bother 
trying to find these documents in the document volumes because they are just not 
there.. Every document not marked with an asterisk has simply disappeared. The 
impossibly ridiculous "gas vans" were mentioned for the first time in a Soviet 
document which has disappeared... This Soviet "report" is our principal source of 
"information" on Auschwitz and has been widely plagiarized... everything 
happens first in Russia. 

4. While hundreds of documents deemed to have "probative value" have 
disappeared.... hundreds of photos which prove nothing are there to be examined 
by anyone — (Correction: the portable-oven-portable-bone-grinder-portable-brain- 
bashing machines-human-soap confessions are available from the National 
Archives. We will obtain there documents and publish them.) (Correction again: 
we will obtain photocopies of negative photostats of "true copies".) — Note that 
half the sign is in English and says. "Protect yourselves from Jewish atrocity 
propaganda". — More "evidence" that proves nothing... cartoons from "Per 
Stiirmer" - "Don't Trust a Fox Whatever You Do. Nor Yet the Oath of Any Jew" 
— A "baptized Jew" eating "baptized meat" on Friday — A Jewish butcher — "Jews 
not Wanted"... Jews are Our Misfortune"... The Jewish lecher... The Jewish 

5. This is from the Judgement. Note the references to "statements" made by Grabe 
and Hoss — The documents are never photographically reproduced so that we can 
see what they look like... instead they are transcribed with microscopic German 
abbreviations such as "BeglVm" which means "certificate of authenticity" or 
"BeglPhot" which means "certified photocopy". Do you suppose they have 
anything to hide? — Since when is a document like this proof of anything under 
U.S. law? — Under U.S. law, none of these "affidavits", "reports", and 
"confessions" would even be admissible. — No one can be convicted of murder 
under U.S . law on the basis of an "affidavit" such as this one.— The Nuremberg 
Trial was a return to the Inquisitional procedures of the Middle Ages. 

6. None of these people ever appeared in court, yet Grabe has been "quoted" for 50 
years as a Hoaxoco$t "witness". — Grabe was supposedly working for the US 

Army, but nobody ever brought him to court - only his "affidavit". — The 
"confession" of Rudolf Hoss was written entirely in English and partially hand- 
written by a US Army officer — without any interpreter, stenographer, lavv'yer. or 
witness. — This is a toxicological impossibility. Note the reference to 10 "gas 
chambers" at Treblinka. — 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica. "Prussic Acid" (Also, 
"WOLZEK" never existed). — Note the statement "I understand English as it is 
written above"... whose handwriting is this? — Note that the English is letter- 
perfect but the US Army officer has mis-spelled his own name (italics indicate 
signatures) — Direct examination of Wisliceny showing correct spelling of 
Brookhart's name. Did Hoss really sign his name the American way If Brookhart 
spoke German, why is the Hoss confession in English? Why are the names mis- 
spelled? - THERE IS NO PROOF OF ANY HOAXOCO$T. Instead of proof, 
what we get is a mixture of the following techniques: — 

7. The "Poison Mushroom" — another series of Streicher cartoons. — "He has just 
been baptized and isn't a Jew anymore" — Jewish nose studies in the classroom — 
"Who Fights the Jews. Contends With the Devil" — What these cartoons are 
supposed to prove — is that Streicher "influenced" the German people into 
"gassing" Six Million Jews. — Streicher spent 1 1 months on trial at Nuremberg 
and was permitted to testify quite freely — an excerpt from Streicher's testimony — 
while Rudolf Hoss was hustled in and out of court in half of one morning session 
and disappeared forever. Hoss was never tried in any non-Communist country. 
Hoss was a "defence witness" called by Kaltenbrunner's court-appointed "defence 

8. Fifteen days earlier Hoss had no knowledge of English whatsoever... — Here he 
signed an affidavit which had to be translated into German for him... (note the 
correct German spelling of Hoss's name) — which seems to have been done only 
if the deponent didn't understand English. — In many cases there is no real proof 
that these men even knew what they were signing. —Another example of the 
endless linguistic permutations typical of all Nuremberg "evidence"... — In this 
case a Frenchman makes a handwritten statement in English making German- 
style mistakes, then translates it for the co-signer, another Frenchman. — Since 
they were both French and both signed, why didn't they write it in French? 

Part III 
As a "proven fact" protected by special laws not applicable to other "proven facts", the 
Holoco$t must be considered as something of an endangered species 

All one needs to endanger the species a bit further or perhaps even drive it into 

extinction is to get the Nuremberg Trial transcript and read some of it. 

1. In December 1946 there were no "gas chambers" at Treblinka.. only "steam 
chambers". — By February 1946 this had all been forgotten and there were 
always 10 "gas chambers" at Treblinka. 

2. Anyone who purports to be a survivor is automatically believed.... — Any 
accusation is automatically believed... — Every atrocity committed by the 
Russians or other Allies is parodied in some accusation against the Germans. In 

this case it is mass rape... — Food confiscation Kulak-style... — Here it is Soviet 
persecution of religion... — (Notice that he says he took an oath to take the truth 
all his life in 1917) — Since one reason the Russians are believed guilty for Katyn 
is because small trees grew over the graves, the Germans are constantly accused 
of planting them. — Almost every Holocaust vv'itness claimed to have worked as a 
"interpreter" or in an "office" or "laboratory". — (He was an interpreter and 
photographer at Mauthausen) — (She was an office worker at Auschwitz, that's 
why she survived.) 

3. Anyone who does a bit of research can find dozens of photographs of healthy. 
well-fed inmates from any German concentration camp. — Everyone has seen 
pictures like this...— while photographs like this one have simply been ignored by 
the mass media. — These pictures were taken after the liberation of Ebensee 
(Mauthausen) on May 6. 1945. — This picture shows the same people posing in 
the background with some "living skeletons". — A close up. —Note three wrist 
watches, sprinkler system, and swimming pool. A close up of the high-dive. — 
These people have just returned from being "umgesiedelt" (euphemism for 
extermination)... — More exterminated people. — A Dachau inmate. — Healthy 
inmates leaving Buchenwald... — Buchenwald inmates on April 14. 1945. The 
man with the glasses lost weight after his release. — If the "living skeletons" were 
not in fact the victims of epidemic disease, then why was it necessary to burn 
down Bergen-Belsen? — Typical midget-sized (non-portable) oven. Dachau. 

4. Legally. Nuremberg was a fiasco. Witnesses were interrogated under the laws of 
the Soviet Union... — Judicial notice was taken of the findings of Soviet courts... - 
- Documents or exhibits were introduced into evidence under the laws of 
Communist countries... The defendants were not allowed to question the 
credibility of any prosecution witness at any time... — Any "report" written by the 
prosecutor was considered "proof" of the defendants' guilt and was not considered 
subject to argument... — Any groundless assertion made by the prosecution was 
considered "proven" unless the defendants could disprove it... — Effective cross- 
examination was simply not allowed. — The defendants were not allowed to take 
the stand to contradict the prosecution witnesses... 

5. Testimony was curtailed whenever it was feared someone might contradict a 
favourite prosecution witness... — Defence attorneys were reprimand for 
"confusing" the witnesses on cross-examination... — Defence attorneys were not 
given copies of documents introduced into evidence by the prosecution by the 
prosecution... — Newspapermen were given 250 copies of every document, but 
the defence were not even given one each.— Defence attorneys were given piles of 
documents every morning which were all out of order... — Defence attorneys were 
not advised as to the order of proceedings... — The Jack-in-the-Box Witness 
Technique. — They were given virtually all of their documents in English 
translation instead of the German original... Or they were given 2 copies of a 
document for 25 lawyers at 10:30 A.M.. when trial started at 10... Defence 
attorneys were snowed under with documents which they were not given time to 
read... — Defendants were expected to comment on documents which they were 
not given time to read... — (The transcript is full of promises to quit cheating, but 
the abuses continued)... 

6. More examples of flagrant prosecutorial bad faith. — Defence attorneys werer 
given documents when it was weeks too late to be any good to them... — Defence 
attorneys had no way of Icnowing what was even in the document book; what kind 
of "trial" is this? — The "true and correct copies" were not the same as the 
originals... — The prosecutors did not know which document was original and 
which was the copy... — Page numbers were incorrectly translated... — of course. 

it was all in different languages so the page numbers could not be the same 
anyway: endless confusion. 

7. Endless confusion over documents... — and translations... — yet objections were 
considered "improper"... — How can such a "trial" be said to have "proven" 
anything? — Documents were introduced into evidence which were known to be 
false... — "German" documents were written by foreigners... — Another "German" 
document forged in Yugoslavia... 

8. "Confessions" and "statements" were presented ready made for signature or else... 
— (Was this the only case or was this the tip of the iceberg? — Another "voluntary 
statement". — "Witnesses" were allowed to read their "testimony" off scraps of 
paper.. — The "witnesses" were allowed to repeat any kind of hearsay and rumour; 
the prosecutors were allowed to lead the witnesses in any manner they like... — 
here the "witness" says "I personally wasn't a witness" and the prosecutor says 
"Never mind"... — here we learn that concentration camp inmates have 
extrasensory perception. 

9. 31 1.982 notarized defence affidavits were never translated and have been 

10. The typical piece of Holocaust "evidence" consists of a Communist "report" 
originally written in Russian. — Over half of the Soviet documents are 
"photocopies" of German documents which have been "certified genuine" by the 
Russians. — Another photocopy certified genuine by the Soviet War Crimes 
Commission... — A certified photocopy of a mimeographed document which the 
Russians say is genuine... — More Communist "evidence"... — More Russian 

1 1. One affidavit from an army officer or political commissar was enough to certify 
any document as genuine at any time... — the affidavit or certificate simply states 
where the document was "found", and that it is "genuine". — All PS documents, 
are covered by one affidavit sworn by Major Coogan on Nov. 22. 1945. — 
Documents which have been "found" are not individually "certified" "genuine". 
ONE affidavit makes them ALL genuine and that is that. — "Copies" were 
prepared on a mimeograph, so the only thing appearing on the "copy" was what 
they typed onto the stencil. — "The man without a signature". 

Part IV 
As a "proven fact" protected by special laws not applicable to other "proven facts", the 
Holoco$t must be considered as something of an endangered species 

All one needs to endanger the species a bit further or perhaps even drive it into 

extinction is to get the Nuremberg Trial transcript and read some of it. 

1. These are "captured" "original" "certified genuine" "German" photoRraphs. The 
Russian stamps mean that they have been "certified genuine" by the Soviet War 
Crimes Commission. The captions of these genuine German photos have been 
translated from the original Russian. — The Russian rubber-stamp "certificate of 
authenticity" is usually edited out of this photo when it appears in anthologies. — 
One of the greatest film producers of the 2Qth century was a Russian. Sergei 
Eisenstein. — Eisenstein produced his 1st film (Strike) in 1924. — Eisenstein 
visited Hollywood in 1930. returned to Russia and taught in the State Institute of 
Cinematography (Same woman as in photo -3- but with white wig). — His films 
include Potemkin (1925)... 10 Days That Shook the World ( 1928)... Alexander 
Nevsky (1938). with its bold sweep of 13th century battles... Ivan the Terrible 
(1944). another nationalistic subject... and "documentary films" for the war effort 
during WWII. — The Russians had hundreds of concentration camps with their 
own epidemics, famines and atrocities. Also available were props, sets, extras, 
and costumes. — "Documentary proof" that the Nazis castrated people". 

2. More "evidence" from Hollywood. — Is this real, or did they borrow it from a 
late-night movie? — This is a crude photomontage. Just look at the "torso" or the 
soles of the feet or the leg floating in the air at the top, or the long-distance torso 
at the right, which first appears to be a vague shape. The perspective also appears 
to be wrong. In this picture truly everything is a botch. — The pictures of the 
Warsaw uprising bear a PS document number and are theoretically covered by the 
one affidavit of Major Coogan of the US Army sown on November 2. 1945; BUT 
— ... the fact that a document bears a PS number does not guarantee that it is not 
Russian in origin (see footnote). — The soldier pointing the weapon at the child 
a ppears to be the same as the soldier with the sadistic smile in the next picture, 
possibly indicating they were shooting with a small cast. 

3. In a real trial it might be questioned whether the "probative value" of such 
photographs is not exceeded by their "prejudicial nature". — Without the captions 
the evidence proves nothing... — so that all that is required is a good caption 
writer. — Horror-video "evidence" from Yugoslavia. 

4. Speer describes Mauthausen — Another witness describes Dachau... — Konrad 
Morgen describes Buchenwald and Dachau. — Morgen was the SS judge who shot 
Koch for making human lampshades... — Morgen lied himself blue in the face on 
other matters, so we are free to disregard all of his testimony. 

5. Scientifically the Holocaust is a farce. The prosecutors admitted that they lacked 
the technical expertise to judge the evidence... — so they told the witnesses not to 
get too technical (!) — Since victims of cyanide poisoning become unconscious 
and do not all die in the same period of time if at all, the "peepholes" would not 
have been much help... — Cyanide is lighter than air and Zyklon cannot flow 
through pipes (At the Dachau Trial, this gas chamber didn't exist). — ... an early 
"gassing" yarn with a "gas reservoir" instead of Zyklon. — Here it says that the 
gas chamber was made out of wood. Cyanide gas can penetrate wooden walls... — 
Here are 2000 people flopping down unconscious in the death chamber... — Here 
are the SS men looking through a "peephole" at thousands of unconscious 
people... — Here is Hoess/Broorkhar(d)t listening outside the door to thousands of 
unconscious people ("we knew when the people were dead because their 

screaming stopped")... — Here are the SS men burning millions of bodies in holes 
dug in a swamp... — What did they do when it was raining? 

6. These are the "funeral urns" which were filled with human ashes and then 
smashed, so that "every trace was wiped out" (IMT XXXIII 232) -- Note the 
small size of the ovens. An oven like this could probably burn 8-12 bodies per 
24 hours using coal for fuel, or up to 16 using oil. — Millions of bodies cannot be 
crudely cremated without leaving huge quantities of evidence. To burn a human 
body using wood can require up to 40 hours; in a crematory oven, at least 1 - 2 
hours depending on the fuel. The ash, assuming complete combustion, weighs 5 - 
9 pounds. — The "crematory oven letters" turn out to be certified photocopies 
which the Russians forgot to bring to court... — but the dimensions are only 18 x 
24 inches. — When we see factory smoke we know it is a crematorium... The 
crematory processes described are impossible... The chemical reactions described 
are wrong and all contradict each other... 

7. To accuse the Germans of killing millions of people with carbon monoxide 
generated by a Diesel motor... — is so stupid that it is not worth discussing... — A 
description of WWI gas chamber experiments. During WWI they were scientific, 
but 25 years later they "improvised" with Diesel engines and bug bombs... — 
Hundreds of pages are dedicated to "animal heat" medical experiments. Are we 
supposed to believe the Germans intended to carry prostitutes around on their air- 
sea rescue operations? — Typhus is an epidemic disease of prison camps spread 
by flea- or lice infested clothing. The clothing must be removed and sterilized. — 
Delirium is a symptom of typhus. 

8. Holocaust accusations fall into three categories: the impossibly ridiculous, the 
ridiculously impossible, and the hopelessly insane... 






C e r t i f i cat e 

This will certify that the document entitled "Charge No 6. Camp of Treblinka,",. 
concerning the extermination of Jews in this camp, 



331 1-PS 

is hereby officially submitted by the Polish Government to the International Military 
Tribunal by the undersigned under the provisions set forth in Article 2 1 of the Charter. 


Dr. Cvprian 

Dr. Tadeusz Cyprian Polish Deputy Representative on the United Nations War Crimes 
Commission in London 

Nurnberg. the 5th December. 1945 


CHARGE No. 6.") 


In accordance with article 6 of the Charter the Polish Government indicts 
Dr. Hans ERA NK Governor General of Poland, 
of the following crime: 

The German authorities acting under the authority of Governor General Dr. Hans Frank 
established in March 1942 the extermination-camp at Treblinka, intended for mass 
killing of Jews by suffocating them in steam-filled chambers. 

Particulars of the alleged Crime 

In 1940 the German authorities estabhshed in the village 01 Treblinka. near Malkinia 
close to the railway-line Warsaw - Bialystok. a concentration camp for Poles who refused 
to deliver contingents of agricultural products ordered by the German administrative 
authorities. In November 1941, the District Governor of Warsaw, Dr. FISCHER, 
proclaimed this camp as a general concentration camp for the whole district of Warsaw 
and ordered all Poles to be deported there who some way or other contravened against the 
orders or prohibitions of the German authorities. Later on this camp was named 
"Treblinka A". 

In March 1942, the Germans began to erect another camp "Treblinka B" / in the 
neighbourhood of "Treblinka A"/, intended to become a place of torment for Jews. 
') Official seal, stamped in purple ink I) Carbon copy 


3311 -PS 
The erection of this camp was closely connected with the German plans aiming at a 
complete destruction of the Jewish population in Poland which necessitated the creation 
of a machinery by means of which the Polish Jews could be killed in large numbers. Late 
in April 1942, the erection of the first three chambers was finished in which these 
general massacres were to be performed by means of steam. Somewhat later the 
erection of the real "deathbuilding" was finished which contains ten death chambers. It 
was opened for wholesale murders early in autumn 1942. 

It may be mentioned here that there were several phases in the development of the 
persecution of the Jews in Poland. During the first period until October 1940, the 
Germans were aiming only at the moral degradation and complete pauperisation of the 
Jews by all kinds of restrictions of their rights, by the confiscation of their property etc., 
but later on they turned to their gradual annihilation and destruction as a nation. This 
change of policy is apparent in their treatment of the ghettos, first they had only to isolate 
the Jews from the Aryans but later on they were the ghettos, the very means of the 
physical annihilation of the Jews. 

Healthier and stronger Jews were deported for forced labor while those who remained in 
the Ghettos were decimated by starvation and epidemics. As these methods did not 
produce the desired results more drastic measures were adopted. Wholesale massacres 
were organized in the Ghettos and, finally, a complete annihilation of the ghettos was 
decided upon. 

- Page 2- 
The Jews had simply ceased to exist. Special camps were established for this purpose 
where the destruction of human lives was carried on by mechanized means. The best 
known of these death camps are those of Treblinka, Belzec and Sobiber in the Lublin 
district. In these camps the Jews were put to death in their thousands by hitherto 

unknown, new methods, gas and steam chambers as well as electric current 
employed on a large scale. The Victims were recruited chiefly from the General 
Government, and particularly from the following districts: Warsaw, Radom, Lublin, 
Krakow and Lwow, but Jews from outside the General Government were also sent there, 
particularly from, the Bialystok district where the Ghettos were maintained for a long 
time and where in the summer months of 1943 about 10,000 Jews were rounded up and 
transported to Treblinka for extermination. 

The main part of the "work" was done in summer and autumn 1942. Winter 1942 and the 
year 1943 were used for "mopping up 



(Note that the technical installations are described in great detail, although by 

February 1946 this had all been forgotten.) 

3311 -PS 

operations", i. e. for the extermination of those who managed to dodge the main round-up 
and, of those younger Jews who were employed in war industry. To indulge in their lust 
for destruction the Germans did not hesitate to put to death even those younger Jews 
although their man-power was badly needed and their loss - as admitted by the Germans 
themselves - was a serious handicap for the war effort. 

The Camp B of Treblinka is situated in hilly, wooded country It covered an area of about 
5.000 ha (18 sq. miles) and was fenced off by hedges and barbed wire. It is bordered in 
the north by a young forest, in the west by a railway embankment while low hills shut it 
off from the East and South. There are several observation posts in the camp for the camp 
guard (Lagerschutz) as well as searchlights used for securing the camp during the hours 
of darkness. A side track leads from the main railway track on to a loading platform 
adjoining a large open place fenced off by barbed wire, where several thousands persons 
can be accommodated at the same time. To the north stands a large barrack and in the 
south-western corner an observation post. The place to the south of the bai'bed wire fence 
was used for sorting out pieces of clothes of the victims which were fit for further use 
(Lumpensoitierungsplatz). Further to the south is the place of execution and a mass 
grave. A gate opens from the place to a road leading to the buildings and one of them is 
divided by a narrow corridor into two parts and measures approx. 40 yards by 25 yards. 
On each side of the corridor are situated five chambers whose height is about 6 and a 
half feet. There are no windows. The doors can be shut hermetically. 

The second building consists of three chambers and a boilerroom. The steam 
generated in the boilers is led by means of pipes to the chambers. There are terracota 

floors which become very slippery when wet. Along the southern wall of the building 
runs a long platform where the bodies of the victims were piled up after execution. A 
well is situated near the boiler-room. 

Behind this building and separated from the rest of the camp by barbed wire stands a 

barrack and a kitchen destined for the grave diggers. On both sides of these buildings are 
situated observation posts. As the executions grew in numbers, mass graves were dug 
out by motor driven machines and not by hand and shovel as in the beginning. 

The camp was guarded by Germans of the SS-detachments and by Ukrainians. The 
officer to whom this guard was subordinated was the SS-Capt. SAUER. This garrison 
(Lagerschutz) performed also duties of executioners, while menial services had to be 



ty the inmates of. the camps themselves, so e.g. the unloading of the trucks, stripping of 
the victims and sorting out of their clothes and shoes (Lumpensortierung), the emptying 
of the death chambers and the burying of the bodies. When a new transport arrived some 
of the Jews were picked out to do this work so long till they broke down morally under 
the impression of this organized and mechanized mass murder. Then they had to dig their 
own graves and take up their position at them, whereupon they were shot one by one by 
SAUER personally. Their last duty before dying was to push the body of 

_ Page 3- 
the preceding victim into its own grave. A new party was then chosen to continue their 
work in the camp. The sadism of SAUER in enjoying the shooting personally sounds 
incredible, but his guilt has been proven beyond any doubt. 

The average number of Jews dealt with at the camp in summer 1942 was about two 
railway transports daily, but there were days of much higher efficiency. From autumn 
1942 this number was falling. 

After unloading in the siding all victims were assembled in one place where men were 
separated from women and children. In the first days of the existence of the camp the 
victims were made to believe that after a short stay in the camp, necessary for bathing 
and disinfection, they would be sent farther east, for work. Explanations of this sort were 
given by SS-Men who assisted at the unloading of the transports and further explanations 
could be read in notices stuck up on the walls of the barracks. But later, when more 
transports had to be dealt with, the Germans dropped all pretences and only tried to 
accelerate the procedure. 

All victims had to strip of their clothes and shoes, which were collected afterwards, 
whereupon all victims, women and children first, were driven into the death chambers. 
Those too slow or too weak to move quickly were driven on by rifle butts, by whipping 
and kicking, often by SAUER himself. Many slipped and fell, the next victims pressed 
forward and stumbled over them. Small children were simply thrown inside. After being 

filled up to capacity the chambers were hermetically closed and steam was let in. 

In a few minutes all was over. Jewish menial workers had to remove the bodies from the 
platform and to bury them in mass graves. By and by, as new transports arrived, the 
cemetery grew extending in eastern direction. 

From reports received may be assumed that several hundred thousands of Jews have been 
exterminated in Treblinka. Exact 



figures are impossible to obtain as the Germans did not bother to keep any records 
concerning the number of Jews deported to this camp and killed there. It will be even 
impossible to establish some correct figures because as early as spring 1943 the Germans 
began to exhume the bodies and to bum them so as to destroy all evidence of the 
crimes perpetrated. These cremations continue until summer 1943, when the victims were 
able to start a mutiny and to kill some of the guards enabling thus several hundred Jews 
to escape from the camp. 

The above description of the mass murders in Treblinka gives only a faint idea of the 
horrors which prevailed in the camp. It is practically impossible to imagine the sufferings 
of the victims in the camp and to grasp the full extent of the atrocities. For the victims 
transported to the camp in cattle trucks and exposed for several days to the most cruel 
sufferings of body and soul, death in the steam chambers must have almost come as a 
welcome relief. Their only crime consisted in the fact of belonging to a race condemned 
by Hitler to death. 

The responsibility of Dr. Hans FRANK for the setting up of the camp at Treblinka and 
for the mass killings described above is inherent to his official position as Governor 
General of Poland. 

The camp could not be set up without either his direct order or, at least, his approval, and 
the numbers of people killed there, clearly indicate, that these atrocities were elements of 
a systematic policy of extermination. All those connected with the "liquidation" of 
ghettos and of the Jews themselves took their orders from the Governor General. 

Dr. Cyprian 



einundzwanzigteilig /aile S'e Phot / Viertes und elftes S. nicht wiedergegeben. 

E r s t e s. S : Entire exhibit Photo, copy 



11 Feb. 46 
of externination was once again in full swing. It created murder vans, gas chambers in the 
concentration camps, special electrical appliances for the mass murder of the 
doomed, crematoria, and also "Zyklon" banks. 

Now, I pass over to the next section of my presentation: "Concentration camps for the 
peaceful population." 

Inasmuch as this subject has already been extensively treated by the members of the 
Prosecution who presented their cases before me, I shall try to be as brief as possible; I 
shall limit myself either only to absolutely new information or to the tex.t of the 
documents which serve as an explanation to the movie films which will be shown today 
before the Tribunal. 

I beg to draw the attention of the Tribunal to the fact that at the end of 1941 and in 1942 
the scale of German fascist crimes committed in concentration camps reached vast 
proportions. In particular, 1 refer to the report of the Polish Government in confirmation 
of this statement. On Page 138 of the document book the members of the Tribunal will 
find the testimony to the effect that in 1942 one of the most terrifying extermination 
camps, the Treblinka Camp Number 2. was in rapid process of erection. The Germans 
called this " Treblinka B." Further, I refer to the report of the extraordinary State 
Commission on Auschwitz. The members of the Tribunal will find the extract which 1 
am going to quote on Page 353 in the document book. Volume II, second column of the 
text, Paragraph 2. 1 quote a short excerpt from Page 257: 

"In 1941 the first crematorium for burning the corpses of murdered people was 
built in the Auschwitz Camp. This crematorium had three ovens. Attached to the 
crematorium was a so-called 'special purpose bath-house.' That was a gas chamber 
for asphyxiating people. " 

I draw the attention of the Tribunal to the following sentence: 

"In the summer of 1942 the Reichsfuhrer SS Himmler inspected Auschwitz Camp and 
ordered it to be greatly enlarged and technically perfected." 

I end my quotation here, and I call the attention of the Tribunal to Page 136 on the 
reverse side of the document book; this is from a report of the Polish Government, which 
shows that the Camp Sobibor was founded during the first and second liquidation of the 
Jewish ghetto. But the extermination on a large scale in this camp really started at the 
beginning of 1943. In this same report, in the last paragraph on Page 136 of the document 
book, we may read that Camp Belsen was founded in 1940: but it was in 1942 that the 
special electrical appliances were built in for mass extermination of people. Under 
the pretext that the people were being led to the 


11 Feb. 46 
bath-house, the doomed were undressed and then driven to the building where the 
floor was electrified in a special way; there the were killed. 

U sua lly the concentration camps of German fascism can be divided into two groups: the 
labor concentration camps and the extermination camps. It seems to me that such a 
differentiation is not quite correct, because the labor camps also served the purpose of 

I omit two pages of the text and I pass on to the Page 260. In confirmation of what I said 
just now, I refer to the report of the Extraordinary State Commission relative to Yanov 
Camp in the city of Lvov. The Tribunal will find this on Page 59 in the document book. 
Paragraph 5 of the first column of the text. But at the same time, I ask the members of the 
Tribunal to refer to Page 6 of the album of documents relative to the Lvov Camp. One of 
them is a picture of "a trench in the valley of death." The round is soaked with 
human blood to the death of 1 1/2 meters. On the next pages are shown the belongings 
taken from the executed persons. This picture was taken by the experts of legal medicine 
about 2 months after the mass shootings. 

From the reports of the Extraordinary State Commission on crimes in the Yanov 

Camp it can be seen that here in. what was officially a usual work camp, over 200,000 
Soviet citizens were exterminated, according to the findings of the legal experts. I 

quote only the first paragraph on page of the Russian text. I begin the quotation: 

" In view of the total area of burial grounds and the area of 2 square kilometers in 
which the ashes and bones were scattered as well the expert commission concluded 

that in the Yanov Camp there were exterminated over 200,000 Soviet citizens. " 

I omit the next part of my presentation, which deals with the regime of starvation in 
concentration camps. This was already very well presented by the representative of the 
British Prosecution, Sir David Maxwell-Fyfe. This must be already quite clear to the 
Tribunal and I don't think it will be necessary to give any additional proofs. But I ask the 
Tribunal's permission for a presentation of evidence on a camp which was created by the 
German fascists only during the last stage of the war. I refer to Page 265 of my 

Maidanek and Auschwitz camps served as a means of extermination only for those who 
really were sent to these camps. These two camps were not a direct menace for those 
people who were outside the walls of the camp; but, in the course of the war, having 
already suffered grave defeats, German fascism began to practice 


23 April 46 
then later had to learn from his testament that he, in full possession of his faculties, 
consciously gave the order for mass extermination, is confronted with a riddle. I state 
here ... 

LT. COL. GRIFFITH-JONES: We really don't want another long speech about the 
Fuhrer. Just turn over the page and look at what is being said on the 26th of March: 

"The report of the Polish Government on the measures against the Jewish population is 
published in full in the English press. A passage reads, 'In the town of Vilna 50,000 Jews 
were murdered, in Rovno 14,000; in Lvov half of the total Jewish population.' 

"Many details are also given about the use of poison gas, as at Chelm, of electricity in 
Belzec, of the deportations from Warsaw, the surrounding o f blocks of houses, and of the 
attacks with machine guns." 

Did you read that one? 

STREICHER: 1 do not know. However, that shootings must have occurred, of course 
where Jews committed sabotage et cetera, is evident during a war that is considered 
as a matter of course. However, the figures which are quoted here were just simply not 

LT. COL. GRIFFITH-JONES: Yes. I understand you to say that now, but what I do not 
understand is what you meant when you said this morning that the Israelitisches 
WochenblatT made no mention of murders and gave no figures. You didn't say that the 

figures were unbelievable; you told this 'Tribunal, on your oath, that the newspaper 
contained nothing except the hints of disappearance, with no mention of figures. What 
did you mean by that? 

STREICHER: I have said the truth under oath, but it is possible that one might not 
remember everything. During an interrogation some time back 1 stated, based on 
memory, that an issue must exist which mentions the disappearance of Jews, and so on. It 
is in the Israelitisches Wochenblatt, and 1 thought I said that it was in 1943 and it is true. 
If one article after the other is put before me - well, even if I had seen it, how can I 
remember it? But that 1, under oath, should have deliberately told you an untruth, that is, 
at any rate, not so. 

LT. COL. GRIFFITH-JONES: We will deal with the article you mention in 1943 in one 
moment; but just before we do that, just see if you believe your own staff. Turn, will you, 
to 38-A, M-139. Now, on the 6th of May it so happens just after those last three extracts 
from the Israelitisches Wochenblatt we have looked at, within 2 or 3 months, 1 or 2 
months afterwards your newspaper is publishing this article. It is headed "Children of the 



1 1 June 46 
high temperature? When it was exploded it created exceedingly high temperature, so that 
there could be no defense against it? 

SPEER: No, that is an error. Actually, ordinary gas evaporates at normal atmospheric 
temperature. This gas would not evaporate until very high temperatures were reached and 
such very high temperatures could only be produced by an explosion; in other words, 
when the explosives detonated, a very high temperature set in, as you know, and then the 
gas evaporated. The solid substance turned into gas, but the effects had nothing to do 
with the high temperature. 

MR. JUSTICE JACKSON: Experiments were carried out with this gas, were they not, to 
your knowledge? 

SPEER: That I can tell you. Experiments must certainly have been carried out with it. 

MR. JUSTICE JACKSON: Who was in charge of the experimentations with the gases? 

SPEER: As far as I know it was the research and development - department of the OKH 
in the Army ordnance office. I cannot tell you for certain. 

MR. JUSTICE JACKSON: And certain experiments were also conducted and certain 

researches conducted in atomic energy, were they not? 

SPEER: We had not got as far as that, unfortunately, because the finest experts we had 
in atomic research had emigrated to America, and this had thrown us back a great deal 
in our research, so that we still needed another year or two in order to achieve any results 
in the splitting of the atom. 

MR. JUSTICE JACKSON: The policy of driving people out who didn't agree with 
Germany hadn't produced very good dividends, had it? 

SPEER: Especially in this sphere it was a great disadvantage to us. 

MR. JUSTICE JACKSON: Now, I have certain information, which was placed in my 
hands, of an experiment which was carried out near Auschwitz and I would like to ask 
you if you heard about it or knew about it. The purpose of the experiment was to find a 
quick and complete way of destroying people without the delay and trouble of 
shooting and gassing and burning, as it had been carried out and this is the 
experiment, as I am advised. A village, a small village, was provisionally erected 
with temporary structures and in it approximatel y 20,000 Jews were put. By means 
of this newly invented weapon of destruction, these 20,000 people were eradicated 
almost instantaneously, and in such a way that there was no trace 





14 Jan. 46 

HERR BABEL: For what reason? 

BLAHA; The reasons stated, depending on the nature of the guards of the commanders. 

HERR BABEL: But you said you were occupied, indeed according to your statements, 

very much occupied. 

BLAHA: Yes. 

HERR BABEL: How then did you have an opportunity of observing such ill-treatment? 

BLAHA: I performed many autopsies on people either shot or beaten to death at 
their work, and made olTicial reports on the cause of death. 

HERR BABEL: You said they were shot. Did you see such incidents yourself? 


HERR BABEL: Then, how do you know that? 

BLAHA: The bodies were brought to me from the place of work, and it was my duty 

to ascertain the cause of death; that they men had been beaten to death, for 

example, that the skull or ribs had been fractured, that the man had died of internal 

hemorrhage, or that he had been shot; I had to make an olTicial report on the cause 

of death. Sometimes, but this was rare, when an investigation was conducted, I was 

called in as a witness. 

HERR BABEL: Thank you. 

THE PRESIDENT: Mr. Dodd, do you wish to re-examine the witness: 

IVlR. DODD: 1 have no further questions to ask the witness at this time. 

THE PRESIDENT: Does any other member of the prosecuting staff want to re-examine? 

Colonel Pokrovsky? 

COLONEL POKROVSKY: At this stage of the Trial I have no further questions to ask 

the witness. 

THE PRESIDENT: Then the witness can go. 

[The witness left the stand.] 

MR. DODD: 1 should like to ask the Tribunal at this time to take judicial notice of the 

findings and the sentences imposed by the Military Court at Dachau, Germany, on the 13 

th day of December 1945. The findings were dated the 12 th and the sentences on the 13 

th. I have here a certified copy of the findings and the sentences. Number 3590-PS, which 

I should like to offer as Exhibit Number USA-664. 

IMT V 199 



19 Feb. 46 
-In the territories of the Lithuanian S.S.R., the Hitlerites exterminated in great numbers 
not only the local population but also people who were driven here from the Orlov, 
Smolensk, Vitebsk, and Leningrad regions. From the summer of 1943 to June 1944, 
200,000 people passed through the camp for the evacuated population near the town of 

You will see this camp in the movie document which will be presented today. 

I omit the next part of the quotation and I read two paragraphs 

further down: 

"Due to the fiUhy living conditions, the unbelievable crowding, lack of water, starvation, 
disease, and mass shootings, about 60,000 Soviet citizens perished during 14 months 
in this camp." 

I omit the two next pages of the text and I quote from Page 288 of the report. It is 
mentioned here that for the families of Red Army soldiers special concentration camps 
were set up in the territories of the Lithuanian S.S.R. The following order was posted in 
this camp: 

"For expressing displeasure with German authorities and for violation of the camp regime 
the Soviet people shall be shot without trial, jailed, or sent on forced labor for life to 

I omit one paragraph and continue: 

"A German woman in command of four such camps, Elisabeth Zeellng, frequently 
announced to the inmates, 'You are my slaves; I shall punish you in any way I want.'" 

I refer further to the report of the State Extraordinary Commission relative to the crimes 
in the city of Kiev. "This report describes murders in the camps which will be also shown 
in the films today. I quote only one quotation from this report, which shows the methods 
of extermination of people in the Syretzk Camp. I quote Page 289, Paragraph 3, of the 
Russian text: 

"Radomsky and Rieder used all kinds of devices for the extermination of Soviet citizens. 
For instance, they invented the following method of murder: Several Soviet prisoners 
would be forced to climb a tree and others had to saw it down. The pnsoners would 
fail together with the tree and be killed." 

Further, I quote a short excerpt from the report of the Extraordinary State Commission on 
crimes in the Estonian S.S.R. This excerpt describes the very severe regime in the 
Estonian camps. I quote the last paragraph on Page 90: 

"Daily in the camp there were public floggings of the inmates on a bench especially built 
for this purpose. Besides this, for the" smallest offense people were kept without any 
food for 


13 Feb. 46 

And so we have established that the design and construction of the crematoria ovens for 
German concentration camps .... 

THE PRESIDENT: The Tribunal would like to know as they have not these letters 
before them, to whom they were addressed. 

MR. COUNSELLOR SMIRNOV: This letter, Mr. President, was addressed to the SS 
units in Belgrade. These documents were taken by the Yugoslav Government. The 55 
units in Belgrade considered that the methods of extermination practiced in Bandetz and 
Saimyshte, which I have already described to the Tribunal, were not adequate and they 
decided to perfect them. For this purpose they started building, or rather they designed 
the construction of crematoria in the concentration camps. This was the subject of the 
lively business correspondence between the SS police and the SS units in Belgrade and 
the German firms, part of which I have just presented to you. 

THE PRESIDENT: Were the other letters that you referred til also addressed to SS units? 

MR. COUNSELLOR SMIRNOV: Yes, Mr. President, they were also addressed to the SS 
units. The first letter, addressed to the administration of the Auschwitz Camp was from 
the firm Topf and Sons. 

I shall now present to the Tribunal evidence of the fact that besides the stationary 
crematoria, there existed also movable crematoria. The Tribunal already knows 
about the movable gas chambers. These were "murder vans." There were also 
created transportable crematoria. An SS member, Paul Waldmann, testiiles to their 
existence. He was one of the participants in the crime perpetrated by the German fascists 
when 840,000 Russian prisoners of war in Sachsenhausen were annihilated at one 
time. The Ex hibit number USSR-52 (Document Number USSR-52) on Auschwitz has 
already been presented to the Court. I quote that particular extract from the testimony of a 
member, Wald mann, which mentions the mass execution in Sachsenhausen: 

"The war prisoners murdered in this way were cremated in four movable 
crematoria which were transported on car trailers." 

I omit the next two pages of my report which deals with gas chambers and crematoria. I 
think the Tribunal already has a clear idea of this question. But I ask the Tribunal to pay 
attention to the repugnant methods introduced by the German fascists for industrial 
utilization of corpses. Further I shall present to the Tribunal evidence which would testify 
to even more repulsive utilization of the corpses. Now I shall quote from a report on 
Auschwitz, which the Tribunal will find on Page 353, reverse side, of the document 





13 Feb. 46 

It is further said that a particularly terrible regime existed for those included in the 
category of. recalcitrants. They were put into a special building, named the death block. 
The inmates in this block were shot on schedule, five to six persons being taken to 
execution every Tuesday and Friday. The German physician Kuper was one of those 
present at the shootings. Academician Burdenko established that in the so-called hospital 
people wen exterminated in the same manner as in the rest of the camp. 

In the penultimate paragraph, on Page 3, we read-members of the Tribunal will find this 
passage on Page 73 of the document book: "The scenes which I had to witness defy all 
imagination. My joy at the sight of the liberated people was marred by the fact that their 
faces bore an expression of utter stupor. This made me think, 'What is the matter here?' 
Evidently the sufferings they had undergone erased from, their minds all distinction 
between life and death. 

"I observed these people for 3 days and bandaged their wounds while moving them from 
the camp, but the mental stupor remained. Something similar could also be seen on the 
faces of the doctors during the first few days. 

"People perished in the camp from disease, starvation, and floggings. In the so-called 
'hospital' prison they died of woundinfection, sepsis, and starvation." 

On the 2nd day of May 1945, there was captured in Berlin a member of the SS, Paul 
Ludwig Gottlief Waldmann, the son of a shopkeeper, Ludwig Waldmann, he was 
born in Berlin on 17 October 1914. From information received, his mother, up to the 
time of his capure, was living in the city of Brunswick, Donnerburweg 60. 

He testified personally to facts known to him regarding the mass extermination of Soviet 
prisoners of war. He witnessed these exterminations while working as a driver in 
different camps and himself participated in the mass killings. His testimony is on Page 9 
of Exhibit Number USSR-52 Document Number USSR-52, entitled "Camp 
Auschwitz." He provides more detailed information on the murders in the camp at 
Sachsenhausen . 

Towards the end of summer 1941, the Sonderkommando of the Security Police in this 
camp exterminated Russian prisoners of war daily for a whole month. Paul Ludwig 
Gottlieb Waldmann testified - you will find the excerpt I am quoting on Page 82 - that: 

"The Russian prisoners of war had to walk about one kilometer from the station to the 
camp. In the camp they stayed one night without food. The next night they were led away 
for execution. The prisoners were constantly being transferred from the inner camp on 
three trucks, one of which was 



13 Feb. 46 

driven by me. The inner camp was approximately one and three quarters of a kilometer 
from the execution grounds. The execution itself took place in the barracks which had 
been recently been constructed for this purpose. 

"One room was reserved for undressing and another for waiting: in one of them a 
radio played rather loudly. It was done purposely so that the prisoners could not guess 
that death awaited them. From the second room they went, one by one, through a passage 
into a small fenced-off room with an iron grid let into the floor. Under the grid was a 
drain. As soon as a prisoner of war was killed, the corpse was carried out by two German 
prisoners while the blood was washed off the grid. 

"In this small room there was a slot in the wall, approximately 50 centimeters in length. 
The prisoner of war stood with the back of his head against the slot and a sniper 
shot at him from behind the slot. In practice this arrangement did not prove 
satisfactory, since the sniper often missed the prisoner. After 8 days a new 
arrangement was made. The prisoner, as before, was placed against the wall: an 
iron plate was then slowly lowered onto his head. The prisoner was under the 
impression that the was being measured for height. The iron plate contained a 
ramrod which shot out suddenly and poleaxed the prisoner with a blow on the back 
of the head. He dropped dead. The iron plate was operated by a foot lever in a 
corner of the room. The personnel working in the room belonged to the above- 
mentioned Sonderkommando. 

"By request of this execution squad, I was also forced to work this apparatus. I shall refer 

to the subject later. The bodies of prisoners thus murdered were burned in four mobile 
crematories transported in trailers and attached to motor cars. 1 had to ride constantly 
from the inner camp to the execution yard. I had to make 10 trips a night with 10 minutes 
interval between trips. It was during these intervals that I witnessed the executions..." 

It is a long way from these individual murders to the death factories of Treblinka, 
Dachau, an Auschwitz, but the tendency, the line of action are identical. Methods and 
extent of the killings varied. The Hitlerites endeavored to discover ways and means for 
the rapid mass execution of human beings. They spent much time on the solution of this 
problem. To realize their ambition they began to work on the solution even prior to their 
attack on the Soviet Union by inventing different implements and instruments of murder, 
while peaceful inhabitants and prisoners of war alike ended up as victims of Hitler's 

IMT VII 377 




— 11 — 

s It 





Translation of caption: 
The orchestra of musicians held prisoner in the Janovslc Camp play the "Death Tango' 
tortures and executions are carried out in time to the music. 


- S2 — 


^.v. . :v 














The hangmen of the Janovsk Camp, Warzok and Willhaus, leaving the building to be 

present at the execution of prisoners. 


14 Feb. 46 

ages of 2 and 4 years and tossed in the air and then took pot shots at them, while his 
daughter applauded and shrieked, Tapa, do it again; do it again. Papa!" And he did it 


"The internees of this camp were exterminated for no reason at all, often as the result of a 

bet. A woman witness, Kirschner, informed the Investigating Commission that a Gestapo 

Commissar, Wepke, bet the other camp executioners that he could cut a boy in half with 

one stroke of the axe. They did not believe him. So he caught a 10-year old boy on the 

road, made him kneel down, told him to hide his face in the folded palms of his hands, 

made one test stroke, placed the child's head in a more convenient position and with one 

single stroke cut the boy in half. The Hitlerites heartily congratulated Wepke, shaking 

him warmly by the hand. 

"In 1943, for Hitler's birthday - his 54 th - the commandant of the Yanov Camp, 

ObersturmfLihrer Willhaus, picked out 54 prisoners of war and shot them himself. 

"A special hospital for prisoners was organized in the camp. The German hangmen 

Brambauer and Birman checked up the patients on the I st and 15 th day of each month; 

and, if they discovered that among the patients there were some who had been in the 

hospital for over 14 days, they shot them on the spot. Six or seven people were killed 

during each investigation. 

"The Germans executed their tortures, ill-treatments, and shooting to the 

accompaniment of music. For this purpose they created a special orchestra selected 

from among the prisoners. They forced Professor Stricks and the famous conductor 

Mund to conduct this orchestra. They requested the composers to write a special 

tune, to be called the *Tango of Death'. Shortly before dissolving the camp the 

Germans shot every member of the orchestra." 

Later on I will present to the Tribunal, as a photo-document, photographs of this 

"orchestra of death". 

What took place in Yanov Camp was in no way exceptional. In exactly the same manner 

the German administration behaved in all concentration camps in the occupied area of the 

Soviet Union, Poland, Yugoslavia, and other Eastern European countries. 

I submit to the International Military Tribunal Exhibit Number USSR-29 

(Document Number USSR-29). It is a communique of the Polish-Soviet 

Extraordinary State Commission for the investigation of the crimes committed 

perpetrated by the Germans in the extermination camp of Maidanek in the city of 

Lublin. The Tribunal will find this communique on Page 63 of the document book. I 





14 Feb. 46 

system prevailed in the construction of the gas chambers, in the mass production of 
the round tins containing the poisonous substances "Cyklone A" and ^^Cyklone B", 
the ovens of the crematories are all built on the same typical lines, and one was the plan 
extending over all the camps of destruction. There was uniformity in the construction of 

the evil-smelling death machines, which the Germans referred to as "gaswagen", 
but which our people called the ^'soul destroyers"; and there was the same technical 

elaboration in the construction of mobile mills for grinding human bones. All this 
indicates one sole and evil will uniting all the individual assassins and executioners. 

It became obvious that German thermotechicians and chemists, architects, 

toxicologists, mechanics, and physicians were engaged in this rationalization of mass 

murder on instructions received from Hitler's government and from the Supreme 

Command of the German Armed Forces. It was also evident that the "death factories" 

brought into existence an entire series of auxiliary industries. 

But the unity of this will-to-evil was not only apparent there, where a special technique 
had been evolved to serve the purpose of very evil murder. The unity of this will-to-evil 
was also apparent from the similarity of the methods employed by the murderers, from 
the uniformity of type in the murder technique evolved as well as from the fact that, in 
cases where no special technique was employed, use was made of ordinary weapons of 

the German Armed Forces. 

From the evidence which I shall submit later on you will see that the sites where the 

Germans buried their victims were opened up by Soviet legal doctors in the north 

and south of the country. These sites were separated from each other by thousands 

of kilometers, and it is quite evident that the crimes were perpetrated by perfectly 
different people; but the methods employed were absolutely identical. The wounds were 

invariably inflicted on the same parts of the body. And identical, too, were the 
preparations for camouflaging the gigantic graves as antitank ditches and trenches. 

Everywhere the unarmed and defenseless people, on their arrival at the execution ground, 

vv'ere ordered, in practically the same terms, to undress and lie face downwards in 

previously prepared pits. As soon as the first batch was shot, whether in the swamps 

of Bielorussia or the foothills of the Caucasus, the row was covered with quicklime 

and the second batch of unarmed and defenseless people, of people about to die, 

were again ordered by the murders to undress and lie down on that corrosive, 

blood-soaked mass which covered the ilrst batch of victims. 

This is testified to not only by the uniformity of instructions and orders received from 
high commands. So similar were the methods 



WHICH hjlve nujippfjUiia 

m mil lj I IfHiiiriill •>< Uir amr anivi] 

mil siupriim. iQ iM ngU v« ua m* ^jmt nanmtn^r 01*j- 

ffTUpprnHhiQ GrbiuTr, In rnhLlE unJlmn. uid TUilBd Dip ft 
Ihn kM-a la m Himjih mnny LnlTTPjiluTH t Imiiit 

— ■ ■ ■ J MfMru iHJ ti 1iir_IIUm la flic., ,, _ 

nldul iur LSEblun- U IrfedLiid Uif QidiEiln In Ihr (tkuUmi iraiitid 

(II] Oir i>r Uu e^LIdvi laa hj Ibi OnOin ■■i^iii in Ihru 
uilHHir U HllClrili k niTTDr ■y\ 'wnar a iht Hmrffkr Jy ntiapnJ 
ItjntnLn U mi SnM aiutf\ Ulr nUpilQi iru boiri a it* Ofa 
«r fJii V^g- CrFipa r, nanuB oT Ut^ 4 IHe IVJlhinf ■! llir 
r«H &r lb (■Dan 

{17} A udhd giihMf nr.(rd bi ihr minf uiirhrE plaif al L^dv 
■ Ib lUCm bcm l^d iTdiiqi ar FH* CrAm 

im I AD iluwini Vaur II«iH<i Ihi hiihIlU pF ui hUIk aUw: 

jmoVBd «lh hlldlu al &DVUI CjlHtU. "Plq II I tf^ HI O" Lllv 

dI Liim, iBd i r*| (D j?i[iIbiI Uir TjibinuL Ihjl jccnrJiiq hi ini 
miHiEi □! Hie riliiumr lor rmtUn UTtiEi rlir urn^ ^■l4ll^ iIh 
D±njh3»il In KhirVcY 

ri'hThr uuiEDiwI in LVDV TheiMpihrn HT, uhn Iram ma 

tut TliT aiUim] 1M<K n^ iHr UHll Biudi (d r'rniliiia. THr 
pUUflU™ l«, -u iKd 4D I ■■ul aiiH. 14 iMl mipiWl swi Kr 
Ihr h**li rf uj±titBi imlLDrinwE ir Ihr pmon °l DiJizig Tlia 

Di<pUi4l VH uLrn m Iba UijUimlr IiuUIuIp Q Ibn^lf IV|1H< Ihr 

UodCfiDr im "Lrlinu •mrir biouDil ATln- iiKijilDn 

IIBI lUmiODHJimnyMlDunijaiiBiBDWinl Lh I u m ififli CI »1 

I ml) mull u tha*/ I Ith EynJcal mmplH Tim b]|bIul wti 
■■liv° Ii0°i ■ dfjd QuUpu tuldicrr Le ttvfi M yvunt iLrl [di| 
huDd. ImIw r^u wilL iH wlul mH ihij did la hu 

(ITJ n ImL quLlE Elrir ~r>tVin UW Hil ntoinl Jliujii up bi 
HiEhilrnrbiticri bj (hrrrili Judfiie b) lb »^Mi.lUh« i..«|.D'hl 
Dl bac liiiidi I UiUik lligl < na>t nif JUfl bHn plj^i'd nhuid bir 
nam Cta^rir Ihr bElbgl laa ol lti« mu&dKl n Ha a HijUide ber 

Uh tlaiU j|jidpa>ih| laktrirrnm ^ du9 CHlg[o nlaur I *nA 
m rhVliuK Ibi iD^DBH In i.i.> lh» Ct['iiii> riRi^ amllEil Ibr 
iliuitiy or mi ElatiuD fDiBEii Tlwi^id jun tatmi <iitiv ukrilrtJin 
I-™™ ki run ukad b^qi Ow Ciriruji brKlu 

flft Tlili aif*H mil >nl B imiu gndtrhl Jrtd juluD.irni E^anla 
It wfjrtMil. ■ rrudiirif E&r a^nJii^ liU-^^nTuTT.^ H»-l h iIi» 


maAinf itmds ihp priaongr of war who leeda Ihe madijne. It fnn 
frind the bona of 300 persons at a timg. Aj has twn provad, to the 
wmmisjQn> it fm t conatant yield of zlwj cm>ic metgra ot Hone flou r. 
That Is all Photograph* are Identified iu Exhibits U55R-100, lOU 
10^. 212, 3S9, 338, 3&&. 390, 391. 

Will you now permltmet'Ofubniitfurtheriiocuinvntary evidoncu? 

In thfi' first part of my pr««nta(Jon I deatt with German mais 
terrarism and Spoke specifically about the eKtermiRStion of diildrcci 
and the mlanwuj methodi used by the Germaiw wilh regard Lu 
them, alnet terror applied to duldrert — terror moat savage, mo^t 
brutal — is one of the ciiaractfristLC features of fascist bestiality. 

I now present to the Tnbunal evidence of mass extermination uT 
the population in various p&rts of Eastern Europe. I Submit to thi- 
Tribunal brief excerpts from the report of the Polish Govemmont . 
which Voyr Honors will find on^Pa^e 117 of the document b^otc. in 
the second paragraph of the text. It describes the so-callod Ann 
massacre. I quote: 

"At the end of December 1939 a Polish policeman was shot tn 
the vicinity of Warsaw by a bandit Subsequent invcstigationi 
showed that the murderer was in a restaurant in Vaver, near 
Warsaw. Two German policemen tried to arrest him. When 
the police entered the restaurant, the bandit opened fin;, 
killing one policeman and wounding ancjther, that is, he 
apparently killed one and wounded another 

"In reply the German authorities, on 2fl December 19:1^', 
ordered mass reprisals, and a punitive enpedilion made il^ 
appearance in the village. 

"A detachment o£ "LandesschutMn, under the command tt iin 
offleer. was dispatched to V^ver artd to the summer resort ^r 
Anin. Both of these localities were aurrounded by a cordon -if 
soldiers. The proprietor of the restaurant where the cvi nt 
occurred was immediately hanged, and his body auspendid in 
front of his house far 3 days. At the same time (he men ^vl i.- 
dragged out from every house. Having thus rounded up ^ilimii 
170 persons, the Germans made them stand in the iajl<.v:i.v 
station, facing the wall and with their hands held abovo lli«ii' 
heads, for several hours. Afterwards their doeumcnla ^^^ '*" 
dieted and A few were dismissed, but the vast majorily wtn- 
informed that they would be executed. They were then Inln n 
to » field, split up into groups of lO to li, and execuii^d by 
volleya from machine funs. 

"The number of individual graves discovered on the execution 
ground amounted to 107, Among those executed were twii 
doctors, 30 youths under IS years of age, and 12 itid mt-n 

IMT VII 550 



aJiould be destroyed In an overwhelming majority, althoLijh 
bn apprecjabl^ numb«r was to be employed by the German 
landowners as slaves. These directives were the result of tho 
pelicjf of the German Government toward the peoples of the 
occupied territories;; and, it must be confessed, were put into 
practice by every niember of the Armed Forces, my&eK 
Sudi were the courses dedicated to the training and education nf 
Junior police ofAcLals. 

But the fascist training school tor miirdeferi acknowledged oXhvi 
forms of education as welL forms speeiaHy dedicated to lhelcchnic|Ln 
of destroying all traces of the crimes committed. The TribiJnal h:is 
already received the document regisier&d as !E!?<hLbit l^'uniin-j- 
USSR-ejc) (SJ [Document Number USSR-6tc] [3], Thi^ dQ:umL.'[iL is 
one of ih^ appendirg^ to the report of the Extraoi'dinxtry S'..ik" 
Commission on Gcrnian atrocities prrpctratcd on the tcrrilnry^ oi V.', ,- 
region of Lvov, T^^e doiiiiment is thg tt^atimony of th^ wiini.'.^^, 
ManusevJich, interrogated by the senior asaiatant to the praapfulo r 
ot the Lvov regioo/by the special cequest of the Erttraorjj.iin-y 
State Co ttl m iss ion Tht? minute of tivg interrogatory are refordiL' 1 iii 
confarrnny~\vith the legal code, of the. Ukrainian Sijviet Stjcijli.^ l 
Republic . Tho Tribunal will hnd these minutes on Page -ta ol the 
docLtment book. 

Manusevitch was imprisoned by the Germans in Vanov Cjni;i, 
where h€ worked in the prisoner?' squad for burning corps*.;; <^i 
murdered Soviet citizens. After the 40,000 corp^fs murdeifd in 
Yanov Camp were burned, the squad was transferfed for simlLn 
purposes to the camp in Lissenitzky Wood. 

I now quote from the record of the interrogation, which Ih.' 
Tribunal will find on Page 52 of the document book, Paragraph 'I 
from the top, Line 26, I beg^in* 

"In the death factory of this camp special IQ-day courses on 
corpse burning were orgamied, on which 12 men win-* 
employed. Pupih attending these cours&s came from lhecam|js 
of Lublin. Warsaw, and others whose names escape me. [ d^> 
not l^now the surnames of the pupils> but they were ofFiceii 
from colonels to sergeant majors, not soldiers from the rank 
and file. The instructor at these 'courses was the officer in 
command of ciemaiories. Colonel Schallok. On the site whv re 
the bodies were exhumed and bumed he expljincJ tn~ 
practical manner of th"eir"liuniing and how to set up >ht .- 
madiinery for bone crushing ." 

lAter OHj photographs qE ihia machine will be submitteid to ih's 
Tribunal togetlier with a description, or"rather, I should say. iL-th' 
ideal directions. 

IMT VII 446 


Another non-existent "bone grinding machine" describflif 
in another document which has disappeared . . . 

1) Fall. U 

Sdfedack, taught the commaadanU on the spot haw to 
organize Lhi exhumation of the corpsgg irom the graves, how 
io piJE them on stacks, bum th&m> how to scatter the ashes , 
to crusii the faone s to fill up the ditches, arm how ta plan t 
<regi^and "bru^Ji w'obcf oh tVie graves as eajnouflage ." ' 

I now refer to a doeument which has already been submitted to 
the Tribunal as DQcumgnt Number USSR-91, which is the report of 
thg Bjtamination in the ^own of Lvov al the special machine for tKe 
crushing ofj&n es. Thia record may be found by the members of the 
^iribunal on~Page 473 of the document book. As £ have very little 
time left at my disposal, I shall only quote very short excerpts. I 
quote Paragraph I, an Page 342: 

"The machine tor crushing bones wa^ mpunted on a sp&cial 
carnage on t he platform ofa trailer It is easliy transpo rtablg 

By automobLiea or D^Iie^nean^&nranspQ^aTtor^rTmour^s- 

I omit thg next paragraph, and shall read one mare short extract: 

" The machine will function in any spot and dogs not tequire 
adciitionat adaptation. It can he transported by auiomobiJe o r 
any other vehicle. ' ' 

" A machine of thgs& dimensions can produce 3 cubic meters 
of calcinated bone powder during 1 hour." 

I omit the next four pag^es ot the report, and submit to the Tri- 
bunal as evidence the original record of the Interrogation of Gerhard 
Adameti {E^thibit USSR-80. Document Number USSR-SO), taken by 
an American army lieutenant, Patrick MrMahon. Gerhard Adamctj 
was interrogated under oath . 1 dwell especially on this document, 
which, has been put kindly at our diapc&al by our American 
colleagues, because Adametz' testimony, to use a legal term, in some 
points corroborates our own evidential material. The tc^timDny is 
Very lengthy^ and I will Umit myself to a few short quotations. 

Gerhard Adamtli was a member of Sonderkommando J.005-B. 
I dra%y the attention of the Tribunal again to the fart that the first 
Sonderhommando waa simply 1005; this one ia Sonderkommando 
l£K)5*B. Tile excerpt which I shall quote from the testimony of 
Gerhard Adametz will be found by the members of the Tribunal on 
Page 480 of the document book, beginning with the second para- 
graph. Crerhard Adametz said that, together- with 40 other members 
of the Sdiutfpolizei, he left Dniepropetiovsk and was sent to Kievn 
r remind the Tribunal ol the name o£ Daybe-yar. vfhidi the Tribunal 
has alieady he^rd. J begin to quote the testimony of Adametz, 
Pttge 34T: 

*'Our Leutnant Winter reported about our column to Ober- 
ieutnant Hanisch, who was the Zugfuhrer of the Schutzpolizei 


in this version the "bone grindBrs" have beciinie bulldDzers. 

then ignited. About 2,500 to 3,000 corpses were placed in eath 
&f these "ovens." The Germans detailed special crews for the 
remav^] ot e&nings, rings, and also gold teeth from the jaws 
af the dead. 

" 'When all th^ corpses were burned, new "ovems" were 
itflcked, and so on. The bones were gmashed into small 
particles by tmUdoigrs and the Ash^s strewn over the V? r, 36 
x nai no traces snemu be let t. Tlifi men wortted Irom 12 to 
15 hours ai day, 

** 'The Germana used extatrators in order ta expedite the 
work. From IB August until the day of our escape— 29 Sep- 
tember — apprgjiimately 70,000 corpses were burned.' " 

I Interrupt this quotation and invite the attention of the Tribunal 
to a document on j^age V!HT, Valume 11, Paragraph & ot the documen t 
tiook, moond column. ThJ s is a report of the Exiraordinary State 
Commission on crLmes of ihg German fascist uivadera in the terfitor y 
QI the Latvian S5.R. In the place to which I will draw the 
■attflntion ot the I'nbunAl it is ^own that the Hitlerites systematically 
carried out executioiis in the forest of BirhenecA. I make a special 
point of guo'tinj^ this because further on w^ shall present docu- 
mentary films showing full details of the^e mass shootings. I be]^ 
the quotatioar 

^^In the forest of Birkeneek, on the outskirts of the city of 
Si£a, the Hitlerites shot 4G,500 peaceful citLzenf. The witness, 
IS.. Stabulnet, a woinan who lived in the vicinity ot th* forest, 

stated that; 

" 'On Friday and Saturday before Easter, 1042, padced busses 
went from the city to the forest. I saw 41 busses parsing my 
house from the beginning of Friday morning to noon. On 
Easter Sunday, many inhabitants — I among them — went into 
the forest to the site of the executions. There we saw one 
lar^e open jaX containing the bodies of women and children 
who had been ^hot^ they were eithi^r naked or in their under' 
wear. There were traces of torture and ill-treatment on the 
'corpses of the women and children, many of whom had black 
and blue bruises on their faces and cuts on their head*, iSome 
had had their liands and Angers cut ofT, their eyes gouged 
out, and their stomadi± cipped open.'" 

r now omit one paragraph and continue: 

"The commission discovered, on Ui« execution ground^ 55 graves 

covering a total area of 2,&B5 square meters." 

I quote one more paragraph from thks communleation: 

"In the forest ol I>reilin, 5 to 7 kilometera east of Riga, along 
the highway to Luban, the Germans shot over 13,000 peaceful 

IMT VII 557 

<Ib» lllit nh^VBIU'it f^ Ijtrmin ludira, CHiarlJitDn luri 
ilL flr* in lull fBHil, hltlHir^tai Blbnm grmlin, 

pBrlBhIu Blt'il Ik BlID ill AlippMrid 







1^1 B-l. 











^ I* ,' 




Jeiwish "criminal types" from the Lembutg gheno 


Jewish "criminsl types" fiom the lernhu^g ghetto 










I. pi-'i II ..'-I 




Volkse^mfjiudiiften «ui der Erde sind die bttle Garsntie I^t die 
Aditung der Rcdite der Vijlker unterejninder. Dk-- N&tloiul- 
aozJaliBTius em^uert das Denken Gber Stait und Volk In der Welt 
uDd wfrd dadurf^ auch unseren Volksge/iossen In ihrem tchweren 
Ksfflpf^ nichl nur Erleichterun^, $ond?m Srliiffun^ brin^en. Die 
Stelle lur die praktifidit Dur^^uhrung dieKr Gmnds&tze ist di« 
Auslandsorginisation der NS,D,A.P. , die dem StelU 
vertreter des Fuhren, KeJchsminister Rudolf Hefl, unmStlelbar 
unlcrstellt ist Der Leiter, Gauleiter Gm^l Wi]h«1m Boh]?, gab vnn 
TDtlt HJnen ^inzelnen Mitarbejtem zusaramen bei cineni Be£vch In 
den elnzelnen Abt«ilun^en dtr Ofg^mis«tions£ie]le^ *m Harveste- 
huderweg 22 einen Uberblii^k Qber Aufgftben vnd Gliederung der 
Auslandsorgpnisation, die in deti letzten Wodien und MonBten so 
rege arbeitet, daU d&r Widerh»]l dieser zehen und zielbewur^ten 
Arbeit audi In Hamburg selbst deutlich wahrnehmbar war. Das 
Wirken der Auslandsotganisation erstiet^t sidi buchstfiblidi rund 
um den Erdball, und mit Pug und Redit konnle der Wahlspnidi an 
ihrcr Arbeilsstatte am Harvestehudeiweg in Hamburg Etehen: 
.Jlein Feld 1st di« Welt." Die AuElanda-OrganiulJon unler LeLtunj 
von Gauleiter E. W. Boh]e, dem ein grcGtr Stab saehkundigcr und 
beffihigler Mitarbfiter Jur Seile iteht, umfaflt heute flber 
3&0 Lendesgruppen und Stitlzpunkte der If.5.D.A.P. 
In alien Weltteilen und betrcut darUl»r hlnaus tint gto&t 
Anzahl RiJuelparteigenDssen an den vei^dijcdensten Pltttzen, 

DOCUMENT 3J?0.PS ind »123-PS 




F»ar Fbni9(F*pLi nprvJunJ. Sec 3431-l'S foi- dMuaratiiloi 



(See i\so David's PhiUstine foreskin cttlJecticin, I Samuel 16:25-27) 










iMT xxxrr 




iMT xxxri 



U D«£. U 

Of an official United States Army report describing the cinrum* 
stances under whidi this exhibit was Qbtained; and that extract Is 
sat forth in Document 3420-PS, which I refer to in part. H La 

"Mobile Field Iriterrggation Unit Number 2; PW InteUiffence 
BuUetlD; 13. Concentration Camp, BucJienwald, 
"Preamble. Th* author of this Account Ij PW Andreas 
Pfaflenberger, 1 Coy, Landesschtltzen Bn., 4} yfttrs old and 
of limited education. He is a butdier by tnde. The substan- 
tial agreement of the details of his story with those found in 
PWIB (H) /U/3fl establishes the vahdit^r of hiJ testimony, 
PW has not been questioned on fliatements which, in the ligh t 
of what is knowr^ arc apparently erroneous in certain deialb ^ 
nor has any effort been made ~^d alter the subjective 
diaracter of the PW'a account, which he wrote without being 
told anything of the intelligence already known. The results 
of inteiTogation on pecsonalities at Budienwald have already 
been published (PWIB Number 2/12, Item 31,). 

*' *ln 1939 all prisoners with tattooing on them were ordered 
to report to the dispensary.'" 

THE PRESIDENT: la this what Pfaflenberjjer wdd? 

MR. DODD: Y«, Sit, 

" 'No one Icnsw what the purpose was; but after the tattooed 
prlsonprs had been, examined, the ones with the best and 
mosit artistif specifflens were kept in the dispensary and then 
killed by injections administered by KarL Bei^, a criminal 
prisoner. The corpses were then turned over to the fiatho- 
logical department where the desired pieces of t^tt^ioed skin 
were detailed from the bodies and treated, The finished 
products were turned over to SS StandartenfUhrer Koch's 
wife, who had theia fashioned into larop shades and other 
omamental houjehold "articles. I myself saw such tattooed 
Stcina with various designs and legends on them., such as 
"Hanael and Gretel,'^"whld^ Orte pmoner had on hia knee ^ 
Mid destgas of jhipa, from priaoners' diesU . This work~waa 
done by a prisoner named Wemerbacli." 

I also refer to Document 3421-PSj wbi* bears Exhibit Number 

"I, George C. Demoa, Lieutenant^ USNHt associated with the 
United Stales Chief of Counsel (or the Prosecution of Axia 
Criminality, hereby certify that the attached e^ihibit, consist- 
ing of parchment, was delivered by the War Crimes Section, 
Judge Advocate General^ United States Annyp to me in my 
above capacity^ in the usual course ol business, as an exhibit 

IMT III 515 


U Dw. 41 

found in Budienwald Cainp and captured by military forces 

tinder the command ot the Supreme Camnmndet, AUied 

Elipeditionary Forces." 

And the last paragraph of DoGument 3423-PS (Exhibit USA-252) 
is a conclusion reached in a United States Army report, and 
I quote it: 

"Based on the findings in Paragraph 2, all three apeclmens 

are tattooed huntan skin." 

This document 13 also attadhed to this exhibit on the board. We 
do not wish to dwell on this pathological phase ol the Na?i culture, 
but we da feel compelled to offer one additional exhibit, which we 
offer as Exhibit Number VSA-25i, This exhibit, whidi is on the 
table, is a^ human head with the altull bone remov&d, shj^mken . 
stuffed, and preserved, the Nazis had one oE their many victims 
gfecapit'ated, after having had him hanged, apparentLy for f rate rh]g - 
ing with a German womanT and fashioned tnia terrible ornament 
from~^is hea d. 

The last paragraph of the olflcial United States Army report 
from whidi I have just read deals with the maimer in which this 
exhibit was acquired. It reads as follows: 

" There I also saw the shrunken heads of two young Pol es 

who had been hanged for having relations with German girls. 

The heads were the size of a fist, and the Ihair and the marks 

oE the rope were still thefe ." 

Another ceriiftcate by Lieutenant Demas is set forth In EMcu- 
ment 3422-PS (Exhibit USA-2$4J and la similar to the one which I 
have read a few minutes ago with relation to the human skiu. 
excepting that it applies to this second erfiiblt We have no accurate 
estimate at how many persons died in these concentration camps 
and perhaps none will ever be made; but as the evidence already 
introduced before this Tribunal indicates, jgie Had conspirators 
wgfe generally meticulous record keepers. But the records, which 
JEey kept about concentraut>rL camps" appear to. have been quite 
incomplgte. Perhaps the chiracter of the reeorris resutted'Crom tKe 
indlierence which the Nazis felt for the Uves o* their victims. Bui 
occQslonally we &nd a death book or a set of Index cards. For the 
most part, nevertheless, the victims apparently faded into an 
uniecorded death, Reference to a set of death books suggests at 
once the scale of the concentration camp operations, and we refer 
now and offer Document Num^her 493-PS as Exhibit Number 
USA-251. This exhibit la a set of seven books, the death ledger of 
the Mauthausen Concentration . Camp. Each book has on its cover 
the word "Totenbudi" (or Death Book)— Mauthausen. 

In these books were recorded the names of some of the inmates 
who died or were murdered in thii c»mp, and the books cover the 

IMT III *15 

nKimzNT Mfi-P« 

ciannCAiM" of omo™ Q» riHiBtr uia-bj mai-psi ^no 


FriKir'Kiia IN tUi^ir^^'^AUi co^cDirnAiKiri cnrir ifl i:flT^j:< 
T*I70gW BUMAK aiP FOP n»a*6CT!n*L Fupptiras [EHUfatr 

ornCB or u a chisf qf cnuaaEL 

tf,i THI rND^EPUriOfJ OF A^l 


I, OEOiiaE c DEHA3, iji:ir[, irsun iwxiiLid Kim Ui* 

Vb\lca SulEi ClUrr rf C4UBH] Eur lbs Fmmitlm vF AiU f rliii' 
IlkllLI). brirhj sitlft 1lu| i>> <1lidi<iL Eiklbli, :iii>l>lTrl nl pudi' 
DfaL 'u ildJind Ol a< Wir OlmH hr[i°n, ludp Adimulv 
OtDDil. U E. AnPj. la BU m TB, itam iniimiy. in ni» iini«l 
ULDii Df nffinil htf iriHI- u 1^ oUubLL haul m ButfifnwPiLd Camp 
■ml [ipCLirHl bjinllluiy r«[«Lin[l#rllwapiBap[ldU«5«pKiB« 

CimiBiBiKlB mUrd EuTdlllOMrj Fmuu 

nAI1Kkll<ila»iil, U>»V 


BrEcir lu, £4°i] " 9ilirrlfc<t, lul Li»LKitU nC htofl 
■LPhnnHil In JqundUf dibi, r«i»iiillT Ipp-ir" ■!'" "- "a^llL 
*ul LLt-lTipnl Alia Wm, HLra kj- Hr JI1.L lUilf iim™, nidi uA 

■Ub«nlvl iBr MlHTlBH KlBlllMDl 

I TJu! inmrllin. ddHn; Ibr prrL44 d[ Apnl la J-ly IHH. I» 
CHlUtJL KLuhrd bnln. Kb-Lrf -GkIIbd dI 'Hn-i-ri 5fcl> LiHp 
Bliiile" Budi«"ld CflBT-nlrilltn Cunp." •—! JB-fftrf " ™» 
bf Hapmona H CI-*". UmWninl iZnlinwl, l>rji](iT. I- M*" I*"™ 
Hnirrd bj hLHI U rc4la«l 

Thtf duIbM A* JbiiiIJ|UIiib ajuI pFipvtlniib W 
vldn* i^-iEUi wir niinu nqui^lU aiBa "1* 

Dcr xnii 



Budienwald Concerttntjon Camp, be htd acted ai 
In vmti gator- E:s:aminer usi^cd to the Jud^e Advocate 
Section^ War Crimn Branch, Third United States Army: 

That the above exhibit wu secured by hfm at jaid 
camp during the period of the investigation and turned 
Over to the War Crimej Brandr of the Judge Advocate 
Section, Iliird United States Army, aioa^ with the 
other evidence secured in the case. 

1. "DiaC the attadied exhibit ii the One referred to In the above 

Jtatements made to me. 

2nd hU AUS, 

Subscribed and awom to before nw at Munldi, Gennany'r on 
3 November ^49 

Sidney M. Stht^ih^T 

2nd Lt., AC, 


Mobile Pl«1d Interrogation Unit No. 2 

No 2/aO 1» December 1»44 

Addttu Brief] and Requests to HQ. FED, MIS, APO 687 


13. Concentratlvn Caoip, BUCHENWALD 

Preamble. The author of thij account is PW Andreas 
PFAFFENBERI3EH, 1 Coy, 9 Landesichuetien Bn. 43 year3 old and 
of limited education, he ia a butdier by trade. The lubitantial 
agreement of the details of his story with thoac found In PWIS 
(H)/X>F>?36i establishes the validity a£ his testimony. 

PW has not been queationed on statementa whidi. In the light 
of what is known, afe appifently erroneoua tn «rtain detail a, nor 
hu any cSort been made to alter the subjective character of PWa 

iMT xxxri 

■Jina ilm^ Id&vjd H«ii|1p al Lnlnnipt^TB dfi puumlllid xL 

m |VS All ^ffoinn wiUi UHwirs db Urn vm Hita^ri U 

nparl la rnr dillViiHrj. Wp cue karw wlul Ihi uuiptu iiub Birt 
■fur Ibg lAllObri pEnuuni Kid ban cumUiEJ, Uif ima w.lli dir 
^L ukl null uiUlJE ■pKinifliif '■«!■ Inpi In Ihr dlMDEUiiy, lod 
AealiLllfd bj lD|4nJau i J±h,nm[»™d 1,, K.rl B F J Q S < ■ mrrUcul 
IJilUinr. ri« mrrrid win rkm luni-J "rr In Hie pjlhflloHlMl 
drpmnnmil, wliire Uin dulm] plp»> nl Ui(rt>4 aVdi Uinre ibruilvl 
EiUn llir Nadirs biiJ Icei'aL Tlii n&lilifil pri>]ii^i| «m lurTLol 
D^r II. S S^.Hl.[l.iiEaiE.r*[ KfXHm f\Ii. *ru bid I|t*D UA- 
iBBtd iBli. [HBhpyi.J». -nd nU irr °niiTnrnlil hiuiiliaU krtL<Lfb 
I n^YHlf iJg; pjdi Ib4Ji«J Alrj^.il, .^.^^m, dt^Jr^. inj TftfA 
Wl UlPlI, mdi M -hHiHI iiad GrfliT. t-urP anr pn«ntr h»J kri 
yn aii Naiw. Ill diim rcHii ptmnm atm triii work "u Ja* 

■ I bIu m^ >hj Hininhfn liwJi nf 1-j ^pmig P^Im ihn 
^'''^^'^™"''""' ' ' ' rrlnJnii] i^llk dinBiii iLrb lAu 

ttA h, l.^irj Ti ^ j .irlilJii 

rBmmandr, [rf>^ 





16 Movember 1945. 


I, GEORGE C- DEIMAS, LJEUTh USNR, associfllEd with the 
United States Chief of Counsel for the Prosecution of Axis Crim- 
inality, hereby certify that the atiadied exhibit, consisting of one 
Ehrunken head, was delivered by the War Crimes Section. Judge 
AdvocBte GenerAl, US, Army, to me in my above capacity, in the 
usual course of official business, as ui exhibit found in Buchenwald 
Camp and captured by military forces under the connmand of the 
Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary Forces. 

RANK Lieutenant, USNH 
FILE NO. 3 019 7 3 

Records Subsection 

10 November 1945 

Heceipt for the Iwo followmg exhibits of Concentration Camp 
Buchenwald iis hereby acknowledged^ 

Item 105 a pieces of human jkin {Uttaoed] exhibit B 2 

Item 106 Human bead (shrunken) exhibit B 3 



IMT XXX ri 270 

q WuDrBAKHEE \m AufC «E Ihlt -PrL Ebc Hili *TidIp p„„, , 
tt T<i JUacHEII lEiIrl mv llnE ]ir lud bwai put 4di rhta v-^i i , 
PIHHLAL tqiwnallp uid br —u mm ibDI LL mit jkiBuLnii 
I Inrm iDmraLiiHi UuL In Lhr <uLr pul tf in^ HoTb n 114 < 
Ju H urt eIiLuw, fnwjn/tn ?r fiiE lad Jmwm al ill lulJirfqIii, ^ 
•<tr iihT r>nl4ulKr iM-rLInn I'll paJd la bbug ii^iv <| ir Br 
pm Ilia I PuMo noml^u or moa Hwi Df LDaii>«itai|, 
Q Ti ihuf inyUibii ««• UH yav w^uU IIM Eg lU du«> -h, 

A. 1e r fu BRD- ([Will Uii m±v HXaCHUL lelftf flViUlU 
koM [E la riH Hu pnuBHi r-mmilL^ uU aojIJ Lnnn Um 
Ui « pliLDL pUaL Uf wauU nuuallV iBafl anr "W Dul tF 
o^u I biiU HI tD'f n/bffi aU BOI r°a^ rui ■nv^ lliir 

btiJid UlIii ITii [wm lia r^uld <nnc And <ill ihn il-ji ib-h 

lud D 

T Ihi p 

1 nukinf ironf prLaapiri iDd IbiF rBty i 
■Hiri nil noir dUpiMlUif pari wu Dul aUti llu jiriiBiH- 
lUuil ur^ BA5CIIEI1 m&iLd pt Jlimi ud "uIh vbl h' n>'b 
p InOilE IriVtiliKi ItomuEO inb 1 nic «/ Hu lnMnfti ■» ih 
UUIIU *™ Mj -Hl-l' irar Ihi pniip liMd btu l(.lhd 111 -l" 
Bab ih^ hdin vtulil te ram^vri (nfo Ukk IVii^ tI 
tail»4L I wtM IB Ibi mBrt D»T UEm ■4eji lutMui tm mil 

U^ MiJ OB It lAi Haufril iDra lUSf UEh Allrr Ih hi*<~ 

had bun win M»y. ■XBOOR nuM Mi>kI mnm HirridJi, 

jKtOUr BHB up 1e 0* mm rcr cm. ird wiuUI ^ui <ai *-- 

hmvaiqiMEt IIHHd. TW «*r* khMJI ■mArd ax« ■'i'> 

bODdn (noHf Ptm Uw cint b BaKHIB' Lbzl&J^ 

leamJ - . - 

biSCHUL -u ILIM bT Itf ^ b-lBH IbB AowiUjn- l"l "' 

but I lurr » inol ■! Uul- 

jtnu luv« mealHnnl? 


Mn PS 

gu diaiuber at the new crematorium And extremities ot th* 
body amputated without the use of anaesthetics, i.e., living bodies 
were used to simulate battle Held condition wounds and iheU 
lire wounds. The coagulation tests were beiJig conducted during 
this time. Dr. RASCHER conducted this Mtperiment and would 
later dictate his ftndingfi tot the official rejwrt. 
cj, «frfe there any other things of this nature that went on? 
A, I remember in particular any report I miHie out almost always 
pfitled with the remark "EKpertment successful but the patient 
died." This may sound lllce a joke as t have heard it before but 
[ have never had to write it before and realize it was true, 
tj. Are there any more experiments yau remember wherein you 

uin give names of personnel conducting them? 
A. None, except I would like to tell what l know of the dungeon 
Here. I was thrown into the dungeon after having escaped from 
tamp. The circumstances of my escape were that in RASCHER's 
nhsence I cleaned out hia safe and took all siened receiptj of sale 
for eloves and oodtetbQQks that RASCHER had sold,i"g., eloves 
nnd poeketbpQks Tnade from human gkln.. There were othe r 
documents also whidi I can't remember now. My English friend 
in camp who has since been killed made a contact for me on the 
outside. When I ieH camp I met this intermediary from the 
British and handed him all these compromising documents. This 
person took them on to Switzerland, I do not know where he is 
now nor where the documents are. I came bade under guard 
atid thought I wQuld be killed but RASCHER saved my Lfe. 
ItASCHEK was in trouble charged with negligence and he 
thought I could save him. He in turn said he had bumed the 
flo^uments in question and Z was merely thrown into the dungeon 
where I remained for nine months in rfialos. RASCHER was 
Miivictcd of negligence and many other things and was later 
^nsiniss^d from the service and I understand has since been killed 
by the SS, for what he knew. RASCHER's wife was convicted 
fnr embezzlement and imprisoned. I gave RASCHER 5.000 macks 
^ keep from being killed even before this came up. I had money 
on the outside. RASCHER had told us when I gave him the 
iflOO marks that the SS was afraid something would go wrong 
1^ Germany and that the American Invasion might be successful 
tnd it it was every prisoner would be killed. 

H Who Was in charge of the dungeon? 

*■ Sturmfuhrer STILLER. I don't remember (he name of his 
""^i^lant. Most of the puntshment I received in the dungeon was 
Inflicted by an SS men from Munich who came from the Gestapo 



Bodies ittdccd one upon th# other were f&und oulride the 
fTiTftalory. The Naijs mainUined i buildins it Ihe ejmp for mediuJ 
(xpt^rJments uid virisection* with prisontrt u pjlntJi pigs. Medical 
jcicniisu c«ww from B«rljuj periodtcjUy to reinforce the acperimen- 
lal staff. In particular, new toxin* and anti-tojcins were tried out 
tn prisonera. Pfw who eotered the eiptrimtatal buUdiiigi ever 
rtnerg«i aiive. 

One of the weapom used by SS fnarda, 

- PtiCt — 

The body disposal plant. Inside, are the oven* whiA gave ihe 
trrnutoriura a msmmiim difpoxat eipadty of about *00 bodips per 
lO-hour day. Oold-flUed teelh were extracted from bodies belore 
Incineration. The ovens, of eitremely modem deaipi and healed 
ty coke, were made by a concern which ciutomarily maimfactures 
baking ovena. The firm** name [a clearly Imcribed. 

All bodies were flnAlly reduced to bone ash. 

Twelve hundred civilians walked from the neighboring Clly of 
Weimar to b^n a iorced tour of the camp. There are wuny smiling 
fjcea *nd, according to obterveri, at first the Germaiu act as though 
this were toraething being ataged for their benefit 

One of the fifst thing* that the German riviyani k« as they 
mdi the toterior of the camp is the p»rdira*nt display. On a table 
for all to gaw upon tt t lampshade made of huinau skin, made at 
the request o£ an SS o««r's wife. Laree piegea of tkin have been 
t^ for PiintiDE pjrtures. many af ■» ohsctn^ n^turg^ 

There are two headi whidi have Iwen ahrunk to one-fifth their 
Bonual size. These, and other exhibits of Nail origin, ire chown 
to ihe towmpeople. 

The earner* records the ciianges la facial cxprexsiona ts the 

Weimar citiieo* leave the parchment displny. 

The tour continues with a forted Inspection of the camp's living 
quarten, where the itenA, fllth ud misery defied description. 

They see the result ot lack M care in a bad caje ol tnndifoat. 

Other evidences of horror, bnilaUty and hupian indecency af* 
*o^vn ind thex people are eompeUed to see whit their own 
fowemmenl had perpetrated. 

Correspondents assigned to the Budienwild story have given 
*ido notice to the well-fed. well-dressed appearince of the Gerrun 
civilian populttion of the Weimu area. 

IMT XXX **' 

Narralion of film "Hni Concentration Camps", made by George Stevens 

23rd Nouember 1945 


n Jan. « 

M- DUBOST: And in the working groups? 

THE PRESIDENT^ We have heard that they were all mix*d up 

M. DUBOST: The (act will not have escaped the Tcibunal that 
tbrese questions are pul to counter other questions whidi were asked 
this moming by the Counsel for the Defense with the intent to 
confuse not the Tribunal, but the witnesses. 

BALACHOWSKY: I repeat that we had a tromplete conglomera- 
tion of nationalitiea and categories of prisoners. 

THE PRESIDENT^ That is exactly what he said, that tiiesA 
triangles were completely mixed up. 

M- DUBOST: I thinks that the statement by this Second witness 
will deflnitiveiy enlighten ihe Tribunal on this pomt, whatever the 
efforts of the Defense might be to mislead us. 

{Turning to the wiinessj Do vou know anvlhini^ ^brt"* t^*' fate 
of tattooed men? 

BALACHOWSKY: Y-es, indeed. 

M. DUBOST: Will you please tell us what you know about them? 

BALACHOWSKY: Taltwed human skins were stored in Block 2, 
which was called at Buciienwald the Pathological Block. 

M. DUBOST: Were there many tattooed human skins in Blocks? 

EALACKOW5KY1 There were always tattooed human skins m 
Blodt a. I cannot say whether there were many, as they were 
continuously being received and passed on, but there w ere not only 
Tattooed human akjns but atao tanned human s.K ins— sirrmly 
tanned, not lattooed . 

M, DUBOST: Did thgy skin people ? 

BALACHOWSKY: They femoved the skin and then tanned it , 

M. DUBOST: Will you continue your testimony on that point? 

BALACHOWSKY: I saw SS me n come out oi Block 2. the Patho - 


logical Block 

, carrytng tanned skins undef their armj I know, 
s who worked in FathPlogical Hl&ch 2. that there 

my" comrades who worked in FathDlogical Block 2. that there were 
orders for skina; and these tann&d skins w ere given as gita to 
certain guards and to certain visitors, who used i hem to bind books. 

M. DUBOST: We were told that Koch, who was the head at that 
time, was sentenced for this practice. 

BALACHOWSKY: I was not a witness of the Kocii alfair. whidi 
happened before I came to the camp, 

M. DUBOST; So that even after he left there were still tanned 
and tattooed skins? 

BALACHOWSKY; Yes, there wefe constantly tanned and 
tattooed skins, and when the camp was Lberated by the Americans, 

IMT VI 311 


an obJBCtJgn fram ttre defense 


Friday, 14 December 1945 

M&ming Session 

DIL KAUFFMANW: May I bring up two points with refiard to 
yesterday^s aiid All luture presentation of widence on th« section 
dealing witii Crimes BgaLnst Humanity. 

Firstly, 1 request that the affidavit of the witneM Pfaffenhergef, 
which Was submitted yesterday, be stricken from the record. The 
witness himself will later hav^ to be cross-examined, since hi s 
affidavit is fragmentary jry most trnportJQt pOinLS. lit Hflarty cases 
Lt doe^ fiot ajipear whether his Statements are based on pergona l 
observations or on hearsa y, and therefore ii is too easy to draw 
tkhe CQnclusiotis. The witncas did not mention that the Camp Corn - 
PfLacii^er Kodi and his inhuman wile were condemned to death b y 
an SS court, amom; oth&r thLnfis/otijjccpunt of theae occurrences . 
l!i is, at eourie, possible to aseertSLn ihe'«imple1e facts by ques- 
tionlii^ the witness at a later stage of the TriaL But until then the 
Tribunal and all members of the Prosecution and the Defense must 
be continually influenced by such dreadful testimony. 

The contents of this testimony are so hotrifylng and $o dejii^ading 
to the human mind that one wouJd like to avert one's eyes and ears 
In the meantime sui±\ statements make their way into the pre^ of 
the whole world, and civilization Ls Justly indignant. The conse- 
quences of mdi prejudiced statements *re inc»iculat>le. The Prose- 
cutor clearly rtcognlzed the iignifScance of this testimony and 
exposed the sorry documents In yesterday's proceedings. 

It weckj or months pass before sudi testimony is rectified, its 
lETitial eflect can never be wholly eliminated^ but truth sufTers and 
justice is endangered thereby. Surely, Article 19 of the Charter 
does not envisage brinBtng about audi a state of aifairs. 

Secondly, I should, therefore, like to suggest that at the present 
sta^e of the Trial the testimony of wilnesws who live in Germany 
4nd whose appearance here in court is possible should not be read 
in the proceedings. For at this stage of the Trial the charges beinR 
made ire even more terrible than those referring to wars of a^^rcs- 
lion, since the tortured lives and deaths of human beings art? 

At the beginning of the Trial the Tribunal refused to admit 
testimony Of the witness SdiusduUgg, and It is my opinion that 




"7. Phlegmpne experiments were conducted by Dr Sdiutz, 
Dr. Babor, Dr. Kiestlwetler and Professor Lauer. Forly 
health J- m«i were used at a. time, of which twenty were 
given intramuscular and twenty intravenous injections of 
pus from diseased persons_ All treatment was forbidden for 
3 days, by whidi time fcrious inflanunatiDn and in many 
cases general blood poisoning had actuired. Then e^d^ group 
was divided again into groups of 10 Half wer* given 
chemical treatment with liquid and special pills every 
10 minutes for Z-t hours. The wmainder were treated with 
sulfanamide and surgery. In some cases all the limbs were 
amputated. My autopsy also showed that the chemical 
treatment had been harmful and had even caused per- 
forations of the stomach wall. For these experiments Polish, 
Czech, and Dutch priests were ordinarily used. Pain was 
intense In such e>Eperimfnts. Most of tht fiOO to ftOO persons 
who lA^ere used finally died. Most of the ath^rs beeantift 
permanent invalids and were later killed. 

"S. In the fall of 1S44 there were 60 to 30 persons who were 
subjected to salt water experiments. Th«y 'were locked in a 
room and lot 5 dayi were given nothing for focd but salt 
water. Huring this time their urine, blood, and excremsnt 
were tested. None of these prisoners died, possibly because 
they received smuggled food from other prisoners. Hungarians 
and Gypsies were used for these experiments. 

"S. U Was common practice to remove the skin from dea d 

Srisoners. I was commanded to do this on niany occasians. 
T. Rasdierand Dr_Wolter in particular asked ffr this human 
skin from human bad;s and chests. It^was chemically treated 
and placed in the sun to dry. After that it ^was cut into various 
sties for use as saddles, riding breeches, gloveaTT^buse slippers, 
and ladies' handbags , 'i'altpped 5km was especi^T^valSeS 
by SS men, Kusslans, Poles, and other inmates were used in 
this way, but it was forbidden to cut out theslcin of a German. 
TTiis skm had to be from healthy prisoners and free from 
defects. Sometimes we did not have enough bodies with food 
skin and Rascher would uy, 'AH right, yaa wiU get the 
bodies.' The next day we would receive £0 or 30 bodies of 
young people. They would have been shot in the neck or 
strudc on th« head so that the skin would b« uninjured. Also 
we frequentl;^ got requests for the skulls or skeletons of 
prisoners. In those cases we tjoiled the skull or the body . 
Then the soft parts were removed and the bones _werF 
bleached and dried and reassembled - In the case of gltulJj It 
was important to have: a food set of teethe When we got an 

IMT V 171 

original German version of Blaha's "aHidavif 



di«sen Versudie^n gestorben imd es wurden dazu Folnisdie, Ru5- 
idsche, Tschechisdit, und d«uUche HaeftLinge herbeigenommen. 
Itugesamt Bind imgefae^hr ITS Mensdien diesen Versuchen uster* 

T- PUcgmone Versuche sind von Dr. Sdiuetz, Dr. Babor und 
Dr Kieaelwetter proE. Lauer durdi^efuehrt worden. 40 £«unde 
Mensdien sLnd luf eiiunal benuttzt warden, ^r^>a deiten 20 Intra- 
muslEUlaere und 20 intraveinoese Injektionen von demElter kranker 
Msngchen erhielten. Drel Tage lang wurde jcde Behandlung dieaer 
Mensehen verboten, zu welcher Zeit enute Entiuendungen, un3 
In vielen Fa&llen allgemelne Blutvetfiiftung aultrdt. Pann wijrde 
jede Gruppe wJcder la Gruppen von 10 untertellt. Die HaeUte 
cfaemische Behandlung mit Flutasigk^it uAd PtlleriH di» all 
10 Minuten 24 Stunden Ung ein^egeben wurden. Der Rest wurde 
mit Sulfonamide und Chirurgie bebsndell, tn manchtp FaeUen 
itnd alle Glieder amputi^rt worden. Meine Autopsie zeigte auch, 
dass die dtcmis(±ie Behandlung sfhatdlifh war und mgAj Fer- 
forationen der Magenwand veruraachte. Fuer diese Versuche aind 
gewoehnlidi Polnisdie, tsehediisrhe und hollaendisdie Priester 
benuetzt worden. Die Veraiiidie waren sehr schmerzhaft. Die 
meijlen der sechj bia achthundert Personen di6 dazu benuetzt 
wdrden, atarben am Ende. Die anderen wurdea Invaliden und 
vurd«n apaetu getaetet 

8. rm l^crbst 1044 wurde an 60 bis fiO Mensci^ieti SaUwauer 
Vereudie durehgefuehtt. Sie wurden 5 Tage Lang In ein Zimm«r 
eing^jp^frt Und bekamen njchia anderes ala Salfwaner zu euen, 
Waehrend dieaer Zett iit ihr Uiin, Blut und Excrement gepnieft 

— s«it« ■ — 

Keiner dteser Gefangenen itarb, moeglicherweise well tie Nahrung 
von anderen Gefangsnen gesdimuggelt bekamen. Ungam und Zlgeu- 
ner sind fuer diese Versuehe benuetzt worden. 

B. R< war ■llg^mt ^i.rt uebljdi die Haeutcr der Leldien toter 
Geiangetier zu tnifemen. Es wurde mir oettera befohkn dlM za 
tun ri f. Rftschfrf und" P. Voltgr Lm bcjonderen veriangfe^iMe 
l aenjchljche Hatit von Mcnacfaen Ruecken und Bnjeaten. sTe wtirde 
diemiacfa bchandejt iind iji die Sonne ziim Trocknen ge!egL Jfacihber 
Wurde aie in verschiedenen Groessen zugeKtanitten tuer fJenueUung 
ala Saettel, HeJthosen, Handschuhg, Haussdiijhe und Damen-Hand - 
taschen. TaettowT^IeTtauTwurS^^esonSera voa ^erT^^aenneiTi 
g»dia«tzt Russen, Pokn tuuTamlers ^aef tling« sind auf dieie Art 
benuetzt worden, aber es war verboten die Haut eloes Xteutsdien 
auwiiichneld€o. DLese Haut muut« von gaund^n Penonea kommen 




OL-Jtr for ikulla from Oranienbur^ the SS men would amy, 
■We will try to get you some with gotxl Ceeth/ Sa it wu 
dangerous to have good tkln of good teeth. 

"10. Transports arrived frequently in Da^au from Struthof, 
Betseri, Aa$chwit£, Mauthausen and other campS- Many of 
these were ULAa 14 davs on Lhe wav without water or food. 
On one transport which arrived in Novcrnlwr 1942 1 found 
evidence of cannibalisrf i. The living peraoni had eaten the 
fle3fi"~(rom the dead bodies nAjTolher traruport arrived 
frem Compi^pie in France. Professor Limousin of Clermont- 
Ferrand who was later my issLslant told me that there htd 
been ZflQQ persons on this transport when It started. Thete 
was food available but no water. Sight hundred died on the 
way and were thrown out. When it ftiTived after \2 days, 
more than 500 persons were dead on the train. Of the re^ 
niainder most died shortly sfter arrival. I Investigated this 
transport because the Tntemattonal Red Cross complained, 
and the SS men wanted a report that the deaths had been 
gaused by fighting and rioting on the way. I diaaected ft 
number ot bod ies and found that they had died from juffo- 
gation and lack of wate r. It was mid-summer and ilO people 
had lieen padted into each car. 

-11. In 1941 and 1W2 we had in the camp what we called 
invalid transports. TTiese were made up of people who were 
aide or for some reason incapable of working. We called 
them 'HimmeUahrt Commandos.' About lOQ or 1^0 were 
ordered each week to go to the shower baths. There four 
people gftv* Injections ol phenol, evipann or benzine, whidi 
joon caused death. After 1941 these inwalida were sent to 
other camps for liquidation. I Jcnow that they were killed, 
because I saw the records and they were marked with « 
cross and the date that they left, which was the way that 
deaths were ordinarily recorded. This was shown on both the 
card index of the Camp Dachau and the records in the registry 
office of Dachau. One thousand to two thousand went away 
every 3 months, so there were about Ave thousand »ent to 
death In this way in 1943. and the same in 11^44. In April 
1945 a Jewish transport was loaded at Dadiau and was left 
standing On the railroad siding. The Station was destroyed 
by bombing, and they could not leave. So they were iust 
left there to die of atarvation. They were not allowed to get 
oft. Wh«i the camp was liberaied they were all dead- 

"12, Many ejtegutions }>)f gas or shooting or Injections took 
^laee~riiiht in the camp. "Th^ jjas diamber was completed in 
1W4, and I was called by Dr. Rascher lo examine the first 



BTalia was a Czech who signed a confession in German 
written by a U.S. Armir OHicor 

11 Jin, « 

The Fmtdi Prosfrcution, I phi Infarmed, will deal with this 
matter in greater detail. Moreover, the Frfndi and Soviet Prosecu- 
tion will iubmit *vid^nct avowing that Defendant Punk actively 
participated in the program for the ccimindL looting of the 
resources of occupied tgrritoriM. 

AIR. DODD: May it plear?; the Tribunal, we would like to call 
at this time the witness, Dr. Frani Blaha, 
(The wittie^s^ Blaha, took the stand.] 

THE PRESIDENT /To the tuitnettj: Is your name Frani Blaha? 
Dit FRANZ BLAHA (Witness) [In Czech./: Dr, Franz Blaha. 

THE PRESIDENT; Will you repeat this oath; "I swear by God— 
the Almighty and Omniscient— that I will speak th« tfuth, the 
pure truth— and will withhold and add nothing." 

ITht luUiiesa repeated the oath,/ 

THE PRESIDENT; You can sit down if you wish. 

MR. DODD; You are Dr. Franc Blaha, a native and A citizen 
of CzechoslDvakia, arc you not? 

BLAHA: lln Czech] Yes. 

MR. DODD; I underetwid that you arc able to apeak Geiman, 
and for technical reasons I suggest that we conduct this eicami- 
nallori in Oerman, although 1 know^ your native tongue Is Ciech ; 
is that rightr 

BLAHA: jln Czech ,} In the interest of the case I arn wiUitig 
to testify In Qetmac; for the following reasons: I- For the past 
7 years, whidi are the subject of my testimony, 1 have lived 
exclusively in German aurroundinga; 2. A large number of special 
and technical expressions relating to life in and about the concen- 
tratioa camps are purely German inventions, and no appropriate 
equivalent lor them in any other language can be found. 

MR. DODD; Dr. Blaha, by education and tralniog and profession 
S'Ou are a doctor of medicine! 

BLAHA; {In German .} Yea. 

MR, DODD: And in 1933 you were the head ot a hospital in 
BLAHA; Yea. 

MB. DODD: You were arrested, were you not, by the Germans 
In l&3g afler they occupied CieehoslovakLa? 


MR. £X}DD: And were you co?iftned irt various prisans between 
19^9 and 1941? 

BLAHA; Yea. 

Inn hi un Iv dUtI umiIi II hi luH iknid il 

Dh 9A.Unf : Snu W4im InMifBriiM llfi Wi* iHY hrtiri 'EilBr- 

DTCaAUTRl. Qld yiu, jl Uikl Ubit, iUd Bilk* Hihe lUlmwU 
.b«.i rumkr 

BLjUIA [ dU Uu bu Iblni 41 Ur lulrrxif lUn nnduiUd 
lij Uir PrDmiUm 

DnS^UnA II dul ilB IB Ut> iHPrii *liiiJl I beUri «dj 

DIUaAVTErt. -Ymj D(i|« r" m*PJ' 

HL*Hfl Ka. [ Hfpply ppirt inlm wM eai by Ihi Pfnugtann . 

DnS^OTEJ^ Whr IhDilklaEfiJumMnliDD UnH^LDu lUdif 
■Tort !mifF4*)7 

NAKA I -u uknl ibaiU II Drill}, ud Dii pf^ucdUr Idd 

Dt iDil rBiu Bipnun iiDUld b« H>.<D up hiIIt In Dm iminrwim. 

HH-SAUTDt W<n jou Urn aIk lab BbiN Ui| dilmJuiU 
■I Id ibi uurlnuFi? 


nii,5*irmi. junr 

BLJlHA. And 1 «u ubd la tOmnalf U lb unrt Ih* iiuliu* 
PHpIt E taHlliriid iTii Hun ol irhau E old Enlir Vol I Hid Bcn 
Dud u [um runl taH HlU't T -IM pm "*"!■ 

DnSAUmt VVu dU bdL uih FluiIiI 

BLAhA, I dtd toi HT Dili I bid idnnuUi im hla n am 
[ nuLJ td?iilit^ Idn 

pa-SAUxiBll- fiiA -liBTi Ult piEKini njB Vie-^ ib jw did 
jau ^4 Uir drEouUbEi In Ifai plrlutd* 

DJLBAUTIH. far. U I uHdmlana jai piripJlt, jpn inert 
»*Hy wnwn. tet gin^. ri[ikHcrilrfc5rm?D[icfl^>TmL-,im i 

HliAHA njtd ] 4i> lU UUM PrrHniLy. H^-Li- I Ql] tuL 

•H Ida U Uiil UnM. 


U Ja. M 

1941 to 1945, They were mostty lulluu, Russians, ind 
Frenchmen. Xh«s« people wtc* J«*t itarved to death. At the 
time of death they wtightd ad ta 80 poundfl. AutofAlu duiwcd 
th«lr Entemal orfani had often shrunk io one-third ti£ (heir 
Qormal fize. 

The tacts state d above un tnae. This declaration \s made 
bj~nM voluntarily and without cprnpulaifln. Alter readinj 
OVBT the ■toitcmcnt 1 have aJaned md executed the aam e 
at MuwHTiberg. Genaany> Ihia ftth day ot January I94 g?"' 
— Signed— "Dr. Tttnz Blaha. 

•'SubscKbed and sworn to beCpn me thla 9th d*y of January 
IPW at Nuwmbcrj, Germany. 2d Lieutensnt Daniel F. Mftr- 

MR. DOt>D: lCant\nmno tht interrogation] Dr. Blaha, will you 
state whether or not visitors came to the csmp of Dadwu while 
you wen thercT 

BLAHAt Very K4ny visltora came to our camp » that it some- 
tlmes «#««l to ui that we were not conflned in b camp but in an 
exhibition or a k». At times there was a visit or en cxcursLoA 
almost every day ttvra uhooli, from different mititary, medical, and 
other iojUtutions, and also many miemfaers ot the Police, the 55, 
and the Armed Forces; also ■ ■ ■ 

THE PRESIDENT: Will you pause so as to ^ve the interpreter'* 
words Ume to came through; do you understand? 

BLAHA: Yes. Also some State penK^ntUties came to the camp. 

Re^lar Ijv!i(tectlons were m^de month by month by the Inspector 
General of Concentration CampJ, Obergnippenfuhrtr Pohl; also by 
SS RcidisIUhrer Professor Grawiti, Inspector of ExpeiimEAtal SU* 
tions; Standartenffthrer Dr. LolUna; and other peraonallliM. 

MIL DODD: The presiding Justice has suggested that you pause^ 
and it would be helplul if you paused in the mating of your answers 
n that the interpreters can complete their interpreUtion. 

BLAHA: Yes. 

MH. DODD: Are you able to ctate how long thee visits lasted 
on an average? 

BLAHA: That depended on th« »rt of visits betnj made. Some 
were inside for hall an hour to an hour, some for 1 or 4 hours. 

MR. DODD: Wert there prominent Government people who 
visited the camp at any time while you were there? 

»mt^ th» odjiri UttM— WHfai. 

iwr V iw 

■nit F 


HIL DODD Vu nvr lu^i bna i 
VWIi>*l InfmuUgn irnm 


hiL DQDD I h.T* ud uHier PKlIrr I 
up LBrr hnrily bflDi-f Ih* 7>lb°rvil ibJi r 
m1lli J nBlu« Uw briuB uHur I ^ JiTL IJ 
Uir Urulrd £1bIe^ 

On Ehr laUi nf Dmoitrr «r Ulflld in cV'T'' I 
TJ.mlKr Iin-K uaeuiliLlSLDiihiL[BA-9S9uid B1 Iliifrji 
FB'P'tfivrli, Ifci '^flU'l "ill ""II ■^im nT lmbn »- 

I IhIjh rrnni luauin Tiall« md i>mo"¥»i[, ipd ■ liura 

nllK Hid |naer¥iiE, jcd ■ liursui 

RGSSEirrBr, TbUiiIUi lUUIlul im innqi nmniiiriabi il uwufh 

Ibr DdniliM Buduio, hi Bdibmibil IT4 TrJhoal, Pt\t4 Uul n 
1*1* ImMr BK^tk Llm flu PmwJUUMI bM> lh«t llw flnrnin 

linfw <!<[ W >H J Vtn iri. J HfJ imlMBf^ fur lUiif ihwIhFT5» 

WBhtIbk Jib biprifdtr. ..tUiUd U riwn <lU MtaL»Mr "rHW, 

T^L^n~JyLl,lL«UlwhDD-jb4«lllDlWSll.l>— H^ 

k1 Bir lm\t Hilt n nOrfnl iTi" pHtf; dlOlX Uov BnylhOiB ilnul 

ni*l ir*p1 l^lkL bV nid UfBII ■):* — rrn— wlnrrl ICIinblf » 01* 

klbli^L Bkn lutsqurnl \o IliB oblECiLm Ve hid U HmmpUui 

Findi, vd -w. hiT I°a>i4 H^L Ii.vm Irtri la IBM. Lri wd. h. in B 
■ miiniiHTifl >Hflir>*n|fH**ilHafl*a BMiaeiHp , fm tTiiI— J 

'Ih |iiil|t aha Ubd bun Ldli Di— wu I dHTtttrfHIXi ClKnVlai 

uAEiirlmlv imiidnrd mrhir w||h vluim ki hbl hiibe puHmJ 
dirk.riB-1. l«Uid,ltaJirfp,iC<HflT^.Td|.o|llufaii«jllii 
UlUHd bu^n Iklii arS IV mv ■ Dlhiui I^J Id CinuiHHijrl 
Vv±t mntr trV mil iiE ■»" ■ Linipi*ri« Hi"- a-I- o"i m 
hvnUB tin BuI Ibur — nr iiD dwrfrt ii Um Ubif Ihn Iit >u 
UlBd faibr^ dim Dw lUbp 

1 -hduU iba polH oul mitiF TntuLiI Ihil, wrn], Ui» l^linyjif 
bI Pf. Blihii ibcJi IjnIiiT Jiriif °n '1"H'" « ""' ^n" *»JUIJHfc 
Wmrih*!! U^ygJ «a Ji< wfn Iwlilfd InrtirMDiif till! nrPT^I 

. . . thus shifting th? burden of proaf on to the defense. 

kind of conduct. We have not been stale to locate the affiant . We 
have made an eJTprt to 4q sQt but ws have not been able to locate 
him ihxis f ar^, 

THE PRESIDENT: Locate whom? 

lAR, DODD: The affiant PlaiTenberger, the one whose affidavit 
was oJTered. 

THE PRESIDENT: Very well^ Mr Dodd. 

DR. KURT KAUFFMANN (Counstl for Defendant Kalten- 
Invziner): The statemgnt just made is undoubtedly significant, but it 
muld be of imporUiic'e "to"~have ^he dpcum^nis wnidi sfrvgd to 
ecmvlct the commandant and his wife at the timp, KaltenbniTiner 
told me that it was hnown in the whole ES that the commandan"^ 
Koch and his wiJe " had "been taken to a"efoiint also — I emphasize 
"also"— on account of thesg things an^ that it was known in the sS 
that one of the factors detenTtining the Beverily ftt the sejiteflces 
jBiposed had betm this proved inhuman behavio r, 

THE PRESIDENT L Wait a minute. As you were the counse^l who 
made the alle^fition that the commandant Kodi had been put to 
death for his inhuman treatment, it would ssqui that you are the 
party to produce the judgment. 

DR KAUFFMANN; I never had the verdict In my hand. I 
depended on the iuformation which Kaltenbrunner gave me perschu- 
aUy and Orally. 

THE PRESttJENT: It wgs jou who made the assertion. I don't 
care where you got i! Trom. You made the assertion: therefore it 
IS for you to pmauce the document . 


COLONEL H. J, PHILLIMORE: (Junigr Counsel for the United 
Kingdom): May It please the Tiitautisil^ Briefs and document book£ 
have been handed in, Tbe doc%itnent£ in the document book are in 
the order in which I shall reler to them, and the references to them 
in the briefs are also in that order. On the first page of the brief 
is set out the extract from Appendix A of the Indictment, wbidi 
deals with the criminality of this defendant. 

THE PKESIDENTi Are you dealing first of all with lUeder or 
with BBnitz? 

COL. PHILLIMORE: TVith Doniti. My learned friend, Major 
Elwyn Jonea^ will deal with Raeder irrunediately after. Heading at 
P«£e I of the brief , . , 

THE PHESIDBNT: The Tribunal will adjourn for 10 minutei 

{A Tteets toai laktn.] 

COL. PHILLIMORE: My Lord, may I proceed? 

IKT V 201 

Nil* icliivh "uvtrAiinb". 


ItxT bral m 1]ir TxiUi xiri inji 


. ^ ll,.y 

B mil in* S-ny ourr 
q l»w llii iBvclLiHi at 
iHk bill a,. i»diu> b.i 

liilii^ Bid li)"!!'!!^ 
ubLuFB hm likm 

d .1 in flHT h.nd. 

|i<i04|i| till- Olilf iir cintrc ric OfiUnUly llirf liiil UijHlH 
■emu IbHi bHllhf limpli uid f/inltd (ii tbiiv ihr ilTaiu 
[■d Hify lum Bn^mm IwVn III Ihar rlivrlrirnli^ 
AmrSAi ra my )iidIiBIni ill Uldir djiUKi -nr iFKdltiEVipn^ 
HM Ihvy tninrd mTlMlnE b ■ nniLl d Uitu TiHiurmli' 
Or mn ukmIOb IM) linrnrd. Ibrj Hid (kil lliii 'pb AOfi 

Did Ibrr "'"I l''D •nim m "•! ^lun iI^L hid bnn iBReiul? 


W|i*l did Unf ICirn- 

k..-.' U. i«\.M, -n,\, lid !■« i>mR<|u-n^ri 

H lliff liUwfp] prnptg ind Ibf trrjif dbri wl'h<ii a hiv 

L «drr U Urd IIh ^huecI dm,, Aey uhJ ■ |»i/ iru^r 

iHifuiUAn i*ruini hi ■» prltnrpoi BtIH"* Ihry ■•ft lum 

an Ihr □□□«■ 


Vbf IT, liid irmra? 

ir liwy -lirt good, iHry «h* u»il "H PlT ir^n^H 


F|f.LM [flald It hiLr ^Vr amid IF Ihr D»ii;e died Imiredinrrl*' 


dlffEtHL blnHl flfiiijpi jnd oE ilfiuig blrxhl ind ivtit Mud 

Bnnn ir l}iiif InjKllDm uund ulfen nn Hit Am. ThiH 

iilEtri inn rnu tiib««B, eiiL inla ?•«■■ «i1 tBEi±[Haf«d. 


T1)qH tmooB —Jig irno'^T^ xrr liinf Uipn ilLa-vJ 1* 

Tfenu |i»pli >4iii imrarml nn gl'^i MpnlBll/ fwd f«b4. 

■nd kFlTI (hrLr mOkO) I Vl«d iTbl — il t»f\. In Vflri r^i 

JuiljBltin dull fflrcL til Kit Hnm. 

PHoft \Hi "-Pf inj»n»^. did iny iJ Hum MMunucr in nr 


TbrT -in a°L iitnl Pn^l* —n In* 1 1-1|-4 -1 U- £>±r±IIiiiL 

flr Oii dHlivi 

IW XEXlll 


Another ridiculous accusation . 

u rcb. 41 

S^radsky, Piof^ssar at Foren^ii^ Medicine; Raman Lon^champ 
de Berrier, Poctor Of Juridical Science, together w?ith his 
three 5om, Professor Thaddeus Ostrovsky, Professor Jan Grek, 
and Professor of Surgery Heanrich Gilyarovich " 

There follow j a long Ust containing 31 names of out&tandtHf In- 
tellectuals of the city of Livov. I omit the enumeration of their 
namej and contLnut quoling from the n«xt paraEiAph: 

"Groer, a professor of the Medical Institute at Lvov, wKo 
fortuitously escaped death, has told the Commiiaion what 

'"When I was arrested at midnight Of 3 July 19+1 and placed 
in a tru:<^, I met Pi'of e^sors Grekr Bol'Dhelertsky, and other*. 
We were taken to the hostel of the Abragamov itch Theological 
College. While we were led along the corridor the members 
of the Gestapo jeered at us, hitting ms. with rifle hutts, 
pulling our hair, and hitting us over the head. ,,. Later 
on I saw, from the hostel o( the AbfagamoWtch Theological 
College, the Germans leading five professor? under escort, 
tour of whom were carrying the blood-bespattered body of the 
son of the famous surgeon Bouff. murdered by the Germans 
during his interrogation. Young Rouff, too, had been i specialist. 
The entire group of professors were taken under escort to the 
Kadetsky Heights, and IS to 20 minutes later 1 heard rifle 
Br« from the direction in which the professors were taken.*" 

In order to humiliate dignity, the German* resorted (o the most 
refined methods of torture and then shot their victims. Goldsman, 

an inhabitant of Lv'sv, has testified before the special commission. 
that he personally saw hoiv, in July 1941^ 

"Twenty people, including four professor^, lawyers, and 
physicians, were brought by the SS tnto (he courtyard of 
HoiiM Number 3, on Artishevsky Street. One of them 1 know 
by name. Doctor of Juridical Science Krebss. Among them 
were five or six women. The SS forced them 1o wa.<>h thp 
stairs leading from the seven entrances, to, the four-Story 
house, with tlieir tongues and lips . After those stairwayit 
were washed, the same people were forced to collect gacbagft 
in the courtyard with 1hpif_lij)5 . All garbage had to be 
transferred to one place in iJie courtyard " 

I omit the end of this paragraph and continue from the next 


"The fascist invaders carefully concealed the extermination 
of the intelUgentsis- To repealed requests of relatives and 
friends concerning the fate of the» men of science, the 
Germans replied, 'Nolhing is known.' 

INT VI r m 

Amtfaar biurra hiJlucinalion , 

]1 Jin. « 

It kppean to have been the plan, followed by the NaziiK in the 
concentrstion camps, gradually' to do away with the prisoncrj; but 
only after their working strength had been used to Ih? advantage 
of tht Gerfnan war efTorL 

The Tribimiil has been told of the almoBl ln«ni«ivftlj]ir treat* 
ment inflidcd by tlie SS On the prisoners. We Shall take the liberty 
dI gDinc into still further detail during the caurse of the statement 
of the French ProsectiLion, for it must be fully known io what 
extent of horroc^ Ibe Germans^ inspired by National Socialist 
doctrine, couW stoop. 

The mosl t«rnb1? aspect Was perhaps the desite to create moral 
degradation and de^bosement In the prisoncrr until he lost, Ji 
pgsfiblcr «U Semblance of a human individual. 

The usual living conditions imposed on the deportees fn the 
camps were sufAcient to ensure slow CKlemunation through inade- 
quate feedingi bad eanitation^ cruelty ol the guards, severity of 
discipline, strain of work out of prapcrtion to the strength of the 
priamer^ and haphazard medical service. Moreover, you already 
Juiow that many did no<t die a natural death, but were put to death 
by injcctiDiis, ^as chambers, or inoculations of fatal dieeases. But 
more speedy extermination was often the case; ii was often brought 
about by ill-treatment: Communal Ice-cold ^owfrs in winter in 
the open air, prifionera left naked in the inqw^ nidgelling, dog 
bites, hanging by the wrists; 

Some figures will IlliistFate the result of these various methods 
oX extermination. At Buiiienwald. duHng the Arst 2 months of 1D4S, 
there were i3fi00 deaths out of 40,000 internees. At Dadiau, 13,{>00 
to 15,000 died in the 3 months preceding the liberation. At Ausch- 
witz, a camp of systematic eKtennination, the number of murdered 
persons came to several millioiUL 

Aa to the total number of those deported from France, the 
official figure is ma follows: Of 250,000 deported only 55,000 

ITie deportees senred u guinea pigs for numerous medical, 
surgical, or other experiments which generally led to their death. 
At AusdiwitE, It Stnithof, in the prlBon at Cologne, it Ravens- 
brtick, at Neuengamme> numeroua men^ women^ and diildren were 
sterilised. At .Aiischwitz the most beautiful women were set apart, 
artificially Icrlillaed. and then gassed . At Biruthof a special 
barradcj. Isolated from the others by barbed wire, was used to 
inoculate men In groups of 40 with fatal illnesses. In the same 
camp women were gassed while German doetors observed their 
reactions through a peephole arranged for this purposCr Extennina- 
tion was often directly effected by meam of individual or collective 

IMT V 403 

, . . anothsr fliiinple of Girnun efficiencir- 


"Sofne of the crLmet of the German occupiei? commiitM by 
Uifm during the very first wttJts of their piraticml attadc on 
the U.S.Sit-, and their savage extenniTiJtLan of the civilian 
population d( Bifloi ussla^ the Ukraine, and the Baltic Soviet 
rtpub^Lc^, have Only now betn documentarily established. 
Thus, when units ol the Aed Army in the district o£ the town 
of Toropetc. in January 1942, sinftthefl a German S3 cavalry 
brigade, among the documents captured wai found i reporL 
ot the lit Cavalry Begitueni of thi* brig*de toticeming the 
'paciAcatLon' by this unit ot the Starobinsk district in E)i«lo-> 
nusla. The cDmmand(?r of the regiment reports thiat besides 
taking 239 pri$oner5 a. detachment of his regiment has alstj 
ahol 6,504 peaceful cJvUians. Ihe report further (tales thai 
the detachment acted in pursuantre of Order Number 42 issued 
to the regiment, dated 2? July 1941. The commander of the 
2d Regiment of this brigade^ Von Magill, stales, In h^s Report 
Canceming the Execution of Repressive Operalions on the 
River Fripet between 37 July and 11 August 1041. the 

**' Wb drove the women and children into th» awamo. but that 
did noi. produce the- desired result, since the swamp was asX. 
deep enough for them to drown . One can usually feel botiom 
(pOfflibly Sand) at a depth of I meter' 

"In the same headquartent « telegram, Number 37. was found, 
sent by the commander of the SS Cavalry Brigade." 

THE PHESmENT: Shall we adjourn now for 10 minutes? 

(A rrce» wu t^ken.} 

MARSHAL; May it please the Court, regarding the Defendant 
Hess, he wlU be absent until further notice on account ot iUne^ 

MR. GOUNSBLLOR SMIHi^OV: I Mrttinue the quoUtion: 
'^In the same headquarters there was discovered a telegram, 
Number 37, from the commander ot the Cavalry Brigade, an 
SS-Standartenfuhrer, to a cavalry unit of the above-mentioned 
Zd Cavalry Regiment, dated 2 August 1941, It mentioned that 
the Relch£;Iuhr&r of the SS and the Police. Himmler, con&idera 
the number of the exterminated peaceful civilians far too In- 
algnlAcuit; and It pointi out that 'it Iv necessary to take 
radical measures' and 'the unit commanders conduct the 
operatloiu loo miWly." He also orders to report every day 
on the number of people shot."^ 

In this connection we cannot abstain from mentioning the 
crlzninat activities of the Defendant Rosenberg In carrying out the 





■p««fh«4 or tin^ihing^ of thai lort. Wt timpSy raruiot be put under 
that kind of a burden. I think il is— ■ citizen of the Unitpd Stales 
is expected lo arfue hji case In the highest court of the land m One 
hour, And caunsel'E own clients h^r« have ppen]y scQirMd at the 
imounl of time that has been asktd. This is not a sensible amount 
of lime to five lo this case, and I must protest against being 
e3tp«cl«d to mimeograph 20 days of speediVs, It really is not pos^iblcr 

THE PK£SJDENT: The Ttibunal would like to Jtnow whether 
the Prosecution intend to let them h^ve copin of thrir speedies ai 
the time that Ih^y ar« delivered. 

SIR DAVID MAXWELL-FYFE; As lar as the closing sp«ch of 
the Attorney Gener*] is toncrenivd, we certainly did expect snd 
hopi; to give the Tribunal copies ol the speedin 


SIR DAVID MAXVf^Uur-TYFE: Ye*, thai will bt done. My 
Liprd> I jus^t wondered, out of optimism— fl was Tr. NeUe who said 
that it would take a long time to translate ] know, as far as trdii^ 
laling into English is concerned, we had the problem of v. Tfi-pagc 
speei^h the oVher day, and that was done by our own translators in 
one day. So 1 hope that perhaps Dr. Nelte has been a little pessi' 
znistic aboul that £ide of ih? problem, 

THE PRESIDENT: The Tribunal will consider the mailer. 
Now, the l^jbunal will gq on with the cross-examination, 
{The Dciendant 5pF*r Teiumed the Hand./ 

MR. JUSTICE JACKSON: I think perhaps, Your Honor, the 
photographs in evidence are left b little uninlellieibleH if the record 
does not show the desfription of them. I shall read it briefly. 

"Torture cabinets which were used in. the foreijTi workers' 
camp in the grounds of rs'umber 4 Armor Shop and those in 
the diity neglected Russian Camp were shown to us. and we 
depose the following on oath: 

"Photoj;raph 'A' shows an iron cupboard whidi was spcciaUy 
manufflctured by the Jinn ol Krupp to torture Ru&sian 
pyilian workers 1q an extent that cannot pos^iUy Le describeJ 
hy words. Men and vomen were often loAed into acomparl - 
pient of the cupboard, in wTiici^i hardly any man could stand 
up for ionf; periods. "The measurements of this compartmeni 
are- Height Y&2 meters; breadth and depth 40 to 50 rtnli- 
meters eadi. Fretiuently even two people werg kJdted >nj 
pressed iniQ one _cornpartment . The Russian..," 
I ft'lLl not read the rest of that. 
"r^Qjograph 'B' shows the same cupboard as it looks whej 




"Photograph 'C shows thg cupboard open . 

''In Phologiaph 'D' we se« the camp that was svleded by the 
Krupp pirectorale to fitrv^ »& Jiving <]ijarter$ for the Russiui 
civJlian workers. The Individual rooms were 2 to 27i met^m 
yfidc, S m&ten long, and 2 meters high. In eadi room up to 
3G pcr5DB« w?re Hccommodsted iti dotible ti«r beds." (Docu* 
ment USA-S97) 

I Ihink that covers It. 

THE PKS£IDE^^t': Mr. Justi» Jaduon, one moment I think 
you ought to read the last three Unef of the second parafrvph. 
beginning, "At the top of the cupboard . * ," 

i&R JUSTICE JACKSON: Oh yes, I am sorry. 
"At the top of the cupboard there arc a few sieyelike air holes 
through whjdi fold water ^«as"poured on the unftwtunate 
vi ctims during the ice-cold winter , 

THE PRESIDENT: I think you should read the last three linra 
Df the penultimate paraeraph in view ol what the defendant »ld 
about the evidence. 

MK, JUSTICE JACKSON- '^We are encJosing two lettcn whidi 
Camp Commandant L&w^nkamp had tmuegled out at prUon 
in order to induce the undersized Htifer to ^ve evidence 
favorable to him" 

And perhaps I should read the last: 

" The undersigngd. Bahm^''— <ne of the sifcnerB— "peraonall v 
sa"w how three Russian dviliati woricera were lodtgd into the 
cupboard, two in one compartment, after they had first been 
beaten oii New Yg^'^s Eve 1945. Two of the Russians had to 
tta^the whole of New Year's tve locked in the cupboard. 
a nfl {"old water wis poured on jhein_a8_weU ." 

I may say to the IVibunal that we have upwards of a hundred! 
different statements and depositions relating to the investigat^Dn ol 
this camp. I am not suggesting olTering them, because I thinlc they 
would be cumulative^ and I ahall be satisfied with one more, D-313, 
whldi would become Exhibit USA-901, which is a atatement by a 

THE PRESIDENT; Mf. Justice Jackson, was this camp that yva 
are refejring to a concentration camp? 

MR, JUST] CE JACKSON: WeU, It was, as J imderatand it, * 
prisoner-of-war camp and a labor camp. T^ere were labor camps 
and prisoner-of-war camps at Essen. I had not understood that It 
was a concentration camp^ but I admit the dictinction is a little thin 
at times. 

IMT XVI 557 

(An objection fr«m defendant Spear) 

1» Jvn« « 

hetaix »nd ifier ttieir vork. Any cacpert In Gmnanr Cm tell yo^ 
that thgsg arc wardrobes flnJnpl; some sprcial cabin p1Jj bgmu^e 
they are masj-producGd ^rticlgs: this is also confirmed bv the fact 
thai thgre try tir y.ente at. l,hc top, for every wardrgbe has ihgic 
vgiitiUtipn holes at the top and bottom . 

MR. JUSTICE JACKSON: Ax production Uinist^r, you were 

IMT XVI - 561 


6PEER: W hat is pictured h^rc is quite a normBd locker jj waa 
V*ed in every factory. Thgjc pho lQEraph sTiftVe absolutely nq vt)ut 

IKT XVI - 546 

(Nott the rninner in which an iniwctwus objacl is transforniBd itito HolociiiSt 

"evidence" bY means of an "affidavit" signeif by s "witness" whose veracity. 

cradiliitiry and instonca ara left unprDuen. The "italemenl" mair be enlirely 

typewfitian. includinff the signiture. Tyjiicilly. it is a "certified utie copy" 

of >it original whose whereabouts are unknown, even todir.) 


14 r^b.m 

of war *ere killed in the above-mentioned camp in various 

i^jrther, on Page 36^ Exhibit Number U5SR-36 (iKKiiment Num- 
ber U3SR'3SJ, inionnation is contained al the fhooting nt Yugo^ijv 
prisoners of war in the camp at BajsfJDrd, Norway. After Id July 
1943, when an epidemic at spotted fever broke out in the can^p antl 
spread to six otiiers, the Otj-nlans found no other way of flchtinr 
thij epidei^iic than by shooting all the patients. This was danf> r... 
17 July 1942. On the same page, 3B, there l& a reference to a Nor- 
wegian report of 22 January i942, compiled on a basis c( statemGnt.^ 
mada by Nojrwegiiin guards of this camp who had fled. It Is atatcl 
fn this report that of 900 Yugoslav prisoners of war, 320 were sht>t. 
while the remainder, with a view to isolating them, were IransIerrLil 
to another catnp, Bjerfjel. I will read into the Record Page 3& nf 
Exhibit Mumber U3SR-36, beglnjiing with the filth paragraph ttcit\ 
the bottom, Page 341 of your document book: 

"When an epidemic of spotted fever broke out in the new 
camp, an average of 12 men a day were ^hot In the course of 
the following 5 to 6 weeks. By the end of August 1942 only 
350 of these prisoners were returned to Bajsfjord, where Ger- 
man' SS troop£^ continued to exterminate them: In the end 
only 200 men remained alive and were transterred to ramp 

t will now skip two pacagr'^pha and pass to the last paragraph 
of the same report: 

"On 22 June 1943 a transport containing 900 Yugoslav 
prisoners arrived in Norway, fctoit of them were InteUectuals, 
workers and peasants, and prisonera from the ranks of the 
former Yugoslav Army or else captured partisans or men 
seized as so-called ^politically suspicious elements/ Some of 
them — about 400— -were placed in the atill unfinished camp 
at Korgen, while the other group of about 5Q0 was sent 10 to 
20 kilometers further on to Osen. The commandant of both 
camps, from June 1942 until the end of March 1943, was the 
SS SturmbannfiihEer Dolps . , , . 

"Mtfi w^re constantly dying of hunger. Forty-live wore 
placed in a hut which normally accommodated six men 
only. . . , There was no medicine. . . , They worked under most 
difficult conditions on road building, In the bitter cold, without 
clothing and capLS, In the wind and rain, 12 hoUia a diy. 
""Kie prisoners in the camp at Osen used to sleep in thei r 
shirts without any underp^ntSj without any cover what - 
soever, on the bare tKiards. DoTps personally visited the huts 
and carried out inspections. TTie prisoners who were caught 
aleepin^ m their undenjantj were killed on the spot by CoTpa 


, Mil rnni kk mmmc mrr uiDinvut 

iht^ wtn ippand rm lumdi, i'ltiih'}ii"riwi«^piniituTrT 
h-llrj'ijE^ t. ..% I^r«,il vf IH! unTTH .iBl 

F-bFuJ *1I?77|Ih |Ii.l b.»p Df LDCi In TLi.p^ D„i .J 

■bfiiil 9M prbfinm v^s vkti libs lb Dm ump nf Otta ^i/ 

di* nd er luDf Ihl, iMn w*,^, in Morfi till «lv 3it inui 

Id kiiK- 

I Hbl md IniD Uk rcrard mi r-.'mir rmrr- PiK H. E-Kldil 
TjoFDHfr uamwi bifiiiiing nin ifi» nupB pirj^nid run *■ 
IwUnB, Piir Ik] iiE J4mi dorunwDL bunk 

^HldH IIUb UttIDIp IniltiiBii eB LIiB upiLind ulfl^rt aT 

l^r Viirgrii' Altonil Aimy id UbrnCLiHi uiL Ur f jnua 

Ddll^lkTBL^ Iba OltUtlK lIlE 1lKl«d pbtaBhlH 4|[ ~l| r^-TL 

llif nnkf nT Uh all Viic»liv Amy di «im|]h<r iviLii- 
HDiLcn bT InWnillffitL Uw ibd MrHf»rT m U»l C«n»i'i 
CDii>iiillg(] Ha LUr tmlDienl nF Pnnnria «r Vir, 4il in» 
In Atnl h*l], LiranHkiEflr iJla Uit isn^tj^ «r Uir VufD- 
ili' IrrjJUpj, ibi QinBfiii 4i«v± inU cifilLvLtr In Otjratrii 
iHdj( UDDDD rDiHnlj>Jinfrn*il «l4iTrt Jrd mm 7Ti«T^|«]lj 
tiBli CnimiUiiD hu <i lu 9lipiiu| [n<iDi ivldmiti oT l^i* 
imln— luL lU-liHliDaiL nr Uek OJlnHii W< ihill alrr Urr 

■On II j,][y liij ui ih. oHK-^' S5 cimp jLOm-aroa. T*n 
Liplijml Viijpiljk cFDeoi Krr< DipuBWil imm llir nmilnitaj 

■fid pitdd Is ■ 9ku| ^nii.BU.1] tUDp nllH Cimp D 

Um UiT ■»« All mwiUd H]|i»ir D rmir hiLU; ill enlKl 
'nm "1* r^ rf Ur [w— u nnOiililIrd "Stt ImrnnE a' 
EJuh Bibirn rilrHll) uolriMDEd Hit pnHlUui &E ibr 
□unit CoiLTJidHi mo imir m diia Ihr UnUDmi dT Ihr 
Dl*irr ^iBDin. Id Uiu ^oiUiUI} iXiTip wibA pliisd all 
iliiiM vhiHn Hit Shikliu mublrird u ■unnclnn of Ib« 
IfallLiul EJlMr'ILan bB^tluni liri Utlnlt -UM ^^tJ >nu 
hiqvnllT npllri juuuiH bT hub riiHAiuali 

Tlir CimiiB hbDIdI wICi Ihr imH ol Hii privntrt IM 

rngU4ill! tfi°( Ibm EroBi Anc aprUir Ttiim. Jaw Innun 

■ L llir irvKHld fimp ■! OnuliiOlk, » 11 Jianmiy |t|^, I 

□■nniD |iiiri| ■rrd bL t IruD if prlRnEri ■vfrmly 

-DimDIiii tjpUla FiUr haiUtlf On :T JMly l*-! ■ Cui>d 

Anrd m ■ iniip at aViztti Oa E rieiilriiilirc IHII, ■ (uinl 
flnJ n O. Vuful.. IhutPiuqi, VUdl4i' Vt^i, w|u .u 
i>icif*[i1iIhI Of t —imr^ bw did in_"iil ^ibd lldi LiFDii- 
Ob S lapKirAtr I<1?. I fVlrJ rmm Uiv dtHf Unw iflila 
Brtd n ■ imip 4.r Mlfcri». Dri n OvmOti IMI <b* ruinl 
4nil •« I InHD ot nllUin EmiiK bum Ifcdr bnl^ Urr 
-WB -tldilBC umc TJiflUt. pKb— e— l"r »I. 0° 

ItC VII -- 


Itauin mehr ajj «inig* wahLf« KHometcr muichiert lein. Wir 
finiibefl, d«H mit dfer «citer«si V«rl»ffun£ der FroxLt itu Innere 
DcuU^Iandf b1> ditt cln tfleidiei Zltl crwirtet^ di« nodi in den 
|[^end«n der blutduervtlscn Nui« (ind Wir, die Untetzsidmeten 
Appelliertii >n die Intematiorude Ocffentlidikeit in den krieg- 
luc'hrenden'und neutralen Lundcm und an ihre ReRi«mngen und 
bitten un Kunen der Meiudilidikeit^ dau alles Erdenklidie 
i[CKheh«, urn Cine Wi«dci'holung der Ndziitiidicn S<^eutslich« 
kciUin Und Vcrbredien fuer immer lu Vfrhueten, damit dax Blut 
van MilUonen unsdiuldi^r Opf«r nidit vvrgebUch vtr^ou^n wurdt. 
i^uummen mlt etwa lO.OOC Ceretteten lUer Niitiomli1a«1en bitten 
wir darum, dasa die unglaublichen SdieuuUdl)k«ilen d«r Hitterianer 
nIdiE un£«uehnt bletben. Di« G«rettcten verdankrn ihr Leben der 
l9p[efen Hoten Ajine« und wir bitten die intemationalt OeSent- 
IliJikeit und alia Regieningen diea in Erwufun^g lu Ziehen und llir 
dun Dank in uniKrem Namen amzutprechert. 

Die Hltler-Rttuber. 

Im Lt^er Auadiwitz erwleien lich die Hltlerlaner nicht nur als 
blutdueftti^e Moerder wehrloier Menschen, »ndcm audi aU hab- 
Hiwrigt BeraubtT Ihl-er OpEer, Die Millioncn von Menichen, die 
^n du KoinzerttrAti?nJl»g«r A\i«iiwitz gebradit wurden, wurden 
In der enten Stunde ihna Durtseina aystematLidi ausgeraubt. Alle 
Ihrc Habgj Handkogcf, Kleider, Bettieug. Mgar Untetwaesd^e und 
I^iusbckleidunfl wurden von d?r SS nadi Lafierhatiuern gebradit, 
ific tipni xu diCBCm Zw«dc errfditet wordea waren, um dieieis 
fiL'pLuenderte Gut aulzunehmen, und nadi I>eutadi^a^d_|cjK3iLdct. 

Die arbeitlkrafeftigen Leute, die fuer Zwangaarbclt ausgewaehit 
wLirden, erhieltca die cestreirte Gefangenenklcidung anstatt ihrer 

Auf dem Gclaendf dea .Ljjerai Au jt ^wjti jab es 3S besond^ge 
^agcfhMTiaer. wo Kleidungsstuedie "u.ri(Lirit^r& Artikcl aprtiert 
und gepadtt wurden, 29 vOn fhnen mitaanit Ihrem Inhalt wurden 
vnn den Deutsdien nleder^ebrannt, ala sie den Rueckzug vqv der 
HutcB Armee antraten. 

In den ledu Li^ uhaeusem, die uebrig bliebcEi, wurden Auf- 

*) 343 820 Mflenner*n3Meg& 

1) fi36£aa Ftaueukleidimfsatuedu — Haentel und KteLdtr— 

^1 S$3B Paar Frauenidiuhe 

^) 3B OOO F«ar Maennendiuhe 

*J 11W4 Teppkhe 


(Diiln't iNy have any underwflar in Gorinaiiy?) 

Tht dtKument whldi had not b«n prwented in time, Your Honor, 
is thn correipondmce with the Kori flrni— now presented to the 
TrihunsL I uk to be excused for the delay. I quote only that 
particular P^J^ ^^ the report on Auschwiu . which the Tribunal wiU 
nnd on fzgi aZ5, on the reverse side-, of the document book, where 
there i» stated what was discovered by the commision at the ware* 
hauiu of thti e4mp, I quote one paragraph; this u on Page 355, 
second p«r«enph: 

" On the grounds of the Autdiwltr Camp there were 35 roedal 
watenauiea lor sorting and paeftmg the belonjinga and cfothg $. 
flefore the retreat utider the preaure of the Red Army, 39~b( 
these warehouses were burned with the things stored in them. 
In the remaining aix were discovered: 

"1. Men^s clothes and u nderwea r, 348,820 sets; 2. female 
clothea and underwear , T3T2SS~5et3i 3- women's footwear, 
5,525 pairs; \ men's footwear, 38.000 pairs; 5. ruga and 
carpets. 13,9ft4 pieces," 

! omit the following two pamgrmphs and I quote . . . 

THE PRESIDENT: It i« *ime to adjourn. 

{The Tribunal rcc'tied bnli[ 1400 htmn.J 



"Since the buiditt lUrted thcif KUvitLn in July IMl, 144 
bandili have b««i shot by th& unifonned police and 1,043 by 
special procedure (Sondervtrfahren).' 
The minutes ot Zi Japuiry lfl43 sUte: 

"The num^r o£ cuerilU troops liquidated on B January 1942 
by th& Security Police and the unitormed branch is W^ 
includifif wounded and prLsonen, 77 ot whom w«re k'llled." 
Such notes can be found in almost every one ot the minutei of 
these conlerenca held by Uiberretler. 

A certain number of ftrisoMiS 0* war wha had escaped immediate 
umiMLation were moved into special eamps where they were 
fmdu^lly kUled off by hunger and by eochausting heavy labor, t 
will now read into the Becord the last pAragraph on Page 27 of the 
report of the Vugoslav Government, which was previously mentioned 
hy me and oJTeced in evidence as Exhibit Number USSH-36. It is on 
Page 340' of the document book: 

"One audi camp was establish^ in 1^42 at Boten. near 
Rpgnin. Kearly IfiQQ Yugoslav prisoiters at war were brought 
into this camp; and in the course oJ! a few months all of them, 
to the last man, died of illness, hunger^ physical torture, or 
execi^tion by shooting. They were forced every day to do 
the very hardest work on a road and some damj. Tteir 
working hours lasted from dawn until IBQO hours, under the 
worst possible climatk condition^ in this far northern part of 
Norway. During their work the prisoner? wtre be*ten 
incessantly and in the camp^ itself, were exposed to terrible 

" Thuj^ for example, in August 1942 the j>rlsoners were ordered 
by the German atafl of the camp tp ~iiave_alL tMr hair 
rgniovedjrpm their armpits and around their genItaIiii~M 
oOierwTa^Key woult^ be jtiot Hot one prlsone^ecMveTa 
razor from the Germana, ftiough the GernianJ Knew well that 
Di^ had none, The prisoner! spent the whole ot the night 
pluming out their hair with their hands and aJgiJting one 
another . However, in the morning the guards kiUed lour 
priwncTs and wounded three by rifle flre. 
*'Dn 29 November i&43, German »ldieis, In the middle <^ th« 
mghX, broke into thg hospital and dragged out Into the court- 
yard BO sidi prisonen; after they had been forced to (trip tn 
the bitter cold, they were all shot. On 2i January 1943, 
50 more prisonen died In torment from the beatings received. 
TlmughDut the winter many prisonen were killed in the 
folkrwlng manner: They would be buried up to their waist tn 
the mow, and water poured over them^ ao that thcv formed 
liatuca of Ice, tt waa established that MO Yugoalav priaoneEi 



XI July t* 

Ot these Jewa murdered In White Rgthenia, over 11,0&& were 
sUughtered in the district ot Libau, uid 7,000 of them h^d beeri 

kiUed in the naval pcd LtseU (Documents Number L-IB^S, D-841). 

How _cin_5iii,_of these defendantj plead Ignorance of the se 
thinga ? When Himmler ^aa speaking of these flctioits quite openly 
■man£3t hts S5 generaLi and all the atRctn of his £S divisions in 
April 1943, he told them- 

"Antl-SemitLsm li ejiactly the sam* aa delouaing. Getting 
rid of Uce ii not a quefition of Ideology: U la a matter oE 
deanlinesa. In Just the stinve way, anti-Semitlim for U5 hai 
not been a Q,uejiion of Ideology but a matter at cleanlineu 
whidi now will soon have been dealt with. We shall soon be 
deLoused. We htve only 20.000 Uce left, and then the nutter 
is finished off within the whole ot Germany'* (Document 
Number 1A19-PS). 
And In October of that year: 

"Most of you mujt know what It means when 100 corpaea 
■re lying, iLde by aide, ra- 900, or 1^000." 

Meanwhile, the masa murder of Jews at Ausdiwitz aod the other 
extermination centen wu becoming a State Industry with by- 
products. Bila .of half, ■ome of it. ai you Trill remember, atlll 
plaited ailt hi b«o ikom oJf the tfrla' he^Ja^ tonj of ctotMntf T 
toiB, apectaclea. and other irtigea vr^^na^^n the Ite^ to ri iifT 
the diain and clothe the people of the Katl State . TtM gold from 
ttietr victims' teeth^ 72 transporta full, went (o~flll the coflera of 
Funk't Heldubank. On occasion, even the bodlea of their rlctJmi 
were ^|edto jBj|^ejiog^Jj^e ^rtjpie shortatfe of goa o (Document 

The vietinj amu £ro« all over Europe. Jews from Auitrta» 
Cscdaoalbvakla. Hungary^ Romania, Holland, Soviet Riuala, FVance* 
Belgium^ Poland, and Greece were being hcMed together tci be 
deported to the cKtermLnatlan centers or to be slaughtered on 
the apot. 

In April 1M3, Hitler and Rlbbcntrop wen pressing the Regent 
Horthy to take actton agkindit the Jews In Hungary. 'Horthy ■afced: 

"What ^ould he da with the Jews now that he had dtprlnd 
them of almoat aU poteiblUtles ot livellhoodf He cmitd not 
km them off. The Retch Foreign Minister declared that the 
Jews must be eitiier exterminated or taken to coneenlratlon 
campsL There wai no other poaalbUity* (Dgeument Kumber 

Hitler e^Uined; 

"la Poland the state ot afftln had b«n fundamentally 
cleared up. It the Jews there did not want to work, tbcy 
were shot. If they could not work ttiey had to succumb. 


(an objflClian from delsndBnt Gp'ring] 

battje. S&mclhinE li>ie 10,000,000 people I>o you say ihal you m-vcr 
E«w or heard irom the fDr«j£n press, in broadcastSp that this w^i^ 
Eoing on? 

GORING: Pi»l of all, thc^ flj;urc 10,000,000 Is rpt cslalilishi'd in 
any way. Spcondl^, throuchoul ihc war 3 did not read ihc iortiRn 
press, b«ausD I considered il nolhirfi hul propaganda. Thirdly, 
though I had the Tie:hl to listen io toTciga broadcasts, I rievtr di:l 
so, simply because J did not wani 1o listen to propaganda. Neither 
did 1 listen to home prupaganda. 

Only during the last 4 days oS the war did 1— and this I could 
provt— list™ to a forvigii broadcasting staticn lor the flrn timr. 

SIR UAVID MAXWELUtTfFR: You told Mr, Justic* Jadtsttsp 
yesterday that thsre were various representatives in Eastern loiri- 
tories, and you have seen the films of the concentration c^mps. 
haven't you, ainct this Trial started? You knew that thtre ivcrt 
millions of gsmieflts, millions of shoes, 20,9S2 kilograms ol gold 
wtddine rings, 3i wagons of furs — all that 4iuff whi(*i these people 
who were exte^rminated st Mftidanek or AuAdiwiti left behind them. 
Did nobody ever tell you, under the development of the Four Year 
Plan, Of anyone else, that Ihcy were getling all these amounts at 
human ma^eriaH Po you rcmembtr we heard from the Pohsh 
Je^wish gentleman, who gave evidence^ that all he f4 back irom his 
family, ol his wife and mother and daughter, ] thlik^ w^re their 
Identity cards? His work was to gather up cloihes. He told us thnt 
so thorough were thehondimen qI your friend Rimmler thai it locik 
5 mlnutea e^lF? iq Kiil the women because they had io have thiJr 
hair cut off fcsit was to br us^d for making mattrt&ses . Waj aothing 
ever told you about this accretion to German material, whidi came 
from the tt^ccts of these people who w&re murdered? 

GORING: Ko^ and how can you Imagine this^ J was laying down 
the broad outSncj for the German economy, and thai certainly did 
not include the manufacture of mattresses from women's hair or the 
utiUMtion of old shoes and c]othes .~T leave the figure oben. But. 
also ] do want to object to your reference to my ^'friend Himmler." 

SIR DAVID MAXWELL-FYFE3 We]], I will Hy, '"your enemy 
Himmler," or Eimpjy "Jiimmler" whichcvei' yau like. You know 
whom I mean, don't you? 

GORlSfCS: Yes, indeed. 

SIR PAVID MAXWELL,-FYFE: Now, I Just want to remind you 
of one other point: Exhibit Numher USA-22B, Document Number 
407{Vl-PS. *" . . , I have the honor to report to you that il was p[>s5ib1r 
to aid 3.63S.0'56 new foreign workers to the German war economy 
bttween April 1st of last year and March 3lEt of this year In 

IKT IX tu 




D» I U int unt<.-r«n Uo^lVm Ti; r Jitv«n btb * R.d-5tp niE KohEEltacii^nfu; 
„WaW.'n-ff, Kommintljntur K-L. 5»d! »rnli lu ipn" I Gcheim-Sip rot t Uolcr- 
ttTfiHiHUK im Vcri Ha\ I r b „Be1rif t'*-Vm P unl fVUi> I n ^ff-UnlrrJlurm' 
ruKr^r" im untcrfB BrplVm P ut)L (Knp) 

(J-Wirtsehafts-Verwaltungshauptamt OraniMibtirg, 6- Augual 1942. 
Amts^ruppe D — KonzentratLonslager 
D II28aMa./Hag. Tgb. IIZ geh. 

13. Ausftthrung, 

B 1 1 r i t f t : Verwertung der abgesdinittenen Haare. 

Aji die 

Kommarvdanlen der K.L. 

Arb., Au., Bu., Da,, Flo., Gr.Ro.. Lu,, MautyCu., Na., Nie., Neu-, 
Rav., Sahs., Slutth., Mor, SS SL Hinzert, 

Der Chef des ^^-Wirtschafts- Verwaltungshauptamtes^ Jf-Obergrup- 
penfuhrer PohJ, tiat auf Vortrag arigeordnet, dasa das in alien 
KL anfalknde M«ns<Jiefi5Ch,nitthaar der Verwertung zugefuhrt wird. 
Mensehenhaare werden zu Industnetihen verartgHet und zu Pam 
vftreponnen. Aus ausggkammteti und atigeschnitten&fl Frauenhaaren 
werden HaarganifussUngg fiit U-Bootsbesatzungen und HaarfiE*- 
striLmpfe' ^r die Beidisbahn anger^rtigt 

fls wird daher angeordn^i, dass daa anfallende Haar weiblii^er 
TIaftlJnge nach Desmf fiction auEiubewahren ist. Schnitthaare von 
mannlichen Haltlingen kaiui nup von einer Lange vQn 20 mm an 
Verwertung linden. 

H-ObergruppenJiihrer Poh] [st deshalb einvtrstanderi, dasa runSchst 
versudisweise das Haaf der mannlichen H^ltlinge eret dann abge- 
sdmLtten wird, werui diesej nach dem Echnitt eine LKnge von 20 mm 





tiesitzt. Urn durth das UlngerwaehKrt der Haare die FLuditerleidi- 
terung iu verhindem, muss dortj wo der Kt>miiiandant es fUr erfor- 
derUch halt, eine Ketuueidinung der HSftlin^e in der Wet^e erfolger, 
dass mit einer schmalen HaarsdmeLdemaschine mitten ut>er den 
Kopf etne Haarbahn hwflusgesduiitten wird- 

E$ wlrd angestrebt, die Verw^rtung der in alien l^^em Antallenden 
Haare durch Errichtung einH Verwertufigsbetrebes in einem KL 
durchzutQliren. Nahere Anwei^ung ilber die Ablieltruiig der gesam- 
melten Had re Colft naeii. 


Die Heneen d^r monatlidi egsamm&lten Haare. getrenn^ aach 

Frau&n^ und Manner h a .^.-pn ainri iBweils zum S pinft>t lecJKi Monatfi. 
pr>tm>lij ^Km 5 SftT^ti^mber Ifi-ia narii hi^r gu m&ldan. 

ff-Bri^adeluhrer und 
G«ner«lnia}or der Waffen-H. 



U, III, IV, 

:>:: ArbeitsetruBtz ::-:: 

Fqr dl* Ikhbghkll dtr Abfdtrilt 
ljn.t«t9(hijft {uii^ji 





(Actuslly, ttie correcT iranstatinn should be hair-yarn "bauliss" for U-boM crews} 

f AUI- « 

GfncrAl of tht Warfen-SS, GliSd», ibout the utilization of human 
hair jn the concentration camps. U the Tribunal please, while evi- 
dence vf^fj. prgsgntcd yoncFrninE tljg AuschwjtaConcentratipn Camps, 
we me-iljQjitdJhflt '^ tons of Wr cut -oft from 140,000 wpmen's ^^^jj ^ 
had bef-n found thereT We did ^o^ know till now what was to be 
done ^^ilh this h»ir; but now we have an original docume^nt which 
I 9m fubmittiriE. Thif document has been found in the archives. 
I will quote the whole document, Document Number US£R-S11, with 
your permission. 1 am quoting: 

"Sfcretr SS Economic and Administrative Main Office, Amts^ 
eruppe D, Concentration Camp, OranienburgH G August 19't2. 
Copy Number IS. Regarding: Utilization of cut hair. To the 
commanders of the eoneerttration camps...." 

And then 13 concentr&tion camps are mentioned, I tk\p them. 
"Th^ diief of the 5S Econoniic and Administrative Main 
Office, SS Ober^njppenfuhrer Pohl, on the basis of a report 
submitted: to htm. has ordered that all human hair cut in 
concentration camps be appropriately utilized. Human hair is 
to be used for the manufacture of industrigil I'elt and to be 
6PUH into yarn Out of combed and cu^- hair of women, hftjr - 
yam s&gfe^ for U-boat crews i&re tp bf..madp. k< well as hair- 
lelt Btockings lor emplo^^eesot the Reich raiVA'ays. 
"Thererore, I order that the hair of women prisoners after 
due disinfecKon be wUecledH Cut hair dI male prisoners ctn 
only be utilized beginning vnth a length of &t least 20 miUi- 

"5S Obergruppenfuhrer Pohl. therefore, ^ave his consent that 
by Way of experiment the hair of male prisoners should be 
cut only when it reaches a length of 20 millimeter?. 
"In Order to avoid facilitating escape through the Increase 
in length of hair^, in all cases where the commander deems It 
necessary to eamnai-k the prisonerSj a strip of hair should be 
c jrpjwd by meani of "a "n a r row clipper right pvcr the middle of 
the head . 

"The half gathered in all the camps will be utilized by 

ereatin^ a special production unit In one of the concentration 

camps. More detailed in5tructions a$ to the delivery of the 

collected hair will be given separately. 

" Reports on amount of hair fathered eat^ ojqp^ , mate- »nj| 

l^jji ^c rieforded separately, must be'^-.lbe 5th of 

each month, beginning with 5 September 1B42. 

-Signed: Gliichs, SS Brigadeftihrer and Ma^or General of the 


IMT XX 353 


What is astonishing about the Holocaust is not that it is false^ but that it 

is ridiculous. There must be a Black Hole in the universe filled with gas 

vans, pressure vans, portable ovens, portable bone grinders, spanking 

machines, human mattresses, human socks, boots, shoes, saddles, 

slippers, gloves, purses, wallets, books, canvases for painting dirty 

pictures, millions of documents and 40 or 50 thousand tons of crude 

ashes and bone fragments i^p to 2 inches long. 

There is a constant assumption at triat that Germany was an 

underdeveloped country like the Central African Republic where no one 

ever &aw a mattress, a pair of socks, a bar of soap or a pair of 


The Germans were extremely sophisticated cheitiists synthesizing millions 

of tons of oil, rubber, gasoline, edible fats and oils, and fibres every year. 

They invented Nylon simultaneously with the Du Pont Co. in 1938 and 

called it Perlon. 

Tt appears almost superflous to add that Negro hair can be felted, but 

that other hair cannot be. 

^ This point has been fully determined by P. A. Brown {Ciassifia 
tion cf Mankind by tJie Hair, &c.)i who shows conclusively thai 
unlike true hair and like true wyoJ . the negro hair is flat, issues fron 
the epidermis at a right angle, is spirally twisted or crisped, hae nf 
centra] duct^ the colouring matter being disseminated through thi 
cortex and imermediate fibres, while the cortex itself is co\'ered \\\t\ 
numerous rough, pointed filaments adhering loosely to the shaft 
lastly, the ne^gro nile wilt felt. Itke wool, whereas true hair cannot bt 
felted . 

1911 Enc^rclDpiadii Brhannici, "Higro". 


II Ttb. H 

book. Beside this I ask the Tribunal to refer lo the Auschwitz 
slbum, where on Pages 34, 35, and 36 they will see the photographs 
of 7 tons of hair which waa taken from dead women , packed for 
Shipment to Uermany. 1 begin the quotation: 

" From X943 thg Germans, in ard^r to utiliie the bone^ which 
were not burned, started t& grind them and sell th&m to thg 

flriH Strem for the manufacture- ot superphosphates, [n the 
camp there were fourid Bills' of "lading, addressed to the firm 
atrem, of 11'^ tons and 6UL3 kilograms oE bOfie iTieal from 
h_uman_co_rpses. The Oermans also used for industrial purp<?5e s 
Jti3ir"sriiOrn Irom women who were doomed for ex terminal ion," 

I omit the next pages of my slatement and I want to draw the 
Tribunal's attention to the f^ndinga of a commi^ion of t^dinJcal 
expei^ whidi the Tribunal will find on Page &^, reverse sii^, of the 
document book, Paragraph 2- 

Sp-ecial research took place in th? gas E^ambers. On the basis of 
exact diemicral reactions it was e^Cabliiihed that poisomng in gas 
chambers was done by means of hydrocyanic acid. Cyclone A and 
Cyclone B, and also carbon-monoxide. 

Z quote one paragraph ffom the findings of the t^cknical experts' 

"Technical and medicaL-die^mical analysts of th& gas diambers 
in the concentration csmps in Maidan&k"^ — that is on Page 319 
of the document, third paragraph — "confirms and proves that 
all thase chambers, especially the first, second, third, and 
fourthj were designed and used for systemaiic and masj 
extermination of people by means of pcisonous gas«s, such as 
hydrocyanic acid and garbtm-monoxide." 

I omit the following extracts of my statement which deKiibe the 
regime in the camps of Auschwitz and Matdanek. t con^der that 
the Tribunal has already a very clear idea of this. Part of the people 
were sent i/nmedlatety to their death in ^as chambers, while the 
One-fifth or one-sixth which was left in the camp were subjected to 
starvation and killed afterwardsr I had the intention of presenting 
many documents and excerpts from documents which confirm this 
fact: but to save time, I omit them, and pass on to Page 324 of my 
statement. I mention this for the convenience of the interpreters. 
I quote several facts which deal with {!ynlcal and repugnant 
plundering of inmates who were killed in Maidanek and Auschwitz. 
1 ask the Tribunal to refer simultaneously with the text I^ am jgoin g 
to present io the Auschwitz album, where on Page 27 yog will ieg 
a picture of suilfases:^ whldi were the property of the inmate ; on 
Page 28 suitcases with labels of different countries and on Page 39 
a colossal warehouse of children's clothes; the same on Page 33* 




WeLtfrr tftnden sidi in den Lȣerhieuwm gnsK Menken von 
£ahn!>uersten, RuLccpuiseln, Brlllen, Gebiue und Ceschirr, 6nfi 
von Gefangenen benutzt WQrdea var. AuBserdem wurden getuaiif;Ei 
flrDss? Menken Klnderklelder: Hemden. BAby-Hemden, Hoscn, 
Maentel und Mi(ct2€n. Mit ihren blutbgfledtten Haend^n tachltc n 
dLe Hitlerisdien Kindermwrdw- gorglaeltig die Klclder, die sjc 
Sta arigeseiilaiAtetea Kmdem vom IjMbe zogen und aandten aTo 
nach Deiitsdiland . ' ' "^ — ^^-^^^— 

Eine Pruefung des Inhaltes der LsgerhBeuser «rgab, dass saemt- 
lithe GegensUende den Leuten der veraduedenen Nation aUtactcn 
Cehocrt hAttenn die zu Tode ^efoltcrt oder gemordet worden warcn_ 
Kleider Sdiuhwerk und ander« Artlkel tragen franzoesischv, 
b4J£J£diie> unfaiisdie, holUendische* jufoslawische, t«chcc}if>- 
tlDwakische und andere Fabrikm^ken. Die Klebezettel ver^chLo- 
dener suropaeiscber Hotels sind nodi an den Handkoffem zu sehtn. 
Auf dem Lager^elacnde entdKkte die KammlssLon sieben Eisen- 
bahnwaggDns b^l^de^ mit KJeidem und Bettzeug, fertig zum Vcr- 
und nach [>eut£dilandi 

1) M 922 Klnderkleidungsstuet^e und Unterw3escfa& 
£)1B'2 6&Z Frauenkleidunfutucdce und Unterwaesdie 
3> S22£69 ^^a#nne^kleidlm^«stuedce und UnWrwaeadie oder insgc- 
lamt S14 ^3 Kleidungastuecke. 

Am 7. Maerz 1^5 f a nd die Kpmmiasion in der Cerbcrei dey Lj^!^ 
Auschwitz 293 Ba llen Fra uenhaare^ die zu3am.men_!L05Q_fcgL-WQg^ 
Der Sachverstaendige der Konunisaion stellte lest, dasa die K^^rp- 
140.0D0 Frauen ■bgesduiitten worden waren. 

U«ber 4.000.000 geraordet. 

Vdt ihrem Rueckaug venuditen die Deutfichen sorgfaeltig all*-' 
Spuren ihrer sdieusalkhen Veibrechen in Auschwitz za vefwischL'n 
und zerstoerten alle Dokumente. durdi die fiie ;?nze Well ill*' 
genaue Zahl der in Ausdiwitz liingebrachteii Menachen erfahivi; 
konnte- Aber die riecigen Euiriditungen, die ziit V^miditung v"ii 
Itensdienleben von Ihnen im Lag«r erriditet wcrden waren, dii^ 
Aussagen von Auschwitz-Gefan^nen, die durdi die Rote Armi-*' 
befreit worden sind, die AuMte von 200 Zeugen. aufjiefundJcn^ 
Dokumente und andere wesentlfaie Beweismittel genuegeji. ym d"' 
deutsdien Henker der Ausrottung^ Vergasung und Vertrtf/int/nfi 
vom MilUonen von Menschen Im AusAwiU-Lsger zu ueberfuohnn. 
In den fuenf Krematoriea aUeLn mU ihren 5£ Eetorten konnt^n <)»- 
Deutadten aelt deren Fertigstellung die folgende Anzahl von Ccfii^- 
geoen veinichtea: 


I BWiil iBDandbiliEy It HU IppnaAnI *ll|iHil w|Ui| IdiIiIl 

br-ncn vC puLULtf HtUUiUn m panripblu] bdUm Tbf b>i^ 

luEBi hil< IkiL DUl nr lL iJ luWr *|U ■rcUJI u4 UiiL LlKiiti|h 

[lv ndminj qtrETKlp mUHi m* luri wUBtDid nf Hw AgriajFiiin 
Iii*lun buciuti HUip liBV« bnn iuli:Ttir<] "iri rmnr UlllmtfL-l} 
E mm ur »P nwMffli irU Hi iangutt Trjii 

■VET) lll«I)Bld *11IJ idnlPEjllLlt d<Il.<4n 

^ Inn ird iiuliiiliij pdEi my mi\mw u^n 
[■iTifim «niitt l?ir himuD Tirt hu rr>Juiii1 
■ ducUl prrHdl Df Jn rilfUry 
ALBETt W BUmccv 

kTfl[.rrjL F ctonar. 

EJDT p. THQlua 
K&fJFTH 3. WHDlffV 


jAE. r hicsahu. 

JOIW kt VQ&V3 
&T. V. EEAC 




iia Ukv. ih^ 


DfT XXltUEl 



n. E>urlns Jul 44 thpy were being UqutcUttd «t the rate of IS.OOO 
HuflSHTitn Jews daily and u the crematoria could not deal with 
tudi numbers many bodia were throwrt into large ^tajind covered. 
■ wjth quLdclime . 






No. 58 London, Tuesday, E>ecember 15th, 1942 


The Jewish Food SituAtLon 

The Jewish Kction of the (Wpulatioti, aa we know, is )ubject«d 
to general Jiving condihons which are iUJl worse than those of the 
Polea, and the uncertainty of life for them h increase by the cdh' 
tinually diangcn^ orders And regulations afEecttng their day-to-day 
exbtence. In regard to food supplies, th«y are brought under a 
completely sepsrate system, which is obviously limed at deprLving 
thera of the most elemental nKessities at life. 

The separate and Isolated quartecs of tawm which the GKtnan 
kuthoritiea have Assigned as ghettoes for the Jewi&h inhabitAnts 
are theoretically autonomously administered and are completely cut 
off from the outside world. They are under the aupervliion of 
special German commissaries, who have unreatrlcted powers. 
Economic life inside the ghetto, and in particular the question of 
lood auppUes for iU inhabitants, if In the hands, of the Jvwisli 
Council (Jii^tnratl All tcadv and commodity exdiange, including 
the lupply of foodstuffs, ^oea on through a special German organ 
known u the TrantferttiUt, Thia department ia responalble for 
allocating and aellfng to the ghetto all kinds of goodfl, including 


... ]iaHUUiMM ana ton nn,miHaiHtfDA\n 

llii um Tftj dif inir uru ii^ nC nklME or lay albrr 
AiUoi QHiuiUllEil I4 Llir puIiHiu nur ■ vIDi|t. Uir CEnnin 
Imp* -?^ld vpp-E fai iTilf 'iH-d- T1» hhiliLljUi .uuU h. 
miMiM up IB tH* f f BlnL ^uur h »mi DLlmc plin nlliblr 
For Uir nrulnrL b hlTrn In I fi^'ic IPMLdimtril hui In 
rtumr U B| hllUd m ITiF vm br du^Lbf pin flir Allei 
Um UiE CriTDHni ElLbn tumrd Llir ilLliIu ur nllr, In mm 
■■w^ lK<j -pjld ■■* jilinu'" ■ ii\1\m^ itid turn >jin lln 
an a. T^ InbihLluiri wrn tkIM nrmlj Ln Hie iirrrd 
^nviB. ind Villi. r*rB>4lfq U IfT <Ba W ^br> i>i|C f#i> 
f uh nlwn aalr iru ■&[< pa[uLillai m™ LUr nr af ID ^la 
mil BVET trjr anulnL In inhD- mri wbm Ifir biiu 
■ummhil In m\±g Id IFii b^maUirii, Eh* dnnani wauJd 
iinuLr Lhn nid um vigniii md iftihliiB <^t hid r?in«aiti[ 

In int iMIlKrr UQlKI IttPiL UlHr ip ind ITii.T IBI onjuiri 

□nUfcl Hirro. Tlii ■ll]i|Eiiir jln<liii'E\ KiEokiyU. EieiEinup, 
Rl^>jui>. KiiiibJiriLU, uid LiBDivjni nuy hv awailnel tM 
l^^bml itiiB|F]i<. Eiinia ^lllugii wtrt diiU^^ri fvr Ui vn 
THinn HiiE rlir^ fir liiiilTd In h^r flftlB ••'^Ht ptHtUnf 

Ud IH« ullv*' 

I «U( Bit n<-l M0*»" It" bi lui ■ AMD FMrUi iB inaitiir Uii 

□I Uir iriurE. 1 onlUujr mr 4|i»1al»ii 

"Thi Buinhi al pr«f k mqnhnil •niHrfiU I4 DH^y HDUD' 

[ l>n nd'tf KHttf «^E 4 Lh> pruMimrn 1I «vld«r* tf B^ 
Hiwnuumir* Bi U. MirilL.1 p^UIIm m Hw UmlHV al Chr 
U35A In ibr Cmnnn , 

Ai Id 1Kb BrcumBonni dE Uh fbib ncuUinii wr nay aOt^ 
Jirilr Ibm iM nLj br Or IriarDAif °l ■il-'mi4<l H aT Ll1< 
rnp«i>liMi aT Ihi iUwilHij wa mi/. Id ptA guJii Uwh «n Lh* 
bull 1I llw aiiWiil ail>f Vd bj lb' IqiL -od fi^i^i n-odnHn. 
I IB) ~lri prl" Hkliu, m In" Ihl r«<rli£ nCnbuban lar Uir 
[[PIT 1*r liwTi m IftWl 
H"F~r ' •■ ' 

nj Fhi ■ 

f«dijKTuini.liiB'lluIilJi . M i»l«d[liiUBJhiri IDr imili Id 

Vaa^MSSninr^sssntnTkni m dlhc «imH u w.. im»wbii 

M Hfttt •!■ 0* PUS*** °l *IH mpll VUir^Rd. 

T1>r flm miD "kLIhq" «r Uif CrrmniB, vniB Uikl C< ihniiaBli 
°E LViDeoiI *H mfaL pxipk «[■( fliiudrnl il ■ IUde, wu Uii 
-HL«F feKWiL- In Didrc lo rfiLw Uir ••^•n kI I[>» -Imr^ud I 

far UBafiJ I qui^lr d.^ T'.Td lit « iW »L.r~ ^Ir JE' .lir 



this quotation on Page 6S. reverse aide, of the document book^ second 
column ot the text, Paragraph 6. I begin tht qui^tatioti: 

" Thg Polish-Soviet Extraordinary Commission ha$ ascertained 
that during the 4 years' fxistence of 'th« ex term: nation, camp 
■t Maidanek the Hitlerite hanlfrnen, (ollowmg the direct order 
of thetr crimirkaL government, exterminated by mass shootinc 
and mass kitlin^ in fjas chambers &ppro>!im3tety 1.5 mJlUon 
persom: Soviet prisoners of war , prisoners of war ol the 
former Polish Army, and niiionals of various countries- 
Poles, Fienchjnen, ItKliAna, Bel^ans, Dutch, Ciedu, Serbs, 
Greckf, Croats; and a great number of Jews " 

With this document I conclude that section of ray statement 
whidi concerns the concent ration camps and pau on to the Ust 
aectioiL entitled, '"Concealment oC Tcdces oC Crimed." 

During th* period of their temporary military successes, the 
German fascist criminals did not bother themselves very much wiih 
conc^alinS the trace of theLr crimes. They did not even consider it 
necessary to Camouflage the burial grounds in whiA they hurled 
the bodies of the murdered persons after the shootings. 

But after the defeat sufTered by the Hitlerite war machJne at 
StalingTiid, the situation changed. Fearing retaliaiLon, the crimliuLs 
began to take urgent meaiures to conceal the traces of their crimes. 
Where possible, they burned the corpaet Where this could not be 
done, the burial grounds were carefully camouflaged with moss or 
green fohage . The earth which covered the graves of those shot was 
Smoothed out with special ma{±dnes and with caterpillar tractors. 

However the main method adopted by the German fascist 
criminals for camouflaging their crimes waa the burning of the 
corpiSeA. The ashea from the burned bodies were stre^vn over the 
fields. The" bones whidi had not been calcinated were crushed in 
Jl>eciai madiLnes and mixed with manure for the preparation of 
fertilipera- In large camps the crushed bones of the victimj were 
sold to the german Arms to be transformed into si^pgrphosphates. 

As piQoi of the enormous scale of the Hitlerites' criminal activity 
directed toward concealing the traces of their crimes, 1 shall submit 
to the Tribunal a series of documents- 1 will refer, flrat of all t<J 
the communique of the Polish^oviet Extraordinary State Com- 
mission on Maidanek. This document was submitted to the Tribunil 
as Exhibit Number USSR-29 (Document Number USSR-29)r Tbc 
part of the communiqu* to whl<h I refer will be found by the 
Tribunal on Page 65 of the document book^ on the other side. 
Column Z of the text, last paragraph. In order to save ilm«. I will 
allow myself to Summarize the contents at this document: 

la the beginning of 1942 two ovens lor the burning of corpses 
wen built: 



■ddmssed to the Regional Commander of Gendarmerie in Kamen^ 
Kasliirsk, onlered him immediately to supply mformation concerning 
locatLon and number of common {^v« of petsoitu to whom special 
repr^sive measitres had been appli^ in th? districl. 

Among the documents di^overed in the Gestapo building o[ the 
Eavno district has b*en found a report concerning the ex«ution of 
the above^mentigned order, with the eEiumeratioa of about 200 
localities, where such graves were reetftered. One csm se« from this 
list that the Germano-fascist henchmEn primarily diose inacce&siljtf 
«ad isolated ^pots for the inlenuent of their victims. At the end oi 
the list we read, "The list includes all the gravts, including those 
of the commandos who worked here previously." 

I will now quote an extract of the appeal to the public opini[>ri 
of the world from the representatives of several thousand tocnier 
internees at Auschwitz: 

"The gassing of unbelievable numbers of people took place 
upon the arrival of transports from vgrioua countries; France, 
Belgium, Holland, Greece. Italy^ Hungary, Czechoslovakia, 
Germany, Poland, the U.5.S.!B., Norway, and others. The new 
arrivals had to pass before an 5S doctor or else before the SS 
COmmandHnt of the camp. T^e latter pointed his Anger to 
the right or left. The left meant death by gas. Out of a 
transport ol h^OQ, an average of 1,200 to 1,3(30 wer« Imme- 
diately to be jja^sed- Rarely the quota of people sent into the 
camp was a little higher. Jt often occurred that the 5S doctors 
Menjjele and Thilo perfonned thij selection while whi5tLin£ a 
lively tuner Tti^ people destined to be gassed were obliged to 
jtrip in frvnt of the ^s^ehambers, after which they were 
driven with whips into the gas-diambers. Then the door of 
tJie underground gas^nAamber was closed, and the people 
were gassed. Death occurred appro:cima1e1y 4 minutes later- 
Alter a minutes the gas (*iamber was opened, and workmen 
belonging to a special commandd, the so-called 3onder- 
komrnando. transported the bodies Id the cre^matLon ovens 
which burned day and night. 

"There was a shontage of ovens at the time of the arrival 
of transports from Hungary; consequently enormous ditches 
were dug (or the purpose of cremattng the bodies. Fires made 
of wood soal^ed in gasoline were Laid in ihese ditch^ «nd the 
bocGeawere thrown Into them. However, the SS men frequently 
hurled live diiidren and adults into those ditches, w^ere these 
unhappy victims died a terrible death. To Mve gasoltne, the 
fata and oils tiecesaary tor cremations were partly denved 

IKT VI T 174 


I Feb. H 

f rom the bodlM of gaascd aeople . Fats and 0JL5 for t«fanieat 
purpospcs anS for the manufacture of soap were aLso obtained 
from the corpHd." 

The appeal: cndj with the tallowing words: 

^ToffCth&r with I0,{!{)0 rescued inmates ot all lutionalitts, W4 
dfmBnd liiat the crimes *nd the Inconceivable atrocities gf 
tbe Hitlerites should not remain unpunished-" 

ITUs Just demand is supported by the entire dviUzed world 
■nd by all freedom- loving people. I^e organized mass annihllatioR 
of prisoners of war coiutitutes one of the vilest crimes ot the 
HJt>rite conspirators. 

Ifumerous facts of murders, tortures, and raAltreatment ta whldi 
prisoners of war were subjected have been definitely establi^ed. 
ttity were tortured with red-hot irons, their eyes were gauged out, 
their extrermties severed, tc cetera. 'Hie systeoiatic atrocities and 
ihart-shrift Justice against captured t^cen and men of the Red 
Army were not chance episodes or the results of criminal activities 
uC iiidivldual officers of the Cxerman Army and of German officials. 
The Hitlerite Oovemment and the High Command of the German 
Army ruthlessly eKtemunated prisoners of war. Numerous docu- 
ments, orders, and decrees of the fascist Govejuinent and orders of 
the Gennan Supreme Command testify to this fact. 

As early as March 1941 — as the German Lieutenant General 
Csterreich testified during his interrogation— a secret conJertnce 
tooJc place at the headquarters of the Hi«h Command in Beclin, 
v«here measures were plaiuied for tiie organization of camps for 
Russian prisoner^ of war and rul^ taid down for their treatment. 
According to Osterreic^'s evidence these rules and meajures for 
Soviet prisoners of war were essentially ■ plan for their exter- 

Many Soviet prisoners of war were shot or hanged while others 
{Krj^ed from ^unger and infectious diseases, from cold, and from 
tdriure systematically employed by the Germans accordLcig to a 
plan which was developed befirrehand and had iS its object the 
maa ejc termination of Soviet peraons^ 

In Appendix 3 to Order Number 8 for the Chief of Uie Security 
Police and 5D, dated IT July 1941, a list ij fflven of prisoner-of-war 
campa set up in the area of the 1st Military [>Lstrict and of the so- 
tilled Government General. In the 1st Military District camp& were 
>Vt Up In particular in Prokuls, HeLdekrug, Schierwind. Schiltzen- 
PPde (Ebencode) in Proslken^ Suwalki, Fischbor-Gersen and Ostro- 
l*f^l(0. In the M-csUed Government General, camps were set up at 
OBrov-Mesovetsky, SedJce, Byelopedlasko, Kholm, Jaroslav, et 

IMT VII 175 

>h» "r •qimu dik lutuir JrwUTi Alalr, yw mui Dl onim 
lum bh' » •«>[ Yao tsuM a uv Iridt Yh. wld Im 
IVJltr Alt rwi Ouf JDUIInr tiDi U, faA Iwvii Vh imat takr OB 
Ui eMUi u DuI your [l«l>ilBg umn Im fllDBTfljlBl ind ^lu ^ld 
hair I Billi n UbL » rpldcTm *IU br InniibL Uila Qir iud»~ 

AHu b lud biJiU idOi cilrtfDj Dojdi ter lui *ii3imi, ibmy 
ItMi^td on LFir iHd Up drilK Km uiiL -amEU -HrrB jrpmlTi] At 

Ihi Sni ^Iki, «■ liU W JillMiE ilL< hu4, U Uii Mil uni, Itx tiiiL, 

LBlHr, ililH, Ini-^ td dir limn and awki TTi^lF plilli 'iKf 'nUfil 

Ihr pmilE DeUrm Ibil Qift -luU ieI UiQe tlunn tuk Tlir 
ukx J.«. Ud k -"n-i *i rhir* "J liinT -F ""■ *■' fltr.biili 
■» dill lliff ihDuM D0» biv4 IJtta Id llunh. Tbi — IidIc UiLHf — u 

mv in UVnBt. Ln 4Jlf< ti' ]■■■ fi^ tUr roOHd t Dig noa, 

iJir Ann '.ae jhal iod tiK fu >u In UiId LJir imm 

□id Kl Id [II 

. tmliltia 

n -ri 

r lUnra. 



Jc o,,^ U U 

ELhii .».n. 

1 a. mt. 



li^'Ui -oik.n :^DM.J ll,„ UdJ, 
flur» iniiti W|ii» h*l invrfitrfl 



UOBCEH tim Jib "'u k KrlBmulluBnUBT to &Iiili|ieI. 

HERU PE[f KMAHH DiJ yau Ur Hinn bfiw lii urlvn il 
Ihii Jr^lilBi «7iliiii' 

HdKBH' tiaa tl^ra 4nK t,</^ lU lElmilEiliiiii ot tht 
Je*n, hr ^la ilrrtti/ ■ ■[kciiIjI m miD-dEiUiji'L^n qE l^iituti 
biDp. Hi bu pniauij 111^*1 uui itiv Uii n n""" "*> ^ 
du kaEunbl) Ihui* If «dK iiT Qu Fubni hlmrll, -li°i- Od" 
.4 If-v-illid \3irvfi. Vn n.TKiU>iT °r ih- m>i.r, k« lud, 
aE rhi ^qikotaf rl Ihi wit, hF up a rif U^niTnl hr Uili purpHlL 
KdaOlT evmpMd cr ■ Ir- oEnci-Li or HK. ■> i r*1l-k«, a« 
wrmMlntrr btUif jpali imk ipn nl a> CjIiqUuL PoUf f 

Blnh MTfj »l'iflt> lUiirirt fm* 1it i»«*1f "Bttil uirylng ml 
IhlH AulfjiDHil. Fk iHolvrd UI lid, pa IupjueDdiii, Inl kad n 
do II ilL Irj IdmariE Hv hh* qibf it^^ .n °U -0.^1^ buLldmf 
!■ Bntidnkaig flim lu miB< hii hi« HprnmaiLb ATlrr PIUlD 
iDBildEnUBii Bd muiy tmllidUiL ripCrUiWIlll. ha *>'«•— O HU 
bl** l>»Un. inj mill ITil" l/ntBi °HM lUfd "1 » T"ir ""Ie m 

A nmuBinlni bT dK»T> f<w<-\ipal, tiwrnUfl-i U. fllu, ksd 
IhDX Lbrii. ~lu m lUin bj Uu M^liinu u Imunblr ■nf 
PJE D^ ■ vpirtlE Im IVb ir« uylani rtftVCTi'd «■■ UIB mi 
cu/ la iHd Uw pailHUi h iiulbir nqun-iiiin. Fcdoi ibu nriiHii 


"As there ur^re d great many corpses, the Germans, in 1042, 
began- buildin^H snd by autumn of 10i3 h^A conclude, the 
building of powerful crematoria coniiating of five ovenJ . These 
oveni burned xinceasmgly. The temperature in these avens 
«uld reach, 1,600 degrees Celsius. In order to be able to put 
ts many bod Lea as posgtble into the'bvens, th£ corpses were 
dissected and the Umhs haCHed off ." 

I omit the next paragraphs and beg the Tribunal to pay attention 
to the passage which is three paragraphs further down. 

Hie Dveos in the crematories proved to be inadequate, so the 
Gennanji were compelled to resort to special primitive cremation 
installations whidi had been made in the following way— I begin the 
quotation by Paragraph L, Page 33-1 of the text: 

''On lailj Or on automobile frames which served as grates 
plonks were pUc«d, Cory$e5 were Uid. on the planlcs, then 
more planks, and again corpses. Five hundred to l.,QQO corpses 
were piled on one pyre. All that was coveted with gasoline 
and ignited." 

I quote a jJiort SJ^cerpt wtiich ascertains the acale of citminal 
actions taken to conceal the trace of these crimes, Page 33fii, Oist 

'"The commission has Bscertained that [& the ovens of the 
crematoria alone more than 400,000 corpses were bunted. 
More than 300,000 corpses were burned on the gigantic pyres in. 
the Krempetz Woods: more than 80,000 corpses were burned in 
the twg old ovejis i not less than 400,000 corpses were bumeq 
on pyres in the camp itself, near tho crematoria." 

As a proof of these same circumstances, that is to say. of the 
scale of the criminal activity of the Hitlerites in concealing the 
traces of their crimes, I refer now to the report of the Extraordinaiy 
State Commission of the Soviet Vnlon for the t!>wa"of Mins£ 7 \iw 
members of the TrthunaT will find this quotation on the bade ol 
Page 215, second cotunm of the text^ Paragraph 4. I quote « short 

"In the BlagovtschtJiina "Woods 34 ditdi graves were diS" 
covergdr camouflaged with evergreen branoies . Some of the 
graves readied a length of 50 metera. i>uring a partial 
ticcavatlon of five of these graves, corpses and a layer of 
ashes &0 centimeters or 1. meter thick was discovered at a 
depth of 3 meters. Near the graves the commission discovered 
a great number of small human bones, hair, false teeth^ and 
numerous small penionsl articles. The investigation has 
ascertained that the fascist exterminated here up to 150,00 

TMT VI r wi 



places we aaked the Lorraine widiers ol the WeHrmadit who were 
guarding us whether we would arrive soon; and they replied, "If 
you knew where you are going you would not be in a hurry to 
get there." 

We arrived at AusAwiti at dawn. The B*>ts on our can were 
broken, and we were driven out by blows with the butt end of t 
rifle, and taken to the Birkgnau Camp, a sect ion of the AuaehWiIti 
Camp It is situated in the middle of a great otain. whlA waa 
froan in the month of January . During this part of the journey we 
had to drag our luggage. As we passed through the door we knew 
only too well how slender our chances were that we woutd come 
out again, for we had already met columns of living skeletons 
going to work; and as we entered we sang The Marseillaise" to 
keep up our courage. 

We were led to a large ahed, then to the disinfecting station. 
There our heads were ahaved and our registration numbers were 
tattooed on the left forearm. Then we were taken into a large room 
lor a steam bath and a cold showerr In spite of tbe fact that we 
were naked, all this took place in the presence of SS men and 
women, We were then given clothing which was soiled and torn. 
a cotton dress and jadtet of the same material. 

As all this had taken several hours^ we »w from the windows 
of the block wher* we were, the camp of the men; and toward the 
evening an ortihestra came in. It was snowine and we wondered 
why they were playing music. We then saw that the camp foremen 
were returning to the camp. Each foreman was followed by men 
who were carrying the dead- As they could hardly drag themselves 
along, every time they stumbled they were put on their feet again 
by being kicked or by blows with the butt end of a rifle. 

After that we were taken to the block where we were to live, 
lliere were no beds but only bunks, measuring 2 by 3 meters, and 
there nine of us had to sleep the first night without any maitre^J 
or blanl^et. We remained in blod^s of this kind for several months. 
We could not sleep all night, because every time one of the nine 
moved— this happened unceasingly because we were all 111— shp 
disturbed the whole n>w. 

At 3;30 in the morning the shouting of the guards woke us up, 
and with cudgel blows we were driven from our bunks to go to roll 
call. Nothing in the world could release us from going to the roll 
call; even those who were dying had to be dragged there. We had 
to stand there in rows ol five until dawn, that Is, T or 8 o'clodi in 
the momrng in winter; and when there wa& a Cogn sometimes until 
noon. Then the commandos would start on their way to work. 

M, DUDOST: Excuse me, tan you describe the roU call? 

IMT VI aw 


[Natfl raferencds la rain, snow, mud, $lime, quicksand, etc., etc. 
and this is in holes yetn) 

MME. VAILLANT-COUTURIER; For roll caU we were Uned up 
in row9 pf Ave; and we waited -until daybreak, until the Aui- 
Echerinnen, the Gennan women guards In uniform, came to count 
Its, They had cudgels and they beat us more or lest at ividom. 

We h^d a comrade, Germaine Renaud, a »chooL teadier trom 
A^ay-le-Rideau in France, who had her akull broken beiore my 
eyes from a blow with a cudgel during the J^ll cell, 

Thi3 work at Auschwitz consisted of clearing demolished houses, 
road building, and especially the draininig af marsh land. This was 
by far the hardest work for all day lonB wy had our feet in the 
water and there was the dangi?.: of being sucked gDWn. It frequently 
ha ppgned that we had to piiU nut a comrade who had sunk in up 
To the waist. 

During the work the SS men and women who stood guard over 
us would beat us with cudgels and set their dogs on us. Many oi 
Our friends had their legs torn by the dogs. I even saw a woman 
lorn to pieces and die under my very eyes when Taub^r* a member 
o£ the SS, encouraged his dog to attack her and grinned at the sight. 

The causes of death were extremely numerous. Fltst of all, there 
was the complete lack of washing laciUties. When we arrived At 
AuMtiwiti, for ^2,mo intemees there was only one tap of water, 
unflt for dnnlung, and It waj not always HO'Uing. As this tap was 
in the Getnnan wa^h house we cotild reach it only by passing 
through the guards, who were German common-law women pri- 
fiOAeis, and they beat us horribly as we went by. It was therefore 
almost impo^ible t!> wash nursetv^ or Our clothes. For mare than 
3 monthi we remained without dianging our clothei When there 
was anow, we melted some to wash in. Later, in the apring, when 
we went to work we would drink from a puddle "by the road-sLde 
and then wash our'undereTotRes in iL We took turns wasJiing OtlT 
hands in this dirty water Our companions were dying of thifFt^ 
because we got only half a cup of some herbal tea twice a day. 

M. DUBOST: Plea» describe in detail one of the roll calls at the 
beginning of Februdryr 

MME. VAILiLANT-COirttraiER: On i February there was whit 
L9 called a general roll call. 

M. DUBOST^ In what year was that? 

MME. VAILLANT-COUTVRIER: In 1M3. At 3:30 the whole 
camp ... 

M. DUBOST: In the morning at 3:30? 

MME. VAILLANT-COUTURIER: In the morning at 3:30 the 
whole camp was awakened and sent out mi the plain^ whereas 
normally the roll call was at 3:30 but inside the camp. We remained 



9 Jia. tt 

out in front at the camp until 6 La the afternoon, in the 5now > 
without uny (ooct Then when the signal was given, we had tD go 
through the door oae hy one, and we were strudc in the badt with 
■ cudgeL, «bC}1 W^ of US» in order to make tu run. Those who could 
net run, either because \hey were too old or too ill were cau^t by 
a hook and talcen to Blodc US, ''waiting blodc" for the gas chamber. 
On that day 10 Of the French women of our eonvoy were thus 
caught And taken to Blodc 25. 

When all the intcinees were bads la the camp, a party to whic^ 
[ belonged was organized to go and pidc up the bodies of the dead 
which were scattered over the plain as on a battlefteld- We carried 
to the yard of Block 25 the d&ad and the dying without distinction, 
ftnd they remained there vtadced up In a pile. 

This Blodc 2S, wfaidi wa^ the anteroom of the gas chamber, if 
one may express it so, is well knE>*n to me because at that time we 
had been truuferred to Blodc 26 and our windows opened on the 
yard of Number 25. Cbe saw stadcs of corpses piled up in the 
courtyard, and from time to time a h&nd or a head would stir 
among the bodies, trying to free itself. It waa a dying woman 
attempting to g«t free and live. The rate of mortality in that blodc 
was even more terrible than elsewhere because^ having been con- 
demned to death, they received food or drink only if there wfis 
something left in the cans in the kitdien; which means that very 
often they went for several days without a drop of water. 

One of our oompanions, Annette £paux, a Bus young woman 
of 30t paasing the block one day, was overcome with pity for those 
Women who moaned from morning tiU night in all languages, 
"Drink. Drink. Water!" She came bade to our blodc to get a Lltle 
herbal tea, but as she was passing It through the bars of the 
window she was seen by the Aufseherin, who took her by the nedc 
and threw her into Block 25. All my life I wiU remember Annette 
£paiix. Two days Later [ saw her on the truck whidi wa? taking the 
Internees to the gas chamber. She had her arms around another 
French woman, old Line Porqher, and when the truti started 
moving she cried, "Think of my little boy. if you ever get bad: to 
France," Ihen they started singing "The MaT^iUai^." 

In Block 25, In the tourlyard, there Were fSts as big as cats 
rUfuUng about and gnawing the corpses and even attacking the 
dying who had not enough strength left to diase them away. 

Another cause of mortality and epidemics was the fact that we 
were given food Jn large red mess tins, whidn were merely rinsed 
in cold water after each meaL As aU the women were ill and had 
not the strength during the night to go to the trendi whldi was 
used as a lavatory, the access to which was beyond description, they 
used these containers for a purpose for whidi they were not meant 

IMT VI 308 


tt J»a. U 

Tlie next day the mess tijii were collected md tsken to m. ccfust 
heatL During the diy miother team would come and collect them, 
wash Ihem in cold water, and put them tn UK HfAin. 

Another cause of death was the pniblem of shoes. In the anow 
and mud of Poland leather shi>es ^tfere completely destr^ed gt the 
end of a week or twbT Therefore our feet were frozen and covered 
With aores. We had to «le*p with our muddy shora on, lest they be 
stolen, and when the time came to get Up £or nil call crla at 
tneulsh CMiH be heard: "My ^oex have been stolen." Then one 
had to wait until the whole block had been emptied to LdoIc under 
the bunka for odd shoei Sometimes one found two shoes tot the 
lame toot^ or one shoe and one sabot. One could g^ to roll call like 
that but it was an additional torture for work, because sora formed 
an our feet which quickly became infected for ladE of care. Many 
of our companions went to the Revier tor sores on their leet and 
Ugf and never came bade 

M. DUBOST: What did they do to the internees who came to 
roll call without shoes? 

MME. VAILLANT-COimmiEH: The JewUh internees who 
cam& without ahD» were immediately taken to Block 25, 

M. DUBOST: Tliey were gassed then? 

MME. VAILLANT-COUTURIEIt: They were e*we«i Iop "^ 
reason whatsoever. Their conditions were moreover atisolutely 
appalling. Although we were crowded AOO Ln a block and could 
Scarcely move, they were 1,£D0 to a blodc of similar dimeasions^ so 
thwt maay ot them could not sleep or even lie down during the 
whoI« ni^t. 

M. DUBOST: Can you talk about the Revier? 

MME, VAlLLANT-COtlTUarER: To readi the Revier one had to 

go first to the roll calL Whatever the state was . , . 

M. DUBOST: Would you please explain what the Revier was in 
the camp? 

MME. VAIUjANT-COin^JftlER: ITie Revier was the btodes 
where the sidt were put, This place could not be given the name ot 
bospital, because it did not correspond in any way to our idea (rf t 

To go there one ^ad first to obtain autharlsatJon from the blodc 
diiel who seldom gave it. When it was Anally granted we were led 
in columns to the inArmary where, no matter what weather . 
whether It mowed or ained . even if ocie had a temperature o£ 40» 
(centigrade) one bad to wait for several hours standing in. * queue 
to be admitted. It frequently happened that patients died outside 

IMT VI *» 


mjm. w 

M. DUBOST: The^ were nat Uttooed? 

MME . VAILLANT-COUTORIER: No. They wtr* not even counted. 

M, DUBOST: You were tattooed? 

MME. VAtLLANT-COUTURIER: Ym, look. {Tka loimeM thawed 
her orm./ They were taken to a Md brick building, which bore the 
letters "Baden," that is to say "Baths." "niere, ia begin with, they 
were made to undress and given a towel before they went into the 
30-CBlled shower lOom. Later on, at the time of the large convoys 
from Hungary, they had no more time left to play-actor to pretend; 
they were brutally undressed, flnd 1 know theje details as. 1 knew 
a little Jewess frpm_ftance who lived with~ her family at the 
"JtepubUque" distri ct. ^ 

W. DUBOST; In Paris? 

MME. VATLLANT-COUTURIER: In Paris. She was called *mtle 
Marie" and she ^vas the only one, the sole survivor of a faoiily of 
nine. Her mother and her seven brothers and sisters had been 
gassed on arrival When I met hef she was employed to undress the 
babies before they were taken into the gas cfaambe r. Once the 
people were undressed tiiey took them Into a room which was 
somewhat like a shower roomj and gas capsules were thrown 
through an opening in Uie ceiling . An SS man would watch the 
e?fect proJucH^ throujth b porthole . At the end of 5 oc 7 minutei, 
when the gas had completed its work, he gave the agnal to open 
the doors: and men with gas magks — they too were internees — wen t 
into the room and . removed the corpsea . They told ua that the 
internees must have suffered before dying, because they were 
closely clinging to On* another and it was very dLfficult to separate 

Alter that a special squed would come to pull out gold teeth and 
dentures; and again, when the bodies had been reduced to ashes . 
they would siit them in an attempt to recover the gold . 

At Auschwitz there were eight crematoriea but, as from 1M4 . 
tf i ese proved insuffident. The SS had Large pita dug by the tnternegj, 
w^ere they put branches. '^sr^rinkled with gasoline, whidi thev set 
on are . Then they threw the corpses into the pits. From our block 
we could «e after about three-quarters of an hour or an hour alter 
the arrival oi a. convoy, large flames coixilng from the crematoi?, 
and the ^y was lighted up by the burning pita . 

One night we were awakened by terrifying crlea. Ajid-we di»- 
covered. on the following; day, from the men working In tht 
Sonderkommando — the **Gaa Kommando" — that on the preceding 
day, the ^3 supply having mn out, thev had thrown the diildren 
Into the lui^iaces alive. 



TbJ4 Communist report contains E rafaiflncas to swamps at Auschwitz . 


SS-Leut« die Sdiw»ter meiner Fr&u mit ihr«i zvrei Kindtm und 
meine Nidite im Alter von 3A Jihrenr Im JuU 1944 jjng audi meinij' 
Schwestcr zu Grunde." 

Der Tod am laufenden BaniJ- 

IX^Edietatin^eiA ergataen, dass, abgesehcn von den Meiuchen, dlr 
zu Exp^rimtntiM^weckm in den Laf^em von Ausdiwitz btstimmt 
w&reci, d?rt dauemd etwa 200.000 Gefangene ziun Zwecke der Au$- 
beatung durdt im hoedtsten Ma$K entitraeftende ZwangsarbtH 
gehplten wHfdtru Die M«i5chen. die diew Arbeiten verriditrn 
mussten. wurden in einen Zustand voelU^er £rsdioepfung ge'bracbt 
und dann fils nutzlos umjfetaradit. Jede Wodie tiafcn deutsche Aerzto 
tine^Auawahl", aladercn ErgebnisalleKranJten tn den Gai^kammcrn 
uinf^ebradit wurden. Dlese' wurden durdi soldie ersetzt, die per Qahn 
im Lager neu anfekommen wareOr Es war ein ^nau ausg«arbeitetc;i 
System, ein schreddidief laufendes Band des Todes. Die «ineii 
wurden umgebracht um durdt andere er^etzt zu werden. die dann 
BR der ReiKe wfiren, durch ruedesichtslose Ausbeutung zu KrankheJi 
und BrHihciepfung gtbracht zu warden und dann sdilckte man sh* 
Twie die andercn. in die Gaskammem- 

Sklavfrn fuer die I. G. Farben-Induitrt«. 

Im Jahre 1941 begannen die Deutsdien mit dem Bau f^n^r 
grosaen, chenrus^en Ruestungsfabrik fuer die LG. Fai'benindustri'.- 
in der Naehe von Ausdiwitz mud niit deir Bau einer RuestungsUbrik 
Juer Artlllerie- und andere Zuender. Der Bau wurde ausgefuehrl 
von Knipp, von ^Union-FiFmen,*' und anderen G^aellschaften. Zehn- 
tauaende von Ausd^wiCzgtfangmen der versditedensten Nali^sna- 
litaeten — Russen, Ukrainer, Weissrussen, Polen, Pranioscn. 
Jugoalawvn, GrLedien, Begier, Tadiechen, Hpllaender, ItaUener— 
Bdunaditetcn unter der bmlalen Ausbeutung. arbelteten an die^-n 
Bauten, ebensa an der TTodtcnlegung von Suempt« i. in Bergwerk^r: 
und an deni Bau von Straasen. 

DteBandien der KonrentrttiomlJiffR' befanden ilch sleben bis 
■dit Kilometer von den Arbeitostellvn. S5-Mannsdiaften liessen di* 
Gefangenen lu Tausenden antreten und trieben sle dann unler 
bewaffneter Bewadiung und umgeben von Aufsehem, mit Knueppeln 
und Hunden zur Arbeit. Bei der Arbmt wurden die Gfifangenen von 
dfTL SS-Leulen, den Aufpassem und Vorflrbeitem aui brutale Wei^e 
gesdilagen: Einen Sdilag <uer Aufrichten d« Ruedcens. einen 
■ndercn ditfuer, dais man nfcht genuegend Erde auf die Sdiaufvl 
tuhn), \kiied«r einen dafuer, dan man nidit sdmdl g^ug arbeitete- 
Aikd&r« wurdeti dunfa Fruegel dazu gebradit, dus sle mit dem 


even the "gigantic swamps" ol Auschwitz (!) 

erdE-b«l»deneji Sdiiebkarren raimten. Der Vorarbfiiter Siate: hDib 
Geselb^ia^t hezahLt vier Wlttk fuer Didi und de^halb musst Du 
arbeiten wie ein Pfwd." Die, die vor Erschoepfung zusammen- 
bmchen^ wurden «uf rfer St«Ue erschosa&n Die Arbeitarstellcn 
u.areii rur gleidien Z«t Kiflrichttingsstaetten. Die Toetimg von 
Gefangenen. VAirde von der Lagervei-wpltuniE in jeder Weise unter- 
ituetst. ObersturmbannfueKrer UEBEGERSCHEL erlieas einen 
BeteM in wclchem er d«n SS-Leuten 50 "Karit luer )eden gcto^tt- 
teri CSefangenen aiiisetite, der einen ^Fluditversuch" taachte. Um 
dicse Belohrtung zu erhatten, mordeten die Wadunannschaften 

U*ber die Toetung von Gefangenen auf der Arbeitsstelle wurde 

von einem ehemaligen Gefanaenen auxgesagt: ^ Im August 1945 

arbe-tete ich an der Baust^Ue' der LG. Farbenindustrie-Anlrage. Tines 
Tages l>ractiteii SS^Leute 400 Crefang^ne zu dJeser Arbeitsstelle, 
daruftter Jugoalawen. Gneditnt Franzosen und Bclfier, trifibcn sie 
in einen Cr^ben und begannen sie leb«tdi£ zu bejraben. Die dem 
Tode Verfallenen schrieen in verichiedenen Sprachen um Hilie. Die 
SS-Lcute, die d»bel atanden, ^agten lu uns; t,Sdiaut her und' arbeitet 
ttfiser ali bisher, sonst gesdiitht das Cliche mit Euch." Zwei Wochen 
spaeter wurden wir verlegt, um das Gela^nde fuer ein Gebaeude in 
vinetn der Auschwitzlaeer vorzubereiten. SS-Mann LOSSMANN und 
Ander« S3 Leute suchten 30 Mann von uns aus, triebtn sie in einen 
r^^hfn iinrt ht>Pnthpn sJP hi^ nim Halfi m dPT- Erde. Dann stlegezi 
SS-Leute auf Pferde, begann^n ueber das C^laende zu gaUoppieren 
und <oeteten alle 30 Mann " D»e riesieen Sufmij^ff- wen Auschtfiti 
WT3rd;cn zujn Grab? _tfpn_vieltin Tausenden von Menschgn verschie- 
tTensior Jialionalitael&n, Ueber 300 Kolonnen. von 60 bis~i,300 Mann 
slark arbeiteten dorl. InloJge der unmenschUchen Arbtitsbedingun- 
fien das ganze Jahr hindurch, inEolge der Sehlaege, der Mofdt und 
der Gewaltta&ti^keiten, lebte nicht einer von denen die dort arbei- 
tel^j], laenger als zwei oder drei Munat*. Sie wurden in den 
SMgJimJgD hingemcirdet odur, wenn sie kranlc wurden, durch 
rfienoleinspriiaungeri ins Herz oder in den Gaskammern getoelct, 

JAKOB KOENIG, eln SpezialingenEeur fuer Urbarmachung, der 
uis ^eivoebnlidier Erdarbeiter in den SuempTen arbeitete, sagte aus: 
tdi geboerte zu einer KoloEine von 4Q0 Mann, die an der Urbar- 
niadiung von Sumpriand orbelteten. Die Aufseher. die aich am 
dcutjdien Verbrechen rekrutleiten, schlugen dieMenschen mit ihrvn 
^riucpptln und Spaten. taewusstloe. la unserer Kolonne waren 
MaeruiC'r und Frauen aller Altcrsstufent darunter AkademJker, 
Acnte, L^hrer, Prolessoren. Jufoelawien allein war dunii 14 IngC' 
ttienijre vertreten, die dort nidhts als gewE>ehnli>die Erdarbeitei waren* 

Kin riiemaliger Gefangener, SIMON MEISELIER BBGAIN gab 
f*^'' hVwx lUuerer KoLonne werden taegltch die Letchen voD lOQ his 


Thfl water and mud tha French prosecutor is referring to are at Auschwitz. 

This work was carried out, u the witnesses have told lu: in 
water^ in the mud ^ in undgrground factories — in Dora for instanee— 
and in th^ quam« in T^authausen. In addition to. the work, which 
waa exhausting in itself, the deportees were subject to ill-treatTnent 
toy the SS and the Kapos, such as blows ar being bitten by dogs. 

Our Document Number F-274, Exhibit Number RF-301, Page* 74 
and 75, brings olficial testimony to this effect. li it necessary to 
read to the Tribunal from this dtjcument, whLdi is an official 
document to which we constantly refer and whiA hai been trans- 
lated into German and into Engliah? 

THE PRESIPZNT: I do not think you tlHd read It. 

M- DUBOST: Thank you, Mr, President. This same document. 
Page 77 and Page IB, informs iu that all the prisoners were forced 
to do the work assigned to them, even under the worst conditions 
of health and hygiene. There was no quarantine for them even La 
case of contagious diseases or during epidemics. 

The Frendi Document Number F-392, Exhibit Number RF-330, 
whidi we have already submitted, which is the testimony of Df. 
Steinberg, confirms that of Mme. Vaillant-Couturier, It is ±he 
twelfth document of your first document book. We shall read at 
page 4: 

"We Tweived haU a liter of herb tea; this was when we 

were awakeaed. A supervisor, who was at the dtwr, hastened 

our washing by giviTig us blows with a cudgel- The lack of 

hygiene led to an epidemic of typhus " 

At the end of the third paragraph you will And the conditions 
under whidi the prisoners were taken to the factories; in the fifth 
paragraph a description of fho^; 

**We had been provided with wooden shoes which in a few 

days cau^d wounds. These wounds produced boils which 

brought death to many." 

I shall now read Document a-129, Pages 22. 23, and 14 in the 
Second document book, and whidi we submit under the Number . , , 

THE E^RESIDZNT; One moment; the Tribunal will adjourn now 
for Iifteen minutes. 

(A Ticesi was taken./ 

THE PRESIDENT; M. Dubost, the Tribunal has been considering 
the question of the evidence which you have presented on the 
concentraliori camps; and they are of opinion that you have proved 
the case for the present subject, of course* to any evidence whidi 
may be produced on behalf of the defendants and, of course, subject 
also to your right under Article 24-c of the Charter to bring in 
rebutting evidence* should the Tribunal think it right to admit 

IMT VI «• 


u r*b. « 

r omit tht u^xt three paragraphs and continue my quotation; 

**!& Port Number 9 people at different rmtionalitles were shot: 
Russian^ Ukrainian^r Bielonissians, Lithuanians, Poles, and 
Jews. Tile following people W'ej^ shot in this fort: a dei>uty 
to the Supreme Soviet Council of Che U.S^.R, Bydzhinskieoe; 
a deputy to the Stipfeme Soviet Council of the Lithuanian 
S.S.B., Zhibertas; and others. Besides Soviet citizens the 
Hitlerites extenninated French, Austrian, and Czechoslovak 
citiKHs in Fort Number 9. 

"A former supervisoi- of Fort Ntimtaer 9, the wilneu Naudju- 
nas, testified: 

" 'Ttie first group of foreigners, numbering 4,000, arriv«d at 
the fort in December 1941, I talked to one ot the women, 
who aald that they were being transported to Russia, allegedly 
for work. On 10 Deceml:>er 1341 the extemlnatiDn of 
forelBners began.. They w&re ordered to leave the fort in 
groups of 100 people, allegedly for inoculations. Thos« who 
left for liLDCulations did not return. All 4,000 Coreignejrs were 
shot. On IS December 194 L another group arrived, numbering 
approiciBiately 3;000 p«nona^ whidi was also exterminated.'" 

I omit the next paragraph on this page, and nearly the whole 
at the following psg^, and quote only the conclusive data; 

"The lavestlgatloA CammissioA ascertained that the Hitlerites 
had exterminated in Tort Number 9 aver ?0,ODO peaceful 

In numerous cases Uie German fas;ists used methods full of 
cruel cunning for the mass extermination gf peaceful Soviet citiieni 
In order to prove this statemenir, I refer to the report of the Extra - 
ordinary State Commission tor the Stavropol regio n. whidi~has 
already been submitted to the Tribunal as Exhibit Numher USSR-l 
(Document Number USSR-l). The Tribunal will find this excerpt on 
page 26flL of the Document Book; I quote one paragraph — the second 
paragraph, of the text; 

"It is established that before retreating from the city of 
Gerogievsk on 9 and 10 Januiry of this year, by order Of the 
chief physician of the German hospitals in th« city. Baron 
Von Heimaci, the German soldiers sold alcohol and soda wate f 
at the city market, wbidi proved to"H"e methylated apirit and 
QKalic acid. The result consisted in mais poisoning of the in- 
habitants oi this town^" 

Among the crimes perpetrated by the German fascists on Soviet 
territory I moat mentloiv especially the treatment to which they 
subjected the Inhabitants of Leningrad. I have already mentioned 
this in speaking of the Lfeningrad diiidren yesterday. 



a FclP. M 

Le Court was in no way ftn exception, and in conArmation, of 
■this i shall now refer briefly to the verdict of the trial held in the 
tciwn of Smolensk by the district military tribunal against a group 
of fanner members of the German Anfly vfhfi were brought to 
Justice lor committinf atrDCities against peaceful citizens and pris- 
onerj o( war in the town of Smolensk. This document was sub- 
mitted to the Tritmnal by my colleague, Colonel Pokrovsky, as 
Exhibit Number USSR-ST (Document Number USSR-S7). and joined 
to the record o( the present Trial. The Tribunal will find this 
document on Page 71 o£ the document book. 

I omit all the general part of the verdict, and beg to be allowed 
to draw the attention of the Tribunal to that part of the verdict 
which Is in the ninth paragraph on Page 71 of the document book. 
which says that in BD graven alone, which were opened up and 
examined by lega~me_dical experts in the town of Smolensk and 
in the district of Smolensk, over i3j.0QO corpses of Soviet cUiTens— 
women, diildren, and men of various ages— were discovered. 

I skip the second page of the verdict and come to that part of 
the document which gives a description of the chmiriial deeds of 
Individual defendants brought to trial under these t±iarge5 I shall 
not quote data regarding all 10 defendants, but only 2 or 3 oE them. 

The Tribunal will find this part on Page 73 of the document book. 
Thia is the sixth paragraph of the ttxt. I quot«: 

"Hirschfeld was interpreter for the German Military Com- 
mand ia the District Kommandantur of Smolensk. He per- 
sonally beat and seized for treason perfectly innocent Soviet 
citizens, without consideration for sex and age, and forced 
them to make false statemenis. On receiving thes& fal» state- 
ments forced from them by beatings, the arrested persons 
were shot by the Kommandantur troops. Hirsdifeld partic- 
ipated personally in the annihilation at Soviet citizens in 
Smolensk in May 1943, by means ot asphyxiation through 
carbon monoxide in gas vans. In January and February 1943, 
he participated in punitive expeditions against guerrillas and 
against peaceful Soviet citizens in the district of Newel- 
Uswjali. While he was commanding the German punitive 
unit, he committed, together with hJs soldiers, acts of violence 
Against the peaceful population." 

THE PRESIDENT: Colonel Smimov, In the Tribunal's trans- 
lation into Enghsh, we have missing pages from 34 up to 45. Do 
you think that those ^ages could be found? On our pages^I think 
yo ur pagination is clinerent — but the document that you are now 
feTerrlng to, UH£jh-B7^ begins on Page 34 of our translation, aniji 
the transTiation then skips to Page 45. 



J rcto. «t 

itnd defecatioru. tvo gyniptonu whidi formerly had been 
dotlcedt were no longer observed. 

"Today I will proceed to Group B, whence I shall send a 

further report- 

"Or. Bedter* Untersturmfuhrer." 

The uuDCS have already been mentioned here ot the cunps oi 
Irfa idanete and Auschwitz with their gajH;3iambers. in whitfi over 
3^500,000 completely innocent pepplg, citizens ol Foland, Ci&cho- 
jlovakTai, U.S.A., Great Britain, FVance, and other demo- 
cratic countries were killed. I mu^t name the concentration cajn^ 
at Smolenalt, Stavropol. Kharkov, Kiev. Lvov, ?oliava, NovgonJ , 
Qr&l, H&vno, uniepropetrovsk, Udessa, Ramenetg.-PQdol5fc, domel . 
Kerch, of the Stalingrad region, of Kaunas, Riga, Mariampo l 
j Lithuantan] of Kloga (SjtonJan) and many others, m whjdi 
hundreds of thouiiands of Soviet nationals telonging to Jhs civilian 
population, as well as soldiers and ofiicera oX the Red Axmy. were 
tortured Id death by the Hitlerites . 

The Germans also carried out nass shootings o( Soviet citizens 
In the LLsenitz fotest, whidi La on the outskirts of Lvov in the 
direction oE TamopoL It was t& this loresl that the Germans daily 
drov«. or brought in motor vehicles, large parties of Soviet prisoners 
of war from the Citadel camp, Internees from the Yanov camp and 
From the Lvov prisim. as weU as peaceful Soviet cltitens who bad 
been seized on the squares and streets of Lvov in the course of 
numerous roundups, rnvestigations made Tjy the Extraordinary 
State Commission of the Soviet Union established the fact that the 
Snnans shot Over 2(iQ.0QQ people in the Lisgnilz ?oreat. 

These mas murders,- this regime of tyranny and terror, were 
fully appnved by the Defendant Bosenberg who declared in his 
speech At the meeting of the German Labor Fnmt in November 1942: 

"Apparently^ if we are to subjugate all these peoples" — that 
[^ peoples inhabiting the territory of the U.5.5.It — "then 
arbitrary rule and tyranny will be an extremely Auitafale form 
at government.'* 

Ltter, when the Bed Army began to dear out the Germano- 
fascist hordes from the Soviet Union terriloty they had temporarily 
Occupied And when the Soviet authorities began to discover the 
■bomLnable f rimes perpetrated by the fascist monsters and to ftnd 
n umerous graves of Soviet citizens, soldiers, and olHcers tortured to 
d eath by the fascists, the German t^mmand tooic urgent me asures 
Ip Conceal and^ileslrov all tracea of their crimes, for thia purpose , 
t^ e German Conunand orEanieed everywhere exhumations ^ 
"^T^J Ircm their graves, and their cremation . A special order oC 
■fl Obersturmfuhrerj dated 'HovnOj 3 August 1943-IUAl No. SS/iSc," 

iMT vri wi 


"At a dislancc of 45^ meters from the former ham1«t of 
Petrashkevichi eight ditdi graves have be«n discovered. Their 
fize i? 21 meters long. 4 meters wide, and 5 meters deep. 
Before evary dLtdi grave there are enonnou^ pilej oJ ashes, 

remainder^ t>l the burned corpses ." ~ 

I oimt the next page Aad in proof of this same circumstance's I 
«m now referring to the report of the Eiftraordinary State Co m- 
misgion concerning the crimes of the German fas^iat invaders in the 
I^vQv region . This document has^already been submLttexJ ~lo the 
"iTribunal "aT Document Number USSIl-6. I quote A very short 
excerpt from this doctiment. The part whidi I will quote wiU be 
found by the members of the Tribunal on Page Hi, oa the revejse 
■^e, second calunon of the text, Paragraph ii 

"Upoti the order of Reich Minister Himmler arid ot Majof 

'General o£ Police Katzmann, special measures for exhuming 

and burning the corpses of murdered, peaceful citizens, Soviet 

prLsoners d[ w».c, and citizens of foreign countries wete 

carried out in June 1943. In Lvov the CieTmanj: created a 

special Sonderkommando Number lODEi coMposed Of 136 men- 

The cfaief of this Kommando was HauptsturmbannfLihrer 

Sdierladc; his assistant Hauptaturmbflnnfiihrer Raufh. The 

duty of this SonderkommandD was tc exhume And bum the 

corpses of the civilians and prisoners of war who had been 

liquidated by the GermarA." 

I dweU on this extract, and I would beg the Tribunal to remember 

thi5 number, "Sonderkommando Number 1005." This Kommando 

wu the prototype of similar Sonderkommuidos created by the Ger- 

EDWis- Later, the SondeckommAndos created for this task received 

the numbers of 1005-A, 1C0&-B, et cetera^ 

I terminate the quotation with the conclusion of the medical- 
lecai experts. I quote the last paragraph on Page 340 of the text: 
"" Thus the Hitlerite murderers adopted in the territory of the 
Lvov region the aame metHodsTor concealinjj their CTitnes 
wHi3i thevemgloyed earlier in connection with the murder 
^Tf^TikhQ&cers in fheKatyn Forest . 

" The expert commjasion ascertaineT'fuU similarity of methnH 
JB camoutiagmg ttie graves m ijisaenitzadi i'^orest with ttiosf 
xlsed to carrn3uHage~'E!ie graves of the FoIiJh oincers auieri Jjy 
fhe Germans at Katyn. 

"To extend the experiments In exterminating people, cre- 
mating corpses, and camouflaging the crimes, the Germans set 
up in Lyoy^ in the Yanov Camp, a tpecial Mhaol foi" the 
preparation o! qualiHed cadre. The commandants of the camps 
at Lublin, Warsaw, Krakow, luid other cities attended this 
school. Tlie chief of the Sonderkornmando Number 10O3, 

IMT vtr ^ 


-Al I HHMiifm U lait mrlDi Inm P\c Edittvc liimlil dT 
frmiMlVLdU ^JlE ditil Utit ti"I bHu i|i«ii-*»d. Tlwkr 
■Ih li II BHtn laq, k bifIhi -idc, ikI i rHifn drtp 
B<lim <VHiT <IMi mx "i— >!■ -"Dinini. jiiL^ .J w^b-. 

□D ma iduiUii l4 Hid npTiT nf Ihr Etnwdlrui? ?lJlr Qrn- 
n 111 jmiritPminJ Uif Lnfui i>l iB. Oaraiiii rmlil LBi,-tilM Ln Ji^ 
Jvi^F rriJDFi Tbii JdiueielL liai i^iudr "hm nihDlim Id a\t 

I quDU i tiry Bum 
■tHrpI mrri Uli flncuD&ni. Ihi pii? i/lildi T rtll qnnH ■rill In 
bui\i bt rliE iBHiilHn i.r Uir Tnbuul an I'll* LM. Dn Ow rrvrn? 
■Ui. Bi^iiiiL cuLurm f Lh* Uii. PkHgJApn i. 

-ITiriui Ihi iMUr dI r\tl± HIhIHet Hliiiinlrj ami n! Hi|lt- 

'CminL nt TB]jn PvUirunii. ip>oil miuuni £» nlLJUl^ 

ud bunlDg Ih* fi0^<i bT lajrdurd, pocrluJ diLlrni BnVirl 

pflHrHH «r *ic, ind dKIIEjiI nt Urvlp eauDrri*! wm 

ctT'l'il DU1 Jh Jun< ISil. In I/nk lU Cfnniru unlEd j 

JHCiiL SnQlrikDmmaiiilD rJjmber IM CDfoxBid nT lEI mra. 

T^i ihbl °E lUf KdiCcudiId ku lUurlrumAuvirLlfarrE 

bdiirtad: Ku inUtuLt HivFAmnlilinlQhrtT Jliudi I^> 

dBit "f bliii S"iiiilTrtinnr»»iiJr i»»" lo «iubii ird cu™ idi 

oirpiEi or Ibi iIvBI:aiii ■□'I prlsaHi iiT tmr qJm lud bsa 

liqsJbltd bj Ehr Cnnuvi' 

1 dnil m IhU ekEiuI, ind I h'Buld btt <*' TnBanil 1° jvn<mbEr 

lU. miBA.h, 'Sud.ihooiDinJt rJumliEr 1001' lliii EiiiTmi—l° 

*u dir pnliilfpa ul jlrrulir E'DDdmhtnuunrli' i.Tuln| 1.y Idi C<t- 

piEi Ijl^r, Uu EonilaitiiDBiBrifliib i^um Dk IhV Ink rmlnr] 

Ur luisibrn iiE IIH4-A, IffCO-B, Et trtcm 

I bnUiBLi Ui quenipm ■4lli Ui* amiliaign 0' llH mf^Bl- 
bliLiiiMrik JtucWUHJurpininipltcI'vr he^Tihr on. 
- PiM lilt Bumik ■uraiHniifcfMaifcigniiiiiT rfUif 

tf rmiAiBF«& A«Kih>ii^»l''^ 

Jo TDM^Hiikrf Bit dnvn . 

fttc gfiMmJIhti'ilidi'SJIltf 

J IB VtVmUUIlBI pt^\r. d- 

ip In Lvii¥. Ln Jn Via- e«~fc > irrilii -|w-J bt 1M 
FIfH'-tlBri tt q°lilll«d CI JlB- Tki DUDU^BiIi nf iti: fi*V 
bT LiibUiL fjiB*. Knkiv, ud aUtr dUH iU>biIH IkU 

■duinl Thf d]l«] ft Oli SnndHfc[i«niMiidn Pidnt— iPBr 


territory in which the camp was located. aU Soviet pri50ne» of war 
were exposed to a regime ot hunger with the Mme susum^cl and 
aystematic cruelty. 

While J am thiu reporting on the Httierian atrocitlei perpetrated 
on the prisoners^ I find that we now have at our dijpojal jeverAl 
court verdicts pronoanced on the fascist criminali who committed 
thetr crimes in the temporarily occupied terntorieSr In accordance 
with Article 21 of the Cliarter, I submit to the TriburuL ad SKhibIt 
Number USSR-a7 (Doirument Number USSR-97) the verdiet of i 
district military tribunal, You will find the entire verdict on 
Page 214 up to Page 221. It was pronounced in Smolerukn on 
19 December 1945. The Tribunal inflicted penalties varying from 
12 yea4::£ hard labor to death by han^ng, on 10 Kitleritts directly 
guilty qI the numerous crimes conunitted in the city and refiion of 

I shall not quote the dacument, but shall merely mention that 
on Pages 4, 5, and 6 of the verdict, in passages marked iii your 
copies — these pages^ that is, 1, 5, and S ol the verdict, are to be 
found in your document book on Pages 218, 1L9h and 132— iMor- 
matiori is contained how, as a result of pieudv-scientiAc experiments 
On prisoners of war by persons who, to the undying ahame ol 
German medicine, were known, in Germany as professors and 
doctors, tortured and murdered the prisoners by blood poisonina- 
The sent'pnce presents Turther evidence that, as b result of savage 
JU-treatmeni by the German escort conveying Soviet prlsgners of 
war, »in« lO.OOq exhausted, half-dead captives perished betwecti 
Vyasma and Smolensk. 

It is precisely thli passage, this information, which you will And 
in Subparagraph 3 of the verdict. It appears on Page 213 of your 
document book. Th« verdict reflects the systematic ma^ shooting 
ot prisoners of war in Camp 126, in the city of Smolenslc— "in 
Transit Camp I2& South" — during the transfer of the prisoners to 
the camp and to the hospital The verdict particularly emphasijet 
the fact that prisoners of war, too exhausted to work, were shot 

1 should now like to turn to the brutalities conunitted by the 
Hitlerites toward! members of the Chechoslovakian, Polish, and 
Yugoalavian Armi«, We And, in the Indictmtnt. that one of tht 
moat important crimtn'al acts for whiA the major war criminali 
are responsible was the mass execution of Polish prisoners ol war , 
shot in the Katyn Forest ngar Smolensk by the German fascist 

1 submit to the Tribunal, as a proof ol this crime, official docu- 
ments of the special commission for the establiihirtent and the 
investigation o£ the citvumstjinces whidi attended the executions. 
The commission acted in accordance with a <jifwtive of the EKtra - 
ofdinary State Commission of the Soviet Union. In addition to 



II no. H 

TDfrmbers af the ExtraDrdinacy State Commission — namely Ac&dc- 
micJans Burdenko, Akiria Tolstoy, and th« Metrgpolitan Nicolas — 
tltEs CQinmiaslon was composed at the President of the Pan-SlaY'onia 
Cvmmitt««, Lieutenant Gtn«r»l Quud^rov; the chairmiLn ol thi* 
E:r«cutive Comfnittee rf the Union of the Red Crou and Red 
Cr&scent, KHDle^nikov; ol the People's Commissar for Elduc^tLon in 
the FtS.S.F.R., Academician Potenikin; the Sapreme Chlel of thv> 
Medical Department oI the Red Army, General Smitnov- and thy 
ChaLrtnan of the District ExecutiveCommittee of Smolensk, Melnilcov. 
The commissian also included several of the best known medico- 
legal experts. 

It yould take too long to read into the record that precise and 
detailed document whjdi I now submit to vou as Exhibit Numbe r 
USSR-54 (Document Number USSR-54 t, whlcii is a result of the 
Investigation^ I shall read into the record only a few comparatively 
nhort excerpts. On Page 2 o* the document, which is Page 223 in 
your document book, we read — this passage is marked in your file: 

" According to the estimates at medico-legal expert^ the tota l 

number ol bodieg amounts to over ll.QOO. The medico-legal 

experts car ried out a th[>rciitgh examination of the bodies 

exhumed, and of the dacuments and material evidence found 

on tTle bodLea and in the graves. During the erimmation an3 

exattiination of the ce>rpse5> the cgmmisslQn questioned many 

witness among the local inhabitants- 'i'heir testimony 

permitted thedeterminatienot the exact time and circuiti - 

siances of the crimes committed by thg German invaders," 

I believe that I need not quote everything that the Extraordinary 

Commiston ascertained during its investigation about the crimM 

of the Germans. I only read into the record the general conclusions. 

which, summarise the wT>rk oi the commission. You will find tht- 

lines read int» the record On Page 43 of Eithibft Number USSR-SJ 

f( you turn to the original document, or on Page 264 of j-uuf 

document book: 

-'General conclusions: 

" On perusal of all the material at the disposal ol the specia l 

cwfjwi^B^on, that iSy the depositions of over IDQ witnesse s 

a uestiomid. ihe_data of the medico-leiial eatperts, the dogu- 

menta and the matenial evidence and belongings taken from 

tfie graves in Katyn FVtr^st, we can arrive at the follo^ring 

definite oonclujion g: 

"1. The Polish prisonen of war imprisoned In the three 

camps west of Smolensk and engaged in railway construction 

before the wir, remained there after the occupation of 

Smolensk by the Germans, right up to September lSi41. 

IB4T VII *" 


L4 Ttb. « 

"2. In the autumn of 1941, in Katyn Foi-wLi the German 
^cupaMonaT aatharitiM parried out mass" ah&otings of the 
PoliSfi prisorie-rs of war froai the above-mentioned camps. 
"3. Mass -ahootings qC PolUh pfJMnftcs ot wac in Katyn 
Forat were carried out hj German milLtaiy organizations 
disguised under the Specific name, 'Staff 531, Enjpheer 
Construction Battalton,' commanded by Obtrleutnant Ames 
end his cnQea^ue$, Oberleutnant Kex and Leutnant Hott. 
"4, In connection with the deteriontlon, tar Germany, of the 
general military end political ma(±unery at the bfiginiung of 
1943, the German [>ccupaHonal authorities with a vJew to 
provoking incidgnCs, undertook a whole aeries of mgasureg to 
aaciribe their Q^Ti misdeeds to QrEanizations of ttie -^QV^iet 
authorities, in order to maka mischief between the Ruasiana 
and the Poles, 
"5h For thes* purposes; 

"a. " The German fascia invadefs, by persuasion, attempts at 
briber^-, threats, and by barbarous tortures, endeai/ored to And 
' witnesses' among the Soviet citizens from whom Ihey lObtaineB 
fatse teatimony^ alleging that the Polish prisoners oE war had 
been ahotbj organizations of the Soviet authoritips in thj ^ 
spring of 1940 , 

"h. The German occupational authoritiea, in the spring qI 
19-i3, Srought from other places" the bodies of Polish prisoner 
of wa^vvhom they had shot, and lAirj them In the tum^ 
up graves of Katyn Forest with the dual "purpcae of coverinj 
up the traces ot their own atrocities and oi increasing tht 
numPers oC/yLetims of BolBhevirt atrQcitiea" in imiyn threat . 
"c. While preparing .their provocative mga-sur&s, thfi Gegman t 
occupational authorities employed up to SOU Russian prisonera 
of war for the task of digginj; up the g raves in Katyn 
^>est. Once the j^raves had been diiji^, the nugsian priaopera 
of war were shot by the Germans in order to destroy thua 
nil proof and material evidence on^he matter. 
"9. The date ol the legal and medical eKamination determined^ 
without any shadow of doubt: 
"a. That the time of shooting was autumn 1041. 
*"b. The appljcatiQii by the German executiongr^ when shogtiiM 
PglisR prisoners of war. qE the Identleal method — a piatol ahcrt 
^ the nape of the neck — as used by them in the mass murdfrfa 
ot_iHe. Soviet citliena in other towns, esrpec.ialJ.y._m Orel , 
VoronetE, Krasnodar and in Smolensk itself." 

THE PRESIDENT: The a'ribunal will now rece&S. 
[Tht Tribujial reersred until ttOO houTW.J 


(This document describes Jiow "confessions" are abtained in Communist showtriaU, but 

says thai tli€ Germans did It,} 


The YugoElnv Pelee^te lo Ihe Unil- 
ed Nations War Crimes Commission; 


Lecturer o( UniversUy 

I, MIUVOJ SUDJIC, Lawyer by profession^ hereby certify thai 
] am fully convcrsunt wjth the S&rbc>-Croat and English languages; 
and lliat the above is a true translaiion ot the Serbo-Croat anginal 
vl this Report. 





IlrD^diLirc- in run^iiiftrr Siiriihr ilr* ietn Jshrr l^U, 5fi SchcD in Oklti'-F«1iniU 

naidiljJifl!clL (^rlmiidrs J I ifrr JfuIuJifd Lbntrfjilng 


der Sonderkommission zur Feststellung und 
Untersuchune der Umstaend? der Erschies- 
sunfvon polTiischen kriegsgelangfiien Olfi- 
zSeren im >[atyner Wald durch die deutfethen 

faschistiseheA EJndrin^lijiB^'^ 

Kadi dem Besiiiluss der A uss^rordenl lichen Staatskommission 
zui Feststcllunfi und Ujitersuehung dcr Greueltalen der fasdiisti- 
schen dculschen Eindringlinfie und ihrer Helfershelfer wurde die 
Sonderkommission lur Feststcllung und UntersudiunB der Urn- 
slaende der Erschiessung von kriegsffefangencn polnisfiien Offi- 
2ieren im Walde von Katiii (b.Smolensk) durdi diB deutsdien 
IesChiiti«hen Eindritiglinge gegruendet: 



(H«r8 we havB the cynical Nazis chuckling afaoul how thfly will exterintnate ^a PdIbs at 


Bfwadiung von fr-V detilschen Soldalen UMrden audi van uidcren 
ZfUftn fcnuchtt die von der SDndcrkommission vtrhoerl wufd^n: 
KlSSEKEW P.G., Bau^ der MpJw*1 „Kosji Gory*', Kriwoserzew 
M.G., TiBchler der SlaUon Kra^yi Bar im Walde von Katyn, 
IWANOW SW., ehemaliger Vorslther der Station Gnesdowo in dcr 
Gegcnd des Waldes von Kat/ji, SAWWATEJEW, I.W., Diensllucnder 
dtnelbcn Station, ALEKSEJEW M.A., Vorsilzend^r dcr Koll^ktiv- 
wirtsdvaft dps Dorfcs Borok, DGLOBLJN A-f.y Gtjsllidiw der Kjrdie 
von Kuprin und artdcren. 

I>ii!se ZfUEen ho^rten audi Sdiuessc. die aus dem Walde hKdsji 
Gory" eirfidialhfn. Einc bcsondefs grosse Bedeutung fuer die Aut- 
klacrung dc£scn, was Im LaiHlhaus „Ko£Ji Gory" jm Htrbst 1941 vor 
sidi cine, hataen die Aussagcn de& Praf«30T3 dcr A^^tronomie, des 
Direkiors BASILEWSKI B.W. der Slemwarte in Smoleiuk. Der 
Professor Bafil^wski wurdt in den crslen Tafen der deulsdi^en 
Okhupatjon von Smolensk gewaltsam £um StellveKreter des Stadt- 
oberhaupli?5 (des Buerfi'trmeis'ters) ernannt, waehrend als Sladtober- 
haupt derAnwali MENSCHAGIN B.G. von den Deutschen bcstimml 
wurde, der spaetcr mil ihnbn fortgine, der Verraeter, der besonderes 
Vertrauen des deutschen KcHnmarhiDfi und iiubesaniiere des Kom- 
mandAnten von Smolensk von SCHWES ftenoss. 

Anfang Scpleipber 1941 wandte sidi Basilev^Tski «n Mensdiagin, 
bfim Kommandantcn von Sdiwez di? Ent^ossujig des Pacdagog«j] 
5HJGLIN5KI aus dem Kriegsgefangenenlager N 12G zu erbUten, 
Inil«m Mensdugin dif se Bitle erfueUte^ wandle er sich an von Sdiwei 
vnd Eagte dann eu Sasilewski^ dass seiner Bitte nidit Folge gel^istet 
wtrden kocnnen weil nun, wie von Sdivvez sagte. .,au£ Berlin einc 
WeisunB erhalten haette, die eine unyerzueglidie nvrdifuehrung des 
etrengsten Regimes m Beiug auf die Kriegsgefangenen vorsdireibo 
und k«in? Nachsicbt in dieter FYage zulasse." 

ti^dt wandle unwillkuerlieh cin", agte der Zeuge BajJlewski , 
,i Was lyuerde demi strcn^^r sein, aks das jm Laew* herrsdienSe 
EtpgJme?' Mensdia'gjn&ah mich j.onderbaT an und. indem er sidi iu 
mir neigie. antwortete gr leise: ,,Es kann eein. Die Russen werJeii 
wenjesiens von sich aus stci^benVaber hinsichllidi der krie|^sgcfanEe - 
noi Polen ^Tjrde_e5 vorgeadalagen. sie elnf adi au vcmichlen . 

„Wieso? Wie soU idi das ventehen?", rief itii awfi- 

„£ie fioUezi ea woenlidi vorelehen. Es bcsteht eine solehe An- 
weisung bus Berlin", anlwortete Menschagin und bat midi „uni 
Gotles Willen" doch nicmanden ein Wort darueber zu fagen , , , ■ " 

„Zwei Wodien spaeler nach dem obcnerwaehnten Gespraedi mil 
MensdiB£in, al^ jch wjeder beJ ihm turn Empfnng war^ kontite idi 
nidul umhin Lhn zu fragen: „V/jiz boeii man ufib«r die P^len?" 

IMT JtXXrX 302 


(The Americaifs had sn English iransraticin of ihrs at triaL so why did they 
translate it inia Carman for the document votumes?) 


Menschaein loegcrte ein wenljt und dann^inlwortete er: .JAii ihntri 
1b1 e^ abfietan. Von Sdiwez hat mlr ^csB^t, d^ss sle irgcndwo in Jcr 
rJafhe von Smolensk gfsAgss&n wurden ." 

^Da Mensdugin moine Verwirrujig bem^rkt hatti?, cnahnte ve 
midi wiedcr ui die NalvLrflidsgkeilt d'letse Angelegc^nhvit strcnc 
g^^heinuuhaltEn und nacKher hegaiin tr mir dit MandlunGSweise dei 
Dcutsch^ii in dLeser Sadie zu erklaeren", Er fagte, die Erschieisung 
derPolen wi einGlied in der gsmenKcUe dei- vonJ3eulschland durdi- 
gtiutfhrtcn pqlenf«ind lichen pDlilik, die im ZussTmn^nhnng mit der 
Absdiliessunfi dn* russisch-pDlnisdien Verlrages be^ond^rs ver* 
Kdiaerfl warden sei." 

Basilewski erzHehlteeb^iirallsrierSonderkommission ueber wine 
Untorhaltung mit dem Sonderfuehrer der 7. Abtcilung dfr dtutschen 
Kommandantur Hirschieldj dcm Ballendcutschen, der £ut russifich 

.. Hirgditeld erklartc zyniach, dgss die Echaedlichkeil Und dig Mirir 
dcrvT ertigkeit dcr Pol en hjslorisch b&wiesen sejen und dass der 
RucehEanfi der BevopU^prung^z^h] von Folen als Duengung d« 
BodcnE dignen wird und die Moeelichkeit fuer die t^l:^^•giterun B 
Jw Lebensraumcs von Deulsdiland Ec^^aehrlei&lc t 

Im Zusammenhanec datnit prahlte Hirsdileld, dass von der Inlel- 
ligeuz in Polen nichls geblieben Ki, da sic gehaenfl, ersdiosscn und 
In Kons£ntration£la£er febracht warden seL" 

Die Aussagen von Basjl^^vski wurden vcm dem durdi die Sonder- 
kgiiimigsicai vemummentn Z^ugen, Physikprofessor JeJimOTV J^-, 
bv£taetigt, dem Basdljcwzki damals im Herb^ 1941 von svinem Ge^ 
ftpraedi mil ^enschagin erzachltc. 

Durdi Urkundenbestaetigung der Aussagen VQn Bastlcws^i und 
Jc-fimow sind eigenhaendi^e Aufzeichnungen vonMen£diagln,dje cr 
in soinein NotJzbudi gemadil hatte, bcktAeftigt. 

Dieses Notixbucb, das it nidit valle Stit«n enthaelt, wurd^ In deti 
Aktcn d«r Stadtvenvaltung vcn. £ma)enk$ nadi de£sen Befreiung 
vor^^funden, Di« Tatsachc, dass dieses Nolizbudi Mensdisgln ge- 
hocrte und audi Eelnt fJand&c^rift wurden sowoh] durtji di« Auf- 
Ea£cn von Bajjlewski, der die Handschrilt von Menschagin gut 
hahnte, alsaudi durch das graphologische Gutadilen be^laubi£t 

Wie aus d«n im Notlzbud^ enthalten«n Datm zu ef»hen isl. 
bc-triflt der Inhalt die PeriDde der ersten Augusttage 31^41 bis 
November desselben Jahr«. 

Unitj den v«rschi«tenen HotiHn blnsichUldi der wirtsidiafUidien 
l^Tsgen (iicber Hob. Slektzisc^e Ilnergiv, Handel u.BrW.Jgab n eine 




Rcihc von Autzeichnunc^^- ^i' ^^'^ Mvnidiagln, um lie nJchl zu ver> 
gencn, als Anweisungcn dcr KoRimatidantur von Snuilentk gcm«Elil 

Aiu diratn A'ufttfdinungen crgat «icli Vlar pine Bc4hf von 
Ttagf^n, mil denen sidi die Stadlvcrwaltun^, «la Oj-£ant dns allr 
AnwclAunccn dcs dcutsdiirn Kcnrnnandoi ausfuehrt«, bcsdiaiiftlGlr, 

Aul den vTsXen drei Sciten dcs NotiJbu^et wurdc iuiluchrlich 
die OrfiSnisalion diaa pGhotlos" wnd dM Syjlcrri der R^pretuUtn, 
in Bczufi auf die Juden tnzuwcnden. dirgclect. Auf dcr Scllc 10, 
die mtt. dcm 1&. Augusl 19*1 daliert ist, hlcs± C3:»«Allc polnisf^on 
Ccflucdilclon KrieiJSEefanficneft sind ftslzuhallcn und In die Kom- 
mandantur zu bnTigcn." Auf dtr Seite IS {ahne Datum) sUnd: 
„Kursjci-en unler d« BcvoelkerunB Geru?ditc ve'buT die Cr^diiosKung 
dcr polniachen Krie^sgcfangtnen in ..Kosji Gory"?(aTi Umnow)." 

Aus dcr trtien Aufzeidjnung ergab e« «idi, d«is am 15, August 
3MI die JtricEseefangencn Polcn sich nixh auf dim Gtblcl von 
Smolensk befanden und dau w* wsjtcrhin von den dcuUchcn Be- 
hoerden verhaflcl wurden. 

Dje zwcilc Atifz^idinun^ zttigie davon, dau das deulschi^ Kom- 
mando, kufgercfi liucth. die Mocglidih^Ll dtr VerbreJtung dcr 
Gtrgfchtc ucter die von Ihnen befianamen Verbredien unlcr dor 
^ivUbcvoellccning. bwondcrt Anweisunficn ueber die Nadipruefung 
ditter Angele^tnhtil gab. 

Umnow, d&f in der AuficidmunE erwadinl wurdr, war Chef der 
mnisdien PoUzei m Smolrnslt wachrend d«r «»lai Monate der 
OUtupation diescr SUdU 

Enistehung der deutAcb«n ProvDhallon. 

Im Winler I942fi2 veraenderte £idi gnindHctzlidi die nUEemcinr 
Krieplige nJ£ht xuEunden der DevlK^m. ^it Kriegsmacht der 
Sowjclunion vtntierkie sich Uuf«nd und die Elniguiig dcr Sowjet-' 
UtitOn ttiit den AUiiertt-iT fwligte tidi, Die Peutschen Enlsditotsgn j 
itd^t mit der Prm'okation zu befl:Ltmen> indem ale au den grcucj - 
JaTen . dje iic im frald von Katvn vtfoebt hattcn^ jjrjffen und diMf 
den Sowictbe^Qgrdcn 2ur Lwt l^fltgn. j>adurda"bea'bsich^ii^lcn aie . 
die Ruijtcn mtt den Folcn m cntfwgicrrund die Souren Thre* VW' 
brgdie nj zu vcnA-isdien . 

Dvr FriCfli^r da Dorf^ Kuprino, Bezirk Smolensk, AJ*. OCl^B- 
LIN, HRt( aui: 

„NaA den Ereignisicii bri StaUiigrad, alt die Deulschen ihrc 
Unsichcrheit fuehlten^ regten lie di«se Sache an. Im Voik tprada 
nun davon. dau die D^tKhfn ihre Lagv v«rbea*ein'*' 



Mit der Vgrberoitunfl dcr Kutyn^r ProvQhatiQn s\A bclassgnd , 
boEarinen dtc Pculschen zunagchsl einmal ^Zcu£cn" zu suchen die 
utiter dcr Emwjrkune vpn Zureden. BestcdiunEcn odcr Drohun gen 
<ijc den Ucutgdien erfprdgfliehgn AuMagcn kocnnlcn T*^^^ 

DieAufmerksamkeil dcrDeulschen erregle dei Bauer K155ELEW 
Parfcn GawrijowiUdi, geboren 1B70, der ndttier alt «llt And&ren 
bci dem Landhaus ,^Kasji Gory" wohnlt. Klsstlew wurde schon 
Ende 1941 in die Gealapo ftmfcn Und — indem man ihn mit Reprw- 
talicn bedrohle — fiufgefordcrt, verjogcne Aussagen daruebH" zu 
jnachen^ das^ itun bekannt s^l, dass die BoUchi^wikpn Jm Fruehjahr 
1940 im Landhaus d^r tJNKWI>-£>i«i&lsLeU« in hKosjI Goty" dLt 
Ithe^scefangeufn Polen ersdiosstn haettcn. 

I>iruebfir Gagte Kiss^ltw ausi 

him Herbst 1&'12 kameii in meine Wohnung zwei PoUzlstcn und 
u^ten, idi mue&ste midi bei der GfsUipo auf der ElsenbaKnsLation 
Gnesdowo melden. 

Am g]>eidien Tag eing jidi zur Gcslapap die 1» elnem zweistoedci- 
geii Haus neber; d«r EisenbahiiEtatioii untercebra^^t war. In dem 
Zjmmtr, da£ idi belrat,bef«nden sidi ein deutsdier Olfizicr usd eJn 
Dolmetsdier. Der deuUdi? Olfiiier bccann midi durch d«n Ddl- 
nietEdier aii5ZLifra|[eji, wJ« Isnge Jdi in diesem B«urk wohne, wotnll 
ich mi^ bcfttse Und wie meine mAlerielJc LiSge ist. Ich erzaehlte 
jhm, dass tch im Vorwerk neben „Kosji Gory^ ielt 190T frobne und 
■uf melnem Gut arbeite. Uetwr meine malerielle La^e u£t« i^, 
dflS£ idi Sdi-wierJgkelten hiibe, 'tveil idi adiDJi alt bin und meint 
Soehtie Im F^lde slehen. 

Nach diesem kurzen Gespra?^ erklaerte der Offizler, dieGaLapo 
habe Beric^tf daruebcr, das die Miterbelter der NKWD-Dieiut- 
Etellt l»iO im WAld Vtti KJityn unwell von „K«]f Gory" dJe pol- 
nisdwn OfEizLere ersdiossen haben, Er fraEte midi, welthe Auuage 
ic^ darueber madien kann. Idi ■titwortet^^ ucberhftupt nie cehoert 
lu haben, dass die NKWI>-DitrrislsielW ErsdiiKsungen in ^Kmjl 
Gory" Ausgetuehn hat Aussecdem erklaerle ich dem OfCiziex, datt 
Idi die Moeglidikelt — ErsdiiesEunfen dort auszufuehren — fuet 
ausges^lossen hBlte, da ^Kosji Gory" e^ gam offenljegender und' 
diditbevoelkerter Ort xei. Die gesamit BeVKlIierung der nahe^ 
liegenden Doerfer haetle d^vdn Ewetfelsohne wisKn mu«ssen. 

Der OtUiivr anlwort«1e m'r. dass idi eine soldit Ausuge madden 
mu«sse, da sich di« erwB«hntE? Talsadie angeblidi wirklich erelgntl 
haelte. Fuer diese Aussage wurde mir eine hohe Belahnung vw- 

Idi erklaerte wiedt^rholt dem Olfizier, dasa ieh ueber die £r- 
idiieasutifen nlchts gelioert habe und dass vor dem Kriege in 





unsercT Gcgcnd k> etwu utbcrhsupt nidil vorkr>mmen konnle, 
Xrotzdtni best and dtr Offtzier ^ar*uf» dit erlogene AusiAge £U 

Nach d«rn enten Gc^praedii, vmnieber Idi bercits aussa^^, wurde 
ii^ jm rebnxar lfl43 cum zwnten Mai tur GesUpo geruleri. 

Zu dieser Zeit warde mir btkfnnti dass audi andtre Einwohner 
dtr nth&liegenden DE>«rf«r lur Gcstapa beordcrt wurdrn, von denen 
man diuclbcn Au&5»gen gefordert hatie- 

In der GMlapo waren derulbe Oftizier und I>almetsdiw, die 
miA dflE «rEle Mai vemommtn hatten. 

Wleder lord&rt^ man mich aul, dass idi auuagen s&U, Augen> 
zeuge der Er&chiessungen dcr polnlsctaen Olfiziere Bcwesen zu sein, 
die angc'bHch im Jahrt 1010 dunh die NKWp-Dienststelk «usce- 
fue^hrl worden seien. 

Idi erklaerle dcm Gcstapooffizier iiKhmals, dass das Luege iit, 
da Idi vor dem KrJege nitiis von den Ersdiieuungen hoerte wnd 
da££ Ich di« vcrlogene Aussage nidil madien werdc, Aber der ttel- 
mcischer wolUt! mieh nidit atihwrgn, nahm gin h&ndsdirift]it:hes 
Ppkument vom Tiseh.u.nd laa ct mir vQr . Darin lUnd, dass Ldi> 
K15SELEW, im Vc^rwerk, unweit von „KosJi Gory" wohne und 
selbsl gesehen hab*. wie jm Jahre IMD die Mitarbeiter dtr NICWD- 
Dienststelle die polniEdi^n Oliiil^ie endiosKn haben, 

Nachdcun der Dolmelscher mif das vorgeleMn hatte. sAluff cr 
mir voT, daa Dokumgnt zu untergchreibgn, 1<^ lehnte es ab. Per 
Dolmctacher wnllte durch DrohunE,eii ^"^d Beschimpfunjien d.i.g 
Unterschrift von mir crrwinjien . Kutn Sdiluss lagle er: ^fintweder 
unterMhieiben Sie toforl, oder Sie werdw geloctet- Sie haben zU 

Idi hatte Anest bekonnnwi t)nd unlcrwhrieb das DokuirieHt . 
damit redinend^ dass damlt dig Swche beetidet ist. Nadidem dit 
Pftuts^hen den PMadi der Graeber von Katyn dgrch vcrtchicdenp 
J>el»aationcn'* orBanStiert hallen^ wurde ich gejw^uiiggn^ vor der 
anggkortirhenen nPolnLsdien Delegation lu sprechen *' ^ 

Kjaaelew vereaH dtn Iiihalt de& in dtr Gestapo unteradnitbenen 
Protokoils. venpradi aidi und v^nichtetg adiliesslich aut dig Aub - 
s&ge- Daraufhin liMS Jit Gestapo Kjtselew verhaTten und. ^Tidgm 
Etc ihn eineinhalb Monnle lang unbarrnherrig verpruegelte; erzwan g 
■Ig dadurdh _sejne £inwllliBung| neuerdinEs ocflctitlidii aufiutretgn . 

Darueber sagle Kissclew aus: 

„In Wirklidikrit kam h anden. Im Fmehjahr 1943 gaben die 
Deutsdhen bekannt, dass ne im Wald VOn Katj-n in der Gf^end 
„Kosii Gory" die Graeber der polnlsdien Ofliiiere, die anecblidi 
vom den NKWB-Dicnststellen eradiosKn wiirden, enldeckt hatten. 




jBild darauf kam in meb» Wghnung ein Gestapo-Dolnictschcr 
und fucTirtf mich in Atn Wald in die Geecnd von^Kogji GQ^ y^ 
Nachdem _v.;ir die Wohniing vgrlassen hatten, warntf> micfi der Dol - 
m&tscher unter vier Au^en dassidii jclit den Jm Wald Anwesenagn 
alios haarfienau nachcrzaerilen iblltg. was in dem van Tnij bei dgr 
Gestapo untcfidiriebengn Dokument eesdtildert beL 

Itn Wald PD£e)(Dmm»n, uh idi ■usgehobene GrJibpr und «me 
Gruppe mir unbekannl^r persDnen. Der Dolmelti^er Kgle mlr, «S 

seien „polnj6die Pelegierie", die »ur Beiichiigung d«: Graebtr an- 

Als wjr An die Gracber herAnirAtcn, beeannen die .HDelegierteh" 
an midi verschiedene Frag'en zu stellen in nissisdier Spradie bezuef- 
lidi der Erschie^&^june von Polvh. 

Da abgr B£it der ZgJt. liwo ich zur G&atapp fierufen wurde, ueber 
cin M&n^t verstrichen "^At, }iaitc id^ alles vcTge-jsgn, "yyas in dcra 
von mir unlgrschrjgbenen Uokumenl ttand . Ick kam deshalb flui 
dcm Kpiuept und rrkltirt« zum Sdiluss. da» ich von der Er- 
Bchiessung der potnlschen Offizicrt nJchts wuesBt«. 

Der deutsche Offjzier avrgerte <ich lehr und der Dotmetsdier 
lerrle und trieb mLch brutal von der ^Dele^tion" fort. An) 
n^edhsten Tag«- kam em Wagen mit einem Gestapoolfizier zu 
in«iner Wohnung. Nadidem mich der Clfti±ier auf d^m Hof vorfand^ 
erklaerle cr, dass ich verhaftet tei, tetzte mich in den Wagen utid 
Juhr mid) in^ Smolensk erGefaengnis, 

Nadi meiner Verhiiftung vmjrde idi oeft^rs lur Vemehniungi: 
eerufen, dodi pruege]te man midi mehr als man midi verboerlec 
Wae^brcnd d«r vrslen Vern^hmung verprgegelt? man mii^ stark 
und b«£chimpft? midi, isss Jiii s'w bltimiert hactte, Daraufbin 
brachte man midi in die Zvlle curu^dt. 

In der naedistfolgenden V&rn«hmun£ s&gie man mir, idi sollte 
fleffentUdi erklaeren. daiis tch Augenuufe der £rsdii«ssunfen pol- 
nisdi4!r Offiziere durdi die BoLsdiewiken gewesen sei und dags id) 
tolanee aus d^m Gefaengnis nidit entlassen wuerde. bis sidi die 
Gestapo ueberzeufil ha.ettgj dags _ i t^_ mging Aufgabe gewis^haCt 
tTfuelle , Idi entgegenete dem Offizier, dass Idi lieber im Gefa^ngnis 
Ailxen wuerde* aU deu Mensdien Sand in die Aug^n zu itreueri. 
I>*rau£hin hat man midi &diwer verpruefcU. 

Soldie Vemehmungen, bei weldien idi verpniegell wurde, wie^ 
dtrrhaUen fich. Das Erg«bnis war, dass idi voelUg kraftlos wurde, 
turn Teil mein Gchoer v«rlor und Tneinen rediten Arm nichtTnehr 
bewegen konnte. 

Ungefahi: einen Monat xpaeler naeh meiner Verhaftun^ rief midi 
der deulsdie Olliiier lu (ich und lagle: „Da aehen Sie Kisselew, 


-M Sit ntr FliHUlr"! IfliM W" "Mba, amnriHtun Ot T«ta- 

■mri' in thrm rn t^riJjIrhsL Tbiceii iviTiIrn Sir Ir df r Vild <« 
Ullm tLblimi und trh4tT>El. Mi bll dirft QILdcr. du lUdil ei 
■mdirn iind -oILl. Jki. uftej»UEfi, dm iJi Tut d.> R^IL. .k 

Aiiffliimi|* r«i drr EkuBlELiiiBF Blilil IiutC "il Ldi iirbiuhiiipl 

mAL liircEn kHui sod d^Ulb htrdii liE^ildrlUli rtn«<l*,bi 

WLldr AbCr dn OflllJlr iVdiTkL IrtlKlllta HJM Mri-UTit 

bUlE MmiBn QiijWr liBira SoUlkfl Ifil ^twiiDr iirel bu- 
jinma nin mi DinnaillniKppiilD n irrpmniUD lili lwir\' ■bpi 

r AaiWwp d*r I 
n Vityn in vrtdwn JilPIr J.J-t[->l>. tB"M ■- — 

>ni^n Crti'liiT ih iTi H^n WhLH v«i KjI^ti i.iluTIL .fcliir 

1i .- -I I -.■.\ IT. - -.f - .1' ^ r i lin hat a-liBia 

-Idi ivbIjii lin Vpt-tiI \a Jir Ort»J vnn Jlail, Cnrj" iini"Tll 
Hib LdadHiiu dfr r^K'Al>-llincUltar Id. fjufTtjatir lUl hD tm, 
-1e dijh din Fidn Ui da Wrid tnm* mid B« Jnk Mdil dan 

Iili iThluK luh -willMi ■<I^I"F— . du. JU. dU -AAui del 
HKWD' gaw»^B ul 

^■didrjji Idi Dill- du vlnpiiW-, -J- BiLh de. Dab-irlidKr PifU, 
r-OrU kr DUb U du Vfild u dir AUi(-].ol^ii>n CruoUr ijiri 
. jjw *ll« !■ Jar *DVMiah[,L d..- ■TinhuTimf'"" 
*■' tu t-lf dfiluftri. rifinT ^ mr^i'ljunfp ■-Jrfltn_djr* 
IhJHt "katUfT " 

r EDrr ^DrKfUH 
Db Ui dIr niirn •Oi Ibir EnOilfuiru duidL dIr SnUdHifUxB 
pKbcB lutlH. 

IBi vur ml OMa tiapi pJitil vprt^jVUfl iir»d •l*\ttfl*. Omb IA 

dir jnlaiDdiui llJi'LK*»llfliiHri 1« *■! KiLqAiiliui bn ic 
SUiuuiDbiuliUliJi pHlun tHl(«. «■> ■>'d> did- PTirklUlikeil 

■fhjTfid »Br Oi*1*Mii»tH"J* it^uiitf 

"H J* "*^ 



Daritufhm erkLatrrl? mlr der Offizier: Wenn ein deulsdiCT Offi- 
xier bchauptci, die Po\tn 8««n dutfh die Bolschewiken erschttssen 
werdcn, to enifpracdie es ^en Tslwd^en, ..Darum", wlzle dct 
Olliiitr fort nbrftti^^A £ic keine Angst 2u haben und kocnneri mil 
ruhiEom Gewi&sen das Frolokoll derufbcr untendircibcn, dass die 
fcricg^Lgefangencn Polen von den Bolsdiewiken trsdiO£sen wurden 
und dass Sie dabci Augenzfu^c waren.'*' 

lA Anlwortele, ich tei ein greiser, fil-jftehriscr M«nn und wollt 
TneLn Gewissen Jiicht durdi Euenden belasten. Ich kann nur au5- 
sagen, dass dk' kriegs^efangenen Palen talfft&dilidi im Fniehjahr 
1440 in On^sdowo' ankamen. 

paraufhin fic^^c^te gidi der deulsche Offiz^cr an, mtdi zu ueber- 
ivden, die eriorderhchen Auss^gcn lu machen, indem «r mtr 
wrsprach, mtdi ftus mciner bUHerifen Dienststellung bIs Zwisdienc 
Btetionsvse'cbler in cine andere zu ueberiuehrvn und mlch als 
£l&tion3voraieher von Gnesdowo, was ich unt«T der Sawjelmachl 
war» einiusetzen, aowie midi »vd; in malerieller Hlruichl lu ver- 

I>tr Dolmetscher b«lf>nte. dass das deuliche KomTnando auf 
■nnne Aussagp/t als ehemaliger Eisenbahnangestelltcr der Slation 
Gti«sdov-o die dem Wald von Kalyn am na«hritii liegt, grossen 
^Ve^t le£ie und dass ic^ es nicht bereucn wuerde, wcnn idi die 
beEBgL^n Ausswg^n machie. 

Idi sah einn dass ich in cine aeusserst K^iwere Lag? B^raten war' 
und, mir ein triiuriecf Schick^al bevpr^tand. aber trotzdem ver- 
^'eigerte ich dcm deutjidicn Offlzier die erlogene Auuag?. 

Daraufhin fuhr midi der Offlzier in, bcdro^te mieh mit Sdilae^ 
cen und mit Erschlessen, indem er «rk)a«rte, dass ich meine Vorteile 
nj<ht verstuende. Ich bli«b mber standhaft bei meiner Aussege. 

Dtr Dolmetscher schrieb dann ein kBraeg, ^^^ dcwtather Spradrfr 
abgefassigs Froiokoll. eine Scite lanit. nieder uad jab mif dea en 
Inhali bekanni . Wie mir der l3o1meUdier ertaehlte, var in gem 
Protokoll nur die Talsadie der Anhunfl von polnisthen Krieg&- 
eetangcnen in Gnesdowo iufgenommen. Als i^ aber bat, meine 
Aussagpn nidit nur deiilsch, sondem auch russisch medenusdirei- 
Mrt, jwar der Qffi£iGr ausser sich, schlufi midi mi! .tincm Gummi - 
^nueppcl" und warl mich hiraut ." 

SAWWATBJEW l.W., gvh. ISSO, lagle aus: 

M^^*, In der Gestapo gab Ich an, dass im FniehJaKr IMO in 
Gnesdowa mil einigcn fiaenbahntransporten die kriegs^efanfenen 
Folen talsaechlich ankamen und dass xie mIt den Wagen wciter^ 
fuhnn^ wohln weiss idi aber tiidit. Ausserdem fuegte Idi hin£U, 


Am nil viri 

>&»)., wa at I 
pHlm billc 

Jhf OPUIiw hLIkph ndr, diu ■" HJiH |rr» unfl J"" H" Or 
r\J(n Aul if AiiUUIir. nUt.) f«hn> k,°*Tlil» -ill -K .=1 flM Bm- 
rtwwkkD pMii mrn nirtkn anQ lta«ni mkdi i-r. Mmrfm ■!■ 
•f— kin I* HHvdjvU H. Wm* iMUrt Dwitipmn -ri U.lwr- 
'iU*-f iHdw kerl«l itfi irAibbk ifubrU^Sr'*^ i"^ 
ri fait iem T'-'' --*~— " > -i-i — 1 >-' ■'-- "-'- -i- 

HuF drr tmlii' tk»4i .Ziupa- hilmi dii PTgiBhr-. vu im 

•nuirhhiTB PnPitMii tbili» lull (rtitdiL El bnuhln nil^ SK 
«li<m^i|DL hKhLLrfiLiibeiLD-iiunBiTlB ru BiiUti unD L<n JWiin 
ttt iItpi Drulfdirn crtonlrrbaiMa «[liifiiiuri Anufn ra inivlTiian. 
fJaAd^ dk DnUdirn den eIifibiI^eh jMUIIfj Otw Jliilafui|r 
in mJHRD. IhhlH ei>H|.nA, IQNATIUX BI_ 'Eilwnn luUck 
vrrhililu. Ik bbinHikJi d>^>di B-dTdidiwB ukd fAlaqi rm 
An rl>i AuHp m ■rrwu.i.n <■— t kr^n Dii>-c"'»L4iIt>, >j-- 
4(m riD cniufffiif gtuMO ol und dlr k|l>mrTtlilrn*li MtT\ 
■mnrnUin tui EnOiHaiinpTlAnr' irEnhlrn »^^^w DUMhr mfir 

IduIilU el, pHiWfi sua M/t 

■nrfc VriTkfliiiiutii dtaih i^n PtliHrdirl 
p* tD|I d*r LrLilrr< mr Lu> dw Mi Ttt- 
hIiibi|bjUIi (rira dir Cminlni Brh^mdm lu^arnn bwUi 

riDd rnpp Bhidi, >«lllir DIiuIiI«Uube Id In tlHWD lunula 

Idi uiuunilT, ilia Idk m drr Ciui|« dH r'HWI>^ABilf^ C^hlrl 
fmiiliral, ■!■ ^Fbnbr lirHi pn. bi irarlBn VHnrtDiiur Ar- 
dini nuih AlliHidibk au£ LIihi eUh Auuigt dtucUi lU f^t^ 
riu* ill Im NKWD-Apit itidil kli AiHmr. *rihiiL ■!■ CI*iiB<iir 
bm.»ri>ii i». Ah UFfiufill dl.d 

n \ilJu1uilBL ilEn ii Bill -UimB' itircdiU, ilr^e f-'f- 
d'n XivT iiDiL UDi BiDlTiiDa.DaDffnBiiluHiBlunimir, 



fvonderkommifsion verhwrt. Sadiarow ersEchlte, mt weldie Art 
und Wci« die D^uUdaen die ihnen vorgeleetcn crlogenon Aus>^ 
tagen ufbcr die ..Kutyner Ajifelegcnhfll" bckommen hatlen. 

„Ani*nss Micrx IWa^" — so g»b Sadbirow nn— hKm* tin Mit- 
arbc'ilC'r d«r G«£lApc» von Cncsdowo In mcint' Wohnung, defisen 
N^mtn ich mich nidht enlslnne und laglc, dass mich ein Ofjizi^r 
rufen livssc. AJf idi zur G»Upo kfem, cTklberlft mir «ln deutsch&r 
Orfizlcr durch emen Dolmetidier; ^Unj I"! bekuinf, daEs Sie 
Wagcnkuppler vvif dcr £isenbfihnEtalJDn Smolensk waren und d«- 
halb muvEscji Sie BussBeen, dass im Jahre 1M& die Wig«ii mil d«n 
kricc&gefangenen Poten durdi die Sladt Smolensk nai^ iei Slatlon 
Gncfdowo iuhrcTi und dass dann die Polcn im Wtid In der Gegend 
^Kosji Gory" tnchocsen wurden/ Darauf uitworlfte tdi, dass die 
Wafen mil den Polcn im Jahre 1040 talsaechlit^ durch die SttdL 
Smattnsk niidi Westen wcilerfuhreh, auf we]<^er Station Bie Aber 
uus£<^laden wwrden iirt mif fiiAl beksnnt. Der Olfliier «»ete mIr, 
dass, wenn ich aus frfitn StUcktn di« Aussagfn nlchl tnachle, er 
mich dazu zwingen wuerde. Nadi diesen V/orten nahni er einen 
QummLknu^ppvI und b«gann mich zu verpruegcln. Ansdilivs&end 
loflle man jnich *yf eine Bank und der Olfisief scw^ie det Dol- 
mi^Ucher haben auf midi eingesdilaBen. Wieviele Kiebf pie mir 
v&ra«lzt haben weiss idi nidit me^hr, w«t idi das Bewusstscin vei^ 
lor. ^ls jdi m mar kgrn. torderte dcr Offiikr mich auf, daj ProtPkoH 
7.U yntgrschreiben. Ich liess mich durch die Schlaege und Drohungen 
dcr Erschlessung cinstJiuechlern, machte vcrlogene Aussagen und 
unterzeichnelc das Protokol] . Daraufhin wurdg ich von dtr Gwtar>6 
cniJassen. Nachdem einige Tage nac^ metner B«>rd«runf xur Ge- 
lihpo veTStridien wsrcn — e* wsr etwa Mitle Maerz 1W3 — kam dtr 
Dolmetscher in meine Wohnung und taj^'te^ dass ii^ tu einem deuT - 
schcn Gen&ra) ^*hfn und ihm iJjeii^^ Auss-age beftagUgen mucae . 
A]s wir zum General k«men, fragtemich der Lelzlere, oS ich rneinr 
AussagfA best^^tigc. I^^ bejahte, weil midi dgr E^olmgtsdle^ unter - 
wcgs wamtf, data, wenn idi auf meingr Auasage aiijtt bestuend^ . 
idi DQch Sdil^drteraB zu_|^wBerii^en hagtle alt ea dat ersle Mai 
bt?i der Gestapo der Fsll eewaen aei. Aus Furdit vpr Foltem ant - 
woriple i^j dass Ldi meine Aussagen be&taetigen werdc, Pann 
bofati] mir dwDolmctsch&r^ den rechlgn Ann tiT hcbcn und fcagl ft 
Hiiir. dasi ich eferi tincn Eid gelHttrt hiclte und hcimgehgn koerine^ 

Es ist f«lgeftelll warden, dus di« D«ul&ditn es versudil haben, 
die thn«n erforderlichen AusEflgen audi von anderen Penonen zu 
frha1t«n und zwar vom ehemaligen Heifer de¥ GefaengnisdJrekton 
in Smolensk KAWERSNEW N.S., vom Mitarbtttcr im trwaehnlen 
Gi^faengnis KOWALEW W.G. u.i., indem dl« g&ninnttn P^rsonen 
uc-bcrredet, bedroht und mttfihandelt wurden. Da djt Suche nadi 




drr rrfordertlchett Anxah} von ^Ztngen*" mU»glu«cki«, vtrbrcndrn 
die DcultAtn in det Siidi SiTVG]cn4lc und In den njholieccndtn 
Dccrfern fai!£end» Flugblitt, wovcm xidi »in Exemplar Jm Original 
bci den Akten der SonderkommissiO'n bciflndcl: 

Btkinnimtchun^ an dit Btvoelkrrunc. 

Wrr kann utb^r die MABscnerHhiHSunftiv dit die Botfchewfkcn 
im Jihr* I**0 ■n den poJniKiien knegs^efaneenen Olfiiieren und 
dtn Prieclem im Waldc ^Kwji Gory", bti der ChiuJaw Gnetdowo- 
Kalyn durdiitefuthfl h»b»Ji, auKMgtnT 

Wffr hit dL« Atitolrinsporte v&n GntwJowo luch ^Kojjl Gory" 

Ww hit voB (fen ErKhitjjungen geh«rt, oder (*l AuftA^ugt 
dnielben gifwnen? 

Wer kennl div Binwohner, die diruebcr en«ehlen koennCD? 

Jvde genu^le Millcilgng dinieber wJrd brlohnt. 

Alle MiUellungen ilnd in Smoltnik der deutschen Po^tti, 
Maieumsslrjwie und In Gnesdowo d*r Deutfd^en Poliici, H»us 
Nr, 105 (tm Bthnhof) luiusenden. 

Den3,»ti lftl3 FOBS 

Leutnant idcr Ftldpoliiei 

Pit glelche Btktnntmidiune vurde »vch jn dcr vgn den PruL- 
when in der Sudl SrEVol*r»k herAusgegetjenen 2eltung .Der Neue 
Weg" (Nr. 35 [157] vom 6. Mai lUl) v«r«r(fnlHcht. 

Dass die Deutschen fut^r di^ gemachlen, fhnm ertordtTUcheTi Aut- 
Mgen yebcf die ^Kjtj'n-.Angeltgenheif eine Bclohniuig venprichen. 
irrklaerten die durdi di« Sondcrkommission v^mommmm Zeugen 
I'jnd Einwohner der SUdt Smoleiuk: 

BD>TDAAEW G.T., USTINOW £P. und viele mnden, 


GleJthMlUg *uf dff Sudie nath^Zctjgtn' bcgtnnen dit^eutjdien 
feinFTntiprcttiendp Yprbtreiluniil der Grtc^r im Wmldt von K»t^"n! 
gf be£jnnpn aHe I>pkunnen te> die ipaeter >!» mit April \9A0 dititfl 
witre nTd.h. am dcrSBTTurnmttn. in der liut dtr dfuUtdien provo- 
hj^torii-chcn GfmfdHf die Palcn v&n dcn.Bolidiewiken eradioMgn 
^tfordcrt virmrt-n. >ui der Kleidun jg_dfr von ihnyn.erMhotMnen Polen 
tu (ntlemcn. etw-ifuo alle Beweiiiluetfce. die di**fr prov<^atori*^en 
GciMWblc_witfn;lCA*» konnten ! 

It4T XKXIX 314 

■hfII dn dniLidv DiriUer HI tfn LUttiCB ■»# Uimd-ridtr 
PiMrt rind. uiMm Id 04 ]<li*n rtH> vMowHdriWIn. ^ 

UtallnluKi urjf Irnmi mr.m»b u-d iiiirt*» Vnnf WbuDH. 
Ajil»ifl>Apr>IIB4T-iir«r<i ill' -^ doiOrgl-tiXi i-!---!.*.!*!. 

AtW'i'B IL. lna» |H,i#nn U Bun dl> KrUwT'X'^" f^' •<" 

Id rifT Vidl i^iALf mil tf K luT and 'jtIuH dr Uf^dvaBlB 
DIr Witfir —unlmnHcH J*gnn« hBHp VdD.bM [md iKsladi- 
liimHajEn 'iUbcHibuu tun w» T«r <IUi DHE 1<F llnini 1 bli 
1 a^iidti, lii« \m unWkimlrr IbdiliuU Lp KiIS- IUT I'IT Wl4ai 
V« ••nil Unht Uitbn Ur ilirKn. Jijan^ ■*, mi mi" tlU 
Gnippr Hilnvriinlmrr im ift |trm I'lmh'nniiiH iHT^Ii 

J>ih Krifif kl^ipn'^ w^l■dn tid^Aiv'' bimIiIdi lanm uad n 
lira Hf— riUDi la ilr AlAl fiiil loo Irptrt il^illUai iidi llBlfc 

■ eiiii* 

A Miur 

I In 

FliA diDT' roFdilhinB Erurhluna. dk l-A ■ trWn 
liruni iMni Di m'tai^ 4>d>KDLrLd nnrnq^ brdidrnr Idi 
lr|uiiM Lud Nil llin Hri |n «irlE Elmmn lu LimniEn, iIiitUL f ■'« 
LT-iriDlf uhI iIA ifrlHuin iHim, h" t r-« Kr..rL. |hi°<- 
dpIl hiU lr|— □> «illi|lp AUr ajDil en Cr Hilr, rim f )iiuL« 



In dtr Nidii utjbHitiet f&rtjinge, urn dit Prontllnie zu passieren, 
Abcr mn diEsem Abend ist er titchl ftaigegangen. Am Morgf-n hab« 
i^ Ihn wilder in der Scheune gefunden. Wie ee »idi heriusttellte, 
h^ttf «" In der Nadit versucht f&rlzugehen, hBdidem tr tber f Menfzig 
Sdiritlfr E^nuchl hatte, wurdt er jehr sdiwadi und wir gczwungm, 
luni«dE£ukehren. Es war wahndietnlidi die Folge elner diuemden 
UnteremaehmnE ini La^er und des HuiiEenu waehjend der lelztm 
Ta^e. Wfr biesdilosKn, dass er nodi ein Oder Ewei Tage bei mlr 
blcibt, um in Kracft«n zu kommf n. Idi gtb Ihm E&sen und gine an 
die Arbeit. 

Als idi ibcndi Eurueckkehrte, habcn rait meine Nachbarlixnen 
KATH£:RINA VIKTOROWNA, erzAEhlt, dau dit deuUdien Polizlsten 
WRehrend dtr Streife in m*lnw SAeure elnen krfegBvefanfenen 
RoUrmlsUn entdedcten, den He mJtnahmeiL" 

Da man in derS^heunt vonMosl^Dwikaja einen Krwgii^fanfentn 
A^funden hatle, wurde tie zur Geatapo vorgeladen, wo man sit de> 
VcrslednLcna ftnet Krlc;gac^lui|ienen btfchuldigt«, W«ehT«nd der 
V«nehmim£ in d«r Gcitapq leuctieie MoskowKkajv ihre B«ziehun£ 
KU dlesem KrJ^s^efangenen ab unct behauptete. ile wiase ueber 
vinen Aufenthalt in ihrer Sdieimt ntdita. Da McMkowskaJa Uue 
Sdiuld nidit bekannl hatte und da der Krieffcff«fuisen« Jcbcvow 
Moshowskajt nidit vttriet, wunde lie von der GesUpo fTti^elasten, 

Jfforow erzB^Klte Mockowikaja audi, daea eine Gruppe von 
Kriegifefanfenen, dit Im Walde vrai Katyn arbeitctoi* |y|fff jff 
ATitErabung von Lgidicn aidi nodi damlt badiagftlgten^ J[j j ^ip^ 
Vdn and eren St ellgn het^AisdiajJHi. Dift Jh^cran^MdiafftMi I^dien 
wurden zutammen tnit den vprher auageara^^fleh L*tdwt> iiT <len 
Gracbem anflehaeuft . 

Die Talsadic, daai eine^roge AnzaM vo» L*lchea der von den 
Dcatadign an an_d_eren Stellan EtadiQMenen In die Graebcr voh 
Katyn beioerj^rt wurden, wird dunft die Auangen aMlnjtaleur- 
Mcdiantkert SUCHATSCHEW bettaeUct 

SUCHATSCHEW P.F. (Jahr^an^ 1913), Ingenltur-Uedianlkcr 
vcm ^Roaglawdiljeb'^, der bci den Devtidien all MaKhiniit in der 
Sladtmufhle von Smplemk arbeitcie, macht* «m BJO^S tiat Etn" 
^be mii der BiMe, ihn voziuladen. 

All er vorgeladen wurdv, gab «r ant 

.Slnmal iiDt«rbie11 Ich mlA in. der Eweiten Haelfte des Macix 
IMZ in der Mueble mil ednein deutfdien Chauffeur, der tin wenig 
Kuaslidi bthemdite. Nididem » dch hanuaitellte, dan er Mchl 
fuer ejnen Tnippentell in* Dorf Sawenky fuhrt und am hacchften 
T^ nad) Smolcuk EuruecU«nint« bat Itb ihn. midi mltzunchniBi, 


■lr«il|ir -ii, diB dif Fnh-I li rVirtn flrKlfdiPi Knll'irrti Ilw 
V.IA dn Hdlkc luPiTiHrlll. nif drr PiVlT-fl'TI* rmcthil l*n lu 

D*r drvVtir ClHulTiir Kill W Inn VnTTk L^n Tin 'j' 4^11- 
■rlHBl^r. It* Id re Uhrilienit, luhnn wir lUl 4h Cluuuri 
SnUfBd-H'Ibbd Id 

r^jdil -ir KriJ, An ll«tf kDUm, .b>- At f4&IwI i^iliktdiTli Bit 
i^i Vnttl^hi □ — Jl km •hL iDi arfnlrnU vit id rLurr ur- 
nr-ritu Brur4« riiw Kld»* miL rinrr iJfmlidi iLTlrn bndisnr- 
WU Mlitai VQK d<F CliiiiHT d* Bi*Khii>il h-mrl" Und d' liiHJilr 
||]^MJ]ltfl AX dm. r;.MI ■.,„ LjoUum ...I Enihi.dii vir dJ. 
BriBiir In imitntn Aul4 ridiL In fqdnut^ ndf r i-*i ihf Chiulrur 
nidib ^hr rrfiNr>". wir kmnlf n utht LvI^V rWi( bnTT)>rn ijt)d 
di dJiur »>! iriiKiiiri ^fwil »*l, |Li*iiin TJ taH fl"r" tHUKn^ 

it El dEBi DuiiDEur iKi EJilgfierJiiHrjrLfHlEn AuLra fflinf lua- 
b...i.bD i-id InMETdtiHii Pnillrn <!* i\' l>ri4H^ Erilr<i>^«n.dr 

bE L<nw^iii mil D-c ■rbEPX"--^'"^'""^- r-MMl«i|Tn Ikoiln 

HiIikIi uit-jiru DJr BMuriuiir liLriiD Uriur «B|in miuD <m>n 
Der Cniultnjr •ua lin ilif befl bui drm Furlunua und |ln|<a lur 
drn blmhiBLurnLfii [jil*Airn lu 

e^mjnflmjij[lndjfp ^ |T[ mliHwidirj aurum - An dim 
L^T^H^^Ss^Hr lai ""iJi'illrrnFi. i— I li<°n, duunkrr rUi 
dEvUdwr aiLiDf^, mil tali UibliLoriipiiiaM b"»flpiil» 
II>ii|B3ir, di< irdrnn ibti >ir[jL ruiiiiUiE Hhr|iBrrtiLfn[. Ji lU 

tMi Deuuhrt. l^kJibii Auf "itI.*" C[-iJ-"I U- li»li..p|.ii, 
dinn v^nvdiiin <J<, riM ^iJa «l<ilir lul diE Hifihr lu brtoipn 
HMMhr^i UinuLm 1-.>4>I rur Unjlvdi-Ull' fkk*. ■•'t< Luli^v.. 
iind HiriLHi tan Vm dl»MT |iH>-ijni Hm rMr Ciupl" «i» 
□ruLidifn Ldid luniuhii lljVf tf>riri|fti#ii ^^iriijfuriii <■■> 
I* Iduui^ ani iiu ju IdLI nirlDn Kradm tdjuuvn «iLi, du 
Aula ni hrl-Ti. Idi riEll' dir Crbiinlirll utl Aiflr IiIh ibin 
niiil»*nh IIfl>|.c-i4u4n.& ^W— U dxT- H-°— M- — bwn»- 

jjidim in iha Vild .m If li^n tfMgjrIiifia .' 
MT KXHU ),■ 



Der hinthgti\nftiX« Lastwigvn Wir nodi nidit mufcehaben, rIi 
zu tnlr und tu tn«nem Chauffeur ein deutKher UnlrrofAzJcT Jiatn 
und befah), sofort weilerzufyhrcn- 

Da uns«r WAgcn keinen vrnstlidien Sdiftden triitlen htttc, 
Jvnkie der ChiiufFeur ihn wieder mat die Chauuec imd danci luhKn 
wir waiter. 

Alft jdi in d«i iwei ipaeter •n^eJtommenen. nut einem Verde* 
uf'berzofen&n Wagcn vorbcifuhr, empJind idi einen atudiredEenden 

SUCHATSCHEW'S Aussa^en warden durdi dte AuBigen von 
Jceotcw Wladlmir Aranujewilicfa ^slaetLgt, der in det Qkku- 
pstion^zeit im Ditnst der Poliuj In cE^r EigrnK^aft uls PoUxitl 
Ijiclig war. 

Jegorow u.£lc luSj dass er Ende Maerz und in d«n enten April- 
Ifkgtn, 1043 Kin«m Dienst FqIe^ Jeistend^ die Smedce an der Kreu- 
lung der Dammstrassen Moikau— Minsk und Smolensk — Wllebsk 
ueberwflchle, • wjedcrholt tiichts beobaditel. haette> wig in der Jtitii- 
tung Sm&lemk erosse mit Planen ueberiopene lJitw>Bgn VOTbei - 
tu'^rerT von denen starker Ltitji&neermJi au^sging . In den Kubinen 
diT Wa£cn und oben «uf dem Verdedt lassen immer mehrere Pei- 
»)n«n, von welchen einige Waffen tru^en und zweifelsohne Deutidie 

Ueb<er seme Beobaditungcn beriditete Jegorow dem Chef d^ 
PoIiteLtielle im Darf Archipowka, Golownew Kuzma Demjano- 
wtlsdi. dcr ihm den R*\ £*b, dafueber zv tdiweificn und binzu- 
fu^gt^: nDtks £eht uns nidita an, wir braud^frn unc ntdit in die 
d^ytschen An£e]«genheitfin zu mischen" 

Darueber, dass die Deutidi&n die LclAen mil den Lartwawn 
in dfft Wald von Katyn transp&rttcrten , tAgtt ».u.A JAKOWLEW' 
SOKOLOW TLOR MAJtSINOWITSCH geboren ISW. der ehemalige 
Agent fuer Versoreung der Kintin«n des Smoleniker Tnuts der 
Spcisehallen und der Chef dea Polizeibezirki Katyn waehrend der 
dcutschen Okkupatfon aui. 

Er beri«htcte, dass er anfangs April 1943 penwnlidi beobaclitei 
haeltc, wie vun der Chau^ee »ua vitt mlt Planen ucbtrzofene Lut~ 
ufigen auf d«nen mehrere mil M«tdiin«npictoIeri und mit GcweKren 
biwaffnele Leut« Eassen, In den Wald VDn Katyn einbogen. T^ 
^^^ZLWagwi war eln BUirker .UjlehenjierudT tu ipueren . 

Aus itllen ttigef uehrten Zcuctnauuagen Umt ficii achUesien, 
dass di g^Ilieu|iH3i«i audi an andertn SlgHg«_p6[]fTi endifttten habeti . 
Ihdem Ht i tftn l>idtwi im Wald von Katvn gimmmMtru^M vtr- 
fol^l™ die DeutjAen eln drelfadnfrs Ziel^ efittn*. aTle Sfturea lh«r 
e:ccnen MLueUten m vfruHidien, zweJtflu atle Ihre VeTbrtdien 



Utm cotMt T3 pag«» of "tartnuc cndtnM" "qwted" in tin "raporl" 
wrtttti Iry th* prewntor tht onhr forBmic avidinci ut trial, 

far Sgwfolmachi tuimdiiebcn imd djiH«u> dif Z*h] dcr Mbol«JiP - 
wJjtiHJien OptcT in den Craebcni det Waljea_v«i Katyn zu"ver - 

^csichllgungFn*^ dex Graebfr von Katyn. 

Im April 1943, njchdem dip dwjtMhcn EJndriirmUneg *llc Vof - 
berg]lun£tinMmathjneri an den Qrgebcm im Walde von Katyn ge^ 
trprfcfl hatttn^ f in£en lic an die brcitf AciUtion in der Prcaae luid 
durd% dgn Rundfunk^ Indnn alg verrudilgn. die von ihnen aclbit an 
wn kriggsgefanEengn Fglen veruebten Grgueltaleri der Sowigtmadiil 
iuig.ychipbfrn- Pie eine dieter Mcihpden der prov^icrend^n Ajit i r 
tiorx yar der von den Deutgdien verangtaMele BeBudh Jer Cf webcf 
^im Kitvn teitens der Einwohner von Smoleruk iind ihrcr Utn- 
ggtJUng. ebcnso der .TJeleaatlonin" der von den deutsdien Eindrlna.- 
Ijn^en bg^iJttn und cj ihnen In Lebenjbgdingunnen ilehendtn 

Die SonderkommiKion verhoerle eine Reihe von Zeufeiv die lii^ 
an den ^Beiiditieuncen" der Graeber von Katyn bet«li£ien. 

Dtr Zeuge SUBKOW K.P., PalolDge- Ana torn, der in Smolensk In 
der Eigenadiaft als £«iciitstntdicinisdier Sadiventund!.£«r «rb«ite(t, 
aagii der Sonderkonuninion aus: 

n-.^«DJ€ Kkidunf der Leiduti, bcHmden die Soldatcnmaentrl, 
Stiefel und Guertel, iM laemllcJi jgt erhalten gebJiebeiir Die melil- 
lencn S.tuecke der KJ^i^uni, wie RJemen*din*lJen, Knoepfe, Htkro, 
Stiefelntrrfl u-a. warm njjdbt vwUig nmttet und behieltcn 
■tellenwelse den metallenen Glanz. Die der Besiditijun^ lUB'enj' 
lidien Gewebe der Leiciien — du Gcwebe dei GuidiU, det Halis, 
der Hacnde — war«n vorwl^end von fnufniener P*t4w, In eln- 
xelnen Faellen graubraun, aber ex gab k«ln« voellJfe ZenetzunK 6tf 
Gew«be^ ei gab keine Verwesung- In EinzelJAeUen waren entbloesle 
Sfhntti von wcutlidier Fkrba und eine AnzahJ von Miukeln ticblbar 
Waehrend meinei Aufenthalts bel der Auignbung ariieitclen auf 
dem Boden «inn- tiefen <7rube L«ule, die tU# ItUbtn aiueinander- 
nahmni und hrrausbcfoerderten. Sie benuetzten dazu Spaten und 
aniteret Geraet und sie trgeittea dJe Leldien mlt den Hacndcn, 
>dilcppt«n ale bel i<tn Annen^ Fuaaaen und bei der KLeldung von 
titivr Stelle ta der anderen. In keinem etnzlgen Fall kcnnte man 
bcobadilen, dan die Leidien auBeinandeiiielen Oder dao flch 
tfiuelne Tnle von ihnen Sociten. 

Mil BuKktidbt auf du obcn Xrwac^le kam iA zur Sk^luaa- 
fbli^nmf, duf die VcrlHhrvnsafrial do Aufcnthaltei der LeldiaL 
In der Erd* katat drd Jahrt — wie die Dnitacheo behiuptelen— 
■ondarti vie! wmiger bdrajen mucw- Da Idi wcla> dm Ac- 

IHT xxxtx no 



of mastrrs" to rKttrmiiute people*. All theK murden w«re plaimed 
in cold btood. All these crimes, unp<reced'&nted in scale, were carried 
out Bt vxmct dates tet for this purpodfr. Moreover, u I showed many 
times before, a special tedinJque was invented for Che mass klUiofs 
and for the concealraent ol the trtcrt of their crtitiei 

But, b€Sides this, there is another characteristic in the many 
crimes committed by the German fsictsts whidx makes tKem even 
more detestable. In many cases, the Germans, harin^t kiUed their 
victims, did not stop here, taut lAade Uie cari^^es objects of jeerg 
and modtery. Mockexy ot the dead bodies of victims ww common 
practice in sil extermlnatiDn camps. I remind the Tribunal that 
the h™* ^^^'^ had not been calcinated were teld by the Genaa n 
fasciltJ to the firm Sirem. fThe hair of the murdered women was 
Cut og, packed in sacks, psjcaaed aftd aent to Germatiy. 

Among the same crlmM are those on which I ahalL now submit 
evidence. On numerous occasions, I have already painted out that 
the principal method used to cover up the traces was to bum the 
corpses^ but the same basen rationalized S5 tfichnlcal minds whldi 
created gas diambers and murder vaax, be^an deviling fudi methods 
ot complete annihilation of human bodies, which would not only 
conceal the traces of their ertoes, but also serve Ln the manu- 
Cacturlng of certain products. 

In the Danzig Anatomic Institute s^mt-lndustrlal e^i>erimentj tn 
the production ot aoap from human bodies arid the tannintf of 
Human iXin ior industrial purposes were carried out . I tiibmlfc^fo 
me Tribunal, aj eaihlbtt Nuniber USSR-197 (Document Number 
USSa-197), the tatammy of one of the j'rect participants In the 
production oC JoapTrofoJiuman fat. It Is the testimony of Sigmuo^ 
Mazur, who was a labontory assistant at the Danxitf Anatomic 


1 omit two pn.ee9 of the statement and turn to Page 363. T be^ 
the quotation— ft is rather long, but I think I shall have the neces^ 
»ry time for the presentatiDn of the evidence, and I beg to draw 

the attention ot Your Honors to this quotation: 

"^Q: Tell ua how t^t soap was made.Qj^ ^M»jpat^a^Mh^_ 
Danrjg Anatomic Inatitute / **^^^^^»^^p^^^^^m- 

"A: 'In the courtyard of the AmitDmle Institute * one^^tory 
(tone buUdlng; of thrte nums was built during the mmmer 
of IMS. This buUdln£ was erected tor the utUiiatjon of 
human bodies and far the IwrilinJ ot bones ^ This was offl- 
cfally annoiuuied by Professor Spanner^' This laboratory 
was called a laboratory tor the fabrlcatloa ot skeletons, the 
burning of meat and unnecessary bones. But already during 
the winter of tS43-M ^^ofessor Spatmer ordered us to collect 



UFcb. tt 

huiiftaH fit> md not to throw It away . This order waa fiiven 
to Heicfi^rt and Uorkmaiin. 

" "In February 1944 Professor Spanner gavft mt the Twipe for 
the preparatLDct of soap from bunmn fat. According to this 
recipe 5 kilcs of hum»n fat are mixed with 10 liters at water 
and SttO or 1,000 grams of caustic soda. AH this is bAiled 2 or 
3 hours *nd then cooled. The soap floats to the ruiface while 
the water and other seditoent remain, at tht battom. A bit 
ol s»lt and soda is added to this mixture. Then treah water 
is addedt and the mixture again boiled 2 or 3 houii After 
haviPf cooled the soap is poured mto molds.' " 
I wtli present to the Tribunal these "Qlda into whidi the aoap 

was pour^. Further I sJtaH prove that this half-flnlstaed sampleof 

EuiBan soap waareally fouad in Daniig . 

"Ilie ao^p had an unpleasant odor. In order to destroy this 

disagreeable odor, Eensolaldehyd was added." 

E amit the nejrt part of the quotatiOB, whidi explains from where 

they received this preparatjon. TTiis is of no importance at this 

Htage, and I continue the (quotation on Page 364, Panfraph 4: 
"Hie fat of the human bodies was collected by Borlcmaan 

pfocBses was ?fl to BU miograms eouected from aome 40 bodi^ 
The ^nished soap then v^t to Froferaor Spanner, who kept 
it perwnaUy. 

Rust; the ReidiBgesundheitsfQhrer, Uoctor ConU: the Gan- 
TeLter of Panzig, Albert Forster; as well as professors from 
olHer medical institutes, 

>nal needa. for totlet and 
lo grama of this soap. 

" 1 used th^Kuman soap lor my peraonal mmio, ,.^i w^^- ---^ 
for ^uncierlng. For myseU I toolt 4 kjlc -' ^''' " 

I amlt one paragraph and continue the quotation- 

*BelAert. Borkmann. Von Bargen. and our dilef professor^ 

S&anner, also personaUy uaed this SQap,** 

I omit the foUowLnf paragnphs and conclude the quotation on 

Pa(e 363r from where I shall read one paragraph whidi concemi 

the industrial utilization of huiaaiL akin: 

"la the same way as for hunun fat, Profesaor ^jatmer ordered 
111 to CDUect human aUn, which after having been cleaned of 




fat was treat«[ Ijy certain (Jiemical product* The work on 
human skin was carried out under the direction of the diief 
asatatant, Von BacG^n tmd Proteswr Spanner himaeif- The 
' fi nished' alcm was nadad in boxes and used tor weyif f^ i j^ f- 
poses whim I don't know ." 

I now submit to the Tribunal m Ejchiblt Number USSlUfie 
(Document Number US5K-196>, the copy of the recipe for soap 
produced from the corpaes of the executed, 1 will not dwell on this 
recipe whidi ia identical io that whif^ has already been described 
in Mazur*5 testimony. But the proof of the fact that this recipe is 
correct, Your Honors, can be found in Mazur's record, which ha^ 
already been submitted to the IVibunaL under E>ocuiAent Number 
USSR-L&T. I will not quote this record. In order to prove that the 
record of Mazur's interrogation corresponds to reality, I ahall now 
Submit to th&Tribunal^two dacumenta which have beenlEindly put 
at our dlsposa L They are records of sworn atatements by two 
British pjrisoners of wa r; in particular that of John Henry Wittoa. 
a mjldifflr~of the Royal Isussex Regiment, The document ia submitted 
to the Tribunal as EjLhjbit Number USSR-264 ^Document Number 
lTSSE-234). The members of the rribunal wiU find this quotation 
in Paragraph ^, Page 40S, of the document book. I quote a very 
short excerpt from this record, if the necessary time la ^^&ted to 
me^ This is Page 367. I quote: 

" TTie coipseg mrrived at an average of agven to t^ght per day^ 
AITof ihem had been beheaded and were naked , "ftiey arrived 
■Qmelime* In a Red Cross wagon containing Ave to <six corpsea 
in a wooden case and sometimes in a snail truck which con- 
tained three to four corpses.** 

I omit the next sentence. 

" The corpses were unloaded as quickly as possible and taken 
down Into the cellar, which was entered from a side door in 
the main entrance hall of the Institute? ""'" 

I omle the next sentence. 

*They were then put lato l*rg& metal coataLnett where tiiey 
were tmn xeit lor approximately 4 months." 

I omic the next three sentences and continue the quotation: 
" Owing to the preservative pjJxture in whjdi they were itored^ 
tela tissue came away from flie Bones very easily, ^nw tinue 

wa a then put into a boiler about the size at a smatl kitchen 
>ie. ...AttCT tJOjlityg the liquid it was put into wh!te trJ^ 
attout twice the stz^o^^hee^^oolsca^anaabmi^^MT]- 


meters deep."— 'BT^^'we?^n?^^n^?M3^niav^TlTea3y 
shown the Tribunal— "Approximately 3 to 4 trayfuls per Jay| 
were obtained Irom the madiine." 


but I 1 ■utin.lbn> b ai.ji;bui»l>.&T4JiB^Ui: 

il Ibr TtlhDAl iriU Brid IhH lotv 
ol \]\t OdCiiib'dL boot Valim 1. E boflB On iiibBUid 
- lb. tnrpKi Mn'ri H ■■ avT^' "!■ nT 3 in 3 i 

1 JnHnupt Lh< o^lilUn— riTrpit ii«~pinm^ vid l^i^m 
OlV f ubuHbii 

~A iiuditiir Ear Ur ibduIiijIbit dI pmp wu CVnUiLiEfd mlr 
■tmt lb Uiirdi n Apnl ■«* TX Qrkldll trlumrn nr nr B*l 
EBuUiifHd i!h IlUIiIjiib In irbdi LI mu Imuvod In JuM ItiL 

n.| n—hnu llfcir -u Mb^lnl b, . ±ME^ BAD l_B 

DuDls fy Hii UFTiB ar AJJlJ? EL iiHairiiL u lir u 1 i^vm- 

lirr, ol la ClHlimUi liriirt Lmfc Ln 'ludi tiaiiP nt Bii 

IIIU *HW d aioltW dp-m Lni ilnuL U luaj* Th 

mmpA big ■ cm^ m mUI \i^, bmlml tr ■ g -- 

Bi^nyd htriUH . will mIJ Uuilin miJ iflEIt 

^ 4klA JHni BiiDJi' Bdi. Ittaa Ddllii| hmL ban a^ 
^M. ill mkliin -» >1to-el (c [«L ud Ibm ml lal- 
Bibdi tar Dlfrawa^lf — »— ^-j-t^ ■ 
I j«»iim» iliB quriiLoiL IriiD llii Falliii'liii pin|n|di' 
■I >.v»r .abU^ di* tiiM^t, rqo4md, UjF I ■.. .T ibd 
Of thDajan b daanlrg UhUi la Ibi iIbufIIiui immi. Thar 
all !nW nr H i— mnlknl pap En Ikli FiiipC4«' 
I Hbull haUdnUHd iiri lafM llUfcM Brtg fflaanimajUL 
adTTBTBIU IH i DuU ihv III InUiA nn irbJ Im;; 
■L<n nln-F, bKh E}^tf iTKKir ■ E» n™*!. TMlnJ. T>il >f 
illnMiT tonnM^ MP E |ln II bht bi Ihi TnhmaL Badr 
■Ml ! OD-r mLmll to Ih* TiUmad Ub mipUi rf 1 

piBr« IB^Tliu ^Kc^ of vuBuhnhuiaB aptp ■>■* iLiviJr tars- 
fitOlj «Aaff tot by lb [BBJbn* or duzij, u id ibi ikio li 
ml? Inrin Ur ■ iDiiI'0iildiT4l pnUDt T^r ikUi wUdi lololiLu 
DHHl Uw iBlkir iiHd in luauliElun a U« ana jxu *■ lu t°p 
■I <te EifC 9d ui ±u i>^ildEr Ihil diq mir<ljri»u *n Ua 
knhHiIal NhJnilpH °E Mp IKA Bua^tiL 'au aiarB qiEla naD- 
plalad In Ilia Cmt\ilg liuUnjIa titailiieili lai 'laaziliii ol hiBun 
AJb vbe All bunnplEla and 4ailT V^r rUrLcrlM aA'awa rf 1^ 
IM AiPi ^1 „ =J In IW. i^» tf lma a> Ita Fai ia 
- FT-iVon-K, T 1ia<r V- h^ -.^-Ie Id r" °bIt » 


crimes Afainsl tht peaceful pa'puIatiOTi pr«Kntcd by the U.5.S.K. 
Prosecution. Besides, certain witnesses may furive here from 
the Soviet Union who may lestLfy coAcemiog the points whlcli I 
have submitted. I will heg the permission of the TiibunaL to 
tx*ixilni these withtisses ftlter the presentation of further evidence 
is finished. 

Before submitting my last prtxf, I beg the Tritiuiutl ta aJlow 
DU to ma!c« ■ few conclusive remulfcs. 

The lengthy list oi crUnes ugalost the peacehJ Inhabitants of 
the tempofarily occupied iireas ot the U.S.S.R» Czeehotlovakia, 
Poland, Yugoslavia, and Greece cannot be esdiausted even Ui the 
mvi detailed stitement One caa only point out » few very 
typical cases al cnidttes, of base and systematic methods adopted 
by the major criminals who had conceived theqe crimes, as well as 
thcpse vihit executed these crimes, Tluue who ftre now In the dodc 
have freed from "the diimera of so-called conscience" hundreds 
of thousands and miUions of criminals. They educated thoe 
criminals and cheated tov them an atmosphere of Impunity End 
drove their blood-thiraty hounds against peaceful citizens, ^ley 
mocked at human conscience and self-respect. But those who were 
poisoned in murder vans and go, diamber^ those who were tora 
to shreds, those whose bodies were burned in the ovens of crema- 
toria and whose ashes were strewn to the winds, appeal to the 
conscience of the world. Now we cannot yet name, or even 
number, many «f tite burial places where miUlons o< innocent 
petqtle were vilely murdered. But on the damp walls of the gaa 
{hamben^ in the pUces of the shootings; in the forts of death* on 
the stones and casemates of the prisons, we can stltl read brief 
messages of the doomed, full of agony, calling for retribution. Let 
the Hving ones remefflber the« vcjlces of the victims of German 
fascist terror^ who before dying appealed to tht conscience of the 
world for Justice snd for retribution. 

As a lajt prooM « the Tribunal the script and thg 
awom- atfldavit of thg persons who assembled and Blade t his docu". 
mentary Mm. I beg the Tribunal to accept ai evidence tTHTwcu^. 
mentaty fllm (DocumeBt Number UBSR-fll). 1 abo beg the Tribunal 
to allow. If possible, a short recess — about 10 minutes — for the 
tedmlcal pnpamtlon of the demvnstralion of these docmnenta, 

[A reccBi wot taken,} 

MR. COUNSEUjOE SatmWOV: Your Hoaor, may I have pe> 
mission to present now the documentary evidcticeT 

(The docmng-Btary film, eittiried, "Tht Atrocititt by th* Gtttnan 
Faacist Invadtrt in the U^S.S.ft.," tou then iftoun./ 

IMT VII *01 


With onfl eiceptiDn, avary one of tite 
"liEimafl soap" docufnants has disappeared 

SovlEl rtmurces (VBlkiitkfr Brthat^ltr Ol IB Drtober 1&42) . . . VlI-3« 
VBBA-US tnterrcfAtio^ns Of Getltral Uhr, 24 Miy tnd B June IM}^ 
opcrfttlont tciln^t ITuEOEtavia . . . VII-S36, 237 

l7SSR-tH Fann used In reque&tlnS fCTCed UiterrDEBttcnil . . . VTI-5D8 

DEKl-tsa Poctei» annoLLnctnC the thMtJne of hChEla£» . . . Vll-$2i 

UMIl-XSi Cnllfied r«pDji deted Martbor, 29 June IMS, With list Of 

vlctl™ (hot by occupying fon:«& . . . XX--1{I3 

V8BR-EB] PhCktQ^latlc cOplet Df posters annouDcing the Ehootini tfi 

hostages... Vll'513 

VfiSR-UZ Motltre Qf dettnicUon of thE^ vUIaL^e dC Audrlof ...VIII-llS 

tlBfiR-t£I InterrogaUon at Walter WarllTnont oi II Ndvrmb^r \W,y. 

''Plan BarbBTDua"... VII-21& 
rEBR->fi&[l) InteTTceaUan of W&Uer WarUnu?nt of 13 Novembei; \Uy 
ihootJng of jninDen Of war . . . VIt-3El, 362 

U£SR-Z64 Aflidsvlt of John Htrnr WlMon, 3 JBTiuar? 1&«. »Bartlnf 
maimfactvi i"*^ ot aoap from hoipan fat . . . VII-59E> 

T^SSB-XeS M^tnorandum cnntfimlnE HiUer'c reception, 21 JvnvKiT 
1B3B, of Uie Ceech Powlgn Minister. .. VII-EIO 

T7E&R-1$T Record of 'telephone mnverUtiDn oT a leader oI the VDlht^ 
deutfi(^e ^Jttelal«U«, 22 September 1&39. anfl tb& Cov«7im«nt In 
Berlin, regardlnf the £udeten<teul£die FreUtoipe . . .VII-209 

rSSR-t4> Memorsudum dI fntervfew between Lorenz *nd HenLtIn, 
3 June 193AL the Sudeten {juesllon . ..VlI-20] 

1T6SR-!1fl Lorenx memorandum on interview -wiih Ward Piicr, S June 
1B38: Henlein^i negotlalions in corm«ctJon wilUi the Sud«^ten Germao 
<jue6«on . . ► VII-IOT 

If£SR-i?l *ZTB8-PS [SeetJ£A-SS) Noles Of a conf«ren», SS MardilSSfl. 
oii Sjdelen German QUMtions...vir-202 

IffiSR-112 Affidavit Df William Anderson Neely. 7 Jsnuary IMfl; 
manulaeturt ol loap from human fat . . . VIJ-BOO 

TrSSR-Z79 Report Of the Extraoitlina ry Slate Commlssloii on ciimrs In 
tt»e city of ViaunB and others In the SmoleiuW rteion.-.VlI-SM; 

njBSR-ZBE Meniorandum (1844) ty the Upper EUefilsn Institute for 
Economic Rexean^: "the Importance Of the Polieh pTC>b]em for 
armament economy in Upper SHeEla"; Pollth workers In the easierr' 
Btrip ol Upper SJlesia live in extreme poverty i Ln order to IncreBK 
their workinc capacity In the Interest of German war economy they 
must. U poi^lhle, receive the Ume food ■■ all other worhen In 
Germany... VIII-214 

T1£Sr-zu *zg4-PS Stxrel unsigned note on conference fn Rovno froTa 
26 to Se Aueust 1B43 (nduijing speech by Gauleiter Kodi to the effect 
that the Ukraine must be exploiteil to the limit without refird W 

the n«ds of the Iocs] population . . . VlII-22 

i;«SR-1»& *Zft8-FS I^xtrarts from TcportE RiDde to the RefA Com- 
missioner for tbe Ukraine and the Commissioner Gcnenl for 
Jhitomlr. November and Dei:ember lfl43, on Icfltlng by Gennan troops 
and their hostile attitude toward the German ClvU Administration 


nqgiri bn-ib MtMlf* rtvrUre 7 n^wnUr ltd Vl]l4f 
VUa-lTT rUf BPHnnArL W4bUHFJllc4Uvr4ur V—rrSoH 
■ OiKiMdUlL U4 JUJli Tl^ UJohllT, ll«nn»ain I HI, »Hmj^ 

■ tiKAOf In innlnlllliUi Hdi km^nj iij 

.L.^. ..— . — ■ Mrtrf rrwi If- OtittiB mrqa CHIb 

Inr dill purpim .. vn-m^IU-W 

Nliii^li Mthl ™>ii-TifM » lta=fliti 1»»J lg Bi-rt^MTi t 
10 ftmilD DK ITTjr—'" ■dmUMn'lli'i ■■ ml mrupliil HlTl 
lb llLBfclui»Dt-lMlh*i"*l Im pr-lpnw,^!, Ui Y li» ^ ifci 

L« rrtxi-7 ™*. ft-fli- Pf^<pmpmn<t IH flf*l dMrinailini rt IM 

vnlbmal d«*l°l'- -VDI-M 

1 Dh»'-< IH*. UwnHrr "Bll- 1. 16- dluoluOon rt W '^""^ 

ra mmJi nl pn. u 1U Em -ij^j a- E^„^\^ El»n l-rt^TiB 
„fl !>, db^SuL. nl Ita I™^ tlwUKb ta iiTsi^lr, bT lb 

r.0 VUI-HT 


, . , ths human Sd«p ^ampres have disapptarHl; 
th« t«nnfld human skin samples \an disappfirid . . . 

rS3R-31< *1S1-FS Order tnm Elnututab Raunbrcit to HaupttLnutz* 

fiUuec SchueUM, S3 Aufust 16H, concemlnj removsl of Ijuportam 
cultun] objtdti bam the Eut«m Terrltoiiei to the Retcfa . . . Vtll-Tr 

VSSR-vn -TTie Struggle Agatnat VlvUectlOQ" (Gflrina'i Sfttdvi mJ 
Artieltt) . . . VD-HS 

V&&M-tn Guldlnf principle! ol th# Nail retfiiM (fXKrpta from Tfn 
Voice of Dtnriiciion by Hermann lUusduiLitf ... VU-il3: XlV-Jia- 

1IS9R-1T9 MI-UK ftepait of the Ro^al Hellenic Owcmment to tha 
IMT., . VIl-525; VIII-121, 1«; XI-«8 

CSfll'STB(») GJirEng'j directive at |0 JviUHT 1»U nneemlAg uUIUa- 
Uon of maDpD'Wcr...'VI 11-141 

■DSSB-ni Letter from the EconomJc Stuff E«st to G«rmiii offtcei in 
RuuIb, SB January 19*Z- traiumittal -of Ctirtng'i decree, ll> Januacy 
is«, with directives for the •llocatiM ol labor: reference to ihr 
imporUnce of reciuJtinjr Soviet labor aod rtquest to Increa:^ {if 
EieeuMiT, to tbe utmost) th« Bevtrttr of meaiurei tervjnj th\i 
purpoie . . . VTU-149 

'US9B*sn Letter bom. Saudtel to Boaenbcrg and to the Economic 
Staff E^Ajt, 31 Iitardi 1^42, »nd letter of the ume date to the <±itti 
of the recniitlnc commluloiu: the ^Soviet trutruetlon" for the 
recruiting of Soviet labor Lj accepted; re<iueit to triple thr results 
of recrulUns In the course of the foUowlnj month. Letter from the 
Economic Staff East to its ofitces In Husaia, t Apill IHZ, pauinf or 
theie Imtructionj... VIII-t3« 

IFSSK Ml S»u<^el letter, > September 1042, ccncemJng utilization of 

deported women wocken . . .vni-L44; XV-ISZ; KV1II-4BS 
USSR-US Photographa of cxKutloiu, etc. h . . VTI'SSO 
ITSSB-aH Curing's directives, 7 November IHl. for the labor of 
Soviet pii»nera at war and free worker*: use of twth groups h>r 
both civil and military projects; food to be lufflclent, but German 
food itandBnla not to be applied; in general, punithmeoti to Ik 
either food reatrlctloni, or execution by court-martial:- no fssterlFii: 
of 'KjciaL imprDvemen^'.' to "colooJa] RuHlan terrElor>" . . . VIIT'131; 
XVIII-S, 10 

U8SK-»«-ttt {Sec USA-TV, "SUO^FS) Photognphj of axacutloru; etc.. 

PSS B-^i Samplea Of aoap from human bodlCi . . . VII-tllM 
1ISSK-3H Sections of human akin - . . VTI-flOO 

1I5SR-19S Decree of Rosenberj, IT rebruaiy 1M2, on fupplcmenlinit 
penal directive! tor the Occupied Eaatem TerrltO'ilea . , . VlTl-34t 

*C5SR-S9t Communication from the dilcf of the Security Police and 
the SO In Latvia to the recldtrar In Riga, 19 May 1M3, eoncernlnc 
the death of SOB Incurably Iniane peiaonj on 29 January 1B42..- 

^ASft-SSl Communkation trom the dileC of the Security Police and 
tlie ED In Latvia to tbe rtgijtTBT In Rlfa, if March 1B43, cDncernind 
the death of 08 Incurably InHJie penona, U October IMl . . . VlII-31* 

VSRK-IH Memorandum, IV December IMt, from Lt rnhit ^hhtt 9t 
the Schutzpo1J»l at Ubau, recanUnc th« aterlllfatkin at a tH^^ 



Hie "Human Sup R«cipB" dMS not cwiiiin the word 'liuman" /. . 
that hi9 faean addad by the traniJalor . . . 


Anf^trderungen. tcfa iib«TtniSe dle^Aufgabe eineraus Vntretem 

der WirtSchaftUchen Fachr^uorli ni bildendEn IJifrHststelle 
nAll^emtiner Wirtschaftsstab fur die b«etrten Gebiett." 

2.} Der A]lg«meme Wirtschaltsstab fiir di« bcselzten Gebiete ist 
cnntic^Ugt^ In zneinem Namcn die ciiorderlichen Anordnung^n 
zu trePfcn. Er fst an meicie Weitun^en und in die EnUdiei- 
dujfijeii def XerHnltn PUnung gcbunden. 

3.) Den wlnwiLaftUdKn Fftcbrc»orti bUHht der unmlttelbare 
G«chaftsverkehr mLt den bcietzten Gebieten in Einzelfragen 

4.) Blit der FUhrung de$ AUgcmelaen WlrtKhaftsstabet beauftiage 
Idi den General d.Inf.Stapt, der gleidizeilJg Jjn Al]gemeinea 
WirtsdiaEtsstab die mJUtSrisdien Ford«rutigen dex OKW und des 
OKH-Gert <3ti — vertritt. ihm itelten Ch&fgnjppen lur Ver- 
fUguzig, zu deren Lettem ich die betcUigten Fachressorts Beamte 
tbzustell&n bitte, OKW und OKH-C^nQu— werden erEorder- 
lidienfalls die nolwcadigen MiliUrverwaltungsbeuntcn usw, 
lur Vcrfiigiihg ttellen. 

5} Ich l^ge W«rt darauf, daj dtr Apparat aa kkin wle miigli^ 
gehalten und die Arbeit unbUrokratisch gestaltet wird. 

9.J Die weiteren Ein»1heiten regelt Staat5»lcretJir K^mer im 
£invemehmen mit den beteiligten DJenststeLlen. 

7J General Stapf behchtet mir bis nun ......... fiber 

die AuCitellungdea SUbes 




DK .fedr+ Jai ubri|« Dt 

Anttomisdirej Instltut ttut^g. den 15. Februtr 1S44 

der Mediiinisdien nAkidemit DelhrildkaUee 7 b 
Dlrekecr: Prof. Dr. R. SpanoerFenupredur Z7741 . Ncbcmtelk t^ 

5eifenh«r3tellung aualPettrefteiL 

10—12 Pfd. Fett ' ' 

10 Ut#r Wufer 



WHh thi turn of b page SG dacumenls having "pra^^ivB velus" have illtappsarsdj 
including 3 "human iwp" documonts, yel tha ctiarges were uphald . . . 


lOM Gnmn KAtrotiUuge {Natrolcttcn fflr Kcnueile) oder 
(lOOD Gramm Kaliumoxyd fur Sdunicrscife), 

eine Hand voll Soda tm Topf 3 Std. kodien. Dazu em« relchlLdifr 
Hand voll Kodisalz, etwas kodicn und eratairen tassen. Die 
entarrte Oberflfiche wird abgenQmmen.tirschnitlen und mlt 
1 — 3 Ltr Waaser nochmal 1 1^2 — Z Std ftekodxt. Aos^lelkn in 
fladi^ Schal«D und erxtairen lassen^ln Stdcke idineiden zuri 

Die vom enten Eikaltea zurQ^ikbleibende Lauge karui in 
VecdUnnung Eum Reinigen verwandt werden. 

Um den unangeneTimen Gemdi zu tlbertliuben,kaiin man Aw 
Seiti vot dem Effitarren emen Ggrui^toff t,B. Benzaldehyd 




5P1ESZALSKI, FOZrfAN I94£". il4 Sciten tm QirirTfcnnat, da¥aa S. 37—20^ V 
Jar DflB^itbriri im ^cDiit&cB Ti «9r 5. 37 W ^er TitcUelto iw d«ii Zwiiilifn- 
titdb tiftbl ltd) folfcndu 

lahalinerttiefa nil 



L Dia Bedeutuni de* pslniiifirn Vd^^LiLuiiu ici dec Arheltni^aft 

L Poliltlcfie ClivJFrunpi' d»B Ciaci 

1. WirlftkiFlHtrulitiir dri Cjuci O^ridltilrn 

i, BfrrBlkerunltlitHktlir 30 

^ AjiIcII ritr Palm a& im Btlt^Auftea U 




Reading the indictment am is struck by tli< 
dramatic natura of Suviat airocity chargas . . 

1. Ja iht V^.SJi., i. t., in tk€ file Tirrunian, Ukrainian, Eftpnien, 
Latvian, Lfthuattian, KfiTflo-finnLth, and Moldavian Soviet So- 
cialitt RepublKfj ^n 19 nffiviu cf the J^uftian Soviet federated 
Socialirt Rtpublic, and in Foland, C'echoftoyakja, y^LyoflaviD^ 
Greece, and (he Balkant (htrrinaiUr calltd "the £culem Coun- 
tTitr') and in that part n/ Germany u?hicA her e«t 9/ B line 
dnztpR ncrth pTid jimitft throui;^ the c*ntcT of Berim fftrrein- 
□/Irr called "£aftem Germanv'^J- 

From 1 September 193ft, when the Gerrrutn Ann{:d Forces in- - 
vaded Poluid^ and from Z2 June 1S4I, when ihty invaded the 
U.S.S.R., the German Govenunent and the Germfin High Command 
adopted a fiystematic policy of murder ind ill-treatment of th<^ civil- 
ian populations of and in the Eastern Countries as they were auc* 
eessively occupied by the German Armed Forces. Tht^e murdei^ 
and ilMreatmenlA were carried OA continuously uritil the Gennan 
Armed Fotccs were driven eut of the said countne&. 

Sudi murders and ill-treatments included: 

(a) Murders a ad ill- treatments at concentrati'cni camps and simi- 
lar e8iBblishnient£ set up by the Germans in the Eastern Countries 
End in Eastern Germany includlnji those Kt up at Maldanek and 

The said murders and iU-treatments were Cfrried out by diven 
meam Iticluding all those ttt out above^ as loUaws: 

About 1,500,000 persons were exterminated in Maidanek and 
about 4,OO0rE^Od persons were exteiminated in Auschwitz, araone 
whom were citizens of Poland, the U.S.S.R., the United States of 
America. Greet Britain, Czechoslovakia^ Francen end other countrief. 

In the Lwow region and in the city of Lwow the Germans exter- 
minated about 700,000 Soviet people. Including 1Q persons in the 
field of the arts, science, and te^ology, and alfo citizensi ol the 
United States of America, Great Britain, Czedioslovakia, Yugoslavia, 
and Holland, broufht to this reeion irom other cop«ntration camps. 

In the Jewish chetto from 7 September IMl to i July l&43p 
Over 133,000 penons were tortured and shot. 

Mass shwtlne of the ponulatj ^ n pccurred in the suburbs of the IMT VII 
city and tn the LJvenitz Jorest . '. ^ j 

In the Ganqv c»nvp SOOjO&t) peaceful citizens were exterminated , 
^e most refined methods of cruelty were empdayed in this exter- 
mtnation, rudr at disemloQwening and the freezing of human beings 
in tubs of water. Mass "shootings took place to the accompaniment 
of the muaic of an ordiestra recruited from the pcrsonj intemed i 

Beginning with June 1B43, the Germans cjrried out measures to 
hide the evidence of their crimes. They exhumed and burned corpses . 556 

and they crushed the bones with matSiines and used them for cc-i 

gHlllzer. ^^^ ^ ^5^ 

IMT I « 



All thflu charges wars la ba "proven true" 
attar a langthy "trial" invaJwng "evidtncft" . 

At the beginning of 1944 in the OsftrLdii niJon of the Bielontf- 
sian S^.IL, before liberation by the Red Arm/, the Germans estab^ 
Uihed Uiree concentratian camps without shelterSn to which they 
committed ten5 ol thoiiuAdft oi pcrsou from the neLghbohnj ter- 
rttorlea. They brought many people to these camps from typhus 
hupLtali IntentiontUy, £or the purpose of iikfectlnf the other per- 
Kns Intern^ and for spreading the disease in territarlea Iram 
which the Germans were being driven by the Red Army. In these 
caiTip>$ thtre were many murders and crimes. 

In th« Estonian SS-IR. they shot tens -of thousands oE persons 
and In one day alone, 19 September 1^44, in Camp Kloga, the 
Germans «hot 2,000 peaceful citizens. Ihey burned iJte bodlf* on 

In the Lithuanian S.S-R. there were mass killings of Soviet citi- 
zens, namely: in Panerai at Wat 1 00.000 ; in Kaun&s more than 
7QjHM> : in AUtus about 80 OOP : at Prenai more than 3,000; In Vil- 
Uampol about 8,000; in liCariampol about 7,000; in Tnkai and neigh- 
boring towns 3T,04fl, 

In the Latvian SS.K t77.f>0Q persona were murdered. 

As a rnuit ot Che ^pi^oTe system of internal order maiatiOned In 
flit camps, the Interned persons were doomed to die. 

In a secret Instruction, entitled "the internal regime In concen- 
tration camps", Rigned personally by Hlmmler In 1941 severe 
measures of punishment were Set forth for the internees. MSJSeS 
of piisoneia of wac w«re shot, or died from the uM and torture, 

<b) Murders and Ul-treatmenta at places in the Eastern Countries 
and in the Soviet Union, other than in the camps referred to In (a) 
above, included, oo various dates during the occupatioa by the Get- 
man Armed Forces: 

The destruction In the Smolenslc region of over 135.000 Soviet 

Among these^ near the village of Kholmctc of the Sydwv legton, 
when the military authorities were required to remove- the mines 
from an area, on the Order of the Commander of the lOlvt German 
Infantry Division, Major-Geaeral Fisler, the German soldLers 
gathered the inhabitants of the village of Kbolmetz and forced them 
to remove mines from the toad- Ali of these people loat their Uvea 
as a result of exploding nilne& 

In the Leningrad region there were shot and tortured over 
I7Z,00D pets(nm , Indudlng over 20,000 penona who were killed in 
the city of Lfdolngrad by the bubarov* artOleiy bairmge and the 

In the Stavropol regton In an itnU-tank trendi dose to the alation 
of BClneralny Vody, uid in other dtlca^ tms of tbousands of p«non4, 
were extciminated. 



and yat tha only "prcM" m^wd turns out In b« "reports' 
which Xtm Russians havt writt«r themselvas. 

In Pjitifank mioy wen tubjntcd to torture ind criminal 
treatment, Including sus^nsion from the celUng «nd other methoda. 
Many ot the victims Ot these tortures went then shot. 

la Krasnodar some 6,700 civilians were murdered by ■poiaoa gu 
In gu vans, or vtn tortured and that 

In the Stalingrad region more than 40,000 persons Wftre tortured 
and killed. After the Germans were expelled from Stalingrad, more 
than a thousand mutilated bodies of local inhabitants were lound 
with marlE^ of torture. One hundred and thirty*iiine women tad 
their arms painfully bent badkward and held by wires. From some 
theJr breuta had been cut oft &nd th«ir eara, fingers, and toea had 
been amputated. The bodies bore the mark* of hums. On the bodtea 
ot the men the five pointed star was burned with an iron or cut 
with a knife , Some were disembowelled- 

Jn Orel over 5^000 persons were murdered. 

In Novgorod and In the Novgorod region many thousands of 
Soviet citiienj were killed by shooting, starvation, and tortuc*- In 
Minsk tens of thousands o£ citizens were similarly killed. 

In the Crimea peaceful citiiens were gathered on barges, taken 
out to sea and drowned, over 144.000 persona being exterminated in 
this mannir 

En the Soviet Ukraine there were motistrooa criminal actj of the 
Naii coiupirators. In Babi Yar. near Kiev, they shot ovgr ^^^-^^^ 
ni«i, women, diildren, and old people In this city in January 1942. 
after the explosion in German Headquarten on Dsenhinsl^y Street 
the Getmans arrested as hostages 1|25<1 persons — old men, minors, 
women with nursing infanta. In Kiev they killed over IftS.OOO 

In Rovno and the Rovno region they killed and tortured over 
100,000 peacefid cttireiu . 

In Dnepropetrovsk, near the Transport Institute, they shot or 
threw alive into a great ravine 1I«00Q women, old men, and 

Jn Kameneti-Podolsk Region Jl^oOa Jews were shot and exter- 
minated, including i3.0Q& persona brought there from Hungary. 

Ip the Odega Region at least 300,000 Soviet dtjgens were kille d. 

In Kharkov about 195.000 persons were either tortured^to deat h, 
shot OT gS3$ed in gas vans. 

In Gomel the Germans rounded up the population in prison, and 
tortured and tormented them, and then took them to the center of 
the dty and shot them in public. 

iMT r 49 


Tha "prodf" of dte five- pointed star cut or tHiriit into peopia's faodus 
lurnt nut to be just another Soviet "report" which has disappoafed . . 

13 ^b. « 

la the light ot the f&cti whidi I ■haU nibmit to yDu, an the basis 
e£ Irrefutable documents, Germany's »l«nn undertakings in regard 
to priaoners ot war will appear to b& nothing but tuiparallel^ and 
flynical mofiery at the very conception of treaties, laws, culture^ 
ud humanity. 

I present ^'^^j'g J^Q^^t *^ Q"'' Ediibit Number USSIt-5l [Dmu- 
nient Numbgf USSR~51], ^ itotg submitted by VyachMUv Mikhat - 

Ip iriidi Molotov^ People's Commissar ot Foreign Affairj. dI the 
U.S.S.It> dated 25 PJovembef 1&41, concemiric the outrageouJ 
atrocities committed by the~tJerinan authoiitiej Vftainat Soviet 
p risoaei^ ot waf ; and_I yjote several extracU Itom thJa note^ whtdi 
jQu Win ftad on Page S of the document presented to you: 

"The Soviet Government Is in possession ot numerous facta 
testifying to the systematic outrages and atrocities committed 
by the German authorities against Red Artny soldiers and 
agBJiLSt commanders of the Red Aimy. Lately these facts have 
become particularly numerous and have positively cried to 
high heaven, thereby revealing once again the German war 
madilne and the German Government as a gang of bandits 
who utterly Ignored all codes of internal ionsl law and aU 
Uwa of human ethica: 

'^Th^ Soviet Military Command is aware of numerous cases 
*l the aubjection of captured Bed Army men, the majority of 
them wounded^ tn savage torture, Ul-uuge, and murder at the 
hands of the German Mililary Command and German mibtary 
units. Captured Bad Army men are tortured with ban of 
red-hot iron; their eyes are gouged out, their feet, handJ,. 
Bngeiv, ears, and noises are halted att, their Atomadu ripped 
Dpen« and they are tied to tanks and torn asunder. I^ormitLei 
aitd shameful crimes of this sort are committed by German 
fascist ofBcesrs and men along the whole front, wherever they 
may be and wherever men «id commanden of the Red Army 
fait into th^ hands, 

"I'oT example, In the Ukrainian S.5.R, un the Island of 
Khortitsa, on the Dnieper* after the German troops were 
forted to retreat by the Red Army, the bodies of captured 
Red Army soldiers who had been tortured by the Ger^ 
man* were found. The prtsoneia' hands had been cut oil, 
their eyes gouged out, the^ir stomachs ripped open. In a south- 
westerly direction, In the village of Repki in the Ukraine, 
after the Germans had retreated from the p04Jt|oaa they had 
occupied, the bodies of BattaUon Commander Bobrov. PoUtical 
Officer Pyatigorsky, and two privates were found, inieir arms 
and legs had been nailed to stakes, aund on their bodiM flve- 
pointed stars had been tut with red-hot knivs, Thetaceirof 


IHl tmVttt S*i1ll ~ri*Bn ' irtirh lu fliHfflirtri 

C.m.nU_ ^ II, B..J.< Uafw, I. .an^L^, .Ilk A, W?^ J 

■u.'"»tt-- 1» a-t.'j*!- 1^™ Wii ^MflB ,-> .lErtgl 

odIIdue Id (lulE fran 7ji< I, as rbr ibiunirnL boa, Pinfrinili 1 
^hAIi ^i^fm «d p>intu wtn unld mil ^ Lhr 
(hmmii iDllilfii In Ihv Ubnimui ntfH] 4( EI«h In Lht 
■bPit* -r I !■» dIX U> 4j<friun bindlD unurfd jniJ 
BunliiBl MWD Dirn loJ ■'□ikTn. lael tcnJi uid dilldr^n, 

■mUuU; iUi>j Id diklli III IlkriLUiu, auHlmu, iBd Jim 

nha Id any nar HUiiIitiiI IbrU Inyillj Id Uiq n^-K nf lib' 
SfliHM 3iiuir< diL«n» "f^ ^rtrrfrf ji ruipiAi rr-im Kii" 
■■vn A diilLfEiBf p\a<in ^r DM cl Itim lua fi«ulH«^ ^ 

lirit n'^inbw tf ]»■» ImluiliiH ■aum tnd ALldnn nl HI 

JIU vm laiBliivi] In Ula JioiUli iwDirHtv IMdit iKKiltnL 
UiTD Ihr Ornnoj Unjud Ehrro uknl uiiL U)m briL dim 

Tlv Aw mup ■niiVid tv (iKUUirb WM brinL m Pc r°Li- 

te-n-iidi iL Ita bolbn bT ■ JiUl -Itt- Ui- hi —c 
lUL Blin luDtTUbf nilH -nr Cfrmau Un ygliJy 
iprlDkle] DDF Eulb diet Ar dniL bcAo. ludr Ihf ncl 
Wdi t' d°^ lq I. n- g>w U. Hxl _l ihiL Ihirtb U ITil 
■ni wit" 

t iMp I [djijiijili udl isnUpuE Blin Uv qunUliuL VaB ■>!! 
kivi lk( 4HiH'''>ir^^r if ■BTUB llm ULlIirJii idiTiH ra«inh.iir4 m 

Id Ihi IHippI a^umiiliiv ■vineirf 

•■Ctit r<uL DlHHl'IDIfillBfB DiurOi Uli cIUhu oT b-l« 

hu heiw -heI] kuiii Di.Hq( lh.r ia .h}T' ci|°<^rn m 
KnlD° Ihr CmrBBi rul vilv *th>WI 1fi|4iU* «> ■epend' 

jDdl*lil(Mli ind filTilim ItjI Id AMf Dmad-UiD Ukt 

mnHUUlH iru inO lnnUlr-ak «r inbiULuDl^ HfcUili] In 
in ««rlllf1|-nui d>rtat IT lU cLl Hhi dit pirmlK* ^1 
Ui BallhO) BHr< Dimiu Dw^ilninnjiEfi Huil d jfrifi 

■ bnl difU^ Suit HHtIe ■'nr PtQl tj !>■ HL'hULr 

UkUbu DQ iFiiildrwilkjor Vr milr iH*" uE nulm T-'i' 
rtimdiv] pr<r/\r ••m lujnln-* L^ *■ AiaaWtn trir/^'l 
Evim •Tui iJnlr ■.pjlUi" Jrufl ftuWv tj a-r «*■?" 
□iiBiu pDijili lU iiUdi« puHd/ liiMd>J l^il EX°T 
m-jlfl mum la Hih-'ik pi^iVHl? rt. 7*ni Wd^ mllnlliin 
na 1h« UJiiEnlkD'j aba liwl mlt-elj |-,f4« m ilH-i Ihilr 
mm^l Dimr Tmn Qirlj u'l** (lEf <~ 


Don't bnthtr trying to find lli«s« documents in the 
dociiiMflt volumfls bflcaiise ttiey art jutt not lliere. 

II w*b.m 

the dlrtttor of the trtmitoryj Obersduriiihrer Muasfeld, tied the 
mrms and legs of a Polish woman and threw Her into the funuce 
{kUvf. The witnc'Ases Yelimki and Oledi — workeis In the camp — alsc 
stated that internet had been burned alive in the crematory gvena: 

"An Infant was snatched from, its mother's breast and dashed 
before her eyes against the wall of the banadt"— stated 
wltneai Atroihov— "J ww Jw myself how Iniants were taken 
Croni their mothers and murdered before their eyes: One 
small le^ would be seized by a hand, the executioner would 
stand on the other and the Lnfant would be torn in half" — 
stated witness Edward Baran. 

"The deputy camp QommandBnt, SS-Oberaturmfuhurer Tamajm 
waa particularly noted Idc his Sadistic tendenne^. He forced 
groups of internees to Icneel in a row and then killed them 
by blows on the head with a ctldc. He Kt AUatian do£3 
on the Inlemeei. He participated actively and energetically 
in all executiQiu and billinga of the prlsoDetS- 

•*rhuj hunger, work btyofld their atren^, torture^ torment, 
ill'treatm*nt, and murder iccompanltd by unheaid-of aadism 
were employed for the mas^ extermination of the captives 
In the camp,** 

To prove that these aophistlcated and sadistic crimes were not 
exclusively d^atacteristlc of the SS or the special |>olice ixnits^ but 
that the major war criminals had deliberately plunged whole strata 
of the petsonnel of the German Armed Forces Into the very depths 
of mbcal degradation. j^V""^ to the contenlj of a riQte by the People's 
Commissar for Foreigii" Affairis of the U.S:S,R, y. M, Molotov, 
dated 6 January^ 2942, which was aubmitted to the Tribunal as 
&ihibrt Number U5SR-51 . Your Honors will find the passage I am 
about to quote on the reverse side of the document book, Para- 
^aph 4, Columiv 1 of the text. I begin the guo'tation: 

-There are no bounds to the wrath and Indignation aroused 
among the Sovic't population and In the Red Army by the 
Innumerable and despicable acts of violence, the fouL outrages 
j?erpetrated against the honor of the women and the mass 
murders uf Soviet citizens, both m«n and women, carried out 
by the German fascist oiAcers and men. Wherever the rule 
of the German bayonet begins to hold sway, an unbearable 
regime of bloody terror, agoni^n^ torture, and savage murder 
Is introduced, llie robberies committed everywhere by the 
German ofAcers and men are invariably Accompanied by the 
beating and murder of immense numbers Of entirely Innocent 
people. For failure Co deliver up food vuppUes to the very 
la^t crumby and all clothing, down to the very last ahirt, the 
Occupants torture and hang old and youag, wonm and 

TMT VII 453 

Evtry document not marktd with an astarisk hu simply diuppeared. 

nKH' »>». -^ vssn 

•L'SfiR'l4 l>lt£r front the Main OfflH SS Court, 13 T6btMtjy 1(43, to 
"SS judfie*, SS ind Police -Court*, and Olhtr aytKorltlei, tr»nilnl«lng 
Kclltri order of 16 December IM2 Concemlnf! Hitlvr'i dlrcctlvcv for 
ihc flfhl aB«lnft partlunc .. .3-342: yiI-tee:X-«20: XX-431 

^lifitiR'll Notl£v Dl mejsurci to be t«k«n vcilivt penoni fouTtd Id 
vlrinUy of nitwi? tndci, ifl NDvnriber IM3: All cIvUlini wh«^ behtve 
KUitplcl^iIf in thU arc* «re to be locked tin u ttandltj uid ihot..< 

trBSh-n Joint Pollih wid Sovtct nlATt ol Uw Extriordiairy Stute 
CcmmlMlen . . . Vll-ili, 4i] > S6i. SSO 

UftSK'St Indictment khd verdict of ■ mi]1tftr> tribunal: erlAEt com- 
inittcd In th« city and dUtilct of Kharkov ... Vtl-H», SS0, MO; &Ti; 


tTRSh-IS TtEport of the Z%tnordlnu7 State Conuntulon on louei 
fu^taltied tv £tat« enterpriies and ettabl]ahn>«nts...VIII-41,m, laZ, 
laS; XVII 1-9. 13 

•LBSR-H Extracti Ifom tht Ttpcrt ol thfr YmotltV State CommJEslon, 
26 Df^ember 1S49. on erlmes c^Tnmltted by the Germant and their 
ccNM«bqn1«»..-VT]-]9«,2SZ. 233. 43S: VI 11-11,71, ISO, 131; XIV-9S3 

I^HBIl-ll Report of the Extraordinary Stat* CommLulon on crimes In 
" lilt city ol Ku|]lin»)t . . . Vri-SSt; Vlll-ei 

|TSKh-U Report of the Extraordlnarv State Commluion on Germaa 
crime* in the dty ct MlniJc.. . VI]-4BS,5B?; VIII-«4;XVin-«,:2 

VRfiR'n Etep&rt ot the ExtraordJnarr Stale CommUtLon on atrorlUea 
in EHonia . . , VJJ-Ml. W7; V1I1-S7; Xl-ISJ; ;CVTII-12. fiti; XXH03 

llftRK'il Refurt of the Extnordisary State Commisioo concernlnc 
drictmction and atrocltlei ta the Puihkln BeuruaUon of the u:s.SA 
Acidemy ol Science... Vni''T«;XVin'>& 

IlSSK-41 Report of the Extraordtnar? State Commission on crlmet In 
UtvJa...VI]-380. 5J0: Vin^T; XI-lfl2, Ml; XVIIl-82 

ITRSR-il Report of the ExtrwsnJtnarjr State Commlstton on crtmei In 
the town «£ Kmnodlar aDd vLcbU^ , . , VTI'-Kt, STS 

fSSR-^S Ileport of the EKtraoidlnaiT State Commiuton co crimn Ln 
Khirlcov and vicinity ... Vll-SVa 

USSR-<1£ Report Of thr ErtraoTdJnar? State Cominlaslon on crtmM in 
the town ol Rovwj and Vldnlty .„VI1-B»;VIII-W,B2;XV1II-1J 

USSR'4g Report of the Extraordlnarr State ConunbBloa od crlmei In 
Orel and vicinity .. .VlI-93G;VtIt-]J],240;XVlII-13 

UffSR-^T Report of the Ejctraardlnaiy "State Commltilon on atrodtiM 
In ihc- titj ol OdeiH and vicinity ...VlI-5M,55a;Vin-» 

Vb&A-IV popart of ihr Extraonllnary State CommiJjJOfi dated IJ Sep- 
tember 1944: destnjcUon of worki ol irt and art treaxims,. , ^H-n;, 


lissn-H Report ot the rxtnordlnAry Sula Commijclon on the dutnie' 
lion fif monumenti In Novgorod .. ^VIlI^fQ 

V&BR-Sl 4SeeVSSB-lll-lSSJ Brport of V. M. Mttlotov dated !> Novein- 
t>er 1941 c?nceTn{n£ atrocltiet against Soviet priaonen of war... 
VII-34T, 353, +40, 453,467; VIII-a«. 30,73, 73^ lOl. lOS, 103, IM; XI-4Bai 
X V. 1 B, 1 B, ai X Vli I-«, tOl ; XlX-Ufr 

IHT xxrv j^ 


Tba Jnifo»fbF]r ridiculoiu "gii vani" mre mentionad for tbt first tinw 
In a SoviQt 4ocum«nt which ht$ dlsappMrtd . . , 

In order to riurt«n my quotation from lh« Extrmordiiury Com- 
miuion'! report on Leningrad— ■Ithough, hting t <Aii2ea of Lenin' 
grad myMlf, I v/aalA like the Court to hav« an accurate pictuiv ot 
the lufferin^ cnduttd by the great dty as a ntult ol the German 
fascist tnror — I will quaC^ only fenenl data regarding the G«iiBan 
destnictlon and crimes in the city of Leningrad. The Tribunal will 
And this quotation On Page 34S o( the docununt book, Kcond 
volume, r bfgln the quotation: 

"During the 900-day siege ot Leoingnd, when the Cemuji 
fascist invaders were in posKsston of tt« wburbs^ they perpe- 
trated TOuntlea atrocities on the peaceful eivilisnst 
**^e Germans dropped ob LenLrigrad 107,000 demolition and 
Incendiary bombi and 150,000 heavy artillery ahcUs. Every 
minute throughout the siege esdi Leningrad resident wu in 
the same danger as LJ he had been gn a field oE battle. Every 
Imtant he was threatened with death or mutilation. Borab^ 
«id artiUe^y Are killed a total of 16,7*7 and wound*d 33,761 


I interrupt my quotAtlon, omit the next page of my statement, 
and beg the Tribunal to notice Page 347 of the Mcond volume of 
the document book, mn excerpt from the diary of the Geimian 
aitlllery men who belied Leningrad. I^ese botes ate most cynical 
and cruel 

I vill now give figure* o£ per«>ns who died of hunger in Leoin- 
gnd In thf terrible winter of Iff41-1M2. I quote only one line: 
"As a result of the hunger blodnade of Leningir^d, 032,293 people 

I omit the fallowine two pages and pass on to evidence con - 
cerning the adoption by the Hillerites of special maAinea for th e 

very fact at employ- 
tog such machines for the mu» murder of people constitutes a very 
heavy charg? against the leaders of Ceiman fascism. The special 
eg^pment for mass exterminatipn of people in hermetically closed 
automgbilM In whicii the eithaust pi pea were connected to the l»dl« 
of the car by mftans of special movable tubes was utilized by the 
Genaan fascists for the Unrt time In the U.S.S,R. in 1M2. I would 
like to remind the Tribunal that theae gaa vans were mentjoaed for 
fee flryt time In a report whidi I b»yt already submlUed to tge ' 
^btiral concerning the atrocities of tha Germaii fascist aggmiJra 
m-lhe tW ot K^n h. 'ITUa Jbcumfifll waA lubmiHeJ as JJocmnent 
J* umber USSR-W and refera to the spring of IBM. 

I remind the Tribunal of an e^tcerpt from the statemabts ctf the 
wltnesi Darya Demchtako who law how from two murder tuu 




Ceniiiii mllLtu7 personnel fn Kerch drugged out tile bodies ot the 
Diufdend and dumped them Into an uitLtuik ditdi. 

However^ tha mass cjttermlnatLon. of people Ui gft> y«ig vas 
ooertoined wtmout reasonable douUt tor theflnt'^ine In the report 
6f the lactfaafdinaty State caeriniisslQrL on atirwiitiKi of the German 
oeeupiw* In the Stavropol region . Thia document was jubmitted 
\a tne TriEimar by m* earlier' as Exhibit Number XJSSR-1 (Docu- 
ment USSR-1>. Invatlgatlon of the crimes committed by the Ger - 
maa taa eUtj in the Stavropol region was directed by 9 promJnefic 
Soviet wriUt ftBd memtier ol the gxtraordinaiy State CommiM ign, 
Academidan ^exey Ni^c>laevLtcfa Tolstoy, who now is deceaseiT' 

nils rery thorough investigation was undertaken with the assist- 
ance oC the most prominent specialists in fomuic medicine^ Inas- 
much ma human imaeinatlon, having eet deflnite Iqgical Uimts to 
my crtme, could only with difficulty then accept the existence of 
thc» madiinea. However, the result* of the investigation corroborate 
In fttll the testimony of surviving witnesses regarding the murder 
Tins abd the Denn&n £ascist masa murders of peaceful citizens 
executed by this means. 

The report of the Errtraondinary State Conurdaslon on theStavra- 
pofreajon gtvea <he flrrt detailed description of (he mMJiani^ o f 
tfifjie murder vans; and I ara reading a quotation which the Tribuna i 
will find 'on Page 268 of the dotrument took, Paragrapb 4. I quote 
this excerpt in full as the tedmical inatter here detailed coincidM 
with ^mst technical detalla which the Ameiican Prosecution so 
fully reported to Ihe Tribunal Thto Is corrvborattve evidence, and 
Is thei^ore importaat t begin my quotation: 

1*e mass extenntnation of peaceful dtiaena of the U3.S.R 
by the Germans was done by poisoning them with carbcm 
monoxide in apecially constnieted madilneB or 'murder vans.' 

"Prisoner of war E. M. Fendiel testUledr 
" 'While working as a motor mediatUc» I had the opportunity 
of studying in detail the van construction especially adopted 
for mflocitlng and exterminating people with exhaust g^sQA. 
Then were aeveml tuch vans in the town of Stavropol at the 
dispoaal of the Gestapo. 

" Their construction was as follows: The body was approjti* 
mately 5 meten lona by 2Vi meters wide by approKimotcly 
2Vi meter* In height. It was shaped Uke a railway car with- 
out windows. Inside It was lined w^th ^Ivanized sheet iron; 
on the floor, also covered urtth galvanlMd lrtm» was a wooden 
gntLng. The door of the body was lined with rubber and wa» 
tightly closed with an automatic lodt. On the floor of the van, 
under the grating, were two metal pipes.* " 

im Vri 872 


TTiis Sovt0T "report" is ouf princijisi source (it "informvlion' 
on Auschwitz and has faeen widely pligiarizffd . > . 


ViSBR-1 R«Eicrt ol tht ETrtraordlnaiy Slate ComnilMsInu on itrooLUc* 1b 
the Stavropgl i^on ..VI]-M7,53B, M4, STO^SK; VIII-SW; XXII-21 

l]SSR-t RepoTt of the Eactraordinery SUt* Commlitlon on the dertrue- 

tion of industry, eic. in the Elallnp region ,. .VlIl^M. UJ; XXl-4a3 
US^R'Z<>) Report of » vpcciil eofnmlulon on erlitici lo Stallno... 

USSR-S £:xcerpti from o^ntionA otdtn cf th? SO Chief ind of the 
General Staff of the OKW concenUnE tre»lmeiit ol Soviet prittmtn 
of wsr. . . Vn-42*, «5;XVIl-aOS, 30«;XV:iI-i3; XXII-Ml 

VSSR-1 H^T^rl nt t K, V-.iru^^,Mn^rv 5;tjiti> rnmrnimoTl ftn OUSlftl 
death bv gpreadlng p pidemlc of t^-phus . . . V JI-5?ai XVIII-U 

UBSR^S ItepoTl of th« EirtraordfuHry State ComnnluloTi on the "Groit- 
laiarelt^' In the town Of Slavuta . . . VIJ-JBT, *01 

1TBSR-5<k} Report or the Cenlrtl Tctti Initltule . . . VIl-WO 

ITBSR-G Report ol the Estricrdinary State CommiB»ion on CTlme( tn 
the Lvov j«(iiMi...VII-M7,490.5fi2;XIV-M5,5ai;XVlll-46«;XlX-«lT; 


UBSR-G(0 Report Of Medical Expert Committ** . . . VII-373, M9,3«. 

US^R'T Report erf the Extraordinary State CommitBion Ob atrodtlei iQ 
Ltlhuania . , , Vll'378, 37B, Ml i VlU-a?; XI-(K. 4W 

■USSR-1 RepDrt by the Soviet War Crimea CDmmlolonr 4 B<^>y 1643; 
there were usually 200,000 InmatM Bt one time In the extetrninatloD 

camp of A..,^^lt, rh>*r a mininn Tii^nV ftOTr. t>^ ^.mtrf^t flCCUPJed 

aieJy after their arrival: the remaindw were ft«t utrd for Imbor or 
fOT medical experbncnti and later killed in varicui way» (Injectionft, 
in-treatment, etc.); deUUs relBtlni to the eamp And the pcrsoDl 
rwpoiuible for the crim"-. -VII-SM; Vin-30SiXVIiM2 

17B£R-» Report o£ the Extraordinary State CommiBilon On itroclllej ia 
Kiev . . . VII-503, 50&, MOt 555h 574; VlIl-35, 65; XVIIMl 

U&SR-i0 M7t-EC t&ee USA-315) ExtracrLi from C&riiis'i Gnen l>^tda- 
corptoinlns dlr^ctivei for the opentlon nf economy In the Occupied 
EaBtem Territorlet . . . VIII-Z3. I3T; XVIII-IJ 

♦CSSR-li {See Gestapa-40) Extract from the regulatlom tor concentta- 
tlon campi sicned hy Klmmler, 1^1; llBta of punithments permitted 
Jn th« camps, including corpdtml punLlhrnent . . ^ VII-HS 

»*U8SR-I£ Directive of Von Reidienau dated ]Q OctoberlP41:«>iiduct Of 
the Army In the Eait .. . VII-M3, 483;"VlII-B*,llM;X-B2SiXV-412 

irB&R-i3 <^rlnr letter dated < SeptemtieT IMl: directJant cDnccmlnC 
»el2jre and utilizaticn of raw materlalj . ^ . Vlll-31 

*ti$SR-t4 Extradf from an operational order of the Reidi Security 
Main Oldee addreiaed to tiie Einsatigruppea, 29 October IHI: direct 
tivei isiued in tereement with the Supreme Command of ttie Annj 
for the "pvrgint" by tpeclat Comnundos of the priioiier-of-war 
cajnps <SDviet prlfonen) in thf Tfmr Mtmy Area, Order bj the Elnaatz- 
komniandq C/3 tg ita branA otflcei. 25 November IWl: ill fune* 
lionarlei Of the TJlLraiRe Bender* movement ire to be iiauW**«d *» 
account of their pieparAtlooa for ■ Rvo^lt . . . XX1-(14 


EvBrylhings happens first m Russia. 

u rtb. «w 

EKtr«ordinai~y State Commission concfming crimes in Rovna and 
the Rovno region. The membera Of the Tritiunal will find r^f^rence 
to this on Page S91, second columa of the text, Parfigraph 10 oE th& 
document book. I limit myself to One paragraph only. I begin the 

"Tiii extermination oE peaceful cittzeiu and prisoners oi war 
in the town of Rovno used to take place by means of ma« 
shooting fram tommy-guns and maEJrtiae grnia, murder with 
carbon-monoxide in murder vans, while in separate instances 
people were thrown into pits and buried alive- Some of the 
victims, pfirticuIaE-ly those executed at the quarries near the 
village of Vydumka, were burned on special places prepared 
in advance," 

r end my quotation and go Over to page 253 of the text, Para- 
graph 3. Further, In conjunction with the same matter, I refer to 
the report gf the Extraordinary State Commiision on the crime* in 
Minsk. The members of the Tribunal will find this quotation on 
Page 215 of the document book, second paragraph, se-tond column 
of the text. 1 read one quotation from this reporL I begin the quo- 
tation, "Thousands of Soviet citizens have perished In concentration 
camps at the hands of the German eacecutioneiB*" 

I omit the following four sentences and pass on to the testi- 
mony of witness Moisievitdi. He says — I begin the quotation: 
"I was an eyewitness to the manner in whidi the Germans 
killed people in their murder vans. Prom TO to 90 people 
were forced into a murder van and then driven away to an 
unknown destination." 

I end my quotation, and E ask the Tribunal's permission to draw 
Its attention to the fact that in Minsk the principle of the murde r 
van was used for atationary &^s diambers. whith were installed ^ 
jhe crlriiinaU in common bath holises . It is also mentioned inlliis 
report: of the Extraordinaiy State Commission. 

Further, I refer to the verdict ot the court-martial ol the Smo* 
lensk military region^ dated 15-19 December 1945, which the Tri- 
bunal will ftnd on Page 72 Of the document book. There it is related 
that in Smolensk the Germans also employed special gas auto- 
mobiles, the so-caUed murder vans for killing Soviet people with 
carbon-monoxide. It seems to me that it is not merely coincidence 
that murder vans appeared in the territory of the U.S.S.R. in the 
year of IM2. At that time the diief criminals were still quite con- 
vinced of victt:iy and started carrying out in practice the^ir pre- 
meditated plans for the extermination of the people of Europe. They 
were not then afraid of respanslbillty for these crimes. That is why 
in 1942 there appeared new links in the long diain of the crimes 
committed by the leaders of German fascism. The fascist tedinique 

IM VII yj5 


VUhile hundreds of dDcumenls deemed ic have 
"probative vsIm«" have disappeaied . - . 







(Coirection: the ^tertsble-Dven-portable-bone-grincfer-iiortabre-bram- 

bB^hing-machine-humsn'Sosp conressfons are available from Ihe Nalional 

Archives. We will obtain these documen)$ and publish (hem) 

(Correction again: we will obtain photocopies of 
negative photostats of "tiue copies".) 

:mt xxxi 



Note that half the sign h in English and says, 
'Protect viMJrseives against Jewish atrocity prapaganda". 

Juilrn9i£>iti>1t 1933 








Frp<Jkt,piiiPtii^ NiirnliCTg 1934 

iMT XXX r 








]Ih«iA3>rufk4 bet Ki^lti 








■Ki f>& 







Mere "evidence" uvhich proves nothing 
cartoons from "Oer Sturmer '. 



^J^i^l S^:iiiffl5 




"Oon't trust a Fox Whatever Vou Do, 
Uqt Yer the Oath af Any Jew." 


- ' T ^ « 

!(•* ' I 






A "bapljzeil Jew" eaiing "tiapii2Gd meaT on Friday 
A Jewish butchei, 




IMT iCKXuill ij, 


Ttte Jewish lecher . . 
The Jewi$h doctar. 





>^:'^-'^M *C 



THib from th« judganiflnt. Nota iIm rs(fli«ncos 

to "siatements" mirfa by Grlba and Ktift. 

frequently Tcsnalned In the burning buildings^ and Jumped 
out of Ihe wibdou/f only when the h^At beome unbearable. 
They ih«n tncd to crawl with broken bones tcrost the ctr««t 
into buildings whJch were not aflre . .^ Ufe in the Btwen 
was not pleasant alter the first week. M*ny times we could 
hear loud votees In th« jewera . . . Tear gas bombs were 
tbrovm into the manholes; and the Jews driven out of the 
sewers atid uptured. Countless number* of Jewt were liqui- 
dated in sewers and bunXei^ thtoufih blasting. The longer 
the rtsistanee continued, the tourer becsme the aembert erf 
the W«ffen SS, ?oU« and Wdmnacht. who always dlschuw 
ged their duties in an exemplary manner. 
Slroop recorded that his action *t Warsaw eliminated *"■ proved 
tOtAl Of &6,06& people. To that we have to add the number Ol those 
killed throu^K bULStlJig, Are, etc.» whicJi cumot be counted."* Grim 
evidence of mass murders of Jews Wis «l«o prefiented to the 
Tribunal in dnematofraph fUms depleting the communal graves of 
hundreds ol victims which were fUbsequeoUy discovered by Ihe 

These atrocities were all part and parte] ot the policy inaugur- 
ated in 1041, and It ifi not taippsAng Ihat there shotdd be cvldenoe 
that one or two German officials entered vain protests against the 
bmtal rauiner In which the killtng:s were carried onl. But the 
methods employed never conformed to a single psticm. The »ms- 
saeres of Rowno and Dubno. of which the Gertoan erigineer Grae'be 
Spoke, were eifamplea" of one method; the systematic exterminatton 
of Jew^ in concgntration 011:0^8^-^** wwAe r. Part of the "finill 
solution" was iht "gathering of Jev^ from all German-occupied 
Europe In concentration camps, ^eir physical conditicm was the test 
of life or death. All who wen fit to work vere uwd a* slave 
laborers In the concentration campf; all who were fiot fit to work 
urere destroyed in gas diambezs and theJr bodies burnt CerLaln 
concentration camps judti as Treblinka and Auadiwitz were ael ailde 
for this main purpose. WUh regard to Amcfawiti! the'Trihunat lieaid 
the evidence of Hgsa> the commandant of the camp from 1 Mav 1&4D 
to 1 IJe&eniber iHB. He esUrnVted that in the camp of Ayadiwlti 
alone in that time 2,500^000 persons were extenninated . and that 
a further 5^00.006^ died frrna disease and staTvation^ Hfin deacrtbed 
the screening for ekierminatlon by atating in evidence: 

"We had two SS doctors on duty at AusAwttz to examine 
the Incoming transpotti ot prison ers. The prisoner* would 
be mardied by one of the doctors who would make spot 
declstoiu ai they walked by. ^liose who were fit for work 
were sent into the camp. Others were sent immediately to 
the ertermination plantt Children of tender yean were 
invariably extemUnated aiuce by reason ol their youth they 

IMT I »1 


wcn untble to work- StlU uiother tiapnvemeiit we oade over 
TrcbLmka wks that at Treblinka the victims alniost mlwa/s 
toatw thit tbey were to be oteriRinated and at Auschwitz 
we endeavored to fool tht vicUnu Into thinking that they 
were to gfi through a delousing process. Of CDurse, frequently 
they reaUicd oat true intentions and we samettmes had riota 
and dil&culties due to that fact. Very {tequently wum&n 
woidd hide their fiiildren under their clothes^ but of course 
when we found thera w6 would send the diildren tn to be 
He fleacfibfrd the actUAl killing by sLBUng: 

"It took from three to fiiteen minutea: to kllL the people in 
the death chamber, depending upon cllraatic oonditiona. We 
knew when the people were dead becauSE their scrgamiaj 
atoppetl . Wg usually waited about one haU-hour before we 
opened the doora and removed the bodies. After the bodies 
^ were removed OUT ipeclnl commandoji took off the riaga &nd 

extracted the gold from the teeth of the corpseSr'' 
Beating, starvation, torture, and killing were genenL "nie inmates 
we» nibjected to cruel experiments aX Daduu in Augiut 1M2« 
VlctJma were tmmeraed Ln cold water until their body temperature 
was reduced to 2& ' Centigrade, when tbey died immediately. Other 
cjcpedments Included high altitude eKperimenti In pressure diani- 
bers, experiments to determine how long human beings could sur- 
vive in freezing water, experiments with poison bullets, experiments 
with coiii'tagtous diaeans, «nd exverimentx dealing with sterilization 
oif men Kid women by X-raya and other meUiods. 

Evidence was given of the treatment of the inmates before and 
alter their extermination. There was testimony that the hair of 
women vicUma -^na cut pfT before they were killed, and ahjpped to 
Germany, there to be used in the mmufagture_Qf_ggSJig^gg - "^^ 
ciothes, money^ and valuables of the inrntts were abo salvaged 
«nd sent to the appropriate agencies for disposition. After the exter- 
mination the gold teeth and filings were taken from the heads of 
the corpses and sent to th? R«ithabank, 

After cremation the ashea were used for fertilizer, and In acme 
Instanea attempts were made to utilize the fat from the bodies at 
the vlctima in the cgmmercial ma nufacture of soap. Special groupa 
traveled through Europe to find Jew^an^auDject them to the 
"final solution", Geiwan missions were sent to sudt satellite coun- 
tries as Hungary und Bulgaria, to amoge for the shipment of 
Jews to extermination Camps and it is known that by the end al 
1944, 400,000 Jews from Hungary had been murdered at AuschwitE- 
Evidence has also been given of the evacuation of 110,000 Jews from 
part of Rumania for "UquidaUon". Adolf Sldiniann, who had been 
put tn diarge oE this pn>gram by Hitler, has estimated that the 



Tha dacumsnis are nsvei pholflgraphJcalty reproduced 
sa that WQ can see what they look like . . . 

Dtc 1Dtt|iimiitf|1tino?linbd|tifft 

brim nfiditpiokhtor in B&luiun unA hlVKfn. 






(War dttro h QffigJT ^„ h^iT,,^.^- 

-1- XnlMe ^ 

4 mfartljUMm 


Dti iKt del i*lflb^r4t*ktore J3«t ■■ \.^%, 
Of Ii.J. tint DifJ3itbcfpr«0huac abffih*lt«s, Ia d*r 
^ StftktiHiirfltkr is-aruppennihrcr K.R. r r * fi It 



dilciittittlltB, Alt ftufih TirtkehAftUcrdii, 

y^ / b«lB BtichcprotcktoQ 


^r VfttarmaehtbtToklBlicbtl^ta 

V0bau und tOUu-ui 



, miBid they btt trancribtd with microscopic Germsn abbrevifltions such as 
"BtglVrn" which means "certificatB nl aiith«nticity" or 
"HagJPIiot" which maan* "cftrriflBd p*iotocopy" 
Oo you 34]ppo5e that they have anything io hida? 


U Kop^ darunicr r: P Unl (Ti» 1 BK dr I obFr^r Sip rot I Untcrcr Sl|i Miu I r 
unlcr Daiulti; P udI, 21/10 (Dlaut I UntcrAir(,ictiUng«n irn rrndir ChcfuidicVni 
Po^t 1 uDicr UK hl'VniL ^g.Kdot'' Kop ' I ^l." vi^r HAuilcnjgunu" Ilol I luf 
UllLthiilELu 1 n T ill ]Ji>he tod or^tpui Atin hf-pinni-nil nathein*Mi^t Sip upid 
folgvitite VmV I £in«*npi-Siit {friid]: ^L 1«0KT. 19^10 Ni. 3332V -Ul ^K. 2-. 
Aktrv-Kr. Ti I r chcrhilb divcn kLeicti Kreus {Rotf^ (liFtl1>crKtE>iiirJi:tiCn: ft' 
(CriJiO; daruntrr: JV (Roljj di^t r diToa: *,'\ (Uliu), darMnlcirt d (DIili. 
teilridicul; r ohrrhitb dmYoni J 14/10 (BJau) I I □ Uli d» T KilVm: .XlirfOK^^ 
funterrtridien) ubir Chef WPSt (unieniTidien) r.^ dBrmitcr: .,W Ift^LO/' 
(illri Griin); r P ^OKW": ZpLdicn unL (Criifil, K 21/X (Fuf]»Mrl; I llnCtr RJVip: 
J (OfjDge), d. (BJei) 

Othalms KanBundniBdit 

Der WehrmaditbevoUmSeiiUgte 
beim Reidisprotektor in Bdhm^n und Mahren. 

— Prag. den .-.15. Oklober 1940, 

Nt. 2 2/40 Q.Kdoa 



(Nur durdi Offizier z\x behandeln) :>:: 
B e t r. : GrundsfiUe der Politik 4 Ausfertigungen 

im Protektorat J-Ausfertigung 

— 1— Anlage Nurdui^ OHlttorl 

Das Amt des lleichsprotektors hat am 0. 10. 1. J. eine Dienst- 
besprediung abgeKalten, m der Staatssektetar SS-Grupp&n£uhrer 
K.H. Frank dam Sinne nach etwa folfondes ausfuhrte' 

Seit Sdiaffung des Protektorat* B6hmen und Mahren haben 
aowohl Parteidienststellen, als audi Wirtsdiaftskreise, sowie 
zentrale Behdrdendienststellen Berlins Erwagungeu iiber die 
LOsung des tschechiadien Problems angestellt. 

Der Wehrmaditbevoilmachlifite 

beim Reichsprotektor tn Bbhmen und Mahren 


General der Infanterie 

SiwCfl ivfcn if I docwqfflt Hw Ihif piwf of ■nrtdinfi undtr U.S. liwT 

^■pfinfHi bit; Abcr wle nudie tdi^s deoq mlt Kvlteabninner? Er 
hit mlch dvn votUif In teiiier Hindi 

Dlefes itt von mir heute, im ^19 Nomnber 1949, 

luigeuii und bodiworen worden. 

Walter SdixUtnbtfff 

Subvcrlbed imd twom bcfort me thii Uth.,.. day of No- 

veinbH i94Sj in Nurabcf^g, GermMiy. 

Whitnejf R-HarriM 
Navat RgsMTTie 



CftM 3e ^« iJ'ni Ti 

Befnn me, Homer B. CEAVTORD, being tuthorlxed to idmlnl- 
itcr Hthi, personally appeared Hermann Friedzidi GRA£BE^ who, 
being by me Ant duijr sworn thraugh the interpreter Sliubeth 
BABZIEJEWSKA, made and aubacrlbed the following lUtemant: 

kb, Hersunn Fried ridi GRA£BE, erklaen UDter Irldx 
Von September 1941 bit Januar 1M4 war Ich Gcadiadtiruehrcr 
ttnd leitaider logealeur einer ZweLfvteLLe der Baufinua Jocf Jung, 
SoUngen, mit SLtz in SDOLBUNOW, Ulcntne. Ala ai^fher hatt« Idi 
die Eaiutellvn der Firma zu beiudien. Die Tinaa. untcrhielt u.a. elne 
BaucteUe tn ROWNO, Ukraine. 

In der Ffidit vom 13. zum UJuli 1942 wurden in ROWN'O ft11« 
Inttncn des Chettqt, In don aldi ^odi ungetftehr 9000 Juden be- 
UEbfea^ Uquldlert 



Uni«r U.S. liw, noni of Dmu "iffidiwHs", "ripoiti", ind "c^nlittion*" 

muM ivtn III adminbla. 


nrfuoen lu duer&n, lUerdtngA *ber f nt na(ii der AkUon, WBehrend 
der Hadit muesie Ich du Haus im Ghetto aeLbst vor dem ELadrinBm 
i^nlnJadier Mlllz oder SS cchuetxen, Als Beitaetiguiig der Bespre- 
(favnc |ftb cr mlr tin SAtsiben du Inhalti, dftu die Juedischea 
ArbeltcT der Flrnu Jun^ ntdit unter die Aktton fallen. (Siehe 

'Hit* I - 

Am Abend dinei Tajet fuhr idi nadi Rowno und fteUte mldi 
mlt Fritz EtntpDm vor du Haua BahnhoEstruse^ lA den die Ju«di- 
jdwn ArbeitcT meiner Ftrmi idilieten. Kun nmdi 22 .M Uhr wurde 
dm Ghetto durdi etn grcHses SS-Auf^sbot und einer etwa 3*£idiC4i 
Anzatal ukraLniidier iiitiz umiteilt und danuihLa die Lm und um 
.dai Ghetto eriiditeten e'lektriachen Bogenlampen etag»dialtet, 
S5- und Miliztmppa von Je 4 — 6 Pcnonen draivgen nun in die 
Haeuier etn Oder verxuditen eiiuudrlngen. Wo die Tueren und 
FnUter vendilusen waren und dif Hauwinwohner aufcn und 
Klopfen nidit oeffneten, vdKlu^n di4 SS- Oder MiUzleute die Fen> 
atem ein, bracfaea die TueRti mlt BaUien und Breifieiiea auC und 
drtngen tn die Wohnunfen eln. Wie die Bewohner fingen und 
flinden, ob tie beklefdet Oder zu Belt la^gen, ao wurdcn itc tut die 
StruH gelrieben. Da ildi die Juden in den meisten Faellen wdfnlea 
und wehrten, aua den Wohnun^en zu gehen, legten die S3- und 
MiUzleute Gcwalt an. Mlt PeitsdiensdiLaefen, Fusatdtten und Kol- 
bensdbliejen rfrelchtea tit vchlicntlch^ dan di« Wohnung geraieumt 
wurden. Das Auatrtben aui den Haeuiem glng in ebier derarttcen 
Halt vor lidi^ diu die klelnen Kjndcr» die lm Bett la jen, in einligen 
Faellen ruruKkgelaafwi wurden. Aut der Stnssc Jammerten und 
sdirlen die Fr*u*n nadi ihren Kmdem> Kinder naA ihren EltenL 
Du hindertc die SS nidit, die HenadieD nun lm LnutHhritt unter 
SdiLnegen ueber die Straaien zu Ja^«n, bii ii« zu den berettateben- 
den Gueterzug i^clangten. Waggon aut WagEon fueUte aldi, uiuuf- 
hoerlidi ertoente daa Gesdirei der Frauen und Kindec, dai Klatadien 
der Peltadiea und die Gcwehradiueaae. Da sLdit elnzclne FamLUea 
Oder Gruppen in bcsonders guten Haeusern verbarrUtadlert batten 
und auch die Tuercti mitlel* BrecheLien und Balken nldit aufnt- 
brliLBen waien. rprenfte man dleae mft Handgianaten auf. Da das 
Ghetto dldit an dem Bahnkoerper von EIqwro li^i^ vrr«U(bten Junge 
Leut« ueber die Sc^Jenenitraenfe und durdi elncn klelnen Fluai am 
dem Bereldi d«i Ghtttos zu entkommen. Da dteaet Gelaende auncT' 
hatb denlehtrltdien Beleuchtung lag. erhellte nun dLuei durdi 
Leuditnketen. Waehrend der ganzcn Nadit ugen ueber die erleudi* 
tcten Stnaaen die gcpiuegelten, ffeja^n und verwundeten Ifen- 
Kimi. Frauen trugen in lhr«a Annu tote Kinder, Kinder adileppten 




No ooe can be convicted cf murflflr under U.S. taw 
an the basi« of an "affidiivit" such as this one. 

tirtd idilfiften in Armvn und Beinen thre totrn Ellem ueber di'_' 
Struun fum Suffc. ImRier wledcr hallten Avixh dac Ghettovier^.'] 
di« Rufe „Aufmadien! Aufmadient^ 

Ich cntfemU: mich f«fen Uhr fruch f^lr einen Aug«nblick und 
UftM £irupom und eini^e andere dcutsdie Arbeiter, die iiuiwischen 
lurutckgfilcO'mTAea w^ren, zunieck. Dk nidi meiitep nAiuidil da" 
^rocHte Gefahr vorbti war, glaubte lAn diesM wag«n lu ko^nnch 
Kurz nach mdnem Weggang drangen ukrainisdie Milizttutc in <iiis 
H*U3 BahnhofstrMM 5 «ut und holten T Juden heraus und brachli^n 
lie lu flnprn SanuneLplatz Inntrhalb dcs Ghettos. Bei meinc: 
KuedtkeKr konrtie ii:^ ein weit^rts Heraujholen von Juden au£ dk-^ 
Hm Hause verhtndern, Um die 7 L*ute m retten, ging ich lum 
Sammelplatz. A\it den Straisen, die ich pB33i«ren muute. lah k^t 
Dutiende von l*it:ben jeden Altera und h*iderlei GMchlechts. Dii 
Tueren der Haeuss^r Jlanden offen, Fen^ter wartA eingesdilar^vM. 
In den Slras^n lugen eimelne Kleidungssiufirke, ScJiuhe, Slruempfi-, 
Jacken, Muetzen, Huctt, Mftentel usw. An clncr Hauiecke Lag i^in 
kteines Kind von wcniger als einem Jahr mLt zertru^mmi^rtvii 
Sdiaedel. BLut und Ofhirrtmaa^e klebU >n der Hauawand und Ui- 
dficktf die neehere Umgebung des Kindes. Dai Kind hatte nuc vi» 
Hemdehen an. Der Xomnnandeur, SS-Sturmbannfuebrer Dr, PUT/h 
gmg bn etwa 80 — lOO am fiodcn hockendcn Tnaennlicbt^n Jud^n inir 
und ab. Er hLelt in der Hand eine sdiwere Hi4ndepeitsche. Ich fiina 
zu ihm. zeigle ihm die sdiTiftUche Genebmifung des £tabslL-i1<:i's 
BECK und fordert« die T L^ute, die ich unter den am Baden tliik- 
kenden erkannte, zurveck. Dr+ FUTZ war lehr wu^te^d uebcr il^s 
Zuge^Uendnis BECKs unti unter keinen Um£ta?nd«n lu bewc^Lni. 
die V Maenner freizugeben. £r madite mit der H&nd «incn Kn is 
um den Platz und ugte, wer eJnmal bier v^aeret der kaeme niiiil 
mehr fort. Obzwar ^hr ungehalten tiebcr BECK, gAb cr 

mir iuf. die Leute im Kaug? BaKnhofsti-. S bis spaetestens um H Ulif 
fiui Rowno m fue+iren. Beim Wegggang von Di". PUTZ bemi-i'lit' 
Ith clnen ukrainlschen Sauemwagen, be^paruit mit 2 Fferd^n. An^ 
dem Wagen lagen tote Mensdien mLt steLfen CLiedern^ Armi; xt'l 
Belne ragten utber den Kasten des Wagens heraus. Der W.-i^Il^" 
luhr in Riditung zum CvtUnug. Die verbliebenen H in '1^"'^' 
Hau» «ngndilo«a«nen Juden br*chte Ich nach Sdolbunow. 

Einige Tage nsch dem IS-Juli 1943 besiellte der Cebici*k'^"» 
misuT von Sdolbunow, Ceorg Marsdiall, alle FirmenkJtcr, Rcni^- 
bahnraete, OT-Fuehrer uaw. zu sich und gab bekannt, dau lich ihi' 
PLrmen usw. darauE vorbereil&r soLtten^ dass In absehb^rer ZuiL eIi-' 
Juden uzngesiedelt warden wuerden. Er wLes auf die Aktion vi>n 



The Nuremberg Trial was a return to the Inquisitorial procedures of the 
Middle Ages. The prosecution allegedly took many "affidavits", but only 

called 33 witness. 

This is one of the very few the entire text of which is given. It is in fact 

another crude attempt to pin the Katyn shootings (and other Soviet 

atrocities) on the Germans, but with plenty of heart-rending "farewell" 

scenes. There is the beautiful young Jewish girl who goes to her death with 

defiance on her lips, the families who die with dignity, the mothers trying to 

protect their children, Ukrainians with whips, and all the other cliches of 

Holocaust literature. 

The right to confront one's accuser. ..and to cross-examine him... is 

fundamental to our legal system and is protected in many court decisions 

and the Sixth Amendment. No serviceman can ever be convicted of murder 

before a military tribunal under U.S. law on the basis of an "affidavit". 

Nor was the slightest proof ever adduced at trial to show that Grabe ever 

even existed. It is obvious that an assertion which cannot be verified and 

which must be taken on faith from the prosecutors is not proof of anything 

in a criminal trial. 

Normally, the "affidavits" are not even reproduced... they are simply 

"QUOTED". We must take the prosecutor's word for it that the "witness" 

and his "testimony" have ever even existed, let alone that they are credible. 

It is not every trial in which defendants are framed for crimes committed by 

the prosecutors; in which every one of the prosecutors is guilty of the 

same crimes as the defendants; and in which the prosecutors are allowed 

to act as judge, jury and executioner of their own accusations. 


Plooi of tinu ptopli ivtr ipptirid in cottrl, fit GfUm k«s btnt 
"qimtod" fof 60 TMrt h ■ HolociuM "witMft". 

flffwna hia, wa mtn «lle Judea llquldlcft^ d-h. in der Nadie vtm 
KOffTOPOL cfvduHKB lutte. 

Ich nudie die vDnt«htnden Anfiben in Wlnbadtn, DeutKhUnd, 
am lO.Nov«mb«r IMS. Icti Khwoere bel Gott, dui dtei dl« rrin* 
WUirtieit lit, 


Subicrib«d «iid twant before mt At Wlesbtden, Genntny, tlU> 

10 day of Noyember,iH». 

M^or, AC 
InveitlgBtor ExHniAer^Wu: Crimei Brandi 

I, XUnbtth KADZI£J£W5KA. h^int Rut dulj twom. it»te: 
That I truly translated the o«th iidmiiu«tercd by Uajnr 
Homer 6. CRAWFORD to Hennuui Friedrich GRASBE tad that 
thcnupoa he inide and lubscribed th« foreg oing lUtcinent in my 



SubKiibed and iwom before me at Wl^baden, GerDuny, thil 
10 cUy ^ November, 194&. 

flotner fl. Crotf/orJ 
Uajor, AG 
Invattgator Hxamliwr 
War Crlna Brmach, V3 Army 

Dcr GebJfitikommiBiar ;;-.',' Gthdm ;>;; 

In Qd wqo 


An die 

Finna Jung 



Grite mn w ipp ni iJ h f wbHuiib fur *• U.S. Arnf, hrt 
Hhodr anr brMglrt Un to cowl - orIt bis 'tfMtvit" 

gi* hrf Ihrer Firma beaAIfUjrten ifldi ^hgn ArinttafcrHl^ fa|i,.^ 
&<iit unter die Akttoa Sie habei^ riifjfilb^" hiT^rtie**t^rt« Mitu^hh 
den 11. JuU 1042 an den neuen Ar^ j^f ptjlt i^ flbenled<-lrt. 

Per G*bietakQmm[«^iLj: 

LV- Betk 

Drlttei S i mil* f*K Be^VjB uad P •■■ R»nii Ti 

Before me. Homer B. CHAWFOBD. being luthorlied lo ml- 
mliudter oaths, personally appeared Hermann Friedridi GRAKJJK. 
whOt htlng by me flnt duly swom through Ihe Interpreter EliSiiUiii 
RADZIEJEWSKA, rude and lubscrlbed the following st«teirii-nt: 

Idi, HefEMon Friediich GRAJSBK erkltew unter Eid: 

Van. fieptember IWt Wa J^nuar 1M4 w*r Ich Grtcha*ri**iii->!i.r 
und leitendftf Ingenieur fiiaw Zwtiigatelle der Eaufirma JokE Juivt. 
Solinaea, mit Siti in SDOLBUKOW, Ukraine. Als aolcher haitc iHi 
dtc BaurtellBi der Firma lu bMudien, Fuer vine Heereibaudit-nsi 
rttUe hatte die Firma auf dem efaemtliflen Flugplati bei DUBHO. 
Ukraine, LtcerhaLlen fuer die Lagenmc von Gctrclde zu erndhtt-r. 

Ala idi uv ft-Oktober 1942 dai Baubuero la DUBNO bc£ui.-hl>-. 
tnadUtt mlr xatin PoUer Hubert MOENNIKES, aus Hamburg; 
Hurburf, Auocnmuehlenwec 21, dass in der Naehe der Bau^l<'H> 
in drci groBCn Gruben von je atwt 30 Meter Larn^e imd 3 Mclii 
Tick Juden aw Dubno cnchouen worden aejen. Man haettc t:it'i; 
Ihb etwi IMO M*ii»chen getdetet Alle vor der Aktion in D^lm'^ 
nodi vorhandenen ctwa SOOft Juden uUten Uquidiert werdon, l^i 
di* Eradiietsuaf «n fn «lner Gegenwart atattfefunden )i»lten, w;ir 
er aoch sehr erregt. 

Daraufhln fuhr Idi in B^leltuntf von MOENNIKES zur B.i-i- 
itelle imd aah in der Naehe der B*u*teUe crooe Erdbue^d y"^ 
etwa 30 Meter Laenge und etwa 1 Meter Hoehe. Vor den FIi-l 
huecc^n atanden elnig* I-atwagen. v*in dervra Men«hen dunii 
bcwaJIute ukiainiidie Hilii unter Autiidit einei 5S-Mjnnis 
petrieben wurden. Die MlUaltule bUdetea die Wadte auf d*fn [j*"- 
wafen und fuhren mit diem von und aur Grvbe. Alle diese Mi-n 
■ehn hatlcn die hier die Juden vorie«*riebeneii felbcn Fkt*:--!! 
itif der Vwdfcr- und Ruetka^ta Uiter Kleidunf, k dan fie li^ 
Judn irfceEintlldi wana. 

MOENHtKtS und tdi (tRftq dirtkt lu den Oruben. Wlr wur^kM 
mcht behlndert, Jetzt hoerte Ich kwa nadrtlnander GewehtschuvssN- 



Tlie ''conf9S»«i" of Rudolf Kofi was wNttan flotJrely m English 
And partially hand-wiittsn fay i U.S. Army officir . . . 

- H-ite MS - 

i^Iil^i\ jijtLonalsozialiitladier AuEfaisung sind die weKntlidisten 
Untri''K<^ii>de de£ Menschen nicht zufallig, gondern blutbedingt, tlt«r- 
aud aber ergibt iidi nadi unserer Uben«u£un£, da^ di« Memchen 
)*lt.-ichen Blutei lusammengehoreci und einen von der Ubri^en 


I'llOM 1 MAY 1»40 TO 1 DECllEMBER 1643. DimmC WHICH TIME 


I'iriih |iAite ijfBfd '^RuJdIF H»fli»" i« |«Kfr riRhl eartur All li»nJi«^Jiiiii In 

I>li4» jnk. ^ ^ 






h RUDOLF FRANZ FERDINAND HOESS, bfiin* firtt duly 
*worn, depose and May u foliowi: ^ 

I. I nm forty-six yta.n old, and have bun a member ol the 
KSDAP Aince 10:22; ■ member of the SS RJncc IftM; ■ member at the 
^tilTEfCL-SS ilncc 1930. I wu ft member from 1 December 1034 ot the 
^ Guard Unit, the «a-caUed Deatluhead Formation (Totenkopf 


. . without Mf Hiterprstar. stsiniiraplier, lawyer or witnesses. 

". I have been cwislantly a$5Dci9te[l u'ith tht administraljon ol 
ccaicentratian camps since 1&34, scrvmg at Dachau unlil ISSB; Ihen 
firAiijutant in Sadis^nhausen from I9'i6 tD May 1. 1940, v/hen I wu 
^ppoint^ Comnuridant of Au£div.-iu. I cominanded Au^diwltz 
unljl I Dec«mbfe[, IMS, and estimile that at ]«ast 2,500',[>00 victims 
were extfuted «nd exteiminated there by gassing and burninf, and 
at lea^ Another half million succrumbed to ifarvaiion and disease, 
mskm^ a lota] dead of about 3,{IO, This flfiunr represents about 
7V/t or BV/m ol all perwns'senl to Auschwiti as prisoners^ the 
remainder having been selected and used (or slave labor in the 
concentration camp industries. Included among the executed and 
bum! w«r« approve Unately 2^,WtQ RuEsian priioners of wan (pre- 
vious]}' scr«eQed out of I^jSioner at War »ges by the Gestapo) who 
vere delivered at Ausdiwilz in Wehrmadit transports operated by 
icgular Wthimadit officers and men. The remainder of the total 
number of victimE included about 100,000 German Jews, and great 
numbers of cittwns, mttttly Jewish') from Holland, France. Belgium, 
Pol&iid, Hungaiy, Czedioslovakja, Greece, or other counlriea- We 
executed about 400,000 Hungarijin J«wa alone at Ausdiwitz in the 
fummtr of 1^44. 

3. WVHA (Main Economic and Administration OfAcc), headed by 
Obergruppenfiiehrer Oswald Pohl, was responsible tor all admin- 
iatrative matters such as billeting, feeding and medical care, in the 
concentration camfu. Prior to establishment of the RSHA, Secret 
Slate Police Of Ace (Gestapo) and the Reich Office of Criminal Police 
were responsible foi aircBU, commitments to concentration camps, 
Pknishmenti and e^iecutions therein. After organization of the 
ItSHA, all o£ IhCK functions were carried on as before, but, 
pursuant Id orden signed by Heydridi as Chief of the RSHA. While 
Kaltenbrunner was Chief .of HSKA, orders for protective custody* 
commitments, punishment and, individual executions were signed 
by Kaltenbrunner or by MueHer, Chief of th« Gestapa as Kalten'^ 
brunner's deputy. 

4. Mass executions by gassing commenced during the Bummer- 
1941 and continued until Fall 1IM4. I personally supervised exe^ 
cutions at Ausdiwitz until the Atsl uf December 1943 and know by 
reason of my continued duties in the Inspectorate of Concentration 
Camps WVHA that these mass executions continued U stated above. 
AH mass executions by gassing took place under the diTCd orden 
supervision and responsibility of RSHA. I received all orders for 
carrying out these mass executions directly from PBRA. 

5. On 1 December 1943 I became Chief of AMT I in AMT 
Group D of the WVHA and in that office was responsible for co- 
ordinating all mattera arising between ftSHA and concentration 

'I "Iwib J«witb *uJ iitiH-Jtviib" ■lLrr«^ to tea.i "luotil)! It^iA", iuili4«led Tk" 


.-I,. uBili^lhBHlniJnjIlFllUii D'WVllA IlifUUiU poBUna uidil 
11^ ,ti.l <ir iV ■'■r- IVAL 1 Chirr it WVIU, nid KilliPbuvr, 
.1 tlil-r III UliA.idlEn raorimd fft^iUy Ud InquD-.Iij nai- 
iinniMI'^ i-any Hill In »tiLiij HaHrnloI cnwBiUminB naii* On 

I IHIii^r IB"' ■ liiufllil I JTiJIhj rPpHL •*S*:ii^ PauUiui^ 

1^— .iilr»|i™ Cjmp m mUmOruritt-r ii Si\t i«u i. lEllA, Beill> 

*Friri>ollflrTliiaDirTr«rjrrrd4l»nilPa»l, rulri. 
J. ..ivql°i'IIV ■DilhdihIiixiiriil'rfdrtilL iVi nparl dulr ■'lU 

i1.i j_ij|BinQil 1i» hV d fi"*! ItuBflrb^ priumun aliD hid bm 

A Tlf 'flm I pdi^ilBi- d1 Uii ltw\in qirini&ti nutf Ikr «tliTit1» 
.,i,,*ilul«i d III Jr-.,n Eirdf- I »iBHndh] r*|UIA 
.iI-^vIdAvA riXI^"'! « AiiuSqLLr tn Jimr J HI 4e iME Umr 
ihii' v<i( llifidy IB dii BDiiEil iDifnuiiQil Varr Mw filii- 
.ii->im lujitfl, DCUtCK .THOLINKA «m9 WV2SK. TTinr 
. . -*p. BBF didn LJiT Eii]hI>IviiTi|'-iI« id <kr EuiuiLy l^im ■>& 
la' I -iBllrf Tj.«l"hi talnicR^ Imiv lli*(«nlrflihil (hrlr"iHi- 
ihioBUim Th l^<Bp Cnmuriujl Bl TjrlMti>:i IQld M* Uu !■■ Iiul 
t.,iMl>li' ItjnO tB Ihi ^11^ ri DBfliill rnr A ■'M ptIejihIIt 

i^niiDri alLli Ui^Arlmf lit Iha Jr-i liUn 04 Huuw I^brUD. 

IL< ui4 BiuurBli ^ uid I Oli rm LhlrA Om 1vl» ■nnnk viir 
Ti'fT clBUml So -Hl-tn I hi up Ui4 uIvbUuUeb hdHVii H 

A...fa.Hl. jjipd CudGM P. ~M* T>.. ■ p-l-lllrt-l Ph^^m- Arid 

vUid -f drnivd inm ll<r < 

•i.i, fmni 3 1° II bUiuirt lb lUi Ih ^wlaU#Ekllll E>*nbB 

i^limlinc upiiB cJUdbILt aiodJIip 

. ., ^ d lEvlKn BTid r-FTiu-d ih* btJlH 

Ali'rlhr hdlH nr nvi»d ^r IF«k.l bwinudu IhL lHI (M 
H.k^ 1x1 ni|>Hl-d !■- tnlil f«iB Uii IrplH rf lit (nn*-. 

1. dtngllBf ]_, I B« mi^ onr Tnlilliui mil 1h« « 

h-iiir nrnr |u riuAm » ■nLmi°d'li ?JlVl pcurlr ■< '"■ Iib^ 
■ivb-nM .T TifHLnl^ lli>i. m >■» BUHI^HB-Mit. inMnaniUi" T» 
^n.^b (i^'lVr J^.JulMrSJ[ir%iiTfZ .'■ill [ailhJi' »liiil 

iKih ES danDn Wl '."> Bl Amiti-'ILi Lii nxTiinr <H IooidibI 

irquparli dF fH^mm -n* ^Lkdui ■.°rid M rurSH bf bw rf 
ill DErlin rita wauta lukr irnE [tolmiDal H •Ji'l nAid ^ 
liiiBT iiliD urn Hi hr vuk wnrwlti IrU UhCbidp. Dlliil wn 
■''-I miBirlitMlr U Uh DlTiiniiiikA pliiil* ^ili|i>r iJ iBda 
^1 n% i»crr iD-iriibJi DUrtinfluUil iIiih Iq H*"! " "l" f™!" 

iMT i[»riTi in 


t9t1 EnCYclapMdii BritannlM, "Piunlc Acid" 

(Abo, "W0L2EK " nnar ancted.] 

Toxicology. — Instantaneous death results from taking the pure 
uici. The diluted form, in toxic quantities, will cause symptoms 
usually within a few seconds. The oat S e nt is quitfi ijnrfinjsrmus. 
the ej'es are motionless, the pupils dilated, the skin cold and moist , 
the hmbs relaxed, the pulse is slow and barely perceptible, the 
mpirations very slow and convuJsiT.e. Post mortem, the body is 
Uwd, and the blood very dark. There may be an odour of prussic 
icid, but this soon disappears, . . 

Treatment ls only rarely of use, owing to the rapidity of the 
tojcic action. The n?j.tignt wjio survives half-an-hou r will nrob^jhlv 
tttrover . as the volatile acid is rapidly excreted by the lungs. The 
dru^ kit Is by paralysing the nervous arrangements of the heart and 
Jtspiratibh. The appropriate drug is therefore atropine^ which 
itimulates the respiration and prevents the paralysis of the heart. 


hote (ha $talQin«nt "I understand EngNsh as it li 
wtttiflfi above" . . , whose handwridno is itris? 


they were unable to work. Slill inolher inprovement we made 
over Trc-blJnka was that at Trebllnka Ihc victims almost always 
knew that they were in be exterminated ind at Ausdiwitz we 
endeavored to fool tht victims into thinking that they were to go 
through a {Jeloufine process. Of course, frequently they realized 
our true intentitms and we Eometimcs had riots uid ^AcultieE due 
. to that fact. Very frequently women would hide their diJldren 
under the clothes but of course when we found them we would smd 
the diildren in to be exterminated. We were required to carry out 
these exterRiinationfi in secrecy but of course the Joul and nauseating 
alendi from the continuous burning of bodies penneated the entire 
area and all of the people living in the surrounding commumltex 
knew thdt exterminations were going on al Ausdiwitz, 

8, We received from time to time spet^ial prisoners from the local 
Gestapo olfice. "Pie S5 doctors killed sutii prisoners by injections 
of benzine. Doctors had orders to write ordinary death ceriiAcatea 
and could put dawn any reason at all for the cause of death. 

tJ. Ftom time to time we conducted medical experiments on 
women jnmatES, including sterilization and experiments relating to 
cancer. Most of ^e [jeople who died under these experiments hat 
been already condemned to death by the Gestapo. 

10. Rudolf Mildnfr wa^ the diief of the Gestapo at Kattowicx 
end as stich was head of the poitticcf dcpcrtmertt El Ausfiiwitz u^btch 
conducted th-ird degree methods of intertegction from approximately 
Mardi IHl until September 1943. As sudi, he frcijuently' sent pris- 
oners to Auadiwitz for incarceration or execution. He vi&ited 
Ausdiwjti on sever^j occassions. The Gestapo Court, the SS Stand- 
geridlt, which tried persons accused of various crimes, Such as 
escaping Prisoners of War, etc., frequently met within Auschwitz, 
and Mildner often attended the trial of sut^ perfonSn who ujually 
were executed in Ausdiwitz following their sentence. 1 showed 
Mildn&r throughout the extermination plant at Ausdiwiti and h« 
was directly interested in it since he had to send the Jews from his 
territory for execution at Auschwitz.') 

— Pact I — 

Affidavit oi Rodulf Franz Ferdinand Hoess^ cqD' 

I Understand English as it is written aboye . TTie above stat^ 
ments are true; this declaration is made by me voluntarily and 



Note that ths English is l^lter-psrfACt but tNt 

U.S. Army oHJcsr his mis-spelled his own nama. 

(Italics indicatfl sign&turfls.) 

n vMthttul MiiBpulgJqn ; after readlne over the itilement, I have ilgned 
i^t\d executed me ssme at Nurnberg, Germany on the fifth day ol 
fip^i^ t94fi. 

Rudolf Hoess 


Subcrib^d and sworn to b«fare me this 
u\\i 4ay of April. 1946, tX Nurnberg, 

Smith W.BTookhaTdt, Jr. 



l^nODUCnON of forged pound notes in the CAMP; FORCED 


£lde£stattlidie £rk]acrun£ 


Hans Marsalek . 

IHT XXXIll 27» 


Diract BxaminMioo of Wisliconf showing carrtct spBllniB for Braokhirt's nsiiie. 
Did HEfi rBally sign his numa diB Amflricin w>|fT 

COL. AlCEN^ Z h4V6 no non quevtfoiu. 

THE PRESEDEHT: Tbtt viH do; Uumk; you. 
jfThj vltiMa Ic/t the itend./ 

COL. AMEN: The not witnen to be called by the PnsecutloQ ii 
Dl«ber WisUcen/- Hut witzms wUt b« eaunluHl by litniXmiMn* 
ColoMl Smith V. Biookhart, Jn^ 

fTht uiitnttt, Wislictny, took th« itoiuL^ 

THE PRESIDENT: What U your inmeT 

DIETSn WISLICENY CWLtnes^): EHeter WUUceny. 

THE PBESEDEMT: Will yau ceput thU uth: "I twur by 
God— the Almighty ud OmnisdeQt— that I vlll ipeik the puz« 
truth — and vlU withhold ud add nothlsf." 

JTbe witnrti rrjUBttd (h< M^li./ 

THE PRESIDENT: PleUe Jp««k tlowly and pauje between 
4[uestloiu and aimrHi. 

aat Trial Coimul for the United Sutei): Haw aid are you? 

WtSUCENY: I am M yean aid 

LT. COL, BROOKHAAT: When were you bom? 

WISLICENY: I wai bom at Hefulowken in East Pniida. 

LT. COL. BEOOKHAHTi Wen you a member ot the NSBAPT 

WISLICENY: Yes, I wbb a member of the NSDAP. 

LT. COL. BROOKHART: Since what yearf 

WISLICENY: I entered the NSDAP first In 1031, wu then itnick 
off the Usl and entered finally In 1933. 

LT. COL. BROOKHART: Were you a member of the SS? 

WISLICENY: Ye9, i entered the SS tn IfH. 

LT. COL. BROOKHART: Wen you a member of the Oeitapo? 

WISLICENY: In 1934 I entered the 3D. 

LT, COL. BROOKHART: What nuk did you aduereT 

W13L1CEMV: In l»M I wai promoted to SS Hauptatunnfflhrtr. 

LT. COL. BBOOKHAfTF: Do you know Adolf Eicfamann? 

WISLICENY: Yes, I have known Eidunann since 1934. 

LT. OOL. BROOKHART: Under what drcumatancea? 

WISUCENY: We joined the SD about the same tlnu; In 1B34. 
Until 1937 we wen together In tXit aanu department 

LT. COL^BROOKKAKT: Eow w«U did you know Ehfunanii pcr^ 

WISLECEHY: We knew eadi other yery v^L We uaed flv 
latlmata "dut" and I alao knew bli tamily way wcU- 



If BrookliBrt spolte Gamitn, wliy i( tliR H'dS confession 
in EnglishT Why aia riia namos mis-spfllled? 

1^41 Kj L]<'1>ji^h,r ]fM2 wurde uns vom Chef der BidierheJtspolizei 

i i|i-K SD In Berlin Cas*)v/a^cii geschidit. Dicu Wftgen wuHen 

y Ami IJ dcs RSHA bcieestellL Der Mann, der fu«r die Wagen 

iin-HiiT EinsatzgT-uppe vetint-wortlldi war, w»r Beck«r. Wir 
Imrcn Ik-fc-hl erhdlten, Ait WAfien fu^r die Toetung von Friuen 
ur>il Kin'frm EU benuUen. Jedes Mai wenn eine Einheit cine 
l.-nui'l^-ndr' Anuhl voA Qpfem Angeutrnnelt haltc» wurde ctn 
Wii|;(ii fuFT die Llquiditrun^ fesandt. Wlr hillen audi diece 
iUi>('lv-' in der Haehe d^^ Durdigan^sla^er Rtiitionlert, in die 
iJii- 0|ihr ccbridil vurden. Den Opleni wurdf ^eugt^ dass lie 
irnif:i^itdL-]l wcrden wucrden und ru dieunt Zv/edtti In die Wafcn 
\.\i pf'cn muruten. Danadi wurden die Tufrren Ge&chlDEScn, und 
durt-li ias Jngffngtttan dcr Wopen rtTdmu doi <jiii tin.'*] Die 
UfiUT rtarbcn In 10 bb 1!^ Minuten. TAe Wvgm wurden dann 
miiv ]3L'F;racbniEp]fltz gefahrent wo die Lcldien heriiU£gen«vTiinen 
itiiil bcfrabcn vurden^ 

li^ hubc den Bericfat von STAHLECKER (Dokum^nt L-ISO) uebcr 
KmiiiiUgruppc A gesehen, In weldiem 5t»lil«dtCT behauptet, dan 
hriiii- Gruppc )35,M0 Juden und Konttnunisten in den enlen vier 
JMiiiLitrn der Ahtion gelcpetet hat. Idi kannte SLahledcer peTsoenlicht 
mil] ich bin der Ancidit, dus daa Dokument •uthenUscfa 1ft 

M;in hot mlr den Brief fitieigt, den BECKER in RAUFF, dra 
lA-i1tr der TechnLsdieD Abteilung von Amt II, bezuegUdi der Vcr- 
Hi'ndung dlucr Ga^)wagen gndiriebcn htt. Jdi kannle diesen 
iM'Iden Macnner ptrtoenlich, und bin der Aitfldit, dus diocr Brief 

lin authcntisdiee Pokumcnt itt. 


Vor mir unteudirieben und beidiwonn mn 5. November IMS In 
Nuernberg, Deutidiland. 

Smitk W, Broflkhart Jr. 

Lt.Col, /CD 


KB KgTjtf, BepoTlcr 

*; Tit-. Taim {hi Fn1rfdH>p) 



THERE IS NO PROOF OF ANY "HOLOCAUST". Instead of proof, what we 
get is a mixture of tiie following techniques: 

The Quote-the- Affidavit-Technique: consists of "quoting" "affidavits" no 

one has ever seen, said to have been signed by "witnesses" nobody has 

ever heard of, said to be in the possession of the prosecutors... 

The Quote-the-Witness-Technique: consists of "quoting" the "testimony" 
of "witnesses" said to have "testified" before dozens of Communist "War 

Crimes Commissions"... 

The Quote-Your-Own-Accusations-Technique: consists of writing a 

"report" detailing the alleged misdeeds of the defendant, then simply 

"quoting" it for thousands of pages... 

The Certify-That-Your-Evidence-is-Evidence-Technique: consists of coming 

to court with an exhibit the authenticity, origin and significance of which 

are unknown, then simply "certifying" that it is what you say it is, thus 

avoiding the need to prove anything... 

The Insult-the-Defendant-Technique: consists of making political speeches 

calling the defendant a "murderer" and a "torturer" for thousands of pages, 

thus avoiding the need to prove anything... 

The Quote-the-Confession-Technique: consists of obtaining the defendant 

or accomplice's signature on a "statement", usually written in a language 

he can't read, then "quoting" it six million times. 

The Poiun Mushrvom" - another series of StrsichBr cartoons. 

^IhjfarJjl'B.-i^Jt.Tjita^-'^i*!'^- ..^'. 




Ill hn luil bill hf DHd ind nn'l ■ J** »m > 

Jrnniti hn* &lwlln •« M dmrDon . 


"Who Fights the Jew. Conlnnds With Hie Devil/' 





What these cartoons are suppose to prdve . . ■ 


.fjofbaufrlB. ^t t^fe' i^ f2r b\d) oms ^Iftwitref. .^thau ditftn SiotJ an! ^a$ 
mnirr^ gjli tine ^ur^A, Wiif tifil ftoii^in ..." | 




is that Streicher 'Influenced" the German jieoplE into 
"Ba$sJng" Six Willtoi Jews. 


,!^ter, Hkinttt tjc|i 6u ttWM genj Suljt* ( Hli«r bofflt mb^ ibr b*tbt mit mir^en 




Streiclier sen) 11 months on (rial at Nuremberg and was permittad 
to teslify quite freely . , , 


t/ivitt atn 3tilt<n(]U!ierfl iurldn imxi ^tibH^lnrougfn utrh urn Bit »uliTi^*»« 



, . . in sxcerpt from Strtich«r's t9«dmony . . . 

m April 4f 

The Fro^ccutipn accuae you, In conn&ctton with this ritual 
murder affair, af havinR treated the ™tt^r without documerLtar y 
t Jroofi by referring to a story from the Middle Aflcs . What, tn hntd, 
was your aouTce? 

STREICHER; The Eources were given in that issue. Nothing 
was written without the sources being given at the same time. 
There waj reference made to a book written in Greek by a former 
Habbi who had been converted to Christianity. There wss refer- 
ence made to a publiir^tion of a high clergymen of Milan, a book 
which has appeared in Germany for the last ^ yenT?. Not even 
under the democrjitjc sovemmeht did Jews raise objections to thai 
book. That ritual murder issue refers to court f^les whfcli are 
located in Rome, it refers to files whidi are in Court. Tliere are 
pictures iTi it whidi show that in 23 cases the Cl^urdi Itself has 
dealt with this question. The Church has canonized 33 non-Jev/£ 
killed by ritual murder- Pictures of sculptures, that is, of stone 
monuments were shown as illustrations; everywhere the aource was 
pointed out; even « cuse tn England was mentioned, and one in 
Kiev, Russia. But in this connection I should like to say, as I said 
to a Jewish officer here, that we never wanted to assert that all 
Jewry wa« ready now to commit ritual murders. But tt is a fact 
that within Jewry there exists > Kct which engaged in these 
murders, urid has done so up until the presentr I have asked my 
counsel to submit to the Comi a file from Fisek In CTedtOilpvaliia ' 
very recent proceedings, Acourt of appeal has confirmed a case ol 
ritual murder . Thus. Tn CQnclusipn I niust say . . . """ 

MR JUSTICE JACKSON: I object to this rtatementn Vowr 
Honor. After his c&unJSel has refused to gubmlt it, he iniiita Ofl 
stating here the contents of a court record . Now thii It not tai 
orderly way to make charges against the Jewish people. Streidier 
savB he is asking counsel to submit. His counsel apparently has 
refused, whereupon he gtarts to give evidence of what he kn&wg. 
in any case, la a resumf of the mattcrt whidi his counsel his 
declined to Submit here. Tt seem; to irne th»t. havini; anpolnted 
counsel to conduct bis case, be has ahown reoeatedlv that he iB not 
wlllinj to conduct hla case In *n orderly miTmer md he oujht to 
be relumed ta hia cell and any further statement; that he wishes 
to make to this Court transmitted thrguf^h his counsel in wilting. 
This Jb entirely unfatr utd Id contempt of Court 

THE PR£StD£NT: Dr. Mara, T think you had better continue. 

DR MARX: I ahould like to say that that closes this affair. 
The eswntial thing is whether one can say that he treated the case 
without "documentary proof , ^he befease is not intereste^ -in the 
affair at all; Lad, according to my recaUection, I even sueeested ta 



. while Rudolf HbQ was hustled in and out of court in hall of me morning $«ssian 
and disapp«araii forevflr HdtS was never tried in any non-Cammuiii$i caumrji. 

Holi was a "defense witness" called by Kaltenb runner's 

cuurt-appointed "defense lawyer''. 


,«jf(|qrti9, ^rr fttffFfgt ©Ifbtrfttin! Hun ftob?" orf' »ii* t«^*trt «o|Qf qrtraajl um 




Fiftvpn dtfi Mriitr- hS& hid na knowtodg* o1 EnfKili wfiittMVtr . . . 


ft. Ucbcr die Verw«ndgn« der Mamudutten ivt tu bem«rkcn, du« 
kcm Untendiied hinAiditUcfa d« Dierutcs iin L«eer oder nut 
der Wachiruppe beJtvid. Personal tconnte ment mm Wiich- 
dienit und dann Ziun Dierut im Lager htTangezogcD wrrden. 
Whih jem«nii zur Zufriedenhelt del Kammuidanten Im Lafler 
Diciut Ut->KcMiunuLdvitur»t«b und Sdiutzhafttacer — so wurdc 

Kart rocxautr 

Swom before mc this IS 
day of Hanii 11hl6 at the 
Mil.Gov.PrLton at ALTONA 

A.P. frisUy, Major 


So.U Fin/Inu 
HQ. MiLCoi: 



Made voluntarily at Mlnden Gaol by RUDOLF K0E5S, 
former Commandant dI AUSCHWITZ Conc«ntration C«mp, 
on the 20th of Hanfa iMfl. 

1. I waa Conunandont o£ the Connntrationcamp AUSCHWITZ fiwn 
1 May IMD to the ftnt of De«inb«r 1»43. 

2. When I took up my duties Ihcrt were approximately 90 men 
Wiffea SS u guard pUtoon and ll-lS men WaHea S3 as HQ 


Ihn li lipid i> iHriwI titikh bJ H kt QihIHiI bm biHD lir Un . 
(nab Din imni Cirmin Bil''i[t ■! IdQ'i iimrj 

1 Al 4r llmr I nLlnquliritd fiy amnriHid Uum P^ur* IDHa iTvti 
Vi/Tni 33 arj-iriB u aiurdi K4 meri nptlin SS u CUniW^ 
HiiL UHLlier 19J men Wubi B9 uaDlnfrd «n alliir IdrrunLdnn 

DDE iDiUu 111 UHD JDDD iTiEn i^iffETi 39 iL Uir CmKUlnLHirf 
amp AM&CaWlTZ. 

1. Qb( «r Uhf v/bv Hj-Fld gdf-nOly U TU amp. MpfwotlBmUlT 
BjM piBn WJf^ 5S «.« p.^1^ U. Kid Luuli and npUad Lv 

Htlifr". to Ihil iliinrU my [Ml" rf ■»«[» ill IeJD IDDD truB 
lUlfhn-da Hivml H aw Urn* IB »nOlMr il AIKCHWJTi V\tr 

tim drEOiIuir Uili rirhnar nf iirlt^nn*! nuidllLirJ, ififl J ihulfl 
H» lanHirc lUDP mm WklEeD 52 -rjr nplv-Q Up U Hi* Umg 
°I dii iiKuiUiiii «r L}it Cimp Ln lh«, h lh>l ill vaJ tpf±^T.-,- 
BHlilr IHfi DED ViJhB S9 ln>r nrvvJ .1 °ih 1«°. _ AmMx- 
■I 'hr Cmai\liV\iii Ciiep AUSCHWIT?- 
IV Dnft I nui M4 brw aiJKUd Cnn Hii pinl [!«][■ In'mvlci 
WVi Itm Ci^p KPitl, hi raniikrLfd itiib mu ma. iml^ puud 
iw^ IHm Un amp 

KmiBlf irijl 

WrfhdtH [ij m^ C-fI.A.VbEIpi«. 

xKii prifVAK <Ji crnapi »f Ihl 

Tiid|n A4vn<«lT CFncTiti DmUIr 
■Ti-iu. IfQ, BAOIL ir lUndD] Oud !□ 
trlmm) m Ihu Itlli day dT Mmrib 

A V.EI^x' f np* 

iMLiiirtIv l^millhgj |M« ilB>»l- 

Lion Iram llnglltf i Imu IhriBth U 

t lU uja Jiniiiri^E RuiLpir Jfom 

JAD Qnnfli. 
J0 Hiidi ihfl 

which Mems to han batn ifon« onlf if llw ffspojienl fNrin'l undarstanil Eoglith. 

/ can ffivs ihw fallohjinQ deluflj oj regards p«nonfi«I nnploy«<l on 
ffuard or admmi^ratiirt duties in VOt camp, 
/aj TAe ctymmandana ttaff eamprued 90 mal«« and approxJ- 
mn«ely ISO /^al« who i£i*re tnipEoj^ed in duttn ot Ravenfbrudt 
itself, flnt)th*T 300 /emal«* (approximately) ip*re crnployed ifi 
Aussenkonmandtjt who alto btloTigtd io the ataff. Ail thtte both 
male and femalt torr« mfinberi of th« SS. 

(b) The number af German Guard p^fioniwl in RdueitJ&rucJ; 

itsttj uioj approrimately 300 and in th* /SuiirenJtomTnflTidD* 

appraximctely 350. Thes^ wtr^ all mole* ond all members of the 

Wafen SS end not the AUgemti-n^n SS. 

(e) All females employed on dutitt in or outside the camp were 

members of Che Wojfen SS and not the Allgemeinen SS and this 

applied also to all males. 

(d) SS male 0uord pcrionnel did noi belong to any special SS 

unit but the a^-ard unit itse[| wm knoum ci SS Totenkapf Wach- 


Z. In Ravensbrudi there u?ere approximacety 29 Ciiftljan Employees 
comprising juch fradef as pltimberj, wlectricians, carpent*M, ttc 
and they hbed in the Barrack* outsidt Che camp walLi. They 
t^*re all released pertonntl from Sarfuenftaujefi Conctntration 
Camp, There u>ere dlta appro^iTnatel]; 20 civiliani who worJEed 
in Che Jactotiej beEon^inp to th« SS or-ponif ation and which were 
next to tlie cvmp itieZ/. Thcie /actariei rmpZ<?^ed otherwise onlj^ 
/ntemeei o/ ll«v«iu&ruclc. fritz Suhren 

Sudrn by the laid depcmant Frit^ Suhren voluntarily ei No S ClC on 
this 5th day of March i94fi be/ore me, Copt A Vollmor en officer of 
the Judpe Advocate Generar* flronch HQ BAOR AND T HEREBY 
CERTIFY that the said d«»neBt not M-ndiritandma English this 
dgpotition ufcs tramlflted bg myself to him bejote signotyre and he 
jvuir ajrreed the content* th«r«a}. 

A. I^allmar Capt, 

/AG Branch 


I hereby certift/ that I have aocuratgI» trcnaiflted this depgriiion 
f rom EngUsh into German to the laitt d^pffitent Fritz SUHREfJ and 
that he fully apreejt thf cpntentf thereof. 

A. VoUmar Capt^ 
JAG BranA 
S March 45 HQ BAOR 

No S ClC 


A I'plE"!-' Curt, 
f JwTh' nrtft tfm r tujjr <iinjTii[rl[, 

I MnA U 

A, ira|r.>i4> Cue 

flilnn<liri:^4 Aiuufi 
ir B«| 4- I'd » Cln>l4iii Inln-xunL Cma 

1 f« f>l|HI> PVII CKHIbnl-JflH llUii^ dJi VgibwiuiiskiiJI 

d aDlCD(vma>la.[L.Firvb niiWiffm P.ifra Lifliyn JHDNjub. 


tn many cnis Ihsn h no laal proof thai iHisa niMn wan km^ 
whit itiflv w»r« signiiiO. 

^HiRcetion with our eKpcrim^ntal station, knowing everything 
Ih-it went 0(1 and ordered what happened. RASCKER was juit 
J petty crix>k in a high position t£nd the only reason I am alive 
14 iKit RASCHER had to have me with him. KA5CHER twk 
hiv orders from these men I have just named and these nMi'n 
jfL- rcnl ones I would like to gel for what we had to tee at 
l^iihsu. That is all I have to say. 

t.-i£iiAony adjourned at 1600 hours on 13 May 194S 

Anton Pacholegg 

Dattii Chaotz Jr. 


Colonel, J.A.G.D. I certify that the abovg testimony 

[nvcitigator-Examiner was traniiTated to the witnea in hig 

own language, prior to hia aij- 
nature, which appeari ahoye. 

l-tU;UiH£M Z*I30-PS 

■^►ul concentration and phisopfer-of^wah camps", 
UhC.if.ntications and explanation of the pictures in a 
iii.umade by the ttniteo states army after the libeha- 

'H^ni USSR-30, 301, 388, M», 3&i, iil-T CEXHIBITS RF-i31 AND 


'•••rJnit ri^ttilLcatf Jnd *rFtdK*!l:, arit; Fkli. A, f^flifipJ rakiiTi E«h. B, C^ D, 


A Documeatmry Motion Piclvfc 

Submitted op behaU of 
U. S. Chief of Counsel 

James B. Donovan 

Commander, USKR 

Of Counsel 



JJ. a. Puin 

DAVID i; PArrosT 

Ui Hill que 


I LiHif] I hn m Hbp-i t Jtinnar ™ liJiM»»ri Ui Ut mB^ 

„ III. n -i^ iirpmf. THiif m >iij.i>pi.'if.;'-iaih tpij—H jbjh* 

Ldili Crm 
[duU L CKOV 

Afbriu Am; AtrACiuD n no. pwopie amn 
^^-' AuT in lUnlHDnqllHl IfrllD. fto D, April I' 

UBd 4h VH SlfeMH ■iHiBI 

IVAl-'B.^r. 12tHk|llF kLDAurerUcuDjea. 

UAinunmi Dj 
■n AH ilh 

■Tul InpdIiuTa U 


Q. Did ymi «ver (ee EIGRUBER in MAUTHAUSEN? 
A- I think 1 saw him. The vislton were mnomittd and tla« mmek 
but I do not know whether they were theie people. 

Q. Did you evtr tec htmmler in MAUTHAUSEN? 

Q. Wh» vu with himf 
A. The wholo Itfff. 

q. Wm KALTENBRUNNER with him? 

A. KALTENBRUNWEH li ■ dark teUaw, I know him from th* 

CTematorium, but 1 Mftnot My whether he wu with HIMMLER 

I mneoiber HOTLfLEK by hl« monoeLe. 

Q. Did you evw «e 5CKRACHASE there? 
A, No, 

Session >4loumed ttt 1830 houfi 

Albert TixfmbaAer 


ATTEST: D G PflJttii 

Lt Col QMG 


I certify Cut the above teatimony wm tranaleted to the witna*. 
m tUj own laggmf e, tiriQfto "hu aignaturtj whjc^" eppeMn iibove 

Louji L CROY 
Tec 4 44010206 


t) Otttiw} Hflh "Th triwM InMltiitiBc Tnm t»3t, APO TTT, Vi kwmj. 
Salibin, AhuU", HwpvJ ]m Vmm 1>L, inUMti "DCP" 



iJnd bercit^ :den B«fehlen dea FOhrera zu folfen und Kine Auftr&E« 
nut eani^Ai EinSAtz m crfiincn^ wcil sie in mllcn Ding^Ti nidita 
utdtres «etn wollpn tb die Trfifier der Ide«, der sUrke Arm der 
Eew>Feime» der iJcher? Kiickhalt des Volkes und die opferbereltv 
und inBrifCfifreudiEC Inianterie des deutsciien VcUtes- 







Onice ol the Judge Advocate 

APO 403 
Aw UB2 (3 JA ^ 132 J GNMCJ 17 June iSiJ 

SUBJECT: Report of Ifivesti^allon of AUeeed W»r Crimei. 

lOt ConuEundlng General^ TwelfOi Army Group, AFO 61*. 

U,. S* Army. 


1. This luvMtiBation WIS conducted in eonf oufiity with L*ttCT, 
Europtan Tieatw of Operations^ 24 Foljniary 1945. bv EUGENE S- 
COHEN. ASN 0-157ai21» Major, 514lh QuarterrMster Croup, APO 
403. United Stales Armyt lnvtstie*tor-EKimlner. during the period 
C May 104S to 1& June 19Ai. find pursuant to directive of ComrnaTid* 
tnj; General, ITiird United Stales Army, a copy of whidi it atlathed 
as ExhibJt 1. 




1 Hiirdrr b^ riiiiDlln(, hiLbg, vh frl pVinii ^i, i1|iibIi|iiJ. 
■linilU, tatrrlimi, BbHbi, ■xpuuTB, ^nUB|, lad Aa^lrif b1 

■ULkUMk at EhiinL^llir*! (Z1J bbLUh^ Lni'liidLiig lUTBlwri aI Du 

UBt\Ml 9UIH t-maa rttret, el lliv [iirTBU foLlJiD popelil^ 
B^rliLni omlrc Uir Gcnnui ithhiI tanvi iehI nt allKr uUiiiiili 
gidcr llv Hdui al ukd GrrBUD «rDiL4 lann. to iiHIiUm of 

.f Ljiiri WirTArf, AnJel* 1 af umt PiT IT, H, ID, lat II. Hulu 
.J Uiiil Wirlanj 

1 k. ni4 [■UmmT ti lU mlniBii «iiiiil[ird In Ihr irrunr 
gl UiU iBkEKl^lLoD uH iTlUili U klUdiEfl vd FTiUlr I iMFl brml 
«u ■Hund IhniiJilL IIie iin dI Liilirp'*ErTi r^mr iiti^L'i ''■v 
|li^ nm^ bid bam ■*«!■ fay mr, UuBuCg Hit Dilrrprlln, ondtr 
■l>r luIhuLlj d ^rlldi i>f War 114, la Ihr Igllanni larm- ■«>■ 
->Hi Ch iHjnii] thai Dir evidrnn ^nu irL'll liT |b ViIi IfikBI- 
EiUna mW brirtf rmifucLnl hi t^ ihill Vr 1l>r lmiIi Uir i>l|n|f 
iTBlli, Bd DDCld^ fam Ql« (ruUi 3b ririp jw Ori ' 1 

Liblc Uk iniji 


n art qpimrlu 

jiLl> K 

. .I,, hb 1 



.PldT .U.I. L 


Tm* la tin -jLn«. .n 

n LKf^.l. 

. Wf! 

t<F iJliJTsI Ihil |Ou >I]L lnl» kiHrpm Uila V-i^t*''^ ^"^ ■'<B' 
rvD^gded fay ne B? blip yn Cod.' 

b. niE iniiHrtWd Uiljm«iji al toita ludi 'llnrs Bhavr 
TiunaUhlBi* lUlBd U bntiB illaAtd ii u EiXIM — llir aritlitvi 
ol wlildi U IndUilK lanBtJLalil^ lnlliiiilJiH Bit ■^lliirB' nin*. Al 
I mntar Mia Ibi urDr al udi amp Ld Dir dUa ■■ >lali Uv Hid 
blubJl wu guEjurel b LdeD ibmirdi Ur budf ri llir inDi^, 

: OUiD- T:iblblLi 

Ci] ^^kM^ 4 li P -F"^ Vj a 
i L.p 1q UUf Jn'Xl||-LU->, -nJ bia- fa 
<E lira Hilniu** Du&ad. 

5B« AlBD IHT III - titJ 


Anotinr •xaApl» of lh« «iidle» linguisiic panrniutions typical 
of bN Nurflmbsfg "ttridtnci". . . 





Before rot. Lieutenant Colonel Henry H. Mize, JAGD, personally 
appL'ared LieutenAnt Colonel Guivante de Saint Cast and Lieutenant 
Jcpn Veith, both ot the French Arm y, who were made known to 
nic\ and who t>eing by me first duly swom made tbg follQwin^ 
atatement inthe handwritting of Lieutenant VeLth under oath: 

Giiitta-ntt; d^ Saint Cast, LtCoJontl, Chef de Mission de I"' Claitt. 
Cnrt€ d'idenhte mtlitoire 3CRA MCPA Ptajnontoire No. SiO, immfl- 
(ncule FfC Londres RUl Carte de Repatrii No. 723S2 dciit!CT*d in 
AnntcTj f France). Order 0/ Mi^^ion 0/ the Provisional Goucrmnent 
of the French Republic, Ministry of PriioTin^rs and DtpoHeey dat^d 
Koy 4th l9iS Ifo. 16772. Detained in the ConcentraxiDn Camp 0/ 
Mautkaaaen from March Hth lSi4 tilt April S?nd. 1$45, No. 57376. 
having been emp(oyfd at the ARBEITSEINSATZ (offices of dtitnbii* 
tion of wprk) fTom August l^th 1944 till Apnl^^nd. I9iS as BUxiUarif 
anil at titulary 

VElTH. Jean, Lieutenant, Charge de AfisiidR de Ze Clttss^, Carte 
d'idaatiti RapatHi tfo. i039Z7 delivered at Annecy. Order of MisMon 
"/ e^e Provisional Government of the Frendi Republic, MinistiT; of 
Prixftnnert and Deportees dated May 4th No.l6774. Detained in 
Mduthausen from April 22nd 1943 (ill April ZZnd 1345. Nq.2S64S, 
having been employed at the Politiiche Ahteilung from Jitne 2nd 
i^iS io June 2Sth 7$4^j at the Atbeitsninsctt from 7une 36th 1643 
to August 15th 1944^ a* fctrernan of the cartographic and mecano- 
Qraphic HoUerith jervif^et till their dissolution in Feisrvary 1945 and 
^tice, till kit liberation a: tht Laperjchreibitube (night shifti both 
feeding in Parit (I7t} 2Q, Rue de SflK**uT¥ Ttlate end certify under 
OttiA tft* /ollcjunnff faeu: 

M lilauth&usen eatiMed ttnttal tttawitnt^ 0/ lariionnerj, amongst 
l^em the 'Action K or Kugel" {Bvliet action^. Upon th* arntjal 0/ 

IMT XXX 141 


In thit cast b Frenchinan inikBs a handwrittan ttateniBnt in Eagliili 

making Garman-ftfia mittahaf, then Iranslalet it for tiia 

cO'Slgjiar inother Franchman. 

*fan*part*, prUonnm with the mmtion *K" iattv not ngitttrc* 
pot no numbtn and tftflV names remained unfcnouin except for tKt 
of/icialt of the PoUtisffte AbteiluJig. fU. VEITH had the opportuniij 
of hearing upon ihe arrival af a trantjtort the faUaming convermilm 
between the UntiTsturmfuihrer STREITWIESER and ekief o/ tJt» 
mnvtjy: "How many priionners?" "15 but two K" "WeM thu 
makes 13") 

The K prisonners tuer* taken directtv to the prison where thtj 
ipere tindothed and taken to th^e "baihTovns". This 6otl^lrootll di 
the cellata of the prison bailUng near the crematory ti^oj spicialln 
desiffned for execntiont (rhooting and gasiing}. 

TA* fhootirig xotik place by means of a mea^ttritij apparatuj TAr' 
ffftjQftner Jl^eing badced totaiirdj a tnetricai mecnure wUh an atitn . 
mgtic contnpiioit rtUating a bullet in his nedc a$ won as th ^- 
f notrfng pUink determining kis height toudied the top o/ his fc.qJ 


•-Pan I — 


If a tranaport camitted of too moft^ "K" prUtrntre, inttead of 
lorin)^ time /or the "meaiuratiort" thejf -urere txttrmiTied by gg^ 
tent into the bacferoom instead of water . 

During hU time as foremen q( t^r WoJrerith section Lt. Vtii* 
frequent fy received transfer rhertf from other camps mentionitinit 
priumners lekidi did ng( appear on the entry list of Mauthausen. (* 
fucb casts the Polititche Abteilang very reluctantljf used to pive ttvr 
in/omifltion that the camp servkes had not to loke mco consideratid^ 
mdi misting prfJonnerj becaiAJe they had been transferred "tn 
pehetmrr Reidtxta^^' (Secret afatrf of tht AeichJ anit insisted utm^ 
f^e cvmplrte duappearance of all traces af the 

tnmany eases dtue to trcTtamjxiton errofj, the /atct "K" IndiwtiJi 
wa» not {mmedtalcEj/ given with the (ranj/er and fallowed Jerc"'' 
da;^} or several weeks later. Lt. Col. dc ^aint Gflft £ Lt> Vi>j<^ 
cert(/j/ Aawinp rKi?vffd in their wruice eonfeMatiun order* /roni (^^ 
Politijc^e ^dteHunfr fDncemin^ mch priMonntra, As upon thnr 
anitiol (vch ''K"^ jtrisonners had^ bff Tnistake receturd a «ti]|> 
number, they had to disappear in the Numberj Register of [''■' 
Camp, and for thie purptuc rrcJijication order wa« made lit i^"-' 
foilmviag h]/pDcr<tical form: pristmner X, No. . , , . birth place, birth 

date if actuaUv colled i heiut ricAttfrJ prifoner V, tfo , diffeTCut 

birth place and date. 

IMT XXX ii3 


Smei ihty w«n faotfa Fr«ncli afid bath signtd. why didn't 

ttieywrito ii in Frtnch? 

^^. .itntmrSKINSATZ a* jar fhty hate not be«iT destroyed 

I ;|,^ ^r^^t ^Jnn?BI fj" ^wn maJg pofunfaril^ in Iht handwriting o/ 
( J t-f-nTT TiJ^'o mtJcnbn<Ji J^ngtijch aftd tL-ho has ttuly translated 
,, ^. „,|„(. f'j f.t. J-'oJ. dtf gflini Oast prior to fiiy Jipnitij the tame. 

'^Hin. tiUil and swora to before mt this 13th day of May l&-i5. 

HettTif H. Mize 

ti "itimiT USA-31) 

I tyf Di'uischf f^eiEJisreiterunf lehnt die «m 17. M£rz erfolgtc 
*i-'tf*T tnUd^licEJung ab. Nichl Deutxdiland hat d^n Vertrag von 
^■tMlHrii ciitscitig gebrodicn. *ondem da* Diktat von Versatile 
-■^'*fitf in d\.'n bfikvnnlen Punkten einwltig vwletzt und damit auD«r 
*tr.iM f^..vl^t duKli ient MSdite, die sich nicht fintsdilieCen konnlen. 
'■■'' W(in IX'ul£tiiland v(rtanft«n Abribtung die vertraglidi vor- 
r- -Hii-rnf cfj<cnc [olgen lu lat*wi, 

■He liurdii diesen BesdiluB In Gvd Deutsdiland lugefuete neue 
I'-^kfunmlcrunff madite es der Deutschw Reiduregitrung unmos- 
*■*"* *i di^jw laalitution itinlckiukehr^i. ehe nicht die Voraus- 
-■•'"nKvn fUr ein^ wifkliche glelAe ReAtsla^e titer Teilnehmer 
* -H-unin ist. Eu dem Zwet3t& *ra<±itet es die Deutsdi? Keidis- 
"^'Tunjf flU notwendif, zwisdien dem Vertrag von Versailles, der 



In Dflcemb^r 1S45 there mra no "gas chambti^" M Trablinhfl 
. H . only "sta^m chambais". 


contained in Document L-161, Esdiibit U5A-2dS, The Document 
L-ifll is in ofRcial Polish report on Ausdiwilz ConcentrattDn Camp, 
It ia dated 91 May t945. I have taken a short «xcerpt fmm thla 
Hport on the oitguial marked . . . 

THE PRESIDENT; I think you made ft mlitake, did you not? 
It li not A PoUsK report; it is a British report. 

UAJO^ WALSH: I tmderstand, Sir, ft ^iA eomp^ed ort^liLBlly 
hy the Polish Government and pefhaps distributed from London. 


UAJQRWAL3H; I quote: 

"DuTtng July 1944 Hungarian Jews were being liquidated at 
the rate of 12^000 daily; and as the crematoria could not deal 
with audi numberSn many bodies were IhrQwn into large pits 
and covered with quldtlitn* ." 

I oiler in evidence Document 3311-1^^ Exhibit US A-a_S3 . This ii 
an official Polish Goveinunent {Jommlsaion report on" the Tnv^atlga* 
tion ot German crimes in Poland> The dagument describes thft CM- 
c«atraiion cvmp at Trebllnka; and trom Page 1, Paragraph 3 and 4, 
I read aa follows: 

^In March 194Z the Germans began to end another camp, 
Treblinka B, in the neighborhood of TrebUoka A, intended to 
became a place of torment for Jaws. 

*The erection of tht$ camp ^wta closely connected with the 
Oerman plans aimed at a complete destruction of the Jewish 
population in Poland, whidb »eceasitaled the creation of a 
madilAery by means at whidi the FoUsh Jews could be killed 
in Urg« numbers. Late In April 1942 erection was completed 
of tee flrri diamben in whjcfa thcM general massacres weft 
to ^epcEfcrmed by meani of ateajn . Somewhat later the 
erection of the real death buildinj, whidi contains 10 death 
diambers, was finished. It was opened tor wholesale murders 
early in autumn 1942." 

And on Page 3 at this report, beginning with the second para* 
graph, the Polish Commission describes graphically the procedure 
far the extermination within the camp; 

"The average tiurmber of Jews dealt with at the camp in the 
summer of 1M2 was about two railway transports dally, but 
there were days of much higher eCflciency. From autumn. 1942 
this number was falling. 

*^After unloading in the aiding; ftU vtctlzns were assembled in 
one place, where men were lepanted £rom women and diiL- 
dren. In the first days Of the existence at the cvnp the vic- 
tims were made to believe that after a ihort stay Ea the camp, 
necessary for bathlog and dla£nfectlaiit they would be sent 

IMT III 387 


fftrthtr H4t for work. Explaciationa of this tort were givtn 
by S3 tata who utLsted «t the ualoadinjr of th« LraLnspods. 

■nd further expliiiBticru could b« Tt«d In notice ftxidt up on 
the Walls of the barraickL But lat«r, when mor^ tiaruports 
htd to be demit with, the German] dropped all pretenses and 
Only tried to accelente the procedure- 

"ALL victim] h»d to ttrip off their clothea ind tho», which 
were collected liltrwarda, wherieupon all victims, womtn utd 
diUdrtn flrsl, were driven into the de*lh chambers. Thoie too 
ilow Or too wtflk to move quickly were driven in by rifle 
butta; by whippLiig and ki<Jcing, often by Sauer biiAHlf- 
Mmy slipped and fell; the next victims pressed fcrward and 
Mtumbied over them. Small diLldren were «lmply thrown 
iMid*. After trtina flUerf Mp to capacity, the diambeia wef^ 
hermetically clgaed' and steW was "let in. In. a few minutes 
all WM ovef- The Jewish menial workers had to remove the 
bodia Erom the plitform and to bury them in ma&s graves. 
By Jind by, ai new transports arrived, the cemetery grew, 
extending in an easlemly direction. 

"From rtporta received it may be assumed that several hun* 
dred thousands of Jews have been exterminated In Treb- 

I now offer in evidence the document identified by Number L^SS^ 
Exhibit USA-2fi4. This is an offlcial United States Government 
nporl lttu«d by thd Executive Of&ce of the President of the United 
States, War Refugee Board, on the German camps at Ausdiwitz and 
BirkenaUp dated ^944. On Page 33 of this report iA tet forth the 
number of Jews gassed in BirkeAau In the 2>-year period between 
Aprlt 1M2 and April 1944, 1 h*ve been asured that the flpjre 
printed in this report is not a typographiciL ecror^ The numt>er 
shown la 1,765,000. 

I would now like to turn to the German bookkeeping ind statLs- 
tlca for enli^tenment on the extermination of Jews In Poland- 
Referring tgain to the diary of Hans Frank already in evidence, 
Document a233-PS, Exhibit USA-2ai, I read briefly from the begin- 
ning of the fourth paragraph on Page ti 

"For us the Jews also represent extfaordinariiy malignant 


"We have now approixiniately S,.500,000 of them in the Govern- 
ment General ■ ■ /' 

THE PRE:SIDErfT: Major Walsh, you have read this already 

MAJOR WAISK^ Yes, Sir, tKat b true. I Just want to make 
reference to it again. Sir, tor comparison with other figures. 



Br February 1946 this luid all bsen forgotten about 
and thore wsr« always 10 "gas chambers" at Trablinka. 

BAJZUAN: Befort the war I wu u accounUnt in u export ftnn. 

MH- COUNSEnUJ^H SMIRNOV: When and und^r whmt drcum- 
■tancea did you becom g an mtemee pI TreblJAka Number 3 ? 

RAJZMAN: In August 1^2 I was Ulua away from the Warsaw 

MB. COUNSELLOR SMIRNOV: How Img did y<m aUy in 
Trablinka ?- 

RAJZMAH: I wu Interned there for a y«4iv-until August 1943. 

UR COUNSELLOR SBCIRNOV: That means ynu mn well 
acquainted with the rul«s regulating th« treatment oj th« people 
Lb thli eampT 

RAJZMAN: Yes, I am well acquainted with th«e rules. 

HE. COUNSELLOR SMIRNOV: Z beg you to describe this camp 
to the TlihunaL 

RAJ^IAN: Transporti errived there every day; their niuflbec 
depended oc the nuniber of trains ikrriving; Mmetiffl^s thne, four, 
or Ave tr&inA flU«d exclu^vely with Jewa — from Cxedi^slovakia, 
Gtniiany, Greece, and Poland. Immediately after their arrival, the 
people had to leave the tnins In 5 minutes and line up on the plat- 
form. AH those who were driven from the cars were divided Into 
groups— men. children^ and women, all separate. They were all forced 
to strip immediately, and this procedure coiitinued under the lashes 
ol the German guards' whips. Workers who were employed in this 
operation limnedtatcly pldced up «U the dothe» aod carded them 
away to barracks. 'Hien the people were obliged to wallc naked 
t hrough the street to the gas Aambers . 

UR. COUNSELLOR SMIRNOV: I would Utce you to tell the Tri- 
bunal what the Gennans call ed the atreet to the gas efaambera . 

RAJZMAN: It was lamed HimmeUshrt street 

WR, COUr^ELLOK SMIHNOV: That i^ to say, the "street to 

RAJZMAN: Yes. If It Interests the Court, I can present a plan 
oE the camp of TrebEnka which I dre* up when I was there, and 
I can point out to the Tnburka] this street on the plan. 

THE FRESIDENTr I da not think it is necessary to ^put in a plan 
«l the camp, xmlets you pvticularly want to. 

MR. COUNSELLOE SMIRNOV: Vc*. I also bcliev« th«t it Is not 
'*iUy necessary. 

Please tell ms, how long did a perwm live aftet be had arrived 
1B the Trehlioka Camp? 


AnyonB who jHinwrts to l» • turvivor h ■uDomaticallr bfrfi«v«f . , . 

t^SR-4(l6 (Documtht Kumbtr U55ll-<Q6> th? data About the «xp«il- 
mcntj carried out In anothtr cainp, th* Ravpn^brUck Camp. It con- 
tolni the results of tht Ibvettintion by the PoUah State Conuni^on. 
Th« photographs »irilaine<d therein are very diancterLatlc and I 
aHd not comment on them. 

[ would now nquest the Tribiuial'i pcimission to nunmon u 
wllneu a Polish woman, Shmaglevskaya, to have her testify ngard" 
ing only one question, the attitude of the (^rrn^ii fa^uts toward 
the diildirn in the ooncmtration camps, Wtnild the President permit 
the calling of this wlCneaa? 

THE FBESEDENT: Yei, certainly. 

iThe wicnejj> Shvutftlevth^yn. took thf iCaiKJ.^ 

THE PHESIDENT; Will you first of aU tell me your nameT 

SEVEEINA SHMAGLEVSKAYA (Witness)] Setrerina Shmaglev** 

THE PRESIDENT: Will you repeat this oath after me: 1 hereby 
■wear before God-^the Alml^ty — that I wUl ipeak before the Tii- 
butul nothing but the truth— conceallim nothinfi Uut ia known to 
me — cq hetp me God, Amen. 

/TAe vltncH rtptattd fAe oath.f 

MRCOUNSEIXOR SMIRNOV; Tell mt, WllncB, were you an 
Lntemcf of Ovwieczim Camp? 


Mit COUNSELLOR SMtRNOV: Durtng whit ptrlod of time 
were you In the camp of Oswieczim? 

SHMAGLEVSKAYA: f^mn 7 October 1942 to January IMS- 
MR. COUNSELLOR SMIRNOV: Do irgu have any pnwf th*t you 
vtre an intgme* of this amn ? 

SHMAGLEVSKAVA: i have the number <rfilch waa tattooed oft 
«y JiTn. right here . 

MR. COUNSELLOR SMIRNOV: Thai La what th« OlWiKZim 
bimates calL the ''visLtLnc cards"? 


MR. COUNSELLOR SWRNOV: Tell me, pleaae, WitneS„ were 
you an eyewitnecj of Germaji SS men^i attitude toward diildicn? 


MR. COUKSEXXOH SMIRNOV: Will you please teU the Tribunal 
•bftttt thUT 

SHMAGLEVSKAYA^ t could teU about thp diitdien who wer« 

bom tn the conoentration camp^ about the duktrtn who wtn brought 
to the concentration ounp with the Jewiah transports and who were 


Anv Bccusation is flutomRtically bslfsvid . . . 


SHMAGLSVSKAYA; We werv never mbl# to And out whert thu« 
diildren were taken. They were taken away all the time this cunp 
txifted; that \s ta say, la 1012 and lfl4i, Tlie last convoy of diildnn 
kit the camp in January 1945- These were not only PoUih children, 
becAuK,. as you know, lii Birkenau there were women from aU ov^t 
Euztipe. Ev«n today we don\ know whether these children are alive^ 

I ahauld like. In the name of all the women oi Europe who 
bA^me ffiotheft la ctmcentratioa camps, to ask the Germana today, 
''Wh«re are these children?" 

MR COUNSELLOR SMTRNOV: TeU ttii, Witwo, did jmi your- 
letr aee the children being taken to £as chambers? 

SHMAGLEVSKAYA: I worked very close to the railway vhldi 
led to the crematory. SomeUmea in the mominf t pajtsed near the 
building the Germans used as a latiine, and from there I could 
Kcretly watdi the transport. I saw many diildren among the Jewi 
bmUight to the concentration, campx Sometimes a fajnlly had Several 
dUldren, The Tribunal is probably awarv ot the fact that Id front 
of the crematory they were all sorted out- 

HR. COUNSELLOR SNURNOV: Selection was made by the 

5HMAGLCVSKAYA: Not always by doctois; aometimea by 
SS men, 

MR, COUNSELLOR SMIRNOV: And doctors with them* 

SHMAGLEVSKAYA: Yes> KHnetimes, by docton, tw. Putins 
nidi ■ sorting, the youiifiest and the healthiest Jewish women in 
very «maU numbers entered the camp. Women carrying children in 
their a.TTf& or In carriages, Dr those who had larger diildren, were 
sent Ihta the crematory together with their ciiildren. The children 
were separated from their parents in front of the crematory and 
were led separately Into gas diamben- 

At that time, whgn the jfreateat number of Jews were exter - 
minated in the gas diambers, an order was iasued that Uie ehtld^n 
were to be thrown into the crematory ovens or the crematory dltAe a 
Without prevloya_a5phyM4ation with gas. 

MIL COimSELLQK SMIRNOV: How should We understand that ? 
Were they thrown into the ovens alive or wcfc they killed by othe r 
tnejna before they were bunted ? 

SHMAGLEVSKAYA: The diildren were thrown In alive. Their 
erica could be heard all over the campr It is hard to say how many 
there wen. 



Every atrocity committed by the Russians or other Allies is paindiBd 
in some actuulion against lite Germans. In this caso it is infls$ rape . 

It rtb. « 

they leave the bodin hanging on the fallows for diys and 
even week*. They do the same with the people they shoot m 
the streets of the towns and vilUfes, leaving the bodies 
untendsd for 4Ay% on end. 

"ATter the seizure of Kharkov, the German thugs hanged 
several people from the wiadows of a large house in. the 
tenter of the city. Furthermore, in the same city of Kharkov 
on Ifi November 1& persons, including one wonuiv were 
hanged from the balconies of a number of houses." 
The bestial acta of violente perpetrated against the women 
tverywherc testify to the profound moral corruption of 1 h i; 
criminals. I shall quote from that passage in the notR whiA Yoil i 
Honora will firrj ori Page 4. Paragraph 47 of th& document book ; 
" Women and young girls are vilely outraggd in all the 
-occupied areaj. 

"In. the UkrtlPian village of Borodayevka, in the Dnieprope- 
trov^k region, the fascials violated e^ery one of the women 
and girls. 

"In the Village of Berezovka, in the region of Smolerulc. 
dnjnken German soldiers ass aulted and carried off aU tht> 
women and girla between the ages of 16 and 30- 
"In the city o£ Smolensk the German Cotnmand opened a 
brothel foe officers in one of the hotels into whidi hundreds 
of women and girls were driven; l^ev w^r,^ ;m.arri1f>fHlv 
dragged down the street bv their arm^ and hair 
"Everywhere the lust-maddened German jjan^steia brcjk 
into the houses, they rape thj&_w[>mert and girls under the 
very eyes of their kinfoUi and tiutdiBn, Jeer at the women 
they have violated, and then bnitaEy murder (heir victims. 
"In the city of Lvov, 32 women working in a garment factory 
were first violated and then murdered by German storm 
troopers. Di-Linken Ggngai^ sold iers dragged the girls and 
young yeomen of Lvov Into Kesciuajfco Park, where they 
savacelv raped them . An old priest, V. I. PomaEnew. wha 
cros In hand, tried to prevent these outrages, was beaten up 
by the lasdsta, ITiey tore off his cassodk, singed his begird, 
jmd b«yoo«tte4 him to death. 

"Near the town of Borissov in Bieloruasia, 75 women an<i 
fitTs uttemptJBg to flee at the appii>4i:h of the German troop-':, 
fell into their hands. The Germans first raped and thcti 
Hvagciy murdered M of th^r number By order of aGcrmiin 
ofacer named Hummer, the uldiera mudied L. LMeLdiukova, 
■ IS-year-old girl, into the forest, where they raped her. 
A little later Mme other women who had also been dragi;»] 


FoDd conftscfllJon KuJaV^stiiiB . . . 

U Feb. 41 

" Thg inhabitants oE Kgrdi are ordered to deliver all lamtly 
food jlpcks to the GgrmanKomrnanJas, Owners of undelivgrgd 
and detected suppliw wi]\ be shot . 

'' By the ne^t ordgr, Njmber 2, the tovfri couiicit ordered thfr 
i nhabitant:; lo regLsler^ifrmedLately all hehsT rmisters. ducks . 
mickgns, turkeys, geese, shegp, ;;qw:;; caLve£^ and cattle . 
Poultry owners uere strictly prohibited from ming fowl an d 
cattle for thfiir O'^vn needs without special permission of tTig 
cTerman commandant. After the publication of these orders 
a wholesale feardi of all apartments and houses began. 
"The members of the Gestapo behaved cutraggously. Foi each 
Rilogram of beapg or flour discov^ted In excess, the head ot 
the family was shot , 

*'TheGerin3ns initiated their monstrous atrocities by poisoning 
243 £hiIdr?Ti of school a^e." 

L ater on you will see the gmall bodies of these ehildrgn in ou r 

clocumentarv film . The infants bodies were thrown into the city 


"A:^c:ording to instructions issued by the German commandant, 
all the school children were ordered to appear at the school at 
a. given time. On arrival, the 245 children, school book? iA 
hand, were sent to a factory school outside the town^ 
allegedly for a wath. There the cold and hungry infaiitg 
^■ero offered coffee and" poisoned pies . Since there was not 
enough coiToc to £0 round, those who did not get any were 
sent to the infirmary where a German orderly Jtmeared their 
lips witK & quiek-aeting F^qison: 3n a (ew minutes all Ihe 
dilldren were dead^ School "Slldren of tht higher grades 
wtre tarried off in trud« and ahol down by machine gun 
Arc S kilomeltrs outside of the town. The bodies of the first 
batch of murdered diildrefi were brought to the same spot — a 
very lacgen very longf antitani: trench" 

I continue the quotation: 

"On the evening of 26 November 1941 an order, Number 4, 
of the Gestapo was pgsted in the town. In fOtnpHance with 
this order the inhabitants who had been previously registered 
With the Gestapo were to present themselves on 29 November 
between OSOO and 1200 hours at the Sennaya Square, with a 
3 dsy^i' supply of food. All the men and women were to 
appear, regardless of their age or slate of health. Those who 
did not present themselves were threatened with public 
execution. Those who arrived at the square on 29 November 
were persuaded that they had beeri sumrnoned In order Co 
be sent to work. At noon over 7,KH1 people assembled In the 
square. There were young boys, young girls, diildren of all 

IMT VII 493 

aiBr-lilrillim nm^, UHBf iban Du fiunl hefMut vf 

^ QirlMiltii 9LiiiJra( ^^irrwnl In CHdiadrDibU. CMa iri 

dit knPiDti dE Uirlr priALliDi -m «iminrt" 

Oi nil « i»r mil ir,fni ^r Iml IdanniriDD u b Ita ^^ 
niWL oT Ihf CjUuLU Cbiudb |p Ci«aHl°viU*- Ibli natgt m 
tt Plfv n f4 IB* dKdmraL bmk, ai^4 ^n^pfe, | qiHl* > 

-Id Ifai Inrlbty ibbuH U □unmoy miE 1U Uuqd ft^ 
1 bUTpH'I 4iE CJtA prlrtta In ntilwd rf Unlr pi^Bly «d 

•ipaDBL PUflflDMgH la w^mv^ IhJinh ttn pFOUbllDd 

-Al Ur mbink oF Lhr -ic 13T dLhaUr pjloB -or uddoi 
Ih. ikAiHed. Dif Cud F-I-LH- -O^hI -nd -bk U. «»D>a- 
HtUtu Bmj* u (Hnu" VtxrriA AuiA dlinLUil0 iian 

dnifH IB muBiT WUe fiBC In UHmULr II ■iHtCDrnDde 

pilHl jj Jti Ll Ib Jip. ri&Munnt sulluil ■ nil. ud hAiDd 

hfen a THJih la tt. SS ubITutb. mip U tuul' 

ft. ktLU^n Ikd Cl«m 10 PeCltaJ llu hTE-refl doD nillilw 

WH-QKlkiL I ipof Aoh nrnpH hnn Ikr LblL^ OHTiia^ 

I^Ht vliUi Uu i^mbn ar lU TrtbLmU vtlfe flnB im !■■«■ IP itf 

Ibi AeubibiI hrak 

'Br JuiBrr IMI ihiul in pnHU -rlr liU*]. UOD nn 
ta prikBJ 4r In WK-Binil(4 Bivf-" 

Itfl pABBfUllOB OF Uu I'lUCf HgU iDUDnbllEJI ifiu iJlT 

■f4UiT of FulU bnllBiT bj Uu OnDuii, Kinniai » Tmtr -a 

•nbi day ilbc Iha wnipiLlita 4^ Uiih* Uk Crmvu 
■ m J J HM UD piUtb,., I> V^F-kh- <k. .1—^1 riEUfe- 

hHbh al AiWdl*^ ^pHi w« xn^lMl uD ^1 U 

QThbuj. Ibr hnnrd Cubd Cb^UAL IB ynn vE Iff. 

i>d Wi ulHiil -nv Cf Hul-d IB n»4BUr laJH.' 

tWirm itf Ue hutfi Coemmra: quBkB dK luUd-Lnf Hd* 
•I CiidJuL JQUBd. 

T^ HBfU "i^ ptHBDiLrf «n (Ml^Uf. Tb»« »Ih *if" 
fUDLAiil Id my ■m lubmLri I? rjinnUli^loe, win fu*- 
Irnd IB 1l.r nrE:|H i' l-'krir |riile'iL duUti ifii ■PiniriLppfd 

iMnLj' IE Uv IHiEl 1 U\t (HlUpk , n b Uki dir 

fNotice that h< says he tooh an oath ia tall th« truth all his lilo in 1S1T) 

I be£ the Tribunal to all the witneu ot the Soviet PmecutiAn, 
the Archdearv of the churdws oC the City at Leningrad, the V«ry 
Kttvercad NUcoUL IvAnovitdi Lomakid. 

[Tht witnmst Lomakin took the itand.^ 

THE PRESmEtfT; Would you tell me your lame? 

(Wltnc»}i NlkolBl Ivuiflvhch Lamakin. 

THE PRESIDENT: It Jt the practice for you ta take ui oath 
befrae giving evidence or not? 

LOKUKIN: I am an Orthodox priat, 

THE PRESIDENT: WiU you take the oath? 

LOMAKIN: I belong to Ihe OHhodmc Churdi, and wh«n I 
entered the prierthood in i91T I took thg oath to teU the truth all 
my Ufe. Thii oath I remtraber tv&n to the preafcttt day . 

THE PRESIDENT: Very well You can alt, if you wtih. 

MR COUNSEa:^LC«-SMmN0V: Pleaje tell ui^ Wltnev, an you 
the Archdean-fK^ the Oiujdtes at the Ctty ot LenlngndT Do«« thAt 
mean that all the diUfthci In that city are aubotdlnatc to you? 

LOMAXIN^ Yts, all the churdiea an dlrectlf nibDranate to me. 
I am obUged to visit them periodically to dnqiect their covditLon 
and the L^e ot the pariih. I must then dake my report to His Grace 
the Metropolitan. 

MR. COUNSELLOR SfiORNOV: The churdtH cf the Lecdngnd 
region were alio under your luthorltyf 

LOMAKIN: They are not jubgrflnated to me *t the preaeDl time, 
hut durlnB <he sLeige of Leningrad by th£ GermBitf HAd the occupa- 
tion o£ the LeniiigrBd region they were under my authority, 

MR. COUNSELLOR SMIKNOV: After the Ubenttcm of the 
Lctviagrad region from the German occupation, were you obliged to 
vidt and Inspect the churches throu^ut the r^ion do the request 
of the PaCriardi? 

LOMAKIN: Not by request of the Patrlardi, but by request of 
the MetropoIitAn Akxet, ^niiD wu then itt the brad of the Leningrad 

MR. COUNSELLOR SMIRNOV: Pleaae apeak mora dowly. 

LOMAKIN: Not by request ot Patciarcb Alejcei— the Patriarth 
was then Sergei— but by request of Metropolitan Alexei» wh*i 
sdministered the Epan±,y And later became Pathttdl d Moscow 
tnd all Bus&l4. 

MR COimSfiLLOH SMIRNOV^ Please tfrll vm. Witness, where 
wef« you during the siege dI Lenii^rad? 

LOMAKIN: I wu aU the time in Lcoingnd. 


il ■■■rtllui aOtKoi 

■»"/ r 

d rt.7 HTlOldJ, dk_f4 fc/ 

nqUpHrmf b 

H EDilidj fl^Unrol Thi Halt IjIdII) CiQieiIjiI Lb Hit lamHlJ' 
PTibii inilEf^ i bwngnil ounKTiLnl hi InuLlTuI irbHk 
tH^f izpiTUDanmlUig Ibi IkhiIl Af ■ itT [ujJk--ik<|i h^Uo^ 
wu A4«nlt duu^ bf unpiutlit ih'ljlnf •mi hnmMnl b» ir>« 
atramim. Ihi root |vu OTckiD In. Hll IDi vulpCur* wu Dmfeui; 
mill I hB In^pili icnuln?!! 

UTLCOUKELLOn ^tlDlHOV' Till ld WlIdbi Iui- muy 
AorAa ■irrr i^mrrte ud hi» diult i>ar wrtwrii ^minJ Hi 

LOICUEIH. 7b CfaiBdi nF Ui Smbrw C-n-rv.T -h ikBod 
d^Ulil^ ^n»^ h/ ■bHIUfy HfL ItiU ALudi ■■■■ art ol^ hH 
kfriirllL bm ml 4liDii|a ■■u niuni En II by III —fit Ttr LllT^ 
■ItTV r<iii*J ir4[ dirnilv 14 jTiuniH l rrum am « in m^Dkn 
!■■] Ainku wfalita aiUlrird dihI Eiuti Um L«lIii|iuI lUii Tv 
hfllB ^'jUk Um Chiinh dE PiUki VUdl^r, wnmn, hf ^a «i^ 
1 biq U< «^dr dl ^mubf Al Ur priEBl Uirir Id Ha twom 
PthuiJI iBiEll Iha diA of JliIj, I -u iwUm °r cTij a..:A, ud 

I ifeajU !□> In ti-iiMini Tajr Hiift=l« —Hi <hr OUUrw^Bt mj 

ktoHbii bit luHblf iDdbaL Vb^dt onund in V-rtn I'>°r UU- 

Od bil^ 3<liirUy, tl H pm Umtjid iid^ Ihp Lclrnn JmnHB^ 

■»■ [Ml rml nvf c IliE [LIT . At 9 n 1-^ bnrrlif IbJ du Uir BI.Xl^ 

w^m ptrl at Ihi Oiiin^il Prl"" VltiOmlr. lb hllfahil bbb 

xpr«M* Vh |4rlQi- of nir 1— f ■ 

A tfHB abD« ffH AVO, TIWj tar 

klpW> fdrloo, Vrf^ <l„Dl H« dKilff il^ Htm >«4l<il al± 

JE -u I aiBH oE iiltar milalciiL Ftmtr wna hjd tul K llD* 
11 .DUf Un diUli^ Irtnl IV lUA tnv utl bJJi Id Ibo lU-iabJ 
SIdtM -kll<U<flllirii»li4liiil HleTr<L ^r:>ird I. 1>.>rr m-ii>D 
l&i viHi tf Uii diiiii^ ■>ii1lihf Uain. Tfii eanfUMJu eS Uu 
hulm au n tiiTj Uul Eu auH t*nvl dE Urnr Uim ~U ■ 
■-pIibL UI dT AincTDd alia. iwwnUi. iH |H>Ld <J Hiu-v Wha 
I Bmt dBvn EiHb t T°>a fli Uii iroBd flnt. T «ii qsllf lAumdrl 
Iq ITf ima btbjT oir. Fr^lt tli-kM i.».d b.' 

TJliU nUui ir( yui lUriT Uut hUiir, hiw eui «r 

. . . tnd llie DrDsden bambiiigi. 

It rwk m 

came out of the ctypi of Trinity Churdi for ■ l>rcHth of fresh air, 
■he WPS imrfiedisttly ahot by a Gennan sniper. The mother foHowci] 
in order to pidc her up, but she also fell down bleeding at the >ldt 
at her diUd. The edtiaen Romuhova, who related this lo me, it tUU 
nUvff, and I have ■eat her mbtiy times— die re<r«lis this incident 
with horror. And many were the Incidents of that kind 

MR COUNSELLOR SMJItNOV: TeU me, Witnes, tn t)ie Dthtt 
flistrids of the Leningrad j-tgion did you ever )witine« the dctecraUoa 
oi shrines and sacred objects? 

LOHAKtN: Yea, ioi example to Pikov. Pikov pmentvd ■ 
horrible picture of ruins and devastiition. 1 feel that I muvt recall 
to Your Honors that Pskov i^ a museum cj^y a rf^ririe of ^j ■ Oi^ 
thodox faith, ornamented. .hyjnumefous murchea^ and jJtintic<l~ 6o 
the Velikaya River «nd its trlbatariea. 

1ft that city, there were no leas then flO churdies of vfl rt't>m tJK* 
and various denomitiatlons. Of these TO were not emlv nrieftlwH 
monumentE of dmrdi ardiitogture of high artistic va^u e. with 
beautiful JcoTis and Jrgacos> but also wonderful higtoricalTOonumenti . 
reflecting all the ip-eatnaj and Cfentury-old multifogti hittory gf the 
Russian people. The Kremlin (walled city) — the Cathedral of Iht 
Holy Trinity . . . 

MR. COUNSEIXOR SMIKNOV: Well, ^n^iat did the Germane do 
to thoie diurdia? 

LOMAKIN: That is just what I want to relate. Th.^ KremHn^ 
the ^i^ole Holy Ttinity Cathedra l, with ita remarkable altar Kreea, 
WB« plundereij by the German BDldiers. Sveiythinf was earried 
Cut of it as well as out of all the other diunhes in the city' You 
won't find even a sit^le titty icon left, not a single <4iunh vestmetil 
or Bacramebtal vessel — all has been taken away by the Germana 
The Cathedral of the Holy Trinity— I speak a^ain of this Cathedral. 
I almost paid with my lite tar my visit there. Just half an hour 
before my arrival a mine exploded rifht in front oi the altar B'tec 
The ^ates were destroyed; the altar was blood-spattered. Before 
my own eye? I e»w three cS our Soviet loldlers vriio had pecifhed 
ta the explosion, right in front of the altai. 

Mines were also laid in other places. I could give another 
interesting detail. Pskov was Lberated In Aufuat 1M4, but oa 
Epiphany, in January 1946, another nune exploded, killing two 
pertuns. Likewise the diurdi of St. VasHi-ott-the-HiU was alfo 
mined. There a mine wai laid at the very entrance to the diurdi. 
In all the churches the abundance at all kinds of refusen <brt, bottlea> 
cuu, et cetera, was strikLngly noticeable. The Cathedxml of St John^f 
Monastery was turned by the Gennans Into ■ stable. In another 
churcht the Churdi of the £piphany^ they set up a wine cellar. Id 

iMT vrri J4J 


Since one fea«M Ihi iTuiattM an ballavHl guilty for KBtyn tt IwciUM small 
ti««s gf*w ovtr tht grWM, thi Garnuiit in conitinliT Kcuud of plintJitg them. 

eoluimif on Pmge 9 9f wr dKivnvnt- In your Ale thit quotitlen is 

m Pik£« IM ol the dDcununt book ; 

"Duiinf tht 2 ]r«m of SLavuta's occupatioEi. the HitleritH, 
with the connirancf at the German doctors Bofb*. Sturm, 
and other medical personnel, in. the 'Grosa-Lazarett,' extern 
miuted abaut 150,000 Red Army officer? and men." 

TbiB Geiman £t3cist executJoners. perfectly aii'arg Q^ the un- 
boupded besttaljtj of their crimes, attempted to conceal by alt 
^<^tblg means the trawj of the atroctties^cQmmrtlad. They espe - 
ciiilly endeav&rcd to camouflage thg burial rites of the Soviet pJis - 
ontrs oFwar T Thm> ^r Injtance. on Ihe cross oF Gf avo^^umlt&r sSl 
only ei^ht eumames of persona buried were indicated, whereas 
upon excavation 32 bodies were actually Eound in that grave. Such, 
twj, ivas the case when Grave Number E2-1 was opened up. In other 
gi'avei, layers of earth were placed between several rows o£ corp&es. 
For inslance, 10 bodies were found m Grave Number 625. WTien 
a layer of earth, 30 centimeters thid:, had been reinovedj two fur- 
ther rows ol corpses were found in the aame Brave; the same 
occurred at the excavation of Graves Number 627 and 62S. 

Numerous gravea were campuHaj;&d by nov.-er-bedj>. tree*. gla.iit3. 
patha. <t cetera^ but no disguise can ever hida the" bloody ctiriiis 
wnmltted by the Hitlerite evildwi^. 

If I am not mistaken, there was a case when one of the partic- 
ipants in these trials; evidently forgetting where he was and imd^r 
what circumstances, expressed a wish to follow the procedure laid 
down by German law. The Tribtina] immediately made the neces- 
sary inquiries, and the intent Ion of operating in accordance with 
the Btandards of German law was, of course, promptly' rejected- At 
prtsent I am fully able to submit to ihs Tribunal documents which, 
in my option, are of importance in our ca^e, although they are 
eornpiled in complete accofdance with the rules laid down by Ger- 
man law. 

Among the numerous documents found In tht police aidiives of 
the town of Zhitomir, Bed Army troops seized a certain piece of 
correspondence. This ii a police inquiry. Thi authors of this docu- 
ment could not foretell that It would be read into the record a: 
B session d! the International Tribunal for the punishment of the 
major war criminals. The documents constituting this correspond- 
ence were intended eKclusively (or the chiels cf police, and they 
wen compiled in accordance with all the customar}* rcqulrem^nij 
of German law and of the police investigations of fasci&t Germany. 
From this point of view, thou who would like to examine the docu- 
mentation in question can be trelt satisfied. 

At the same time this correspondence is useful to us. So much 
has been aaid in the comparatively small number of pages that 

IHT VII 405 


AlnWKt ivirr Holaciust witnns elaimffd w have wofked as an "intarprelar' 
or in an "office" ^i "laboratory '. 

trnfe. m 

MR. COUKSEtXOR SMIItNOV: Witncda, will you plcast telL 
how Kurt Fniu killed ■ womui who dabiwd Id be the titter q( 
Stgmund FKud. Do you nmcmlHT this iaclduit? 

SAJZMAN: A train trrived from VienA«. I wu itandlng on ths 
platform when the passengers left the can. An elderly wotnan 
tame up to Kurt Ptanz, took out « dKument, and laid that she wai 
the sister of SLffmund Freud. She begged him ta give her light 
Work in an. office. Franz read this document through v^ry seriQu&ly 
and said that there must be A mistake here; he led her up to the 
train schedule and said that In 2 houn a train would leave again fqr 
VieiLfiA. She Should leave aU her documents and valuables and then 
go to a bathhouse; aller the bath she would h«ve her docume^nts and 
a ticket ti> Vienna. Of course, the v^omaa went to the bathhouse 
■nd n«ver returned, 

MR. COUNSELLOR SMIRNOV- pleaje teU m> Witney why waa 
It that you yourself remained alive in Treblinla ? 

RAJ^MAN: I was already quite undiwied . and had to pus 
through this Hiounelfahrtatrasse to the gaa diamberSn Some 8,000 
Jews had arrived with my trauiport from Warsaw. At the last 
minute before we moved toward the irtrtet an engineer, Galevski, 
an old friend of nUtxe, whom I had known In Wamw for many 
yean; caught alght ol rt*. He wa» overseer of workers among the 
Jews. He told me that I should turn bade from the itrvet; and u 
ttiey needed an interpreter for Hebrew, Frendi, Russian^ Polish, and 
German, he managed to obtain peraoisnoti to liberate me. 

HR. CbuE4SELL0R SMIRNOV: You were therefore a member 
of the labor unit of the camp? 

RAjZbfAN: At Ont my work was to load the clothes of the mur- 
dered persons On the trains. When I had been in the camjp 2 days, 
my mother, my sister, and two brothers were brought to the camp 
from 4he town of Vinegrova. I had to watdi them being led away 
to the gas dumber?. Several dayi later, when I wu loading clothd 
on the freight cars, my comrades lound my w^^&'a documeftts and 
* Photograph of mv wife and child. That is all I have left of my 
family, only a photograph . 

ME- COUNSELLOR SMIRNOV: Tell us, Witness, how many per- 
■DOS were brought dally to the Trebllnka Campt 

RAJZUAN*: Between July and December 1M3 an average of 
3 transports of 00 cars eadi arrived every day. In 1H3 the tiwuporti 
arrived more rarely. 

MR COUNSELLOR SBtlBNOV: Tell ua, Witness, how many p*r' 
sons were exterminated in the camp, on an average, daUy? 

RAJ2MAN: On na average, I bc^eve they killed in Trebllnka 
from ten to twelve thousand penona daily. 

iMT vrir 33« 

(Hi wu an intarprator and pholognphar at HAuthaimn.) 

m Jilt. ■ 

BOEX: Th« camp was placed Ln the lust CAt^sory, category 3; 
that Is, It wu ■ camp from whidi no one could come out. 

GEN. RtTDENKO: I have no further iiucstionS' 

THE PRESIDENT: Doet Counsvl fdr Gt«at Britain desire ta 

COLONIX H. J. PHILUMORE (Junior Cmmael for United Kijig- 
don): Ho questlDO?.' 

TEE PdESIDBNT: Counsel for the United States? 

MR- THOMAS J. DODD (Eicecutive Trial Counsel for the United 

States): No questionA. 

THE PRESIDENT; Do My counsel for the defendants wljh to 

BEAR BABEL: Witness, how were you marked Ln the camp? 

BOIX: The number? What kind ot brand? 

HERR BABEL: The prisoners were msrked by vftriously colored 
alara, red, greea yellow, and so forth. Was this so in Mauthausen 
aUo? What did you wear? 

BOIX: Everybody wore insignia. Tliey were not stars; they 
wero trlAn^les and letters to show the nationality. Yellow and red 
vtan were for the Jews, stars with six red and jrellow points, two 
trianelej, one over the other. 

KERR BABEL: What color did you wear? 

BOIX: A blue triangle with an "S" in it, that is to say "Spanish 
political refugee." 

HERfL BABEL: Were you a Kapo? 

BOIX: No, I was an Interpreter at firstn 

HERA BABEL: What were your tasks 4nd duties there? 

BOIX; I had to trarisUte inlo Spanish ail the barbarig things 
tjie Gcnnana wished to tcU the Spanish prlsoi^eri- "Afterwards my 
worlt was with p hotogra phy, dcvetooing the films ^^jffl were jaTcen 
all over the camp showing the lull stocv of what happened ui th e 
camp . 

H£3^ BABEL: What was the policy with regard to visitora? 
Did visitors go only into the inner carap or to places where work 
wat belnf done? 

BOIX: They visited all the campSL tt was Imposrible for them 
not to know what wa* goina on- Eitceptiofl wa* made only when 
bigh officials or other important persons from Poland, Austria, or 
Slovakia, from all these countriei, would come, tlien they would 
ihow them only the best parts. Franz Ziereia would say, "See for 
yourselves." He searched out cooks^ interned bandits, fat and 

IWT VI 273 


(She wa» att office worker af AuschwHt, tMx's why she survived.) 

DR. MARX: For t^umpl? m • tndier? 

MME. YAILLANT-COtrnjniER: Befare th« varT I don't quite 
lee what this quHtiOn h»S to do with the matter. I was a joumjilist. 

DR. MARX: Yea, The lact of the matter jj that you, in youf 
itatemaitt showed great skSH in atyle and otpreMJon: and I should 
JiKe to know Tvhethgr you held any poattion auch, for example, aa 
tgdier or l&cturer " 

MME VAILLANT-COUTURIEa: No. I was a newapaper photog- 
rapher . 

DR. MARX; Hqw dg ygu e:cplain that you yourMlf came through 
theae gxperJences so welfand are ngw in sudi a good atale of healtn ? 

MaiE. VAILLAJJT-COUTURiER: First of aU, I was liberated a 
year a^o^ and in a year one hajt time to recover- Sec^ondlyv I was. 
10 months tn quarantine for typhiis and I had the ^reat lurit not 
to dje of «3CAnthcmatic typhus, although 1 had it and wu lU for 3'^« 
months. Also, in the last months at Rav«nabi\ick, as I knew German, 
I worked on the Revier roU calL which e»plaUw why I did not have 
to work quite 3t> hard or to suiter from the Inclemencies of the 
weather. On the other hand, Dvit of 230 at us only 49 from my 
convoy returned alive; and we were only 52 at the end of 4 months. 
t had the great fortune to return. 

DR. MARX: Yei. Does your statement conttin what you your- 
kU observed or is it coAcemed with InConnation from other sources 
as well? 

MME. VAILLANT-COUTURIER: Whenever such was the case I 

mentioned it in my declaration. I have never quoted anythinf? which 
has not previously been verifipj'at the sources Mid by several per - 
sona, but In* BMjQr part of my evidence is based on personal ex * 

DR. MARX: How can you explain your very pregJae statistica l 
knowledge, tor instance, that 700,000 Jews arrived froin_ Hungary ? 

MME. VAILLANT-COUTURIER; I told vou that I have worked 
in the offices; and where Auschwitz was concerned. [ wa; a friend of 
the secretarv {the Oberaufseherinl. whose name and address I gave 
to the Tribunal. 

DR MARX: It has been s^tated that only 350,000 Jews came from 
Hungary, according to the testimony of the Chief ot the Gestapo. 

MME. VAILLANT-COUTURIER: I am not going to argue with 
the Gestapo. I have good reasons to know that what th« Gestapo 
states Is not always true, 

DR. MARX: How wer« you tmted pcTHoally? Were y04] 
treated well? 

IfrST VI J29 


Anyvne w4io doas a bit of restfirch can find dJozons oi photographs of haalthy, 
w»ll-fad inmatis from any Gefman concentration camp. 


r-tic- 1 — 

a M-132 

I hereby certify u follows: 

1, The MaulhauscT] Chain of Concentration Camps varJed fn 
jjumbpr from twenty to thirty or more, depending on the needs of 
jiii>- spoc^ifit work Hjsjgnnieni. 

7. As shown in EXHIBITS 2J, 22, and 201, the captured records 
iri.liralcd tht names ol mosl of thee camps, which varied in siie 
ri'om the huge fortress of Mauthausen itsflf, to » tmnll detadicd 
liit:tT HinJlar to STEYR or L£NZlNG. LENZING for example, like 
Siiyr [Sec EXHIBITS B6, Jfi4 and 16^) were detadiments from 
MiiUlKausen sent uid billeted In Barrtdis to run two large faclaries. 

5, The nup htrtia included as EXHIBIT ZDl shf^wi the locations 
or these named camps with most importanl route numbers leading 
1ji them. It is thus seen that the majority ol these camps w«r« 
roMlpd EAST of the RrVER ENNS (whidi flows into the Danube 
itud passes through STEYR and ENNS-TOWNSHIP, AUSTIUA], 
fitiA, therefore, are of Rusian concern^ since this river is the present 
liilMTiational Occupatitm Bou^dry between ounelves and the 
Soviet Un^on. 

4. However, the remainder oi the camps (as shown la EXHIBIT 
'l(\[), tmounting roughly to about 13, have been acoounled for Jn this 
pn^cnl invMiigation. (See list of Ejchibits) Jhe ao-callcd mo5t 
nt'torious of these camps are> of course, fltyt MAUTHAUSEN (ranked 
v.iih AUSCHWITZ as by far the largest ^nd worst of all Coftcen- 
ii^.t.onCamMl: EBENSES franked bvpa«v as worse than DACHAU 
>Lt only an inferior Aussenla^ar (Brandi) lo MAUTHAUSEN); 
(JirSEK, divided Into two Urge branches named NUMBERS ONE 
and TWO and of lar^e sire in then^elves- GUNSKIRCHEM and 
3TEYR, (See EXHIBIT W), Aombejin^ at capacity five-thousand 
ptfiple. (Sec EXHIBIT 19i&>. 

6. "Many of th»e camps were evacuated atmost tmniE^fately upon 
hkTation,even»laivea one a£ GUKSKIRCHEN. (See EXHIBIT «4.) 
This camp was said to have numbered is many as lltfiOO prinmen 

p1 nnp time, but however, GUNSKIRCHEM, like STEYR and 
I'ENZIKG and the LINZ GROUP (Eichihit 2Z), and even EBENS£E> 
UATP not eoutpacd for Mf|S? Murdey fExtermlnation^ like Mau)- 
i;<uspn and the Guaern. and when deaths were *reQuired" othgy 
lTi:in through gtarving. beating^ exposure, or laA of hvtfenic treat - 
1^' lit, the prisonera "were disoatAed either to Ma^thauaen or the 
t?\isoni where a 1 1 were labelled for eventual annihilation . (See 


Evervone has seen picturfls like this . . . 


while photDgraphs like tKis one have simpiv been 
ignored by th« mass medta. 

Wis Bs dis Aufschrift an tier eiiBmaiigsn Stoffen-LottcmoUve anetautst rOsfsn srcrt tiie ki/rz vorher bsfreiten LvjfemOurgEf von 

^bensse schon zur Heimatrstse 

Samatag, den ai. April 1990 


TtiBSB pjc1uie$ WBCB taken after the liberaiian 
of EbtmiB (Miuthiusin) on Miy 6, 1945. 


TMs pJclUTB stiQws l!iE same peopfe pdsiitg in 
the background witli sDms "liuiitg skeletons". 

A close up. 



PJufe LJirfT Y4a] hJictB, ipnnbbp iflUn, ind 

-22 U 

A cbsC'Uii of the high-dive. 

photo cfBilils: Club Amicale Mauthausen 

The concentration camp formei inmates clubs are 
a rich source of healthy-looking souvenir photos. 


These people have just returned from bein^ 
'umgesiedett" (e^iplieinism for eiTermmalian) . 





Heimkehr: 22. Mai 19^*5 

MDre exteiminated people. 

A Dactiau inmate. 






Photo ciedit: Conseil National de la Resistsnce 

Healthy inmates teaving Buchenwald 

Hi* Mmtri BiclmiwiW, l^BfrfcaarB. ban ilMir Itaek "SiniliimPiiH ' 


Buchenwstd inmates on April 14, 1945. 
The man with the gla&se$ losi weight aFtei his release. 



H Ihn 'liong AiIhIVN' ftiB nnl b FieI Uir UCIimi Dl HpidBmiC fldiail 

Hin phT pdi n ueiiuri ■ bum itw iiftt'EAinl 

Tvpical midoet-sized (non-portable] oven. Dachau. 


Las'l'T' Nunmbarg was a fiasco. 
Witnassu w«te intariooited under (ha laws of the Satri«1 Uniofi . . . 

11 Tab M 

THE PREStDENT: Colonel Pokrovsky. the Tribunal understand 
that the ftrst interrogatory to which you refer — General L&hr's — 
which is contained in Document Number USSR-253, is an official 


THE PRESIDENT: The official document of your Government- 
The other InterrogatDry to which you refer, of Field Marshal Paulus, 
Is not an off^ciial do-cument, is it? 

COL. POKROVSKY: The minutes of the interrogatipn pf Field 
Marshal Paulu^ have begn compilpd in comp liance with all Leeal 
standards of prQceduce'apptying to suS^nterroflat ions by ju dicia l 
orgartUatjons tn the U.5SR" He is interrogated as a witness writh 
the warnin^that he mugt tell the truth, in accordance withi Ar- 
ticlgs 95 and '&5 of our pgnaj codg- These doemnents^ in the U.S.S.R.., 
aro considered as absolutely official dpcument^^ of full probative 
value, to he submitted to the Tribunal when necessary , 

THE PRESIDENT: Could you tell us where th^ interrofiatory 
was made? 

COL. POKK0V5KY: Paulus vas interrogated In person in Mos - 
cow, on 12 January 1946 . This, Sir. must have been pointed out at 
the beginning af the int^ rragation. 

THE PHEStDE?JT: The date is on the document, but not the 

place. Go on» Colonel. 

COL. POKKOVSKYl With your permission, 1 shall continue my 

quoEation from the minutes of the interrogation of Field Marshal 

Paulus, submitted to you; 

"It was clear to the Hungarians that Cerman^''s assistance 

was in order to prepare the Hungarian Army in good time 

and in advance for future combined military operations, thus 

Incorporating an ally into its ranks. 

"With the later attack on Yugoslavia, which followed this. 

there was no need for special explanations as to the object 

of these military preparations. 

"It was clear that armed forces were being made ready for 

war with the U.S.S.R., as the attack on Yugoslavia was part 

of the operation^tl plan for the attack on the U.S.SR. 

"With the defeat ol Yugoslavia, the right Rank, which was to 

be formed at the beginning of military operations against 

Russia, was secured." 

I shall l^ave out one paragraph which deals with another subject, 

and continue to quote: 

"The preparation of the combined German-Hungarian attadc 
on Yugoslavia was eniruiled to me. On 27 or as March 1941 

IMT VII 237 

Judicial notice was taken of rtie ftnilings of Soviet courts . . . 

tj r«b. «ft 

Article 21 is perlectHy cJear, ^nd it directs the Tribunal to take 
judicial notice of the vahouA documents which are there set out> 
and expressly refers to the records and findings of military or other 

;pres5 tgrms by Artklo 2\ to take juai 
thaT'"abe& not prevent defendanEs' counsel, wh^n "the^Tnalt^Rerr 
speeches in defense, from criticiiing the evidence upon which ihat 
record and findings proceed; buMo say it ought not to be admitted 
appears to mc, at any rate, and I *hink to the other ^r^cmbcrs of the 
Tribunal to be really enticely unfounded as an objectipn. 

DR KAUFFMANN: I thank you. 

MR. COUNSELLOR SMIRNOV: May 1 continue. Mr. President 
Thus the document which has been submitted to the TT'ibunal will 
be found Pn Page 67 of the document file in their possession. I shall 

allow myself to repeal in my ov-^n words the hiogrAphical data con- 
cerning the Defendant Le Court, who was brought before a court- 

He was npt sti 3S man, but a non-Party senior corjmral of the 
German Army, 27 years old. He was bom and lived, before the 
war, in the town of Stargard; was owner of a cinema, and was later 
mobilized in the army^ where he served in the Isl Company of the 
4lh Airborne Division. I begin to Quote the statements in evidence 
given by Le Court contained in the section entitled "Judicial Inves- 
tigation" beginning with Paragraph 2, The Tribunal will find this 
place in the document book on Page GS, fifth paragraph. Le Court 

"Prior to my capture by Red Army soldiers, that is. before 
February 1944, 1 served as laboratory assistant in the Isl Bi- 
cycle Company of the 2d Air Force Infantry Regiment of the 
4th Air Force Infantry Division at the headquarters of Air 
Field Service E 33/XI. 

"In addition to photographic material, I handled other work 
when not on duty, thai is to say, I spent my free lime for 
my own pleasure in shooting Red Army prisoners of war and 
peaceful citizens and soldiers. I used to jot down in a special 
book the number of prisoners ol war and peaceful citizens 
I had shot." 

I omit three paragraphs describing the shooting of prisoners of 
war by Le Court, and continue the quotation. . . 

THE PRESIDENT: Colonel Smimov, the passaEe that vou read 
a moment ago about jolting down the numbers tn his booit does 
not occur in the translation which is before me. I do not know 

IMT VII 463 


DocunMnts and BKhibits w«r« introdjcad into 
flvidBncft under the laws nf Commurii^t cgiintriH . . , 


atftU bfrl Kftitel und wtintm buienpolitiidten Ratgcber, General 
B e L n c c k e, der »benso weLchlidi war, wiUig«9 Gehor. ECeiteL genoB 
keinerlei Aruehen in der Wehrmadit, was natilrllch auch nuf die von 

- StlK ■• — 

ihm g*Iiihrte Behorde, dai OK-W.. den Arbeitsstab des Fiihrefs 
mtiidfEflel. Voruberg«Ji«nd flel er beim FOhrer stark in Unmade, 
lieO fiber alle E^emutifimg^n uber sich ergehen und blieb in seiner 
Stellung; wahrfchfinlich wAr Auch hier Goring' fur ihn einfctreten. 

Gftnr unabhingig von Keitel Jat der Generalober^t Jodl zu 
beurteilen, der der eigentllche Leiter der Operationen im CroBen 
Hauptquartier *ar und dies AjtiI all die Jahre lang mit groOer 
Buhe und Sadike.nntniSj mit Scharfblick wnd lielsicherem Urteil aus- 
ilble. Er war vielleidit der einzifie Armeeofflzier im OK W., der 
den Etegriff „Wehrm ach t si (ih r u ng" von vomherein vol! in 
■tch aufgenommen hatte und darnach handette. Zr war seiner 
FdiwLerigen Stellung vaU gewachsen und fullt>e ile vom ersten 
Kriegst«£e bis zuletzt sehr fut aus. 

Er utrstsnd es. aeineti SWndpunk; dem Fflhrer geEenuber rtets 
x^ihig und sichlich zu vertreten, sodal3 die Atmosphere der Zusam^ 
menarbeit fast allgcmeln cine c^nstiga war, ZuuinmenEtti&e ver- 
mledan wurden und Jodl seinen Standpunkt meist durdisetzen 





Orin. Bmji^n (mlmr».>, Polish (lypcwr.t, »nt\ Ccrmtn («rig. t-^rill; RuifiiH |iif1 
prlnlEd In re-rltficJ Eng'. Trinv; P'olith p>rl^j duljr wiln.rtt«d tdtrbitfil ^(4fiDf 
ihf I^ITPI*' ff{ t^^ Cfrnrjl C*m«^il>'mi far Icnf tli|;jtLan of Ccrmin Criiru-i tp 
Palin J u:ii fijcncJ by ^Iiri« Atlcr, Ki'ii*! t'lrtlctillrt 0-t h-tr JcpOi"t«li*i^ •nu 
riuhjujcttian 14 f^r^ttl Uh^r — DOL reprojti^'d: frdnt a-nd hirk. cove-r «f 'Vmplpv- 
WthI tftrd'i t^pwieg lihgBgii nf ■ pig lUmprd thtft^n, r*|if^Mi^^d i& fanirnil^ 


iH^vr,-: -- ,. 

m mii-sji 



Round ftamp: Labor Office Breslau (ArbeiUamt BreslauJ 

St^mp: "President of the Police in Breslau — Screeiung 

center for loreigners." 

On the left side of the document two columns with the 

headings: Space for remarks of the Economy Office (Wirt- 

fichaltsamt) and: Space for remarks of the Labor Ofdce 


4) 4} B u b b e^r_s tamp, rep re_se nj i n g a P ^ g; 

The true and entire photastat of the above document was issued by 
the Subcom mission and attached to this certificate. 

The witness Uaria Atler declared mider oatti _that_the _ab_Qve_men - 
iioned employment-card was issued to her in 1944 while worklnfl 
as a forced laborer in Germany and that such employment cards 
representing a pig, have been iaaued bv the 

— PiK t — 

Translation of Document USSR-4e8 — cont'd. 

Labor Office in Breslau (Arbeitsamt Breslau) to all workers of Polish 
nationality who were employed in forced labor, 

AccordiiiB to the Penal Code of the Polish Government and the 
Decree of 10 November 1945 about the Central and District Com- 
missions for Investigation of German Crimes in Poland (Law Ga- 
zette of the Polish Republic No. 51, article 293) thi^ document 
costitutea eyidence a nd is a supplement to the report of the Polish 
Government of ^^ January 1946 submitted to the International 
Military Tribunal according to Article 21 of the Statute. 
Nuernberg, 23 January 1046. 



Certificate of Transition 

r, Frank A. Esterkin, ET 21>073, hereby certify that I am thoroughly 
conversant with the English and Russian Janjauagea and that the 
above is a true and correct translation of Document USSR-46&. 

F. Esterkin 


Err 20073 

Thi iklirriiali *ir 

BZoTiH mlT^u ir BIT t 

3J? DVim unxWELL-nn. Wrll. ] lu^v uTii^ili l-rt iL 
FDEllili-] biv« rfid L}it OiilWi I^iU^Um d bL. Ilj T^d, h I 
■Biinv BiKi lI hii iHn UduliIH LbIii Iha ulhur littluj|n 

Til* >ii, -hiIihImiii mm Uu Ddnidinli H*B irri FfIHV U 
pjl HI Inlirrnplu^ ti Grarnl DdiichiIl EC J wy pAl IM ulV*' 

lUm qiBB AiiEL>, 111! lUlFt Drt HDII pOlBl M Ihi BlipllEAliini on 

aHayltlBlurllr.nilirHaiir Hif Urnio] Bui™ Wir D-p^in-ni- 

rtt dAJhUdq dT llir Pn^mtln V th- ■ 

HQIiE'L. thai iQlUDUiugHdUBU 

ukl WL IfL an EtiMflt 

Sp il b g 

v.lh^ O.ui'.Lii uij UtE (*njlrd Sum QEHcr "^ 5L>.Uf.[ BirrlrM. 

Therc^l bppllullHU an \^i*ti cJ Hi' Sj-ii For Iha 
jnirniil or mUln Bi*i"niBnU xMH tn Ib IJe pmuuiiL Tli» 
Tnwi/nn/n *■« re DliiMllDa En Hit Biipaiulini Tlirj •tfft "I" 
wlfhl m uutr IDF IndliJihil obdEiUni --tn Ul dromuilk w 
(Tidind ■■ Uir THilr 

U^ Lai4, l}if bbK Ji ■ p^Trlj |i>ttti*I pppli— Imn an bibiD rf 
** PfPnaPiM JfyfL 'iJlw-* Ml* If Tin* lulDn ILu Tjlbiirul, to iW 

in HKfliinl dF Di.ljhiTiBUL ^rci q II4 <iIi>rIJijti Bi EIijI 

Stxt li IBi BoglKjIJiai m. IwlulT nl Ibr DiTmbaL Hal . . 
TKI PFLESIDEnr Sir l>i<'|i], HiK ipplUillon '< ^.tn ILradf 
UmiA Wt h«iiF hrarJ Ui' Pnuriwnli TwIUbI la lull ibD Uu IjIImI' 

SDL DAVm HAX^VEUrFyrZ 11 ViJiD LdHlAlp plna-l. 

Tfem 1 IhDik I}ii1 iuIf luva ■□ apEiln'iliDn rf Hir ITrrnbil 
Hf.lrl r» Lhr >iv Dl B 4E<»t «l HLiIri ^ JD luLy ]h4, infl 1"- 
Pf4iuiHliDD Jiu m Dbl«ll« Id Lhal, 

U» Und. J ll>iii>. I hivr driLi r^iir. nrij ooe anpl Vir Unl 
ue, fhlrl. BT Ir.nid CoiitjI Piid«k4 .ill dizkl .klb-lb± ipjiU- 
ntib nl 04 DrinnlBrE G4niiS 

□KJllliUL H. A. RLHUUJKO (niri Prb.«iilD. In- C U9^]l[< 

UrndiEn nf Uu TtIIjubiI, Ibi fimn Pi^woIJu btii hwihI ItoB 
VKprT»T<l Uirli 'I** irirrMBi Ibo itvUgiUm of lUm* CoDUd 

lUl^L rtkh ■— m ■ ^niuBliBlliMi |J .q i- iKfll] WBlrillllllMR 
p*l?'l? H j r f B j iil[B IftvtJimaM ife drtimWi»j« d Oie ^m itoi- 
SgT^^A dlixr fclHiHH id wu tj tbt Dtniu h^B ijiii 
HTf h Vtiyii PHfl. Thf 4hHiHin vd pinaflM It U* BnlH 

Fnvnllrai UU«r mt 1tof.n>«| HiHtar Uai^E-BI « H nbmiET 


Any "rijiorf' wrhtin by tli« prosecutor was considered "proof" at the defendants' 
Built and was not considered suiiject to argument . . . 

IMfl, «nd was Admitted by the Tribunalj and, u provided by 
Article 21 ol the CKarler, It ig not subject to argumer^ t. 

Now th« Defense once Hgain are putting in an application 
for the calling of three supplementary witnesses — a psydiiatrist, 
Slodtfii] a former adjutant of the Engineer Corps, Bohmert; and 
a jpeclai expert oi the staff of the Army Group Center, Eichbom. 

We object to the callinB of these three witnesses for the follow- 
tn£ reasons: 

The calling of the psydtiatrist Stodttrt »s a witness must be 
con$ider?d completely poinlless as the Tribunal cannot be interested 
in the question ol how thg conuni^ion drew its conclusion — 9 con^ 
elusion whidi was published in a Hitlerite IVhJtc Book, No matter 
how this conclusion was drawn, the fact ot the mass shootittfi of 
Poles by Germans in Katyn Forest has been unequivocally estafc^ 
liahed by the Soviet Extraordinary Stale Commissi qh . 

Stockert himself is not a doctor of iorensic medicine but a psydu' 
atrist — at that time a member of the Hitlerite commission, not on 
the basis of his competence in the field of forensic medicine, but as 
1 representative <tt the German Fascist military command. 

The former adjutantj CapUjjj B'^hmerl, is himself a participant 
in tee crimes of Katyn J Tpre s t i hJivine been a member of the 
Eneineer Corps whidi earned Out thg execuljons- As he is an inter - 
ested party, he cannot give any useful tesUmon^' for clarifying the 
circumstances of this matter. 

Third, the expert of the etaft of the Army Group Center also 
cannot be admitted as ■ witness betatise he. in generah ki^ew 
nothing at all about the camp of the Polish prisoners of war, and 
could not have known all that pertained to the matter. The same 
reas<^iB apply to his potential testimony to the fact that the Ger- 
mans never perpetrated any mass ahoatlng of Poles In the district 
of Katyn. Moreover, Eichbom cannot be considered an unprejudiced 

ReeardleSS of these abjections which express the opinion of all 
the piosecutorsK the Soviet Prosecution especially emphasize the 
fad that these bestial crimes of the Germans in Katyn were investi- 
gated by the special authoritative State Investigating Conunittee, 
whldi went with great precision Into all the details. The result of 
this investigation has established the fact that the crimes in Xatyn 
were perpetrated by Germans, and are but 1 link In the diain of 
many bestial crimes perpetrated by the HiUerites, n great many 
proofs of which have previously been submitted to the Tribunal. 

For these reasons the Soviet ProsecutLen categorically insjsla fflv 
the rejection of the application of the Defense CounseL 

J have Anished my statement 



Aaj oroumHtst i»<rtisn madi b^ 1^< proffltvten wh eoniirftr«d 
"provsn" Uftkst iN dtftrtdiHrti couU dsprovfl it . . . 

A Junt 4i 

DR. LATEBNSERr You have bI^d scon the Rim which Ihc Ru^ian 
ProKculfon have ^owrti tn this couiirDom. ind which ihDW4''d 
HtrociticE tommitted in Ihe Vw£m1sv thealer of wir. Can you 
cjcplain aRy of tht pictures whidi you perhaps stJi] recollect? 

JODL: ] b«]icv« thai every picture ihown in Ihii courlroom is. 
and was, pcrfeeilv tniihful as a picture. YhPM were v^vWi^^ 
ifihotograiihs. But it has never bbcn said vt-hat thg pholQjirapbs 
rcorc-scnttd. H WAS iw i clear tron^ the film whether the dgg that 
was, mauling a human bglne was not phoiocraphed in an 9^ttay 
doc traininj; wnttr . 

THE PRESIDENT: That is mere arCUTngnt. 

DR.LATERNSER: 1 was about 1o etoD him , 


DR. LATERNSER: 1 was thinking of wrlain phDlogriphs u-hidi 
you rnight be able Ici clarify with a stalemeni mv. "I rdnember one 
photograph Of * pohcf dag. Jumping at a human 'being or > dvinmy." 
Can you say . . ^ 

THE PRESIDENT: You asked him sbout these photographs, 
and he says thai Ihey were aU truf — in hi« opinion^lrue pidufes; 
and be didn't take them. He doesn't know anythli^f about them, 
dud anything that he can <ay upon th«in appean to U5 to be 

DR. LATERNSER: I will withdraw that question- 
Ctneralobentt was L^uvain captured in the niamieir a$ tesUftH 

by Ihe wjtness Van der Essen? The witness Van der E$scn taid that 

Louvain was taken wiLhaut fighting. 

JODL.: I have aBcertained thai the Armed Tonss communique 
of. ] think, U M*y coniBins Uie lenience, "L*uvain taken after 
heavy fighting." But I do not believe . . . 

THE PRESIDENT: What was the place that you are asking 

DR, LATERNSER: I asked the witness in v/hat way Louvain wu 
captured: whether it was only evacuated by the enemy» and then 
occupied, or whelher the town had to be (oueht for. The witness 
has sial^ tha4 there was no fightJns lor Louvain. amt that therelore 
it was a particularly despicable act. 

THE PRESIDENT: How did it affecl the General Staff? 

DR. IATERN5ER; Well, in that case, Mr. President, I do not 
know who should be blamed for this event. I cannot sec any 
«punecti<w with any one ol Uie defendants; tnd it nobody can be 
blamed for it, we must strike out the whole event. 

IMT XV 415 

Efhctivfl crefs-aximHiition w«s tjmply not illowtd. 

II JBn.41 

DR THOMAS Wm RflMiitwrg nloneT 

BLAHA: No, he was with the other peraonl. 

DH.THOMA: Tlut is to uy, ooly with the »mp comnuader? 

BIAKA: No, there were many other people with hLm. 

DB. THOBfA: Hut is to »y, he had mb. escort, m itaff? 

BLAHA: Yed. 

PA. THQBCA: Members at RoienbeT^i lUff? 

BLAHA: I don't know whether that wh Bo«nb«rg'j atatf, but 
there were ■ number of pcrutu. 

DR.'mOMA: A number of persona? Witnea» the Defenduit 
Boaenberg aBures mg most definitely that he haa never been to the 
concentcHtipn' camp at Dachau , Is it peaiiblt that there haa been 
A miitake? 

BLAHA: T believe I im not mistaicen. Besides the Gcimaii in 
question knew itoseuberg very well, I believe. 

DR. THOMA: Ejow do you kiM)g that ? 

BUUIA; Because he told me » definitely. Otherwise* I have 
no way of knowing that, 

DiLIKOWA; y«; 

THE PRESIDENT: You will forBive me Lf I PQJ^t out to you 
that thlj la Intended to bej^^xffl&ditious trial and that it it^^ 
right to taTce up too mudi time upon jsmall points like thii. 

DR. THOMA: My Lord, I aak your pcrznlssion to remark th»t 
the question of whether or not K(K«nbirg was in the concentration 
camp is of decisive importance. E thank you» 

DR.OnOFA»NEMB£CK£R (Ccnuuel for Dftfenditnt FiidE)^ The 
Defendant Fridt states that he has never be^n in Dadian Camp '. 
Therefore, in order to clariZythe fact^ I should liice to aak the 
foilowlng questions: 

Witness, it what distance do you believe you saw Fridc7 

BLAHA: t taw hJm from the window aa he passed with a 
number of people. 

DR.FANNEKBECKSR: Did you know Frldc bcIoteT 

BLAHA: Yea. £rom pictures. 

DR. PANNENBECKER: Fcom picturesT Did you re»fCkl» bim 
youirself or did lotne friend tell you that it was Frlck? 

BLAHA: A number of us «w him and I looked at him partic- 
ularly, becatue at that time he was already FrDtei:tar of Bohemia 

IMT V i„ 


TliQ dflfaftdBnts v¥6F» not iltowsd tb take the itind 
to contradict tha prosftcutiiHi witims«» . . . 


bad IfonvU. for that nuon I had a pcnonml intereft iik 
mognlzin^ him. 

DR. PANNENBECKSR: Pld Fiidc wear a uniformT 

BLAHA^ I da not believe to. 

DR PANNENBECKEH; IHd you recognize anybody who was 
with him, anyone from bis ataA or from the camp ooinxnaadf 

BLAHA: I did not know his sUS. Fnm the camp unuAnd 
there was Camp Commander Welter. Camp Comraander Welter, 
and his adjutniit, Otto. 

DB. PANNEKBECP231: Could you nama anyone of your ««- 
radea who also reca^aiud him? 

BLAMA'. There «ete many comnda of mlae who at that time 
weiT tlB-rtdipg at the window. UaiartunatclyT I nnnot ny who 
they were, because, as you will understand, Uie in the conceatration 
camp WH3 sa lull of incidcnu that one could not record these thUiga 
accurately in one's memory. On« remembers only the more 
bnpOFtant events. 

DR- PANWENBECKEK; Did you recopuM him at once of your 
own accord when he [taised by, or had it becia mentioned previously 
that Fridc was expected? 

BLAKAr No. It was not mentioned then. We simply heard that 
a high-ranking visitor was expected, and we were waitLnft for this 
hiAh-nuklng visitor. We were not told beforehand who it would be- 

DR PANNEHBECKEB: Did you recogniie FriA immediately 
when you came into the courtroom, or did you know beCorcMod 
that he waa sitting La the fourth seat here? 

BLAHA: No^ I reco^iied him easily, because I have already 
seen him many times In various pictures, and because he U a weU- 
known person in Bohemia and Monvia- 

DR, PANNEI^BECKER; Vou believe theft that there can he no 
quesUan of any eiror. 

BIAHAt I don^t think so. 

DR. PANNENBECKER: May I then a^W the Court whether Tridc 
himjelf may take thg jtand to testily that he has never s een Dachau 
Camp? I want to make this motion now so that. Lf necesHiT. the 
witness mij<ht be confronted with Ffidg- 

THE PRESmSNT: Counsel for the defendants will understand 



n Jul. ft 

VI opportunity, eadi of them, to ctU the dcfcndtnt for whom they 
Appear, if they wish to. 

DK. PANNI^NEECKER: J simply thought. thatjM theyilnfr^ is 

available now ... 

/£>r. Kifbuichok appTCMchrd the lecl^m.j 

IHE RESIDENT; It u now 5:00 o'dodc «nd unleis you Lie 
£Oing to be very short . . . are you EOJ"E to be VBry shqrt t 

DH. &GOK XTBUSCHOK (Counsel loi^ the Heidi Cabinet): 
Yes, Sir. 

/THjmin^ to the trntncM.} Witnesa, you maid that when prominent 
visitors came to the campn 'ot instAnce, Reidi minifterc, exlenfiive 
preparations were made beforehand. You also said that undesirable 
persons were removed. Maybe you could supplement that atate- 
ment 1 am interested to know what the purpose of these prepara- 
ttonx was, 

BliAHA: I meant that everything hsd to be in order. In our 
inilTTnary all the patients had to Ue Id b«d quietly, everything was 
washed and prepared; the tnxtnimenta were polished, as is usually 
the cue for hifih-nuXing vidtotv- We were not allowed to do 
anything — no operatioos; no btutd»g«s ]]0r food were fivea out 
before the visit had terminated. 

DR KUBUSCHOK; Could you perhaps tell me whidi undesir- 
able perfons were to be removed, as you taid before? 

BLAHA: Well, the Russian^ especially were always kept strictly 
in their blodu. It was said that they were afraid ol possible 
demonstrations, aua^inations, tt cetera. 

DJl. KUBUSCHOK: Wert prlwuers kept ™t of Ught because 
they showed outward signs of ill-treatment? 

ELAHA: Tt ^oes Without uying that before the visitors nobody 

was strudt, beaten, hanged, or executed. 

Dlt KUBUSCHOK: To mm up, the purpo&e of these prepara- 
tions was to prevent the guests irom seeing the concentration camp 
as It really was. 

BLAHA: From seeing the cruelties. 

DK. KUBUSCHOK: Thank you. 

THE PRESIDENT: The Court will not ait in open lession tomor- 
row, Saturday^ and will only sit In the morning on Monday, because 
there is work to be done In the closed ccBion tomorrow and on 
Monday afternoon, t thou^t It would be oonveulent for counsel 
to know that 

The Court will now adjourn. 

[Tht Tribunal odjovmed vnsil H Janvory 1949 vt IQQ9 KourrJ 


ThfE PRIflDtrr nio Trl..jny1 1h.ii>: ^^ r>n mv thjl !,> ^,- 
.t,^ »h^ Ih. -^n. u[ tL.>... 1^1 i>^ .k.! -» r,flL 

' lilfj ["IE UlMB l)^ DiufrH^ Hr ulil il Vi UiUiI ynu rubrlil irL 
DB. Hb- BTB^irmHr UmK dn ]h mkipilT UuL >?utl lih<T 

y« V*Tf ^H |l^ mc^. WH)>Bb. «>.^ liW dut ..Pt .grFI. ■HHl^fl 

uanccN 1 Dtd 

DiLUr, .nd hn ..,- h.. It In ■«n,.d,MLim .-lih g^hu *a itol 

■■JITI imhfr d*»IH uhcul bl 

HHUt PEliCKM'itri Mr Fmldrnl ir I urHlKnl«<fl mr^ly, 

Uwwlinfd II U jidc noTt HfdlblV l?|i|'"nn? T hr flBH TIM Hf 

IIbI m lUEli Hid BKlipiliili il ll^ lEPImmy dI Blilii lir Ini audi 
«nd Wdi in irliimliiii Ih^ PrfoniiUiDi <ib hj lir did ml r^hia>n| 
-I- II ThiL II p-y Hidrivn. PIfu. lanmH w, Vaid Lmdihup, If 

THE. PHIEIDENT Ht |»i I— n hii msMT" i" I-* "-r -L 

Didiij TVe EfiliLiB.I li.t hHuiiEL Ihc tviJciin .Ed LrHjrrwnj 4if 

- ■ TTinnhlilUH 


II 11- ITnin fcci ■« widi 
IHr quEiiInn 

n^n\lflhtk.^\=,^IV.\ly^ br\,l\i pnn. ,^J I>K>T|Jlfl piflur 

En na In Uir lisl qmaliai Lvblili li ol Impaliiwi nfinBiii fmir 
nrflbdll^. bnl riFi. tf-r Lh- iDinnnni Ln Ih. -■! ys- ^— f^ 
II li«n 4uv< tarnn* 

UDILUBI' 14 Al iThV [li°r d i4ir niLlitw I >«■ -Hid J-nJu 
In BrHl»j Wbrn 1 rami M (lEmiDy <llu usii lime, I biud LIh 
tK wu li.dl.4 h. m. _k KE«.ni [J nv l-nwWgP .Ln.1 ^nup- 
Inaim HD]B I npulfd l« IIm CIC KuJqiirtrn KibiAtIIii- 

fnoifaHtn Tih i^iMT, md MN I w.. i>.d» Eq hr1|» (lfa¥ \J9 IB*" 

□Bnii 1 fir iw^ lEBIinani an Ihc uiu |i|wj vluli I AlUmplEd 
IB IMn^ \„a;. I -«iE 1g 111' CIl^ hridquinrn, DbfB-p], "A 
ifEET ] had pi'Bi Bv lullBDn)^ I pill liHlifB up Id a bnaVrr Li 
□Uhk, l(4f<hn wllh Ihr inund v'va't fbum E lud ^rmBinty 

JOBFl PELCKHAKT'' Virj vilL Ih yo.. liT.rt in> punpblTl 
aS-Oddm kiludi J fobSillLrd rQ iTrt Tjlbuokl TnTTidiT itid "FilA 


Otfnnse anorneys were reprimanded for "confusing" 
tfia witnasMs an crossaiami nation . . . 

doD't fcnow wh&t you mean by nat h^ng p<rot«ted against the 
Prosecution. The Pros«uUon caUed this witness and the defendants" 
counsel hwl the fullest opportunity to dosi-examine, and we 
imderstDod you went ta the Tribunal for th« purpose of cross- 
examining the witness. I du not understand your protest. 

HEaH BABEL: Your Honor, unfortunately I do jiot know the 
court procedure custoniary in England, America, and other countries. 
According to the German penal code and to Gemun thai regula- 
tions, it La customary that unjustiAed and unfounded attacks qI this 
kind made a^alnA a participant of a trial are rejected by the 
presiding judge. I therefore expected that perhaps this would be 
done here too, but as it did not happen^ I took the occasion to. . - , 
It bydoLna so* I violated the rules of court procedure, I beg to be 

THE PaESIDENT: What unjust accusations are you referring toT 

HERFt BABEL; The Prosecuting Attorney implied that I put 
questions to witnesses calculated to confute therrii in ord^r to pre - 
vent the witnesses from testifying in a proper manner . This is an 
accusation against the Uclehse wnich is an insult to us, at least to 
myseU^I do not know what the attitude of the other Defense 
Counsel ii. 

THE PRESIDENT: i am afraid I do not understand what you 

HEIUl BABEL; Your Honor, I am sorry, I think t cannot con- 
vince you as you probably do not know this aspect ol German 
mentality, for our Cennan regulations are entirely different. I do 
not wish to reproach our President in any way. I merely wanted 
to point gut that I consider this accusation unjust and that I reject it. 

THS PRESIDENT: Pr. Battel, I understand you are saying that 
the Prosecuting Attorney said something to you? Now, what Is it 
you say the Prosecuting Attorney said to you? 

HERR BASEL: The Prosecutinj Attorney said tliat I wanted to 
confuse witnesses by my questions and, in my oplniQn that meana 
I am doing something improper. I am not here to confuse witnesses, 
but to assist the Court to And the truth, and this cannot be done 
by confusing Che witnesses. 

THE PRESIDENT; I understand now. I do not think that the 
Prosecuting Attorney meant to make accusations against your pro- 
fessLonsl conduct at all. J! that is ™iy what you wi^ to say, I 
quite understand the poinl you wish to make. Do you want to ask 
this witness any questions? 

HERR BABEL: Yei, I hart one question. ITuntiuff to the 
unlneuj You testified that weapon^^ 50 flitms, iC I underload 



DafensB annrnBTs wbts not ginn copies of (focunitntt 
inir<Mluc*[l into iviirBnci b^ thfl prM«cutJon . 

1] hb. « 

they will admit them. If and when the documenLi are oft^rei^ in 
evidence, th«y will then consider whether Ihey will admit them or ngt. 

COL. POKROVSKY; With the permission of the Tribunal, I wisli 
to present Major General Zory^-, Stal'S Coundllor of Juflice of ihr 
3rd Class, ^awill present the materials on the foUowing theme at 
"Ag^resfiLon against the Soviet Union." 

DR. LATERNSEA: I ahould like to point Out that the dectjinn 
Of the Tribunai. that every defendants counsel should rect?:y . . 
sutficiently tn advancg, a copy of all documenta which are lo ij. ' 
aubmitted aa evidence in the course of the onKreedings. hai not l)cu : 
complied with. It is, theretorc, ijifficult for th^ Defense to foll-v. .; 
the proc&cdinjES befause the documents submitted have not bc-ji ; 
distributed in sufficient quantity - 

THE PRESIDENT: 1 don't think the Tribunal have ever imjxi-v i 
upon the Projecutiqn tTie duty ot supplying a copyo^vgrVjiorj - 
JnenTTQ every member o TqeigcT aamaCoiinsel . 

You no doubt have before you a copy at the Tribunals osfU'ir 
upon the subject, and I believe that the order is posted upon tli ■ 
hoard 1ft the defendants' Information Center. If I rememiji-r 
correctly, it is that a certain number of originals or photoitljtiL 
cnples shall be deposited in the Information Center, and thnt .: 
certain number of copies of the documents shall be supplied to tin- 
defendants' counsel, and thatj for the rest, the defendants' counsri 
must rely upon the fact that every document or pari ol a documrr.i 
whidi is put in evidence is read in opsn court and, therefore, co'ik.-' 
through the earphones to defendants' counsel and will apporit in 
the shorthand notes. We have provided that copies of the shorih Lrul 
notes shall be supplied to defendants' counsel as soon as pf*>^ii':i 
after the day on whidi tho evidence is given. Btfyond tiiat w: >^iv- 
not thought it right to impose a duty upon the Pros^curit^n _h. 
supply dMumenlg to the defendants' counse l. 

Is that not m acegrdancc with your recollection? 

DR.LATERNSER: Mr. President, the A^iericao Prosecution. i!i 
British Prosecution, and also the Frendi Prosecution, in the c(nii— 
of the proceedings, handled this In such a way that cnQu^h on'i'- 
ol all documents were made available to the Defense for "■■"^* 
defendant's counsel to have one copy before him. I helifivc tli-»f 
what la possible for the other Prosecution should also bn pos^ Ul. 
for the S<»vLet Prosecution, in order to facilitate the work- 

THE PRESIDENT: That is a belief on your part whitti is iv'- 
strictly jn accordance with the Tribunal's orders The Trlhunr.l ln> 
not made that order, and it may be that the United Stnt^s .in^ 
Great Britain have gone beyond the Tribunal's orders, nnd h'lv-' 
supplied a copy to each defendant's counsel. Gut, as I soy, <^" 

IMT Vrr 244 


N«w$p«pern>fln weft givsn 250 cafii«s of every documsnt 
but Itie defensB were not «ven given one of «ach. 


Tiibimil hu not u yet s«n fit to impos* that duty upon the 

r suppose you don't really kn&w e?<4cUy ^low mArty copies of 
these Soviet documems have been deposited in tKe InforniAiion 

DR. LATERPiSER: 1 don't know the exact number. At any rale, 
then were not engu^h for each defendant's counsel to gel a CQpy 
ol eadi d^uTnent, u was the case, so far, x\-ith th£ other Pro'W- 

THE PRESIDENT: Well, you no doubt understand the %-ery 
great diffl=ulUes of making translations and making copies. I am 
au re that the Spvlet prosecutors will do everything in^ their power 
to awtst dgfendants' counsel, but, as I aay, w e hsv s noi imposej 
uflon theProspcution the duty of suap1y>ng ot^^op^^t a transL atioii 
i|i^_GernigjT^pf_ea^ti_dg cument for cach.nefenrrin's' counse^ ^^an 
only express the hope that the So^-Lel prosecutors wi:l do ihe best 
they can. 

DR. LATERNSEft: Mr. President. I remember, when the (act 
bc^came known that the press had received 25.0 copies of ihe docu - 
ments, you, Mr, President, e-xpreged the opinion that it should tt\er 
31h> be possible to distribute 2^ To the defendants' coiiiisel 
That was, at that timr. Ihe opinion of the Tribunal. 

THE PfEESlD£?JT: The Tribunal's orders on this subject are in 
writing and you will find them in the defendants' Informaiion 
Cfnier. I have stated my recollectiori of them; if I am wron^. you 
can bring me a copy of ihe document and I ivill withdraiv my 


MAJOR GENERAL N. D. ZORYA lAssiaianl Prosecutor tor the 
y,S.S.R): May it please Your Honors, it Is my Task lo present the 
documentary evidence dealing wiih the aggression against the Union 
o: Soviet Socialist Republics, organized by the war criminals 
now silting in the dodt^ 

This charge of the crime, mentioned in Subparagraph a, 
Artkle VI of the Charter of the International Militiry Tribunal, 
waj (omiijlated in Paragraph 6, Section 4, Count One of the Indict- 
ment In th* present case, and in Section IV of the open-ng siatemeflt 
by the Chief Prosecutor from the U.S.S.R., General Rud«nko. 

Among the many criminal wars which German fascism, with 
jircdatory aim, waged against the freedom-loving nations, the 
attack on the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics occupiej a 
place by itaeU. 

U can b^ safely said that the predatory war against the Soviet 
union was the keynote of the entire fascist conspiracy against peace. 
'Th'-' Bggreaaive actions on the part of German fascism committed 



EMiast ttiomayft wer« given piles of dccumonts 
■nry morniniF which were ali out «f order . . . 

P/w » 

will find in the appendix to the document boo-k. This document will 
become Exhibit Number RF-370, 

•The Reicft Minister and Head of the Eeidi Chancellery, 
4 June 1944. 

'To the SeL{±t Minister of Justice^ Doctor Thieradc. 
"Subject: Lynch Uw for Anglo-American murderers. 
**My dear Dr. ThieradE: 

'*Hie Chief of the Party Chancellery has informed me of his 
secret memorajidmn, a copy of whldi is enclosed, and has 
uked me to make it known to you also, t am complying with 
this, and ask ycu to consider to what extent you wish to 
inform the tribunals and the public prosecutots." 
On June, two important conferences were held between Kal« 
tenbrunner, Ribbentrvp, GOrtng (all three defendants}, Himmler^ 
Von BraudiLtsdi, officer af the Luftwaffe, and members of the S5. 
They decided to draw up a definite list of air operations ^hicb 
would be considered u acts of terrorism. 

The original transcript, drawn up by Warlimont and bearing 
written notes by Jodl and KeiteU is Document Kumber 73S-P5, 
which I submit as Exhibit Number RF-371. It was decided during 
this conference that lyndiing would be the ideal punishment to stop 
certain types of air operations directed against the civilian popula- 
ttcn. Kaltenbrunner, £or his part, promJsedi the aetive eoUat»oration 
of the SD. 

THE PB£SID£NT; Was it already read? 

M. DCJBOST: This document, so far as I know, was never read. 

JodI)i I am protesting against the pr^cntation of Doctunent S3Z-FS, 
dated 24 June 1944. That is a draft of an order wbidi was presented 
to Jodl but which was crossed out by him and therefore annulled. 

At this opportunity I would also iike to call the attention of the 
Court to the fact that ' Wg^ the Counsel for the Defenw, did not 
receive a document book like the one presented to the Tribuna l; 
arid it is therefore very hard for us to diedt and to follow the 
pregentations of the Prosecution. Every morning we^receive a pile of 

receive the documents the day before , tn that case, when tesUmony 
is presented, we coula be of assistance to both sides- 

THE PBESIDENT: Dr. Exner, are you saying that you have not 
received the document booh or that you have not received the 


Datense attornays wttt itai Mtvistd as to tha order of procsadings . . . 


DEL EXNER: I did not rfrceLve the document book. I would lik« 
to add somethinjt further* Some of thg documents which have jm t 
b«n gnagntgdwrere quoteTylthQut signaturea ana wiihout 3aTe . 
>nd it is quest! ona1j[ewhetherl^es& so-called documentJ are ioTc 
comidered as doeum&R^ at all. 

THE PRESIDENT: WeU, I imagine that you have just heard— 
I have told M, Dubost that he must announce the exhibit number 
whidi the French Prosecutor Is givina to any document whidi he 
puts in evid&nce. As I understand it, he has been putting num1>erS 
upon the documents; but in certain Cases ht has not announced ^e 
number £n open court. The document, as you have seen, has been 
preKnted; and, as I undei^taml, It has a number upon Ltt but he 
has not In every cast announced the number; and the Tribunal hu 
told M. Dubost that U urishes and It orden that every document 
put in by the French Prosecutor should have an exhibit number 
announced in Court. That meets the one point that you raised. 

A» to your nftt having the document booK that is. of eourw, a 
breach of the order whidi the Tribunal has made that a certain 
number of copies of the documents shauld be deposited in the 
defendants' Information Center or otherwise furnished to defendants' 

As to Document 532-PS 

IThert waf a pauit m thi proceed* ng* teiiili tht Judges tonftrred.} 

Dt. Exner, is there anything further you wish to say upon these 
points, because we are just about to have a recess for a few 
moments. We would like to hear what you have to say before we 
have the recess. 

DR. EXNER; I have nothing further to add to that; but if I m^y 
be permitted to make a further remark, we were advised th^t it 
was Your Honor's wish that we should hear every day what is to 
be the subject of the proeeedings on the foIlowiiijii_dav, which would . 
of course, be a great help tp our preparations. So far, that has 
never been the case. I myself have never heard what was to be 
dealt wilh the following day . 

THE PRESIDENT: Thank you. ^. Dubost, the Tribunal would 
like to hear what you tiave to say upon the points raised by 
Dr. Exner First o( all, upon the Document 532-PS; secondly, why 
he did not receive a document book; and lastly, why he has not 
received any program as to what is to be gone into on the fol- 
lowini; day, 

M. DUBOST: As to the question of program, as Dr. Exner 
pointed out, the custom of providing it has not been established by 

IMT Vr 357 

T1» Jack-in-dtt-Boi WHimh TttGhnique. 

i MtTAtt 

ciTTwbbck, and then Dr.&crcJl could put any amdsvil la him it ho 
wanted- We miE^t wanl to rv-examinc on the point. I do not ktiQw 
what Is In the af/tdav]t. 

THE PRESIDENT: Was he cross-raammed by Dr. Seidl? 

DR. SEIDL; Whvn the witnv&s was heard here I had no oppw- 
tunity to cross-examine him^ and for that reason , . . 

THE PRESIDENT; Why did you have no opportunity to cross* 
CKBrnine him? 

DR. SEIDL: Because I did not hnow bciforf^'hand that he would be 
c alled by Ih^^ Prosgculiori as a witnesis and ftad T^^^pSr^iaS^^To 
Epeah to the DgferidiintFyanTt about the ■t^uestjons which mifiht have 
bfen put to this witness . 

THE PEESIDEfn': Well, we will con^der whether the witness 
ouBht to be recalled for cross-examinatLon or whether you will be 
allowed to call him yourself. The affidavit wbidi you say be has 
made, ha a thai been submitted to the Prosecution? 

SIR DAVID MAXWELL-FYTE: I have not seen it, My LOJfd. 

DR. SEJDL: N&, Mr. Fitsident, my opinion on this point it the 
f oUawinf . . . 

THE PRESIDENT: When you uw Ven dem Each-2el«w^i did 
yDu see hJm with ■ representative of the Prosecution? 

DR. SEIDL: No, Mr, President, the General SecreUry hLmseU 
eranted me pfrmission to speak to the witnes, and that was after 
the Court had already approved the use of an fnterroeatary. 

THE PH^SmENT: But when the witness was caUed fay the Prose- 
cution and you had (he opportunity of cross-examination, U you 
were not ready to cross-ex a mine^ you ought io have asked to cross- 
evamitie him al a later date. 1 we^ti if you w^ re not able to cross- 
exAtiaine at that time, because you had not had any communication 
with the Defendant IVanlt on the subject, you ought to have asked 
to CTass-^xamine at a Jater date. 

DR. SEIDL: I could have made this applicatiwi to the Court if I 
had thought thai there w«c any reason for questioning the witness. 
t did noi find out until later that the witness possessed any vital 
inlomution relevant to Fr»ilc'£ case. 

THE PRESIDENT: Well, the Tribunal will consider the malter 

DR- SEIDL; Hay t perhaps add somethine to this point? The 
dilficailty of a cross-examination is just this, that we do not learn, 
of the intended calling of a witness by_the Prosecution until the 
witness is led into the"courtropni> and we do not know Uie sublecl 
of the evidence until the Frosecuyoo start to examine the witness. 

iMT viir sn 


Thv w«rB ffivtn ^rtually «I1 of lAtaa dacunwnts in English 
traiulfltion iiHtsad of the Germin origiiMl , . . 

4 pftTtlcuUr aod limits diftrgt or Indictment. Ffecemeal argument, 
the^refore, would not lie Oftierly, but would be repetitious, incom- 
p^et«, poorly crguilzpd, aad ol little help to the Tribunal. The 
Itsues deserve CAKful^ preiured presentation of the contention^ on 
both. Jildes, 

We will ask, thtretore, upon these condittam^ whidi we think 
protect everybody'i rights and enable the I>elense as well as our- 
selves to make a better presentatiDn of their questloiu because they 
will have time to prepare them, tci lay before thfr rribuiutl, as 
rapidly as possible next week and as umnlermptedly as possible, 
the evidence which be&TS upon the accusations against the organU 

THE PRESIDE^NT: Mr. Justice Jackson, have you yet communi- 
cated that to the defendants' counsel in wriling or not? 

MR. JUSTICE JACKSON: I have not communicated it, unless 
it has been sent to the Information Center since noon. 

THE PRESIDENTt I think, periiapj, It miaht be convenient that 
you should state wh«t you have stated to us as to objections to the 
evidence in writing so they may thoroughly understand It. 

MR JUSTICE JACKSON: I h*ve prtpated to do that and to 
supply sufficient copies for members of the Tribunal and for all 
defense counsel. 


HEER BOHM: I represent the members of the S-A. who have 
volunteered to be questioned before the Tribunal. I luuterstoDd the 
statement of Justice Jackson only partially. Aa Delense Counsel 
I have no one who can supply me with information and I cannot^ 
under any clrcumsiances, agree to give n^ views on statements 
whldi I do not know or which are made known to me In sudi a way 
that I am iu>t in a position to ^et information. 

I should like to ask ftfst that I be supplied with a German trans- 
lation of the statemtnl which the Prosecution has made on the 
future course oE the Trial, so that I can express my views on (t. 
Z do not represent here ^ust one person but milUonj of people who 
wiU^ after the Trlalt oome forward with aU sorts of accusations 
acainst me, possibly even JustlAed accusations. My own rcapoa- 
■ibillty, at well as that of my colleagues who represent the organi- 
zatlonJ, is Immense, t should therefore like to request, as a matter 
of principle, that anything which is presented In this Trial at all 
be submitted to me in the German language, because X,*Bi not in 


a position to have whole vplumea of d«uments translated into 
man from onedav to the next-documeata whiA «uld quite eastiv 
be given to me m the CSerman original. This is a ctrcumstanca 

IMT HI 5jg 


Gr they wsre given Z copies of b document for 25 law/jfers 
at 1D,30 am, when trial $tartfld at 10 . . . 

M D«c. W 

whidi makes it dreadfully hard for me. as well as [or a number 
of my collea^fs, to follow the Trial at all. 

or the incriminatory evidence ag:ainst the organizations, I have 
previously gathered little in the proceedings up Lo aaw. Sinc^r 
according to today's statement^, howevern the evidence against the 
organizations is to be presented shortly, I should like to ask emphat- 
icaUy Xha.U it we are to continue to represent the q>rj3niz^tioriSr 
the proceedings be conducted in such a way that, in a tedinical 
respect, too, we shall be in a position to carry on the defense in a 
respaiisible Tnanner. 

THE PRESIDENT; As you know or have been told, only those 
parts of documents which are read before the Tribunal are treated 
as bein^ in evidence and therefore you hear through your earphones 
everything that Js in evidence read to you in German. You know 
also that there are two copiE£ of the documents in your Information 
Center whidi are in German. So much for that. That has been the 
procedure up to now. 

In order to meet the legitimate wishes of German counsel, the 
proposal which Mr. Justice Jackson has just made is perfectly 
simple, as I understand it, and Jt is this: 

'niat the question of the criminality of these organizations should 
not be argved trefore the evidence is put in; that the United States 
counsel should put in their evidence first, and that they hope to put 
the majority of it in evidence before the Christmas recess, but that 
the German counsel (defendants' couiisel) shall be at Uberty at any 
time, up to the time the United States case is finished, to make 
objection to any part oF the evidence on these criminal organi- 
2ati«nSr Is that not clear? 

H£RR BOHM: Yes. that is clear. 

THE PRESIDENT: Have you any objection to that procedure? 

HGRH BC>HM^ Yes, The procr^dure as suggested Ls dear, but I 
think it is highly inadequate. I haye as vet had no opportunity to 
Jet into my h^nd^ either of the i^a copies, which are said to be 
downstairs in Room 54, maybe becaaj^e two copies are not suffl cient 
for the purposes of 25 lawyers, eapecialiy it these copier'ar^pIaEea 
in Room 54 at 10:30 m the morning, whecv the gSsLor^TaHs^ 
m^DP o'clock. It would not even suffice >f these two copies lorTS 
o^i^?e^^Iaced into our room On the day before, since it is not 
possible for all of us to inake satisfactory use of these two copies 
in so short a time. Arrangements should therefore b* made — just 
how the Prosecution will make them, I cannot say — to enable us to 
know at the proper time — and I emphasize again, in the German 
language—what the Prosecution expects of uA, u that our work 
may be of avail to the Tri>)unal. 

IMT III 600 


DefsnM ittomey^ w«re snowed under with documents 
whieh Ihey wftr« nAt grVAn tima to rtad . . . 

• Mir* 

of concfintntlo4i cftmps and turned over to the Relchsbank. Valu- 
ables Vhidi had been tAkeh from the iiunates OJ concentration 
c«mps did Dot go to the Keichsbank but^ u w« have KverAl limes 
heard here, to the Reldt Minister of Finance, thai ic . 

MR.DODD: Just a minuter W«n you in the habjl of having 
gold teeth deposited in the Kci^shank? 

FUNK: No, 

MH.DODDe But you did have it from the SS, did you not? 

FUNK: I do not fanow. 

MR.DODD: Vou do not know? 

Well, nofr, il Your Honor please^ we have a very brief film, and 
I thinlc we can show it before we adjourn, and I would like to show 
it to th* witness before I examine him further on this gold business 
in the Reichsbfink. It Is a picture that was taken by the Allied 
Forces wheji the^ entemi the Beichsbarik, and it will show gold 
tteth and bridges and so on in their vaults. 

FUNK: I know nothing about iL 

MR DODD: I think perhaps before I Show the Aim I would like 
"I think I caa do il in the time; J do want to complete this this 
afternoon— to read you at] affidavit from this man Puhl who, you 
told me a few minutes ago, was a cr&djble, well-informed man and 
whom you called as a witness. This atadavit is dated 3 May 194«. 

DR. SAUTER: Mr. Prosident, l protest afiainat the leadiiiff of 
this, affidavit by Heir Puhl, This affidavit most probably— I'm not 
Sure— was taken here in Nuremberj. We do not know its contenti 
The Frosfcutiwi Eun?rises us today with an affldavit of which w e 
k now nothing, and within teD_minute3 a dozen documents aire 
ffirpwn at usT'of which the Prosecution ateerts they are onij shp^t 
Jocurnerits, wh ereas, for instance, one affldav^t among them contaiJM 
{Welve pa£e3> I beljeye. It is guile Itppoaihle for us, in the cours& 
of the extreme ipecd at whjdi this examination ij taking place, to 
follQi^f these »ttt«Bmt8 and thete jocunwnta , Tlteretore I have fe 
protest against the use of an affidavit of that kind at this moment. 

Ma DOUDl Well, this affidavit was taken at fiaden Baden, Get- 
many, on the 3H day of May. We have been trying for a long time 
to put this part of ihif case together, and we have finally succeeded, 
Certainly we did not turn It over to Dr. Sauter, because we wanted 
to use It for just the purposes that I am trying to put It to now- 
And It ts an affidavit of his assistant Puhl, whom he called as ■ 
witness and from whom he expetits to have an inteTTogatory. It has 
to do with a very imi^rtant part In this case. I ml^t say that if 
We are permitted to use il, pertainly Dr. Sauter wiU have a dianoe 



DvhiHiaitts wer« axpactMl to coinm«nt on dacurMtits 
wbich th«y mn not flUowtd to m« , . . 

to re-^nunine on it ind he will km •]] sight to itudy It if he 
w<Hi]d Jik« to look it ovtr. 

THE PR££1D£NT; Mr.Dodd, are ;cni wanl^ng to cross-examine 

the wilness sbout this dDcunKnt? 

MR DODD: Yes, I Want to read it to him and I want to ask him 
■ couple of questions about ft. 1 want him to know it because It is 
the basis for two or three quesliOM pf cross-examinntioi^ *nd to 
tmpeadi him for statements he has already made about the ^old. 

THE PRESIDENT: You Rlay do that. But Dr. Sauter, of course, 
will be ablf, if he wishes to do so, to apply afterwards that the 
witness should be produced for cro5s-e^amiiuitiDn» And he will 
have time in which he can consider the alAdavit and make uiy 
cooameots that he wants to about it. 

MR DODD: Very well. Your Honor. 

DK.SAUTESt Mr. President, ta&y I make just one stAtement^ 
Today a C4W occurred where the Prcsecution protested against the 
fact thai a document was used ol which the Prosecution had not 
ftreWously received an English translalion. The representative of 
the PTDEKulion told me he did not understand German, and there- 
lore the document had to be translated. I am of the opinion that 
the defense should gel the Mme right *s the Prosecution. 

If ime English document_ii<tert>'e other is tfirown it me witlw vl 
my having we alightest idea Cf{ Jhe contents, then I cannot answe r 
them- pifhcuUies are constantly increasing. For tn<tjnce> I ha\^ 
reoejyed documents here whld/contain li pages. One sentence is 
read out of such > document The defendant is not £iven timeTo 
read even on^gigfllft further paragraph. 1 mysell am not give n 
time. And incite of that it it eacpected thatthe defendant iniin^ 
diatgly explains one single Mntence taken out of the cotitft, with - 
out havinj the possibility of examining the document . Thalj in my 
Opinion, is asking too mutik. 

THE PBESIDENT: Dr. Sauttr, you had a translation in Gemuut 
of nearly every document, it not every document, And you have 
also been given every opportunity to consider documents when they 
have been Iraiulated into German. And that opportunity wiU be 
given to you hereafter and U there are any documents which are 
being used in crossHBtamtaatton now which are not In German, they 
wiU be translated into German, and you will have them then. But 
once the witness i£ under croas^xamination, the documents may be 
used. If you want to Te-exainine upon the documentj after you 
have them in German> you will be able to do lo. 

DR. &AUTER: Mr. President, we Defense Comuel also desijc to 
flurtber the proceedings vnd not to delay them. BuHj^oesnothelp 



(Thi transcript is fult of promises to quit 
cheBtiihg, but the abuses continued) . . , 

mc at all it, in t ■week cr t wo, whgn I shaU finall y have been gble 
to ^MmiTic the docu meats ^lir^wn today on the table. I must turri to 
yoTj^ Mr. Fresicl'erit" with th'ereqtiest to be permilted to quKlion thg 
witiiesa flgaiT i" Ve argglail it'nct W *re through with the exami- 
nation ol the witnesses. But we simply cannot iollow Mr. Eh>dd's 
method. I canno't follow, and the defendant cannot either. One 
cannpt expect the detendaat to explain an isolated sentgnoe takm 
out aS the conttxt, if he had no diance to e K&mine the dQeument_g j 
a whole. 


MRDODD: May I proceed to examine cm the document? 

THE PRESIDENT: Mr. Dodd, have you. j!<>t. any, objection to 
Dr. Sauter'a seeing the document ? 

MR. DODD: Yes, indeed I have . I think it would be a new nile. 
Ever since this Delense dpened. we have ptesenled and confronted 
documents for the purpose of im&eadiine the CTcdtbility of various 
witnesses, and used these documents, and it goes ta the very foun- 
dation of cTcss-examiiuilion, If we have to turn such doctunents over 
lo the Defense before we cttiss-exaniine, the whole purpose of croas- 
examlnatiom is £one. 

THE PRESIDENT: Mr DCKld, if you *re putting the document 
In and putting it to the witness as a document, then his counsel Is 
cttljtled, I should have thought, lo have it at the ume moment. 

MR DODD; We are perfectly willing to give him a German copy 
right now. It is here for himn U he wants to have Jt, and we wot 
ready with it when we came in the oouiiitAti). 


MB. DODD: Yes. Mr.PresidenL 

THE PRESIDENT: I think the best thing will be for us to 
adjourn now^ and then you will hind tc Dr. Sauter when yOU U» 
the document a translation of It in German. 

MR DODD: Yes; tomorrow momingH when we use it. 


MB. DODD: Very well. Sir. 

{The rribunol adorned until 7 May JV^G at 1000 hmtr*.} 


MorB examples of flagrant prosecutorial bad faith. 

THE PRESIDENT; There was, at any rale, a suggestion that 
tnanslatoFA should b? ordered to translate such documents as trial 


COL. STOREV: That Ls correct; yes, Sir, and whenever coun»l 
wanted more copies, then they would request them and they would 
be available for them. Tbe translators or translations or photostats 
would be available if the/ requested them. 

"Were there any other questions, Your Hoiior? 

THE PRESIDES^: Do you mean that transUtars have not been 
supplied to defendants' cpunsel? 

COL. STOREY: If Your Honw pleases, as I understand, the 
defendant^^ Information Center is now under the jurisdiction of 
the Tribunal^ and my information is — I would like to ched^ it — that 
when they want extra copies all they have to do is ask for them 
and Lh^y may obtain them and sufficient transLatoi^ are available 
to pro^'ide the extra copies if they want them. That Ls my infor- 
mation. I have not checked it in the last few day^, but sufficient 
copies in English are Eumished for all the counsel; anji these 
briefs and document books are furnished to them m advance. In 
this ca^ I am told that tb« document book and the briefs were 


DR. FRITZ SAUTER (Counsel for Defendants Funk and Von 
Sdiirach): Your Honor, you may be assured that we Defense 
Counsel do not like to take up the time of the TKbunal for 
such discussions which we ourselves would rather avoid. But the 
question just raided by a colleague of mine is really very unpleasant 
for us Defense Counsel and makes our work extremely difficult 
for us- 

You see^ it does not help us if aerecn^ts are made or regu- 
lations are issued and in actual practice it l3 en tirely riifferenl 

Last night, for example, wc received a big volume of doc u- 
ments all of which were in English. Now-, in the evening in the 
prison we are supposgd to spend hour^ discLi^tng with ou r 
clients the resjrts of t}ic proceedings, atask which has row been 
rendered stiU mofe difficult by the installation of wire screen s 
in the consultation room. In addition we are also required to 
l_alk over whole volumes of documents written in Engliah, and that 
is practically impO-S^iblc. Ttmc and again theae document^ are not 
receive d_until tht; evening before the day of ^he proceedings; and 
it is not possil:'ie, even for one who }crLows E_nj^lL5h well, to make 
the necessary preparation . 


t 7«n.« 

The same thing is tni* of the Individual trial briefs; and I da 
3Mt knew whether the actual triitl briefs, suda as we receive for 
cadi defendant have also been mbinLtted to the Tribunal. 

THE PHESIDENT: Kearly every document whidi has b«rv 
referred to In this branch of the ease> which has been presented by 
Mr. Albredit and by Sir David Maxwell-Fyfe, are documents which 
have been referred to previously in the Trial and whidi mint 
have been before the defendantA^ CDunset for many days — for 
we«k«-^and therefore thcrt can be nt> lade of familiarity with those 
documents. The document* whidi have been referred to. which 
are freih documents, are very tew indeed and the passages in them 
which are now being put in evidence are aU read over the 
microphone and, therefore, are heard by defendants' counsel in 
Cemian and can be studied by German counsel tomorrow momiAg 
in the trariscript of the shorthand notes; and I do not scSh therefore, 
what hardship is bein^ imposed upon German counsel by the 
method which Ls being adopted. 

You KCt the Couniel for Jhe Fr-taecmion^ jj ut of courtesy to 
Counael for the Defense, have bcengiving^'tliem their trial brief s 

that; and inȣar as the Actual evidence is concerned, all of whidi 

^ contained in documents, as I have already pointed out to you> 

the vast majority of those documents have already been put in 

many days ago a2id have been in the hands of German counsel ever 

since* in the Gomon languasc^^nd also the documents whidi are 

no^ put in. 

DitSAUTEB: No, this Is not true^ Your Honor. ThLs is the 
complaint whidi we of the I>efen» Counsel, because we diaUice to 
approadi the Tribunal with audi complainta, h»ve been discussing 
among ourselves — ^the complaint that W6 do not receive Germwn 
documenta . You may be assured* Mr. President, that if things were 
as you believe, none of us would complaio but we would all be 
very grateful; but in reality it i* diJIertnt 

THE PRESIDENT: But Dr. Sauter, surely when you have a 
reference to a German document, that German document is avail- 
able to you in the Infonnation Center- and as these documents 
have been put in evidence, some of them as long ago la the 20th 
Of November or shortly thereafter, surely there must have been 
adequate time for defendanta' counsel to study them. 

DR.SAUTER; Suppose, for instance, I receive UUs morning a 
volume on Funk, I know, for Instanee, when Funk's case comes 
on~perhap5 tomorrow. U is quite impossibLe for me t_aL study thi s 
yoiume of English documents upon miy return from the p™Mi *t 
m o'clock in the cveninji. That aimply" overtaxes the pfiysioa l 

IHT V » 


strength of a Defense Counsel, I could j^g^ throueh it If It verg 
in Genrtan, but evgn ao, it is impossible for me after flnishing my 
vt&it tt> the prison at 9 or 10 o'clock Ln the evening to e& through 
aydi a vQlumg. We absolutely cannot do i t, 

THE PRESIDENT: You see, Dr. Sauter, Lt is not as .though you 
had to croi9$-exanun« witnesses immediately after the evidence 
is £iven. The documents are put in and It is not tar ya\i then to 
get up and Argux upon the interpretation of those documents, Vou 
hav^T I regret to say, a considerable time before you will have 
to get up and call your own evidence and tiltimately to ar^ue 
upon the documents which are now being put in. Therefore^ it Is 
not a question o£ hours, it ia a question of days and weeks before 
ycu will have to deal with these documents which are now being 
put in. And I really do not see that there Ls any hardship upon 
defendants' counsel in the system which is being adopted. 

And you will not forget that the rule, which, in a sense, penalLies 
the Prosecution, is that every document whidi is put in evidence 
and every part of the document which is put in evidence, has 
to be read in open court* in order that it should be translated over 
the earphones and then shall get into the shorthand notes. I am 
told that the shorthand notes ure not MvaLIahle in German the next 
znamjng but are available only some day^ afterwards. But they 
are ultimately available in German. And therefore every defend^ 
ant's counsel must have a complete copy of the shorthand notes* 
at any rate up to the recess; and that contams all the evidence 
given Against the defendants, and it contains it in German. 

DR, SAUTER: Yes, Mr. President, what we are most anxious 
to have done and what we have been asking for many weeks is 
that the dpcuments. or at least tho&e pgrU of the docuraent which 
come into nuestion. should b&_^Lven to iis in German translation ^ 
It Is verv ditflcult for us, even if we know English, to translate 
the documents in the tjnje which i& at our disposal. It is pract i" 
cahy Lmgassitale for any "of uia to d o this ! It Ls for this reason 
tHMt we regret that our wJih to g&l the documents in German is 
not being taken into consideration. We are conscious of the dif* 
Acuities and we are very grateful (or any assistance given- We 
assure you we are very sorry to have to make such requests, but 
the conditions are really very difficult lor us. The last word I 
wish to say Is that the conditions are really very difficult for us. 

THE PRESIDENT: Dr. Sauter, T am most anxious and the other 
members of the Tribunal are most anxious that every reasonable 
fadlLty should be afforded to the defendants and their counsel- 
But, as I have pointed out to you, it is not necessary for you, for 
any of you, at the present moment, to get up and argue upon these 
docvsif nta whidi are now being put in- By the time that you have 



Dafint< atiarnflvs ware givan docianents wh«n it was 
maks too laM to bs Mm good to th«m . . . 

I JulH 

to get up and argue upon the document* which mre now beinf put 
In^ you will hav? had 4uiple time in wbitit to cotutdet* them In 

DRSAUTER: thank you. Sir, 

HERR GEORG BOEHM (Counsel for the SA.): I have repeatedly 
asked to receive copies Of evei-y**''«e presented ia £n£lish. Tlie 
^ccusntLon a^Lnit the SA w«s presented on the 19th or 18th of 
Etecember. and at the ume timft a document book wu preteated. 
Tgdav I received a few phoUMtata. but I have not received th e 
groater part of the photostats or Other pertinent translations . This 
shoiva that we do not receive the German translations immediately 
aUcT the presentation. Nor are we ever Able to read the transcript 
of the proecedlngs on the next day or on the day after that. The 
minutes oC the session... 

THE PRESIDENT; We are not desUns with the SA or the 
Drj;:>nizatiDns at the present moment. If you have any motioin to 
m:ik?, you will kindly malce it ia writing, and we will now proceed 
with thL' part of the Trial with which we are deaUnc- 

HERR fiOEHM: Mr. President, wlli you permit me one more 
mmjrk! The minutes of December IT and I8» 1945 I have received 

THE PRESIDENT: Do you mean the tnnscrlpt of it? 

tIKRR BOEItM: I received today the German transcript for the 
ISih ari[l I'StK uf Df>ccmbei> 1945. You see, it is not a fact that we 
receive the tr^inscript the day itXcT Or a few days after the sealon. 
I rcci.'Iv^ 'd it wc-cks Jatcr. flttgr I asked for it repe atedly. I have 
iiskc'd Ihij ajiproprtato offlcos rj;p<Mtedly to giv^ me a oopy of the 
document book in German, anrt t have stilt nof received i tf 

THE PRESIDENT: Well, we wiU inquire into that. One moment 
{There wota pauie in the procfedtn^i wMi the Jadget con/errrd.j 

THE PRESIDENT: Wjll the last counsel who w^s speaking 
Jitand up7 

( am told that the reason for the delay Ln the case you have 
mcntltmcd was that there had been an error £n the pacing and 
thorofojx the traiucripts of those shorthand notes hftd to be recopied. 
[ understand that the delay ordinarily ia tiot anything like so long 
aa thai delay. 

ftERR HOEKM: But I hardly believe that tn the n« of the 
transition of the document book the delay is due to those reasons. 
But even if the delay in this particular case should be justtfledp 
U means that Uteekjtterarwk I am hampered in my defense. 
I do not know the day before what la aoinji to be presented, an d 

IMT V t$ 


Dufense attarntys had no «af of knowing what wn svsn in 
the ilociinHni book; what kind of "irial" is this? 

I da not know until wfi gk^^fte^ard^^rfiaMi aj bwn preaented - 
I am thereJEare iiDt rn~a position to study the evidence from the 
itaudpolnt of a Defense CounseL T do not even kn ow wha t.ijj jon7 
tained in the document book- I am thus obyfously handicapped 
iiLJiULJlelemelin every way . The Prosecutlori keeps sayinj that 
I t will furnish the doctimenta oi^ time . TTiis ia apparently jmt 
the cose. 

THE PRESIDENT: Pftrhaaa vou wtU kJndiv make vmit com- 
Plaint in writing anri tf.vfr iht^ rMrtJftilftf* flf It. Do >^U undf-rstand 



MR ROBERTS: May It please the Tribunalp It Is my duty to 
present the evidence against Kejt^l and also against the Defendant 
jDdl and [ would uk the Tribunal for permlssioii, if it is thought 
tight, that those two cases ahmjld be presented together In the 
interest of saving time, a matter which I know we all have at 

Tk^ story with regard to Keltel and Jodl runs on parallel linea^ 
Far the years in question they mardied down the same road to* 
gether. Most of the dcrruments affect them both, and in those circum- 
stancea, 1 submit, it might result in a substantial saving of time 
if I were permitted to present the cases against both of ihem 


UR. ROBERTS; Then I shall proceed, if I may, on that basis. 

My Irffds* may I say that I fully recognize that the activities 
of both these defendants have been referred to in detafl many 
tim^ and quite recently by Colonel Telford Taylor, and my 
earnest desire is to avoid repetition as far as I possibly can. And 
may I say t welcome any sugge8tions> as I travel the road, whidi 
the Tribunal have to make, to make my prewatation still shorter. 

. There Is a fiubstantiai document boolc, EkKument Book Number 7, 
which la a Joint document book dealing with both the defendants. 
Practically all the documents in that book have already Ven referred 
to. They nearly all, of course, have a German origin. I propose 
to read passages from only nine new documents and those nine 
documents, I think, are shown it\ Your Lpordship's bundle and in 
the bundles of your colleagues. 

May I commence by referring, as shortly as may be, to the part 
of the Indictment which deals with the two defendants. That will 
be found on Page 33 (Volume I, Page T7) of the English tranir 
iBtion. It begins With "Keilel" in the middle of the page, and It 


The '*tn« ind correct ccpiet" wtr< Mt 

COL. STOHEY; T beg ymir pArdon, SirT 

THE PRESIDETflT; Are you sure that they were extcuted, the 
134.0O0?— becAuK there is no coffin thert, 

COL STOREY; No, Sir— the bottom itntement— be« are the 
toCaU from the documents. 

THE PRESIDENT: These photostatle coPi« are_dlffertnt liom 
wh*t you have got there. In the irea wnidi is TMrked 136^T?l 
there la no coflia l 

COL. STOREY: Weil, I «in *orry. The one that t have Is ■ 
true and corrfrct copy ot theirt v ^^^— ^— ^-^^— — ^ 

THE PRESIDENT: Mine haj not got it ang Mr Biddle s has 

not got It - ^•^^^ 

COL. STOREY fTti.Tninff to Art atjiJtant.; Will yOU hand this 
to the President, plea$e? 

THE PRESIDENT: I suppose the document itsell will show it, 

COL, STOREY: I will turn to the original and verify it. Let 
me have the ori^nal^ pl^sc_ Apparently there Is a typogrsphical 
error. If Your Honor pleaseSp here it is: 13G,42U with the cofTin. 

THE PRESIDENT: Mr. Parker points out it is in the document 
ItseU, too. 

COL STOREY: Yea, Sir, it ia in the document itself. There 
is an error do that. 

The 12S,000 at the bottom shows at that time there were 12B,D00 
on hand, and thv literal translation of the statement, as I under- 
■tand. meuu, "atili oci hand in the Almsk area." 

r next reler to Document IIM-PS, Volume 2, Exhibit USA-^M, 
which I now offer in evidence. 

THE PRESIDENT: Colonel Storey, did you tell ua what the 
document was? There is nothing on the translation, is thcie, to 
show what the document is. 

COL STOREY: If Your Honor pleases, it is a report of Ihe 
special-purpose Group A, a top-secret report — or Che Einsatt froup 
In other wordis— making « record of their acUvfties in these areas. 
and this chart was attadied showing the areas covered. 

THE PRESIDENT: Special (roup of the GeaUpo? 

COL STOREY: The ipectat gtoup that was orffanized of the 
Gestapo and the $D in that area. In other words^ a Commando 

At I mentioned. Your Honor, they organized these special 
Commando groups to work in and beliind the aitatca as they 

oonsoUdated their gains in occupied terri1ories> and Your Honor 



TTi* proMciitaFt did rtol Iuiqw which document 
was orJBUiil -md whici w» ttai espy . . , 

KACDER; Y«s, I tmeot the most imporUnt poii)t dut to the fiCt 
thai there was ■ rather lively controversy. The ^mpbrlant point 
is that the spotting of vessels at sea by aircraft was tofnelhing 
9U]1e new and bad been developed very efficiently. That develop- 
ment eontlnuei! very r&pidly during the w«r, until fubmarines could 
very QUid^jy be lK«ted snd pupsuedn 

DR. SIEIMERS; Refiirding I>-e41, which Lb the affidavit from 
DietmBum, may I, with the Tribunal's permiasion, make t fomvl 
applicati&nt In this atfleUvft. there Is the following fienlenee: 

"ll \s my pcTfonal opinion that the higher authorities of the 

Kavy in Kie3 and other places in Gennany had ItnowJedce of 

these dreadful thJDg*-" 

THE PHESIt>ENT: h iaj^ "had knowledge*^ but "must have had 
Icnowledge." It seenu to me It is in the translation "must have 
had knowledge." 

DR SnJMEHS; Yes. J have not got the German and I do not 
know how the Drigjnal is worded. I tmly have the English Irans- 
laUon. It Is not Quite clear to me ho^M the German ver&ion was 
worded. May I ask the Tribunal .. . 

THE PRESIDENT: U the document put in in the Original Ger- 
man or la jt put in in the fi^glifh? The deposition if in Gennan 

DR, SlEMERSt I presume that OTigiMny the atatement wai In 
GgiTnaii. Th^ cogy 1 have states that this is a tranilatiop and that 
IS £ng]iah7but I have not seen the German originaL 

SIR DAVJD MAXWEU^FVFE: My Lord, there must have been 
B German copy for the witness yesterday. I don't know whether 
or not it is the original, I didn^t see it but I assume it was. 

TH£ PRESIDENT: Jt i^ t the case that the deposition w-as ma^e 
in German, then translated into English, and then translated bade 
into German, waa it? 

SIR DAVID MAXWELL^FVFE: My LoTd, that it why 1 assume 
it was the original . I am aorry this was done, 1 haven't got the 
original document in front of me but I assume that was ao. I will 
And out In a moment for yiyo^ 

THE PHESIDCNT: Yes. What is the point, Dr. SJemen? 

DR 5IEMER5: J believe that this aentrnce ahould be struck from 
the document It does not record a fact. 

THU PEBSIDENT: Vou mean you are asking to have it struck 
out or . . . 

Ult St£M£RS: Yes. 

THE PRESIDENT: What do you tay^ Sir David? 


See alfiO IMT III - 426 

Pa^v nvinlwrs wbtb incarrectlr trangllatttlf . . . 

n J*n.4i 

On P*ees 120021 the Tribunal will find the Usl of the prisoners 
who thus disappeAiml. 

On Page 322 Ibere is b confirmalion of this testimony by M- 
5ouiA«, prisoners' representative at Kemmando fl£4, vho writ«: 

*. r c«rlfiin war prisoners, converted into workers, and Frendi 
civilian ^^'orkerf h^d or£anized in Cologne a Catholic Action 
group under the direcijon of the T«-cla55ifiH war-prUoner 
priests, Pannier and Cleton " 

Finally, Page 123: 

". . , the arrests began vi-jth members of the Catholic Actiwi"— 
and the accusations were — 'amj-Gerrnan maneuvers. . . ." 

THE PRESIDENT: J do not know what Dr. Stahmer's objection is. 

DR. OTTO STAHMER [Counsel for Defendant Goring): We are 
not in a position to follow the expose of the Frendi Pf&secutor. 
^■rst of all, the translation, is not very flood Some sentences are 
feft oui. Especially, wronj; numbers are mentioned. "For instance , 
615 has been meniioncd. I have it here. U is quite a different 
docurnent. We have not the docuinent books and therefore we can- 
not follow the pafle citataorii.", "Also my coUeaeues complain that 
they are not in a position to follow the proceedings under this 
manner of presfnUtion 

THE PHESIDE^TP: May 1 see your document? 
fThe dcKvmtm tLsj honied to the Prciident.J 

DR. STAHMER: This number was ju^t mentioned, as can be 
confirmed by the other Eentlemen. 

THE PRESIDENT; The doeument which M Dubost was reading 
was 672. The Document ^f^ou hj ^ve got there is g jj^f^crcnt numbe r. 

DR. STAHMER: Bui this was the number that came through 1o 
US, 612, and not only I, but the other gentlemen heard the same 
number. And not only thts number| but all the numbers have been 
BJven incorrectly . 

Another difficulty is that we have not the document boftK^ Rgflf 
118 had been ref^'i^fed to. but the number of the page does Jiot 
mean anything to us. We cannot (ollpw ai this rate. 

THE PRESIDENT: M.Dubost, 1 think the trouble really ariies 
from the fact that you give the numbers loo fast and the numbers 
are very often wrongly translated, not only into German, bui some^ 
timeg into English . It is venr difficult tar ihf intgrpi-fl^rt In pLA 

up all these numbers. First of all, you are giving the number of 
the document, then the number of the exhibit, then the page of the 
document book— and thai means that the inferpretcrs have got to 
translate many numbers spoken very quickly. 

IMT VI 373 


(rt CDurw, ft wn ill in diffirf nt tengntg*! u At ptgii 

CAtiht not bi Ihf una ■nirwir: tndlMS confinion. 

It i^ cdHitul that the defendant! should be ibtc to totlow the 
document; xnd as t und^rsUnd it, they have not got t^«^ docuiVient 
booka in the same 5hap« we have. It \s the only way we tun toi- 
low. But we hav« them now m this particular document book by 
page, and therefore it is absolutely essential that you go slowly, 

M. DUBOST; Mr. President, the documerit books, all the docu- 
ment*, have been handed tQ the Defense. 

THE PR£S[DENT: Are you teUine us that document books have 
been handed to the Defense in the $ame shape they are handed to 
us, let us say, with pages on them? Speaking (or myjelf, that is 
the only way r am able to follow the document. Yau mentioned 
Page lis and that does show me where the document ii, IE I have 
not got that page, I should not be able to find the document. 

M. DUBOST: Mr- President, I announced at the jsamc time RP-380, 
which is the number of the exhibit. F-fi72 is the cUs&iAcation num- 
ber. AH our document* bear a classification number. It waj not ooa- 
sible to hand to the Defense a document book paginated like the 
one the Trihun^J hgs, for it is not submitted in the same laneuaji^. 
It is submitted in German and the pages are not tn the same place . 
Then is not an absolute identity of pagination between the Cennftrk 
document book and yours. 

T7IE PRESIDENT: t am lelUng you the difficulties under whidi 
the defendant-S' counsel are workings and If we had simply a num- 
ber of documents without (he pagi nation we should be under a 
similar difficulty. And it is a very great difficulty. Tlieretore you 
must go very slowly in giving the idcntiflcition of the document 

M. DUBOST: 1 shall conform to the wishes of the Tribunal. Mr. 

THE PRESIDENT: Dr.Stahmer, the document being read was 
Docvment F-4T2. 

DRSTAHMER: We cannot find Pocument 672. We have 6?3 . 
We have nothing but loose j^cets. &n<:i we have to hunt ih rough 
Ihem first to And the numberT We hay^JF^iipi^r 673. but we have 
not yet found Number 672 among o ur document U h L^^rv riiffl- 
cult for us to follffar a citation, tiecause it takca ug so much time to 
find the n^rT^bp^J even it thgv havg bggrt inefltiQttM cnrjpctir 

THE PHESIDENT: I can understand the difflculty. Will you 
continue^ M. Dubost^ and do as I say^ going very slowly so as to 
give the defendants' eounsel, aa far as possible^ the opportunity to 
find th^ document. And 1 think that you aught to do something 
satisfactory, jf possible, to make it possible for them to itnd that 
documcnt-^by pagination or some other letters. An index, for 
instance, giving the order in which the documents are set out. 

IMT VI 374 

Endlvt* coofuNon onr dwunMnti . . 

THE PRESIDENT: How do you ibow (hit this Addition Num- 
ber 2 to the report on ciptLvity li equally tn official document with 
thli one? Tliat is what we want to know. 

M. DUBOSTt Mr. Pretident, Lt is a nport whldi w« submitted 
In the nune of the Government of the Freadi Republic tiy the dete- 
gitlon wbidi I have the honor to represent, 

THE PRESIDENT: Well, you kc, thU one h^^ ]t heeded ^'Serr- 
ke dI Information of War Crimes, OfflcliL Frendi Edition," How, 
that seems to us to be dillecent from this mere typewritten ctq>y, 
whEdi hu on It the "Appendix Number 3 to the Report on the 
Captivity." We do not know wboee report on the etptlviCy. 

M. DUBOST: Mf. President, you hsve btfort you the oiflcUl 
Ekote «t transmiwion from out Bovemmeat The cleric Of the Court 
has Just handed it to fOu. 

THE PRESIDENT; We have thia documcnt._w^idt aj^tn to be 
*n offtdal document, but Ihis addition haj nQ_meh seal upon it at 
thli haj . " 

M. DUBOST: llien ii mention of an appendix to thla document. 

THE PRESIDENT: The other U marked; Appendix. It must be 
Identified by a tcaL 

U. DUBOST t The coverinj letter has a aeal and the fact that It 
alludei to the document tg imflcimt, in my opinJon, to authenticate 
the documeat trantmitted. May I continue d 

THE PRESIDENT: No. Thii document here has a letter attached 
to it. This document ^gra li ntfl raterred to In that letter ipedJ- 
ally^ Therefore, there ia nothljij to oonntct the two documrott 
totfelhtr . 

M. DUBOST: I think there Is e manmcript note fai the margin. 
1 have not the document before we here *nd cannot be positive 
about It but I thinlE there la a m«micfipt note In the margin. 

THE PRESIDENT: The TrlbuDil wrishes you to put thti tn as on* 
document I see there is a manuscript note here at the dde. In 
writing, whidi refen Co the AppcndiJt. It you will put the whp^e 
thing In tofftther... 

H. DtmoST: It is all submitted in one Ale, 

Now I w14i to read to the Tribunal extract! from two letter* 
uddressed to the Crtrman Amittlce CoAreialon at Wieibadin by 
the ex-^Ambassador Scapint, both datcJ i April IMl. The TUbunal 
wiU find them reproduced In the document book before them, Pafea 
1«, IT, 1*, 19, », il, and U: 

IMT VI »fl 

, , . Bnd tramlAtJDM . . . 

a Jul ll 

Imr tsuctly vfaat the wltneM bys Mud lot that reawfi I hav« 
lUAfortimilely b«<n eompell^ ta have an answer repeated fiofn 
time to tiiBe. 

M.DUBOST: I should not like the Tribunsl to mistak* thU 
intefl>olAtiou for an interruption ot the croB^xanunation: but E 
think I bust say that H>me cdnlusion wa» undoubtedly created in 
Oie mind of the Defend Counsel ]u$t now in consequence oC an 
inteiprTtErs erroi- which has been brought to my notice. 

He a^ed my witneu an insidious question, namely, whether the 
French ckporteea were crtmiuals (or the laoit part> and the question 
waa interpreted aa followa: whether the French deportees were 
crfmiiulSL The witnea anavered the queation as traoalated into 
Fnridli and^rp^j"MEe'd"lji" German, I therefore re<iueit that the 
question be put once more by the Defense Counsel and correctly 

THE ?Et£S[DENT: Dp you understand what Mr Dutx>st said. 
Dr. Bab^; 

HEHR BABEL: I think I Understand the substance, I think I 
Wderstand that there was a mistake In the tranalation. T iua hot 
m a position ta Judge; I cannot toUow both the Frentji and German . 
text . 

THE PRESIDENT: I think the best course is to continue your 
cross-examLnation, if you have tny more questiotu to ask, and 
Mr. Dubost can dear up the di£Sculty in re-examlnatlon, 

HERR BABEL: Mr. President, the Defense Counie] for Kalten* 
bniiiner has already expUined today that it H very diiflcult to r 
the Delense to croLsa^xamJne a witness without being Irtformed at 
least one day before as to the subjects on whjai the wjtneas l5 to 
be heard . The testimony given tyy today's witnesses was >o 
voluminous that it is impossible for me to follow It without pcevlom 
pr^ftr«tiOh and to prepare and conduct fnm brtef notes the 
extensive cross-examlnationj whidi are necessary. 

To my knowledg*, the President has already tnfonned Defense 
Counsel for the organizations that we shall have an oiqnrtunity 
of re-eu&infnf the witnesses later or of calling them oa our own 

THE PRESIDENT; I have already 8«)d nAat I iuve to uy on 
behalf ot the Tnbunal on that pointp but as Counsel for the De^enn 
must have antidpated that witnes&ea would be CftUed as to the 
coaditioas in the concentration camps, I should have thou^t they 
could have prepared th^U: cti»s-examliiatl<JBL during the 40 or more 
days during whidi the Trial has takm pJjicev 

HERR BABEL: Mr. President, I do not think that this li the 
proper time lor me to argue the mattw with the Tribunal, but £ 


. . . ¥>t obJBCtJant wera considered 'Impropsr" , . . 

1 July 4* 

with the AesmMn dociunent. Aa iuggctud by the Tribunal I hav« 
brought the other errors In translation to the notice of the General 
Secretary only. 

THE PRESIDENT: If there are any errors \n tramlation. that 
matter can be t_a_ken up through the General g&cr&Urv with the 
Translation Division, 

pr. Siemers, it is very improper far counsel in your twsition 10 
nuke Jialementfi ol that sort lor whidi vou have no proof at all. 
Ydu know perfectly well ih^t when there have been any Alleged 
mlstranslariofia, the matter has olwayfi been referred through the 
GenerdJ Secretary to the Translation Division and then they have 
been corrected; and for vou to col up at thi-; stage ol the Trial and 
Mv that there are many m istratisl ationa, without flnv nrr>nf nf it Jtt 
all. Bimolv uiMn Vfttfjl.o^vT^ word, is a.jposj^ jr^gropcr thma fq f 
counsel to do. and that is the view oi the Tribunal. 

t>tl. SJEMERS: Mn President, I beg to ■pologize, but I think I 
probably did not express myselj correctly. I am not making an 
accusation, but with vi many documents it is not surpriainG thai 
these errora did occur. I myaelf make mistakes. I am sorry if my 
remarks should have been misunderstood r 

THE PRESIDENT; Everybody makes mistake*, and everybody 
iff capably of having different aplnioru as to translations, but you 
and every other member of the defendants' counsel know thftt those 
mJsiakes, if they are mistakes, will be corrected, 11 it Ib poaiiblei 
and they know the way thut it Cftn be done^ and, therefore^ u I aaJd 
beforv, it ii very improper Jor you to get up and allege that thctfc 
are t lo<; of mistranslfi^ jyn y. I do not want to hear anything more 
about IL 

The Trtbun&l will adjoum. 

{A teem CMS fakn.J 

THE PItESIDENT: Dr. Nelte, have you any documents that you 
wish to offer in evideneeT 

DR. NELTE: Mr> President, with a letter dated 1 July 1M6. 1 put 
in three afAdaviU, ^ler havln|[ submitted them previously to the 
Proteeution. Those three documents will become Documents Keilel*23, 
KeiUA'-H, and Keitel-35. I beg the Tribunal to receive Ihem, since 
the ProKcution, as Sir David hu told me* does not object to their 
being oflered in evidence, 

THE PRESIDENT: And th^ are ftt present being translated, or 

have they been translated? 

DR NELTE: They an in the process of being translated. J have 
merely jubmttted the orieinala to the Tribunal, 


How nn such i "trial" bt tMd ttt han "proven" inythinoT 

(limbed oa top of th« pile of bodies. Shott were heard. 1 wu 
■UjhUy injured on the htad «ad /ell" 

I omit tbe pert part o( the quataUoa whidi descHb^d hov ttiis 
wowin aved hei«elf. [ quote Uie lut par^^nph: 

*The Iftfel-medltftl experts disoovered that there were bullet 

. wDundt in the nedu of these bodies. In the bim end ohl the 

■tuks of lo09 the Germans ihot and burned B,500 pertoni' 

I rantt the next three pages of the text and next submit to th« 
Tribusal ib/s pnw£a oi the organization ot the German ludst 
Invadeis . . . 

THE PRESmENT: The trtngUtloa came throutfi to ua that 
63 people were killed. TTie trantlatjon Jln wrttint is g,5QQ . 

MR. COVNSEtXOll SMIBNOV: The tramUtion In ^rittng to 
absolutely correct, Mr. PresidcTit. For the ftmarmatjon of this, on L^ 
CQUId turn to the prtgtnft^ dMumeiit— the report of the Eittra - 

So I onlt the f<alowlag three pA^es of the ttttemeat end will 
present evidence at the existence of apedal places of masi exe* 
cutions where the nuraber of viotLDu was numbered by hundredit 
ot thouuAds of pcTSotia and where the doomed were brought in not 
only from the mrroundlng regioni but from many countries of 

By meuu ot brf*f excerpts I submit to the "Wbunal proof of the 
exifteboe of two such centers, wliich were imonf the most famc^us, 
^ey aie the ceuter of mass executtoni of Penary, 8 Idlometer? firom 
Viln*, and Fort Number 9, the "Fort of Death" to Kaunas, which 
has acquired ■ particularly grim reputation^ 

I quote a report which has been submitted to the Tribunal, th^' 
report of the Extraordtnarir State Commlyripn on the atrocLtictji o f 
the Hitlerite invaderB in Lithuani a, "nie Tribunal will find tlii ; 
quotation on Page 2H, second column of the text, last paragniph. 
For the eonvcoieuce of fhe interpreters I ttiform you that I am 
quoting fmm Page 22S. I omit the flrat three paragraphs whidi 
state that the maaa execution place at Penary was or^Eanfced in July 
IMl and existed until June IftU. I continue the quotation start^n^t 
with the fourth paragraph where It la related how the Hitlerites 
attempted to cover up the traces of their crimei In this phcq ot 
Toaai flsucutiona. I quote: 

*tn December IMS"— ttated witaem Saydel Hatvey Fedoro- 
TJdt— -" we were forced to exhume and bum the corpsca ." 

I omit the next sentence and continue tbe qiuotatlDn: 


DocumBntt wsrt introducad into tvidaiieB which 
mra known to bs falsB . , . 

mpoDitble. That would tend to awsken Uifi viti-JewIjih 
■entim*nt. "^Signed— "A. Rosenberg." 

fDr. Thoma approached the lectern./ 

THE PRESIDENT: Mi.f I uk you to tpe»k slowly la that your 
ftppllcitlon wiU came to me through the eaipiiDii«s correctly. 

VX THOMA: Since the Prosecutor is now dealing with the CMse 
igainxt my client, BosMilwrg, may I be permitted to voice an objeo 
tion to Docuincnt 312-PS, Exhibit Number U5A*£72. The Prase^ 
cutor clainu that this document was a. directive issued by the 
Uinlster for the East. It begins with the words . . , 

THE PRESIDENT: None ot that has come through on the ear- 
pbwLfit, I dan*t unaerrUuid you. You had better begin again. 

DK TSOaiA: The Prosecutor prteented enrlier today Document 
Sumber ai2-PS, Eadiibtt Number USA-2V2, claiming that Ita content 
wai 4 directive issued by the Minister for the East on the treattnenC 
d{ Jews. In this docuiaent he Is said to hAve given instructitins thJit 
violations oi German regulations by Jew^S, especially violationa of 
the ciHnpulsory labor laws, oould only be punished by death. This 
document does not originate with the Defendant Hosenberg; nor did 
It by mistake . . . 

THE PRESIDENT: More slowly, pleart. 

DR. THOMA: This document does not originate with the Defend- 
■Bt Roeenbera. IL bears neither a date nor an a.ddreaa. nof his 
rtgnature . L thmfere. object to the assertion that this documtBt 
wgmatH with the Defendant Rosenberg. 

THE PRESmSKTt Wait a mi»u1e. I don't think tiiat Counsel 
tor the Prosecution said that, that Document 21Z-PS emanated from 
Rosenberg, t didn't >□ undentand him. 

DK THOMA: I understood him to say that it was a directive 
ffSued by the Minister for the East; and if I am not mistaken, he 
alao said it was dated April 1941. At that time there was no 
Ministry for the East - Eoaenberg was only named Minister (or the 
East in July 1941. 

THE PRESIDENT: I will ask tiie Couosel for the Fiuecution. 

HAJOK WALSH: It 1> my undeixtandiog, Sir, that that docu- 
BCfflt, ai3-FS. w*a taken Ifom the optttred lllcs of Rosenberg. 

DR THOMA: That is true, it was fotmd among the papers of the 
Ihefendfint Hownbein; the Defenduit Rosenberg claims however, 
that he has never seen this documen t^ that he knows nothing about 
it, and that it has never passed through his handle 

THE PRESIDENT: Rosenberg, when he is called «i a witness 
w when y«u appear to speak for him. will be able to uy that he 

IMT III 940 


VOH KTURATH: As for the fiist repoit whiA 1 prepared, I hav* 
a]T«4ciy flal«d that accorcfinf to my molleCtiDn it was much shorter 
than the one submitted here in photostatic ccpy. Furthermore, this 
photostatic copy does not bear my KRnaturc, not gygn my iriitia|s . 
Bui it is out of the qyeslian that th« final copy of this report/wliiih 
was enclosed at my office in the letter to Xjfijnmerf, tvould not huve 
boen. Signed or at least initialed by m«; and the certificate of cor- 
fcctness, which, remprkably enough, ii contained in this report And 
which was prepared by ait SS Obersturmbannfuhrerj is not signed . 
iLs photostatic copy which is said to have been enclosed in the 
letter to LAmmers dws not even bear mv initials . The most notice- 
able thing, however, is the certificete of correctness <wi the photo- 
static copy. This can have a meaning only if the documeni enclosed 
in the letter to Lommers, in spite of not bearing my signature, was 
enclosed in the letter nevertheless. Bui since the iina.1 copy which 
my office wnt to State Secretary Frank's offlcc with the letter to 
Lammers was certainly signed by me, this certificate proves that it 
Was not the report fiigned by me which was enclosed in the letter 
sent to Lemmerfi but another on? drafted by Frank or by ofAciaS^ 
in his office. As for Frank's own report, the text of the photostatic 
copy herCn to my recollection, is not identical with the tgxt of the 
report which 1 approved and whidi J then sent on together with my 
report to Lammers , . , 

THH: PRESIDENT: Dr. Von Ltidin^ausen, we have heard the 
explanation more than once, I think, that the ctidosure whidi wai 
in the letter was not the same as the one whidi he drew up. It does 
not get any morfe convincing by getting told over againh 

CH. VON LUPINGHAUSEN: I only wanted to express it again. 
But if the Tribunal believes that that explanation has been made 
previously, I may dispense with it. 

VON NKURAIH: Mr, President, may t be permitted to make 
another statement as to how 1 imagine — of course, I can only 
imagine — these things took place? I am flrmly eanvinced that i£ 
the two photostatic copies submitted here were actually enclosed in 
the letter to Lommers, they were prepared in Frank's office, and 
enclosed without ray knowledge. Another possibility wou^d be, ol 
ctmr^, that Caedi^,. 

THE PRESIDENTi We are oulte as able to imaeine possibilities 
as you are . 

The fact is that the letter ttras signed in his name, was it notT 
The letter Itself «as signed? 


THE PRESIDENT: And he lefen expreoty to the endonmT 


IMT xvri an 

'Girman" documents ware wriitan by forsigntrs . . . 

GO^rNG: The d^Xt is 1& March ^94^ is that rjght? 

Sin DAVID MAXWEU^FYFE; I am firattfy! to you. I knew it 
V3S just aftrr 10 Mardi. I have not got it in my copy, but ij you 
say Jt, I wtU Ukf it. 

GtkBlNG: 1945. 


iSir David NfLxufeli-FaJt thrn read jrom th? document ercetptt 
V'hieh were withdrawn and ftriciren from the rczord on IG Auguit 

DR, STAHMER: T must objeci la the use of this document, since 
1 cattfiot recognize thai it is genuine. I have not yet teeri Ihe oriRinal , 
told the doubts as ^0 il5 U-inc e^?nuitie are due to the fad Qia.t 
fjjpreKJQm arp.uscd which are most unusual in the G&rmaii 

GORING: I was floinfl lo raiss the same objection. ]t ia pot^ an 


GUHiJMu: 1 was flomfl IQ raiss the same omecuon. Jt la pot^ an 
.ijrJEinal as it Siiyj at the Iqp. "copy ." and there t s no Qrijiina.l 
aiE^ature^ but only, the typcftTJttcn wordu "Sprenfier. Gauleiter'' at 

DR, STAHMER: For instance the expression ''Geriditiichkcitgn " 
ta used. Thia is an expression completely unusual and unknownTn 
the German lauEu&se, gtid I cannot imaEino that an offtcial dwu- 
ment originating from a GauJeitgr conjld contain such a word. 

GORING: ] can draw your attention to yet another point ^owinn 
ihil this is evidently n<tt an originaj document . If there had been 
an IrkcrcAsc in meat or fat ralions, 1 would have heard something 
aboui It Not a single word of these two documents is known to me. 
It does not bear » rubber atamp either, the whole thin r is type- 
written, jncludmj; the tlcnatures - rherefore. I cannot accept this 

SIR PAVID MAXWELL-FYFE: This is a file copy which* to the 
best of my knowledge, was captured at the office of the Gau 
Licader. It was sent to us ty Iht British Amny of the Rhine. I 
shall make inquiries about it, but Jt nurporla to be a file copy and 
1 have pyt the original docwmeni whidi we have, whfiii is a file 
copy, to the witness. 

THE PRESIDENT: Dr. Slahmtr, I have the original document in 
my handj now, lo^ether with the certificate of an officer of the 
British Army stating thai the document wa£ delivered to him in the 
Lbove capacity, in the- ordinary courw of official business, as the 
original of a document found in Gennan reoordf of files capture^ 
by military Jorces Under the command of the Supreme Commander. 
Cnder these circumstances ii is in e^tactly the same position as all 
t he other captured documrnts . The dofensp, of coufscn can brin^ 

I'MT IX sio 

AiradMr "Girmair" dDcumanit forged in Yogotlvvia . . . 

bei^ put to the defcndAnV, or vied for the purpose of cross- 
cjumlzutjon of the defendant — and the ohfiiul document, 

!■ that clear to >ou and to Dr. £xn«T? 

COU PDKROVSKY: It thall be donCp My Lord. 

DR, EX^fI:R; Mr. President, 1 think that a discuwion of thla docu- 
ment ought not to be permitted fit the moment. There are too 
many discrepancies in it. As it stands, it camiot be. t:n>rr ect. Konun 
numeral IV, for instanee, 'the IV Mountain R^ment, u referred 
to. That Konnan nvmerat IV is quite wrong. Then it uya *'1he 
oonuaander delivrrs . . .* which Is not German . Then, cm Line 4 
there ia pa«)tiOh . . . " 

THE PRESIDENT: Dr. Exner, the Tribunal want to Itftow what 
you are talking about Axk you talking about 470? 

DR. £XHER: Yes. I am merely trying \o jth^. :^j>t thjj cannot 
h ^n genuine document because it ia noTproperiSennan »t »|l . 

For Instance, in Une 4 it xays, "Armed Forces Operations Staff, 
ObJl." The ArmeU Forces Opentions Staff is attached to the OKW. 
wt to the Ob^. 

Thc^ there Is tio Gignaturc. It is signed "Keiter* on the first 
page; but he signs as a Generalobent. whereu I un told he was 
Already a Field Marshal at that time. 

PurUiertnore, this signature ts port of the quotation and It says, 
"The OKW supplies the following .. ," TTihi there is the quo- 
tatiOA — and Keitel's signature Is a p.ari of tJuti— whereas the 4ocu' 
ment itself is supposed to origiiute from the 4th Mountain 
Beglme&t, uid there is no signature of the 4th Mountain KegJment 
t really do liol think there would be any iense in talking about 
the docuniLent until the original hai been supplied. For Initance^ on 
Page 2 of the document there Is the statement that this goes to 
the comm^nderG of 6, 7, «t cetera. They Atv not commAnden, these 
company eomn^anders- JJQ Gerrpsn military person oould ^*v$ 

WTtttan thin dcx^mmt. 

THE PRESIDENT: Dr. Exner, the Tribunal adhere to the dedrion 
that this dttcument may be used tn^ . All the prtftts whi<h ybv are 
now raising and any other points whidi jmi may wish to raise 
upon the document will be open to you 11 you wiih to move to 
have the cnss-examinaiioa struck out at a later stage when the 
original had been produced. 

DR-EXN£R: I understand. 

THE PRESIDENT: For the purpoies el not wasting ttme. it H, 
the Tribunal thiok^ more convenient to have the ciXHs-emminatlOD 
now upon this document We wlU leave It to you to move hereafter 
to strike the whole croa-cxamlastion out 



Dr. Menfe, ivKo stated ih^t Jewish buhlne^^^^cs in lliinuver were 
protected by SA detaciinieriis, in Ktum (or which the Jowljih sh«jp- 
ketipera supplied thti membcK of tht SA. with purd^^iiio caujiMiu 
(Affldavtt Number Ccntiral SA-l). FurLhprmdre. w« st^ from the 
collective AtAdavJta that Iiousca and husine^isci of Jeivt:ih citucnd 
In other cities too ware protected by 5A mi^mbt^rs from looting. 
tVom the testjinony ot ihe witness Jiittner we see that the aLtltudu 
adopted by the Supreme SA Leadership in this matter coincided 
with that of (he well-known Jewi&h proftjsor Karo, who iidoptii a 
hosUk attitude toward Eastern Jvwi-y, Th&x manifestjitions o( 
hostlhty to £;a£tei-n Jewry are the aftar effects of the first World 
War, when LmiiLmerjible Jews dame to fVnnariy from G^bciA. 

The events on the occasion of ft November lfi3£l ^re amonf! Ihe 
most seriously mcriminating points charged against the SA. The 
alleged report of tKe leader of tbe KufpfaU Brigade plays an 
important pari in this canne<:tion, I^ggg^ir^ron^h^ 
rianoes lutroi 
that it 
the wtl 

tary General extending over a period of months could not be 
transferred to Niimberg, although the Defense had indicated the 
cAinpt where they are interned, 

TH£ PR£SIDEtlT: Dr. Bdhm, that is an improper obsi^rvation, 
or lu^estion, for you to malier Every elTort huii been madL^ by the 
Secretary General la obtdin all the wLtacmes whose names have 
been ^iven, and there is no evidence that those witnesses were in 
the camps that you are referring to. 

How you may go on. 

HERR BOHM: The following may be said in detail— I un here 
commenting on Docament I7SI-PS: 

in the 
in lubstance; 

{2) Tlie order of the leader of the KurpfaU CrOMp reads, accord- 
ing to the Proeecution, that is, ttua document: "By order of the 
Gnippenfjlhre^.* IfanmJg^jijyg^iai^jj^JiJjjo^l^^jjj^^: 
" llif 5 l3f '^*^.^'! Of^^^^Qr^^^^grs^iTnoc&se^ however^ would 

enfl . *Chtt expireuion 'JewlBh iSynagoflue*'' i^ also Toreifn to oinciai 
party communication!. The term ^Jewish" ia already implied in the 
wftrd "Synagogue." The term ''Aryan" in th ii_eo|inecliorui^JltgjA^ 
out of Place . It the orae^ver^unienttcTtEet^i^Ontra-aisn^ 
to^'jews^at this point it would havt spoken of '"'German com- 






It Atif. *t 

(4} "Riots And looling urn lo be avutdL'd," it cuntijiucs. Contlitjons 

{&) **IWpOrt on action taken to be made by i.'iQ o'clock to the 
BrigJideiiihrer or local frffice, " it s^ys further in this alleged order 

tn no case does the Gipup order j^ report ort JiJtiOrt tinl^t^ft IQ b& 

GrQjjg^_L^gigallyt_iL shquld liave Hai.d "to the Gruppemuhrgr ." 

(G) It. is fcqual]y improbable that thg_lga[lcr_jif th.i^_Bri£ade_ djd 




i''anciiul rt^rts auch as this an action taken ntvlM existed in the iaA. 

(7) It says in the r&portj ". . . and immediately began to carry 
out ordcifef" Thia formula U also compLctely dcvujd of probability. 
Tht itader of the Brigade reports in the preceding i^nlence that he 
immediately informed his Standartenfiihrer. l^vfo\ii^^i^^<^^AV^ 


In the examination uf LhewLtne^JiJtLner the Prosecution endeav- 
ored to clear the document by alk'tiing thui the stamps on the 
Jiittner Letter (172UPS) and on thc^ report ot the Group (17£]^PS) 
were identical. These two documents w<;re submitted undur the 
same PS number It was established, howiiver, ihat tj^j^^ji^jcn 

THE PRESIDENT: Shall we break oHt 

J A recess wat taken./ 

HERR BOHM; Mr. Presidiint, Your Honors. I just spoke of the 
points whldi tiirere presented to j^tute the genuineness of Docu- 
ment 1721-PS. r continue. 

This alone would not be conclusive if I did not have the afftdavit 
ot the Gruppmi/uhrer of th« Kurpfalz Group, fust,^ and a mecoLier 
of th€ Group Staff, Zimmermann, who was present at the tim^H ^ho 
testify that aud^i^rde^a^hLan^allcae^h^h^Prasi^cutl^^ 
no report on action t^ken. But it was also proved by virtue ot the 
alAdavits ot the collective tumnMrixation that no order of the kind 
t-harg^d by the Proseeulion wa s issued t o the S tandarten of 
Brigade 50. 



II April 41 

Academy (or German Law, of tvhieii ya\i were president. The dt>cii- 
ment has the heading "L.egal Formation of Gtrmtiny's Poli^ Policy 
on Raci»l-PoUtical Lines''- the Legal part strvcs as » ln-nt for th* 
Committee on the Law d( NiitionaUties in the Academy tor Gt;rman 
Law. I'm bflvinfi this document submitted to you. Pleastj will you 
tell me whether you've ever had this docujnent in your hands before? 

FRANK; Fmm whom docs it comeT 

DR. SEIDL; That is ttie extraordinary pstt; it hai the Exhibii 
Number USA-300. 

FRANK: Doea it state anywh&re who drew it up or somt ithlng vt 
the sort ? 

DR SEIDL: The document hai; no aut^ior; nor dpcii U j^ow on 
whoiSfi order it waa aampilgd . 

FRANK: J can say m&r&ly that I've never seen the docvimEat ; 
that I newer eave an order for it to Ire dra wn udl so I can siiv reiiilv 

DR. 3EIDL: It states here that it was found in the Ministry of 
Justice in Kajgiel" Was Ijiere a Ministry of Justice in KagseLJlLlki"? 

FRANK: A Ministry of Jmtlce in K&ssel? 

FRANK; That has not been in exi5tenM__gLnee__lB66 - 
DR. S£1DL; 1 have no further questions. 

THE PRESIDENT: Then the defendant can return lo his seal. 
DH.SEIDL; In that case, with Ihe permission of the Trit^unul, I 
shAll cfiU witness Dr. Bilflng^cr. 


THE PRESIDENT: This document which you produced as 
USSR-Z23, which are extracts from Defendant Prank's diary; are 
you oirerin£ that in evidence? Apparently some entries from Prank's 
diary have already been offered in evidence; others have noL Are 
you- wishing to oSer this in evidence? 

MB. COUNSELLOR SMIRNOV; Thii document has elready Leen 
submi^ed tn evidence under two numbcj^; the first numt>er is 
2S33-PS, whJdi was submitted by the American Prceecutiortj and the 
second is Exhibit USSR-SSS, and was already submitted by us fin 
IE) February, 1946. 

THE PRESIDENT; I see. Have these entries which you have in 
this document been submitted under US3R-2i3? You fice, the PS 
number does not necessarily mean that the docutnents have been 
Offered In evidence. The PS number? were applied to dueumeni:! 




11 KkV 41 

Do you Icnow anything mbout a. list, whidi was to be compilfti, 
conUiulng the tuuaes of those suffering tram heart and Imig dis- 
eases, who wefv to be removed from the populatiDaT 

VON SCHIRACH: Mo, I know nothing About that 

DH. S£RVATIUS; Or thfit you were to tnake suggestluic for thla 
trt the Puh^e^^ 


DBL SCRVATIUS; In my opinion that document also toptJinj an 
ori^y^<^ hw already Jecn mentioned here, imm^iv mr^STd 
Merr^ aa a form- of address. This letter was addressed Co the 
Herren Ortagruppenleiter," and repeated mention is made of the 
Herren Kreisleiter and Ortsgmppenleiter" in the text, I ask vou 
now if t he eatpre asjon "Herir" waa euatomary in Part^languaae T 

VON SCHIRACH: No. I have never known a Party documen t 
with the exception of tiiia one, which I ton^ider a Iraiid. irTZhU^. 
the term "Herr" w*s used . 

DR. SBRVATIUS: You are therefore ot the ooinJoo tl|a| tf^^t 
aeaignation provea tn liseH thatthe document la falae? 


DR. SERVATIUS: I have no further questions. 

DItSTEINBAUER: Herr Von Sdiiradi. your predecessor us Gau- 
leiter was JoseC BiirdceL Wh^t sort of relations exiatttd between 
Burckcl and Seyss-InfjUArtr 

VON SCHIRACH: I can only repeat what was generally known 
in. the Party about Telatioi^ between them. They wem extremely 
bud, and all of us had the impression that from the vewy beeimung 
Burdcel ftrorked hard to^push Seyss-Inquart out 

DR. STEINBAUSR: Which one at the two really had the power 
In his bandsT 

VON SCHIRACH: Barc^l. Lindoubtedly. 

DR, STEINBAUER: Who, in your opinion and according io the 
actual Inloimation you Eibtabied from the fllea, is rosponaible for the 
pcrsecutioa of Jewa in Vienna? 


DR. STEINBAUER: All right. You say Hitler; but Hitler wa« not 
In Vienna. Who carried out these orders in Vienna? 

VON SCHIRACH: In niy Opinion, these orders were carried out 
— even duHng Biirdicel'f and SeysK-Inquart^s tinie — by the same man 
who haa already been mentioned here once today and who, in th« 
meantinie^ has been condemned to death Iil Vienna — Dr Brunner. 



"Confessions" and "statements" wera presented 
raariy mada tar ^gnafura or alS6 , , , 

i»)ur M 

M. HERZOG: rOiat bemE so, you did not approvt of the whole 
of the loreign policy o£ Hitler; and you did not collaborate with him? 

SAUCKEL: In Answer to the question by my counsel 1 stated that 
I never considered mys^Jf to be a poUtici&n as regards foreign policy. 
I entered thp Party by quite a different way and for quit* different 

M. HEH20G: Dp you remember the declaration which you rnade 
on 4 September 1B45 to two American officers ? 

^ruminp 10 the Tribuno}.} This declaration is Document Num- 
ber 3057-PS. Tl was submitted as Exhibit Number USA-223. 
(rvrninif to the defendant.] You said the ioUowing: 
■ "I have been a convinced National SociHlist since 1B21 and 
■greed lOQ percent with the program of AdoU Hitler. I 
worked actively to that end; and during ihe period from 1&21 
until the assumption of power f made about 500 speeches, the 
sen&e and contents of which represented the National Socialist 
Standpoint. It was lor me a particular satisfsttton to have 
raised the Gau of Thuringia to a predominant position with 
regard to its National Socialist views and convictions. Until 
the collapse 1 never doubted Adoll Hitler, but obeyed his 
orders blindly." 

THE PBESIDENT: You are Boing a little bit too fast This has 
been read, M.Herzog. I do not think you need read all of it. 

M. HESZQG: t would ask you then, Defendant Sauckel. it you 
conflrm the statements which were made under oath, vpluntarSly 
and without any duress, on 4 SfOtember 1945 . and whidi con' 
tradict those that you made ytiterday and whicii you have just 
made to me. 

SAUCKELt I conflrm that my signature Is append e-c! to thta 
document. 1 ask the Tribunal's permission to state how that sig- 
nature came about. 

This document was presented to me in Its finished form. I asked 
to 6e allowed to read and jti^dy this document in my~ceU in Ober - 
ursel and decide Ai^hether I could jign it That was denied mp . 
Murine the conversation _&n officer was consulted who, T was t&ld . 
belonflcd to the Polish or Russian armv: and it was made clear to 
me that if 1 hesitated tpg long in signinfi tht^ document I would 
be handed over to the Russian authoriti^ . Then this Polish or 
Russian officer entered and ashed, 'Where is Sauckel's family? We 
know Saudfel, o£ course we wiU lake him with us; but his family 
wiljhavc to be taken into Tiussian territory as well," I am the 
father of 10 children.! jidnot stop to consider^ and thinking of 
my family. T sijgned this document, 


(Was liiis the only case or is this ih« tip of tha tcsbtrg?) 

H Hay « 

to b« Justified legally ind cuutitutianAlly, and sccardinf to ethics 
And morAlity. 

Juft haw many meetings I conducted t tuuiM say. My speeches 
and lec^turcs were bas«d msinly on my life and an my experiences. 
Those were the Only things that I could twlk about, and I wanted 
lo recoindie the German social classes and the German professions 
to T^ationa! Social!^ ideology. 

THE PRESIDENT: Defendant, I have pointed out to you that 
what the Tribunal desires is lor you ta uhe the document and say 
what sentences in Jt are wrqng, aivd not to make apeedies. 

EAUCKEL: rn_my eyes, all the sentences arc wrong. I would 
not have put them that way if I myielf had been able to formulate 
them. The way they standi I .dispute eadi and every sentence, fgr 
L_did.npt write ih^m ^nd T was not consulle^. 'Hiese sentencps werg 
put before me as thev are now . 

DHSERVATIUS: Mr. President, may I be permitted to give an 
CKpIanation of this matter? This rtatement is practically a sumniarv 
t^ all the interrgga tions in which the various points appear as a 
confessicm in the sense of the Indictment The deJendant could ngt 
>av a word in his own defense if this were oorrect. Since it is a 
r^sum^ and ^nce conclusions can be drawn from it, he must have 
the Opportunity of refuting these conclusions , and that necessitated 
a fltatementr These are not definite facts whidi can be answered 
with *'yts** or 'W." 

THE PRESIDENT: The defendant hai lurt aid that the whole 
document is wrong, and he has also lald that the document was 
obtained from him under duress. 


THE PItESlDENT: And it is therefore not any use to go through 
it In detail. But the Tribunal would like to heai from the American 
Prosecution if they have anything to say about the matter. 

MR. DODD: I do not have a copy of the document before me in 
EngUsh. but I . . . 

THE P3tE5ID£NT: You see, Mr. Dodd, M. Herzog has said that 
it was offered in evidence under the Exhibit Number USA-323. 

MR, DODD: My recollection is th*t— 1 wiJl diedt the record, 
Mr. President— my recollection is that in the presentation of the 
case on Slave Labor, we iiicluded this in our docuftient book but 
did not offer it in evidence. I think I aatd to the Tribunal at the 
time that we had decided rot to oStt it. It had been printed and 
put In the document book. 

My memory may be faulty, but my recollectjon ii, Mr. President, 
that the President of the Tribunal asked me if I did not intendl to 

IHT XV ., 


AiKtlhtr "votuntary stitflflifliit". 

K June tt 

THE PI^SIDENT: 1 «m not objccllnf; to that, I em only 
EU^esting that il -would be bettor if you put to him tach paragraph 
in ium, and nol put thret or four paraeraphs all in one question. 

G£N. RUDENKO; Very well, Mr, President; I will deal with H 
Id this way, 

1 am asking you, Dtft^ndant yritzsdie. da you PEJItnit the ppri-^ 
[raph read by me conctFrning the Ansdiluss? 

nOTZSCHE : No: and ImaintaJTi that thM is not v.'h&l I testified. 
Tliat extract gQntainj ratbej the thoy fitjlfi whidi the- in torrogating 
Hussian offi cer PntoTtaincd in tcsdccI t& mv tfEtiTnonv. After it had 
^n drawn up, the record was submittpd I9 me for mv signature. 

THE PHESIDENT: Wait a minute! What do you deny In ft? T^kt 
the fir£t paragrajih. 

FRlTZSCHE: Mr. Pfesideiit r am arotestine against everything , 
particularly acainst tht^ cxprcssiop^ apptied herg wM^j^_^ have 
never used . Durirtfi wiy LnterrogatiDns in Moscow 1 E.tat^ exactly 
the same things as I statc-d here in this Trial yesterday, the day 
hefore yesterday and today Ar as I have set down in zny affidavit, 

THE FIlESIDENT: Take the flrsi paragraph. The flrfit paragraph 
has just been read tfl yout *"ln order to justify this aggressive 
action . . ." Were you asked any quEslion about that, and did you 
make any answer? 

FIUTZSCHE; Yes, indeed. In many interrogations whidt were 
held late at njght. I was asked suf^ questions, and la the subjects 
condensed in this one question I answe^red *s loUows; 

I do not recall the date, but when the Austrian action was about 
to take plate I was summoned to I>r. Goebbels, Dr, Goebbels told 
Die that the Auftriai) Government of Sdiusdmigg had plans of sudi 
and such a nature — ihvy have been i^escribed in sufficient detail 
here — that a ggvemment crisis had developed, that Seyas-Inquart 
had taken over the Government, that a call for help had comt irom 
Austria, and that now the mardi into Austria would take place. 

THE PRESIDENT: Arc you now telling ua what you told the 
Russian interrogaiort or are you telling us what actually happened 
in Germany at the time of the Ansc^luas? 

FRITZSCHE: 1 am telling what I told the inleirogaline Russian 
offlwr, and that Is exactly what look place In the Propaganda 
Jrilnistry on the day iti question. 

THE PRESIDENT: You are wysng, then, that this flwt para- 
graph is entirely made up, are you? 

FRITZSCHfit No; I should not like ta use the dtpression "made 
up/' but I Ehould like to say — and I beg permission to do *o — whids 

IHT XV I r 21* 


""Witnesses" were aflowed to r&»tj Iheir 
"tesiimoi^y" olf scraps of paper . . . 


MARSHAL: U it please the Tribimal, the Defendant H^ss 12 

THE PKESmE^H": Dr, Stahmec 

DR. STAMMER; Witness, in your testlinonyr Just before lecesa, 
vou rea<^ put vour testimoriv. if I observed correctly. Will vou 
tell jng whether that was so or tiot ? 

BAZILEVSKY: I was not reading anvUiiLng. t have only a plan 
of the courtroom Ln mv hand . 

DR.STAHMER: It looked to me as though you were reading 
out your *nswera. How can ^ou explam the iact that the inter - 
preter already had your answer Ln his hands? 

BAZILEVSKY: j do not know how the Ifltgrpretera could have 
had mv answers beforehand . The testimony whidi I am £ivinj{ 
was, however, known to the ConimLssioa betorehand — that U, my 
testimony during the pieliminary examination. 

DR.STAHMER: Do you know the little castle on the Dnieper, 
the little villa? Did you not understand me or hear mnf Do you 
know the little castle on the DEiieper, the little villa on the Dnieper? 

BAZILEVSKY; E do not know which villa you mean. There 
were quite a number of viJias on the Dnieper. 

DR STAHMER: The house which was near the Katyn wood 
on the steep bank of the Dnieper River. 

BAZILEVSKY: I stiU do not quite understand whidi house you 
mean. The banks of the Dnieper are long, and therefore your 
question is quite incomprehensible to me, 

DR. STAHMER: Do you know where the graves of Katyn were 
foundj, in whidh 11,000 Polish of&cers were buried? 

BAZILEVSKY: I was not there. I did not see the Katyn burial 

DR. STAHMER: Had you never been in the Katyn wood? 

BAZILEVSKY; As I already said, I was there not once but 
many time*. 

DR. STAHMER: Do you know where this mass burial site was 

BAZILEVSKY: How can I know where the burial irounda were 
situated when t could not go there since the occupation? 

DR. STAHMER: How do you know that the Uttle wood was not 
fenced In? 

BAZILEVSKY: Before the occupation of the Smolensk district 
by the Gennan troopa, the entire area, as I already stated, was not 
surrounded by any barrier; but according to hearsay I knew that 



TTiG "witnesses" were atlowed to repeat any kind of hefirsay and rumour; 
tha prosBcutors wara allawsd tu laad the witnesses in any manner tiiey lilted . 

M. DUBOST: T^tn haw did they obtain the anatomic exhibits, 
how did thty ^et these tattoo marks? Th%y waited for a natural 
d«ath, 9f course. 

DUPONT: The cases I observed were natural deaths or exB- 
cuMoiu, Bekre our arrix'al — and I can ngme witnesses who can 
tjstijj to~lh"L5— they killed a man to get these tattoo marks. It 
happened. I must emphasize, when I waa noi at tiucflenvjald. I arr^ 
repeating what was told me by witnesses whose names Jl wiD g'.vj . 
During the pen&dwften the camp wj3 QDzr[m^nE€S 'by Ko<2ii, p&opre 
whg'had particularly artistic Uttoo'marfcs'^^ra^llgd- The ^'jne^s 
r can refer to ia a Luxemfaourger called rficolas'Simpn who I[v"^j5"ifi 
LuKcmbourg. He spent 6 years m Hucfienwaifl in exceptional con- 
ditions where he had linprecedent&d opportunities ol obs&rva<LQn. ~ 

M. DUBOST: But I am told that Koch waa sentenced to death 
and executed becauseof the^e excesses . 

DITPONT: As far as T know, Kaeh was nuxed jp with Mme sort 
of swindling affair Ke quarrelled with the SS administration. He 
was undoubtedly arretted and impfisoRed . 

THE PRESIDENT; We had belter have an adjournment now. 
lA recess was [ak^n.j 

M. DUBOST; We slopped at the end of the Koch Stary and the 
Witness was tellinllhe Tribujial t^.at Kpch had been executed no t 
lor the crimes that he had committed with regard to the uitemees 
in his charge, but Secaus^^^^he numerous dishanest acta of whic h 
he had been guilty during his period ot stcvict . 

Did I understand the" witness" explanation correctly? 

DUPONT: I said explicitly that he had been accused ot dis ^ 
honeaty. I carmot givg precise details ot all the charges. I cannot 
say that he was accused exclustveLy of dishonest acts by hi3 admin- 
jEtratiQn:"T Ttnow that s^ch charfies were made againat him, but I 
have no lurther information. 

M. DUBOST; Have you nothing to add? 

DUPOrJT: I can say that this inlormation came from Dr. Owen, 
who had been arretted at the same time and released again and 
who returned to Buchenwald towards the end, that is, early in 1945. 

M. DUBOST: What was the nationality at this doctor? 

DUPONT: German. He was in detention. He was an SS man 
and Koch and he were arrested at the same time. Owen was released 
*nd came hack to Budienwald restored to his rank and his functions 
at the beginning ol 194S. Ha was quite willmg to talk to the pris- 
oners and the information that I have e'V^f^ comes from hirrir 

IMT VI 254 


9 Jan. «■ 

M. DUB03T: I Iiave no further questions to ask the wiLnesB^ 

Jdr President. 

THE PRESIDZmr: Dwa any member of the Defense Counsel 
wish to ask any questions? 

DaMEHKEL: I am the Defense Coumel for the Gestapo, 
WitnesE, ifoti previously stated that the methods of treatment in 
Bucfaei^wald were not peculiar to the Buchenwald Camp bul must 
be ucribed to a. general order. The reuons you £ave fgr this 
statement wer'e that you had seen those customs and methods in 
*U th* other camps loOr How am I to understand this yxpreaston 
" in all the other camps" ? 

DUPONT: r am spcakLng of concentration camps; to he precise , 
a certain nuni^er" oF thern, Mauthausen, Dwchau, Sadisenhau«n ; 
labor squads audi ~as Dora, Laura, S III. Mansleben. Ebensee, to 
menTion these i>nly . 

DfL MERKEL; Were you yourself fn tho« eamps? 

DUPONT: I myaetf went to Buchenwald. I collected exact 
tgjtlmony about the other camps ffom ffie^dj& who were ttiergr in 
any case, tne number of friends of mine who dieJ is a sufficiently 
eloquent proqf that «xteiTiiijiation was carried out in the S4me way 
in all the camps. 

HERR BABEL: I should Uke to kncyw to what bLodt you 
belonged. Perhaps you can tell the Trifaunal — you have already 
mentioned the point — how the prisoners were distributed? Did 
they not nlso bear certain external markings, red patches on the 
clothing Df some and green on that of others? 

DOPONT: There were in fact t number of badges, ali of whidl 
were found in the same Konunandosu To give an example, where 
I WB4 — in the "terrasse-kommando' known as "EntwfisseTung" 
(drainage) — I worsted along side of German "common-laws" wearing 
the green badge. Regarding the nationalities In this KommaiwiOr 
there were Russians, Cze{^> Belgtans, and French. Our badges 
were diiferent; our treatment was identical^ and in this particular 
case we were even commanded by "conunon^Iaws." 

HERR BABEL: I did not quite h«ar the beginning of your 
answer. I asked whether the internees were divided into speciflc 
categories identifiable externally by means ot stars or some kind 
of distinguishing mark: green, blue, et ce'cra? 

DUPOffT: I uid that there were various badges in the camp, 
triangular badges whiA applied in principle to different categories, 
but all the men were mixed up together, and subjected to the same 

IMT VI 255 


. . . Nars th< "witiwss" uys "I psrscmallv w» noi a 
wjtii«3t" ind ths proMCUtor says "Niver rtund" > . . 

I Jul. ■ 

they found In the ump, tn Block <!, tattooed and tanned skim on 
II ApiJl 1949, 

M, DUBQST: Where were these &kLns tanned? 

BALACHOWSKY: ^eae akins were tanned in Block 2, and 
rhapj alM in the crematorimfl buildingt, which were not far from 
lock Z. 

M. DUnOST: Then, according to your testimnny, it was a 
customary practiire whtdi continued even after Koch's execution? 

BALACHOWSKY: Yes, this practice continued, but I do not 
know to what extent. 

' M, DUBOST; Did ycu witness any inspections made at the camp 
by German offleials, and if so, who were these offldals? 

BALACHOWSKY; I can tell you something about Doca, concern- 
ing such visits. 

M, DUBOST; Excuse me, I have one more thing to aik you about 
the skins. Do you know anything about Koch's conviction ? 

BALACHOWSKY: I heard rumors and remarks about Koch's 
conviction trom my oU comrades, who were In the camp at tha t 
time. But I personally" was not a witneH ot the atfai f. 

M.DUfiOST: Never mind . It 15 enough lor me to know that 
after hi£ conviction skips wer# stllL tanned and tattooed. 


W. DUBOST: You expressly state it? 

BALACHOWSKY: Absolutely. Even after his conviction, tinned 
And tattooed skins were still seen, 

M.DXJBOST: Will you tell ua now what visit* were made to the 
camp by German officials, and who these officials were? 

BALACHOWSKY: Contacts between the outside— that is 
German dviUan* and *ven German soldiers — and the interior of the 
camp were made possible by depai^ures and furloughs that somtr 
political prisoners were able to obtain from the SS in order to 
spend some time with their families; and, vice verH, there were 
visits to the camp by members of the WeKrmacht. In BloA 50 we 
had a visit of Luftwaffe cadets. These Luftwaffe cadets, members 
of the regular German armed forces, passed through the camp and 
were able to Ke practically everything that went on there. 

M. DUBOST: What dJd they da In Block SO? 

BALACHOWSKY: They just came to see the equipment »t the 
inviUtion ol Sturm bannfuhrer Schuler. We received several visits. 

M. DUBOST: What was the equipment? 

BALACHOWSKY: Equipment for the manufacture of vaccines, 
laboratory equipment. 

IHT Vr 313 


, , , here we learn thst concentrstii^n camp inmates 
havB extrasensDiy perc«ptioii. 


Three classes or kinds of evidence were presented to us. The 
first was the visual inspection ol the csmps themselves, freshly freed 
of SS supervision by the Arciehcan troops. We saw the barracks, 
the work places, the physical facilities for torturen degradattgn, and 
execution. W« $aw thr victims, both dead and alive, of the atrocities 
practiced at these camps. We saw the j|»roce£S: ot liquidation by 

starvation while it was still going on. We jaw the indescribable 
filth ind smelted the nauseating stench before it was cleaned up. 
Mid w« saw a number of victims of thi5 liquidation process 
actually die- 

The second kind of evidence we obtained was the testimony of 
eyewitnesses among the prisoners themselves to these atrocities. 
Many of the prisoners had been in the camp^ ue visited ^S lon^ a$ 
3 and 4 years. Marty others had spent tong tcntis a» prisoners in 
several Other similar camps^. While these prisoners included men 
from ntarly all the countries of central Europe, whose speedi, whose 
station in life, «nd whose educilion and previous environment dif- 
lered widely from one another^ yet the testimony of All of these 
witnesses was substantially the same. Directly and throufrh inter- 
preters we talked to prisoners who had seen the hangings and the 
beatings and who had themselves experienced the systematic process 
of starvation, corporal punishment^ and human degradation. 

The third kind of evidence was what may be called the common 
knowledge of the camp, that is to say, evidence of things done in 
the camp which were not done publicly but which, nevertheless, 
All prisoners were aware of. This is similar to certain knowledge 
possessed by prisoners generally in legitimate institutions like State 
penitentiaries. These prisoners, frem custom and eieperience, frcm 
the conversation with the guards and among themselves, and from 
a very plain and almost mathematical kind of circumstamia] 
evidence, have accurate knowledge of certain things which they have 
not actually spen w^th ttieir own Qyes. Thfl ofiscnerATi the camps 
speak abput these things as though they had actually seei^henv 
It was the unanimotJS opinion of our committee after talking to 
hundreds of prisoners that this third kind of evidence was often as 
Accurate and reliable as the two kinds of direct evidence above 
referred tOr An example of this kind of evidence will be found in 
that part of our report dealing with the torture chamber at Buchen* 
wald, where no one actually saw the strangulations porpctrated in 
this chamber, but where the circumstantial evidence of it was so 
complete and clear as to leave no doubt in the mind of anyone. 



311,982 notarized defense aPfiifavits were never Uanslattd 
and liav« been fornomn. 

U Auf. tt 

group ot af&davlts whjdi I mentioned tc the Tribunal that I wauld 
give to the defeme eomis&l ai once, a£ they are general ai^dAviU 
fj-om auziidt«rt »nd other promiaent people in Germany whit*i tre 
in gcnerai rehuttal of the affidavits put in by the D^lense, uid^ 
My Lord. I w*s quite content — in iact t suggested and the TrLbuual 
approved — that they should be read when we are dealing With the 
documents alter the Defense documents, but that I should pive it to 
the Defense so that they would have an opportunity in advance. 
Uy Lord, that is my position, and I am very content to adhere to it. 

THE PRESIDENT: If you want to make use &f It^ I think perhaps 
It should he offered in evidence so as to make it strictly in evidencre. 

" SIR DAVJD MAXWELLr^FYE^: WeU. My Lord, I am quite con- 
tent to da that. They were foLag to be oCered in evidence as offj- 
davijs. My Lord, it is only a matter of procedure; I do not mind 
which — of course the Tribunal will decide that. ^^^^g^J^yi^ar^ 
putting in about 300,000 affidavits -whidi are beine summarized in 
j^iumhei^^SiTeiraTaBr^avT!^ ^ I sugaested the other day 

tiiat we should put in— al the same time we should put in rebuttal 
these few affidavits that we have. 

THE PRESIDENT: WeU, do it then Offer it in evidence now. 

SIR DAVID MAXWELL-FVFE^ Well, My Lord, I wiU do that. 

THE PRESLDENT: Is there any Other rtbuttal besides th'ese 

SIR DAVID MAXWEU^FTTTE: My Lord, it is this group— I 
think there is one addition to it, but that 15 all the rehutui as far 
u I know. 

THE PRESIDENT: YeS; yOu are not goinf to apply to call any 
additional witnesses? 

SIR DAVID MAXWELL-FYFE; No, My Lord; I wiU not try to 
say for my colleagues, but as far as I know, they have not. I will 
verify that at ojrK.e, My Lord- 

My Lord, none of the PrDsecution are £0in£ to submit any oral 
evidence in rebut tal. 

THZ PHESIDENX: Very well. 

SIR DAVm MAXWELL-FVFE; My Lord, this is the aiadavit of 
Dr, Wilhelm Hfigner, the Bavansn Prime Minister, and it gives his 
address. In the second parajgraph he says: 

"The two pamphlets, Part I and II, submitted to me— 'Hitler 
and Kahr, thi; Bavarian would-be Napoleons of 1923, a scandal 
of justice exposed in the Committee of Inquiry of the Bavarian 
Provincial Diet," were written by me. At that time I was 
assistant reporter of the Committee of Inquiry of the Bavarian 
Provincial Diet on the Ijitler Putsch of 1923. All the facts 

IKT XXI 500 


4 Aiif I* 

TrettmcAt at prisoaera: Ihit ProKcution Au:ga the miiituy 
leaders with pUiminj;, toleratinfi, or conunitting crimes Bgainft prif- 
onert of wJtr in aU theatfrc at war. The Kussiui Prosecuticuit in 
particulAr, «nu]n«racec >p«jfic atrocities, which I do not wuh to 
mention in detail Izuftfar a£ they affect tki# circle of pei^cuft wbom 
I i^prcKnt, I ihall refute these accuutions by atfldavita. 

I Kler firrt to Affidavit Number 1101 by Field Marshal Von 
KGdaer, which deals with the principlu of the treatment ot prls- 
Ooera at war. XJeuteaant Colonel Sdiaeder testifies in Afidavit ll&Z 
that in November 1»41 Ln Or«ha he participated in a diKuuicn 
between the Chief of the General StafC, GeneralobenL Haider, and 
the dueti of the three aimy groups aa the EaAtern Front, Ht wtiifih 
the feeding ot piisonert wa» »]sd diacuafed- -The Army Croups 
Center and South, which h4d Juft taJcen m«ny prisoners, asked for 

troops for thii purpcMe . 
to the AMdaviU 1103, 1104, 1104-a, ilfl5-i to c, and 1106 to IIM. 
inclusive. A pArtioilurly important affidavit is Affidavit Kutnber 
3146 by General Cercke. General Gerdce was. trom August 1039 to 
the end of the war, Chief of Truuport is the OKH, He Atatu that 
the transports of Soviet prisoners of war were treated exactly like 
the iransports ot other pntonera ot war . Tlie priaoaers were trani- 
pcirted together in closed freight cars, and orders deviating irom 
thifi procedure were never issued. Open flat cars, as contended by 
the Prosecutioo, were used only very seldom and only on transports 
over short stretdies, because there was a great scarcity of this type 
of car. In no case were transport in the winter sent intentlDcaUy 
in open cars in order to let the prisoners freeze to death, That is 
ahown by Affidavit 3144. 

Now I come to the refutation of individual points of the Russian 
charges concerning the treatment of prisoners. On 13 Pebruaiy 
1Q46 it was stated that corpses of Red Army men were found oa 
the island of ChortlAa on the Dnieper (Volume VII, Page 347). 

THE PRESIDENT: Dr. Latemscr. the l^bunid has already said 
that it intends only to listen to you for h^^^^^ an3 luiieas you 
■luaten or unless you have in mind thesEonmSi^oJyour addreaS i 
iL.dbM^|Joojc^asJf_ygiLjwill__be able to da it . U you can't do (t. 
iEne^?^viin3v^^3^^5a35!5e5!^^nhey are without any 
further reference. It ae«ms to me that with reference 10 pmonerfi 
of war, all you have got to do is tell us what are the numbers of 
the affidavits whidi deal with It and say '^I particularly refer to 
auch and audi an order or sudi and such an affidavits" and then 
We shall know that you attadi particular importance to those 
A^ClavitB, hut to deal with it in detail hk e this is simply wastin g 



31 Atl(. 4* 

ou^time. Anyhow, whst I iftcan is that * t the e nd of half a day 

THE PRESIDENT^ Yoj^Kjiavjj^Jfjj£^ggO|^im^t^^he^>^ 

DR.LATERNSER: On 13 February IMfl it was asserted that on 
the island of Chprtiz^ on the Dnieper, corpses □£ Red Army men 
were found who had been tortured, whos« hands had been cut off, 
whose ey«s had been put out, and whose stomadis had been cut 
open (Voium« VII, Pa^e 347]. This is refuted by Alfidfivit Number 
1115 of Field Mushal Von KJeist. who was CDminand«r-Ln-c^ief of 
the troops there. Wo Germnan troops were used on thii island, but 
the Hungarian Light Corps w^^ fighiing there. That is shown by 
Affidavit lllS. 

In the Northern sector o£ the Eastern Front, according 1^ the 
transcript of 13 February Id-lS, priscmcrs are said to have been 
driven before the atlacking German troops who used them as shields 
(Volume VII, Pa^e 348). This is clearly refuted by the testimony of 
the former commander-in-chief of the 18th Army, Generaloberfit 
Lindemftnn, Affidavit U^fi-a_ This testimony is reinforced on the 
same point by the affidavit of Colonel Nolle, Number 31&9. 

The Russian Document USSR-151 and the speech ot the Prose- 
cution of 13 February l9iS contain the cxammation of General 
Von Dsterreic:^, who made especially ^erLous (barges with regard to 
the treattnent of prisoners (Volume VII, Pages 363-365). As counter- 
evidence 1 present Aifidavit Number lin which proves that Von 
Osterreich reproduced the conference in May I9il quite wron^iy. 
In particular the afftd&vit refutes the assertion that orders wei^e 
^iven to fire on fleeing prisoners or to poiaon prisoners ingapabj e 
of working . 

According to the transcript of 13 February 1346. numerous pris- 
oners m the prison of Sevastopol are said to have been killed by 
InteDtionally bad treatment CVolimie VII, Page 3&3). This assertion 
is clearly disproved by the testimE>ny of the Army Medical Officer 
oi the 11th Army at that time, CeneraLstabsarzt Crosse, in his Affi- 
davit lllfi. According to the transcript of 13 February IfHG, three 
trainloads of prisoners of war are said to have been taken from 
Kertch to Sevastopol and burned or drowned at sea there on 4 Sep- 
'tember or December 194^ [Volume Vil, Page 333). This assertion is 
disproved by the testimony of Generals Deichmann and BStliger in 
AiAdaWts 3140 and 3007^ both Eenera)s were in the Crimea at that 
time. The Russian Prosecution tried, on 13 February 1946, to portray 
the violent fighting in the quarries near Kertch as bestiality on 
thft pari of the Germany (Volume VII, Page S&Bl. Gas is said to 

IMT XXI 396 


ti A-Vt- ** 

h3,vi becA ustd, and according to the testimony at a woman who 
apparently made an exact count, 900 prisoners were mtJtfeated or 
sbOTr The clear testimony ol the commanding generat in that area. 
General Mattenklott, contradicts thU; the releience is Affidavit 1121. 

Document USSR-G2 and the Prosemtion speech at 13 Jebruai> 
1943, accordrng to which on the orders of Field Marshal Model and 
General Nehring no prisoners were to be taken, are refuted by Affl> 
davits l222-a to i, that is, by six affidavits cm this particular pK>uii 
(Volume VII. Page 392). blaJtreatment of priioners in Norwegian 
camps is also alleged in the Prosecution speech of H Febrjaiy 1&4£ 
(Volume VII, Page 433J- Gentraloberst Von Falkenhorst, in Affida- 
vit 1123, proves that these prisoners were not under the militaiy 
but under the SS- 

AJAdavits llSOto 1160 tectify that wounded prisoners were every - 
where treated like our pwn wpunded From the many theaters of 
war Uiere is testimony that the ehemy himself acknowledged that 
the treatment was good. On thjj point I submit Statements M&l and 
1162, the latter containing an acknowledgment by the American 
General Storm. Number 1165 tesii^es to a letter of thanks from the 
nephew oi the King of England, and Number 1166 fpnt^ins several 
letters froim JtAF officers to the commandant of the Air Force pris- 
oner of war tamp at Oberursel thanking him for his chivalrous 
altitude. Affidavit 1168 shows that in October 1042 the commander 
of the 14th Division, General Heim, in an iirder to the German 
troops ai Stalingrad stated thai Russian prisoners were to be pro^ 
vided with food and that for this purpoge food supplies for the 
fiermsn troops were to be further reduced, although they were 
already very smaTL Further examples of the duvalKaus treatment 
of captured enemy sokiiers are given m Statement llTD, and in that 
of Oeneral Student, Number 1171. When infantile paralysis broke 
out among Bntiah prisoners on Crete", General Student sent a tranS ^ 
port plane to diQrim tor thg n&cessary serum , in spite of the difft- 
cull position of ihe German troops, who were dependent on jupplie^ 
from the air. Oberstabsarzt Dr. Si=hafer, in AiUdavit J 172, says that 
tht Mountain Rescue Service in the Alps saved approidmately 350 
enemy flyers from death. 

Document 1174 testifies to outstanding personal diivalry on the 
part of Colonel Count KlinkowstrGm, and I would like to refer to it. 

THE PRESIDENT; Surely, Dr. Laternser, you can give us the 
reference to the numbers of the affidavits whigh state that pnsonera 
were treated properly. W h^w^st^Um^abcu^^^eUin^l^wh^ 
^gdi^affidavi^avs. Yoi^onl^nav^T^tnnj^nannes^ainafiVilS 
rerert^goo^t^fltment by individuals. 

DR-LATERNSER: Mr. President, if I only j|ive numbers aiid_d Q 
not refer at least partially lo the contenla, none ci this material 

IMT KXI 397 


wi^ have any w eight, because th eM affidavits have not been trarkS - 
IJftUd! Oi all the affidavits atiPFOXuiiateiy 40 have beerTTrSi^a^^ 
li I cannot go into at least seme ofmeewiteiits^Ker^IJ^TriEimS 
wiJ] not be «bl« to take these affidavits into considerAtion at all. 

THE PRESIDENT: We have got the sjimmary before tu in writ- 
ing . What you axe practically doing in every case is to repeat the 
summary which we have already before us in writinE; for instance, 
1174; Decent treatment of English prisoners. 'Hiere is another one 
Itvm aome of the BritUh officgrfi showing who Uie British officer is 
and saying what he said about the treatment, Well. !lf tiave matJe i t 
qyite clear to yoUi I hope^ that you will not be allowed to go on 
bcjond a half day ; and now the Tribuna^nJ^aojouni^^^^^^^ 

[A rectts was taken.] 

THE PRESIDEIfT: The Tribunal will not sit on Saturday next. 

DR.LATERNSER: The Russian Prosecution, on 13 February 1Mb 
made charges concerning the robbing of corpses (Volume Vn, 
Pages 3^7 and 354). Evidence to the contrary is provided by Affi- 
davits 1176 to 1178. 

The Hu&sian Prosecution asserts that Soviet prisoners of war 
were forced to serve in the German Wehimadit. In this connection 
I lefer to Affidavits 1179 to 1203, which show that in one year alone 
the number of volunteers was 500^000 men - 

On the subject of the treatment of prisoners in the home Area, 
I »fer to Affidavits 1203 to 1213. 

On the subject oi special measures lor the prevention of ex- 
cesses, I r^fer to AfAdavits 1214 to 1216. 

Destmction and plundering: I have subdivided my material into 
five sectionst 

1. Alleged destruction and desecration o£ churches, 

2. E^estructions during the advance Itl the £ast, 

3. Alleged destruction and plundering of cultural monuments 
and cultural siteSn 

4^ Destructions during the retreat, 

5. Plundering. 

Affidavits 1301 to 13S3 refute the assertion of the Fzosccution 
concerning the destruction and desecration of numerous idiurdiE^. 
Most of the cfaufdies had already j>een destrc^ed or had alread y 
been de^crated by being tuirngd into warehouses^ workshops. Qf~in 
L:ertain instances inio athtjist museums ! Affidavits 1301 to 1J23 
give evidence of this. Uurihg~ the retreat churches were especially 

IMT XXI 398 


U Auj, 4 

protected: AtfldAvit 1324. Aifidavits 1325 to 1^48 prDV« that ui iact 
the diurdies urere rtstored to their relijiious tnitfos^ - 

Special protection of ehurches r in the French campaign, the pre^ 
veatiOD oi a major fire is the Cathedral at liouea by order of a high 
miliUry commander it ahown by Affidavits 1340 to 1353. 

With reference to Section 2, Affidavits 1354 to 1401 deal with 
defftructiom diUnnf the advance. Affidavits L3S4 to 1362 prove Ihe 
organized work of Soviet commandoj who were chargeri with 
degtrucLions hfcforc th& Gerroan advanc e. AMdavits 13B3 to 13^B 
ahtjw the tremendous destruction carried out by the Russians in 
the I^oaeu Basin, and in the industrial areaa of Stalioo, Maikop, 
Arteniak, DniepropetrOvsk, Krivoy-Rog^ Orel, Orchom-KisCgrad, 
^porozhe, Smolensk, Vitetjsk, Rovao, Riga, and Kharkov- 
En Vitebsk, according to Aifldavit 131*, actual ^ebrand com - 
mandas wrere set intq action with gasoline cans. All thia refutes the 
amertion5~ot the^ I^osecwtion in the transcripts of IJ February lP4b 
(Volume VII, Page 534), 21 February 1946 (Volume Vn, Pa^e 90). 
and 22 February lUi fVolume VH, Page 124). 

The dam at Zaporozhe was destroyed by the Russians them- 
selves. This is proved by Affidavits 1371 to 13^4. 

The chief reason ior destruction in France is explained by 
Affidavit 1400. 

Destructions in Greece wete not earned out by the German 
troops but by the retreating enemy troops, and this is proved 
by Affidavit 1401. 

Affidavits 1402 to liil deal with SecUon 3, destruction and 
plundering of cultural nnomunentE, and cleai-ly refute a number 
of assertions. 

AfGdavit 1402 was deposed by Field Marshal Von Ktichler and 
states that art tfeasur« were taken lioni areas at the front t o 
the rear and stored in a secure museum in Piesko v. In a ceremony 
there;, they were handed over to the Metropolitan of the eity- 

Leningrad: Destruction was determined by military necessity. 
Affidavits 1403 to 1405 are proof thereof and refute the t^^timoay 
of the witnessee Orbeh and Lomakia. AffidaviU 1406 to Hll refer 
to the places in the vicinity of Leningrad, most of which were 
destroyed by Russian fire. 

The famous estate of Tolstoi in Yasnaya Polyana was spared 
by the Germans upon express orders of Generaloberst Guderian, 
as shown by Affidavits 1412 to 141B. One of these affidavit? depoees 
that in th? Russian victory film of the spring of 1342 the Tolstoi 
estate was shown undamaged after recapture . The Tschaikovaky 
Museum in Klin was not plundered by the German^i . Proof: Affi- 
davits 1419 to H2Z. Affidavits H23 to 1^27 prove thai the obser- 
vatory m Bulkowo was never in Gennan handf ^nd therefore 

IMT XXI 3$9 


n AUffn 41 

wu not plundered by the Germui Wehmatiht, The otdervttory 
Bi SiCRiAis in the Crimea was not plundered by Gennim troops. 
According to AfSdavit H2S the inslnimentj were removed by the 
Russjftnj in their retreat before the German trcpop« m^rch^ in, 

Dotructions in Novgorod (AifldavitG 1429 to 1433) were never 
ordered- St. Peter's Churdi and the famous SdiwarzhAupler Hdu» 
in Riga were not destroyed by the Germans but by fir« by the 
Russians themselves. 

Riga, Revai, and Novgorod cuftered heavily tluoujih Hufiaian 
bombing attadu. The church treasures of Novgorod were not 
plundered by German troops. The Russians in 1B41 loa^ied these 
treaiiirte on a ship whitfi sank in the Wolt^ow and remained 
lyine there. Proof of this: Aifidavii£ 142B to 1439. 

The monument "lOOO Years of Hussia" was treated by the 
Germans correctly and with great care. Proof of this: Affidavits 
1439 and 1440. 

An order to aet SOO viillaBes in the neighborhood of Pleskoy o n 
fire wai aever eiven . Proof: Affidavits 1441 to 1443. 

Generaloberst Mackensen did not ro^ the museunt in HostOiv 
of valuable paintings. Proof: Affidavit 3021. 

Destruction in Kiev; Kiev came into German hands relatively 
undamaged. Affidavits 1444 to 1451 prove that the destruction 
was caused primarily by time bgntbs- The German troops did 
everything to flght the fire and remove the minei> and in that 
way the Lenin Museum was saved> Hoses to fi^ht ttic Arc weY e 
brought in from Germany by airplane. Proof of this: Alfidavits 
1444 to nil. ^^ ^—^ *^ 

Plundering in Tula never took P^ace- German troops were 
never £n Tula, but oniy reached the edge of the city; &ee Affi- 
davit 1452. 

Affidavits 1453 to 1433 reler to plundering and destruction 
during the retreat Affldavit HB3 by General Wohler gives proof 
of the fact that at the last minute the wish of a high Russian 
Church prelate in Poltava, that church valu>»ble£ be safeguarded, 
was fulfilled. 

Affidavits 14^4 to 1500 and 1551 to 1591 prove that plundering 
of any kind u^aa strictly prohibited and was severely jiunished . 
even if mn object of small value wfL'$ involved- 

Affidavit 3024 by General Eberbach is especiaUy important and 
proves that the order given by Hitler in the summer of 1944, that 
everything was to be destroyed in tho retreat from France, was 
noi carried out by the , commander-in-chivf of the 7th Army in 
agreement with Field Miirshat Model. 

IMT XXI 400 


IL Am. H 

For the Italian theater of w*r, there is the teatimony of wit- 
imsn Kesselring and WeLzfadEer, and in addition^ Affidavit^ 3008, 
3025, and 3fi26, whidi ahow that: 

(1) cities of cultural value were evacuated in good time; 

(2) art treasures from Monte Cassino, Ravenna, Bologna, and 
Etimini were protected and removed to safety; 

(3) the destrurtion of industrial installations, whidi had been 
ordered^ was not carried auX, and through the peraonal intervention 
ol B German general the port of Geaoa was saved from bem^ 
blown up. This is shown in AfAdavits 3008, 3025, and 3026. 

I should like to refer to Documents USSH-115, USSR*168, and 
General Staff Number L9 contained in my document book. The 
Wehrmacht commimiqu^ of 18 May IMO shows that Louvain was 
taken after hard fighting. This explains the damage to the uni- 
venity at Louvain, whi<±i the witness Van der Glcsen believed he 
could attribute to arbitrary acta. 

Treatment of the civiUan population: The Huasian Prosecution 
has asserted, on B February 1946. that the directives for the 
"Barbarosfia" order called for the physical destruction of people 
under suspicion (Volume VII, Page 112). In order to refute this, 
I refer to Affidavits 1601, 1601-a. and l601-b, which show that 
frequently the death penalty was imposed for excesses , es[>eciaILy 
jn cases of rape. 

160I-C offers evidence of three death sentences tor crimes com- 
mitted against a Russian famil y. 

It is asserted, on 14 Februery 1B*&, that the German Wehr- 
macht, on 1 July IMl, carried out a mas* killmg in Lvov 
(Volume VII, Page 454). I refer to Affidavits ICOS, 1603, and 1604 
which show that when the German troops marched in, many rows 
of partly mutilated corpses were found, and were viewed by 
several generals. 

On Z July the 40th Mountaineer Corps took steps against the 
maltreatment of Jews by the local Ukrainians. Accotdinf to the 
Prosecution speedi Of 15 February 1646 135,WK) corpses were said 
to be lound in the area of Smolensk (Volume VII, Pages 465-4MJ. 
flvidencc to the contrary: Affidavits 3006 and 1607, showing that 
especially ^ood relatioris eitisted with the population there . Among 
other things, the famed Cathedral at wm r^tored and 
reopened. During the retreat large masses of the population fol - 
lowed the Germari troops aB*t"^t tKe wish of the commanders . That 
is proved by Affidavit 16&B. 

According to the assertions made on 15 Febniary 1946, £45 
children were poisoned with coffee and cake at Kench (Volume VII, 
Page 493). Evidence lo the contrary: Number 1609, an affidavit 

IMT XX r 401 


by Cfineral Kaurad, which aJ» shows that tglatioM with the_ 
populatiQD of the Crimes were «pec tally good , 1 refer particularly 
tb AfQdBvits 1611 mad 16il in thi£ «}nELKtion, 

According to the tsserUon. oJ the Prosecution on 15 Febnjary 
1M6, a cm&i alarm ord«r was issued by the commander dE Feodosia 
and iiiAtructions published by the 2&0th Inlantry Division (VcU 
wne VH, Page 499). Evidence: Aiftdavit I6l2-a, whidi shows that 
a 2:60th Inf&niry Division was never stationed in thp Crimea . 
Supplementary proof: 1614. 

In the Prosecution's case of 15 February IM* reprisali in Kiev 
in 1941 are mentioned (Volume VH^ Page 503). I refer on this 
point to an iffidHvit by General Von Obstfelder, Number 1615, 

According to Affidavit 1616, also deposed by General Von Obst- 
felder, German tuMps gave substantial aid to an insane asylum 
whidi presented a dreadful picture of negUgence, as the inmates 
had been left to look after themselves. 

With regard to the alleged murder of 33,000 Jews in Kiev, J 
refer to Aifidavit Number 1665 deposed by General Herni. He 
knows ol no order to that effect . 

In the autumn of 1&43, Id&.OtKl persons are alleged to have 
been killed in mass executions and in gas vans in Kiev. For counter- 
evidence I refer to Affidavits 1116-s, lll6-b, and ltl6-c, which 
show that the Wehrmadit never possessed any gas, vans. 

According to the record of 15 February 1B46, the military com- 
mand in Stalingrad sowed death everywhere (Volume VII, Page 504). 
The state of aJTaixs in Stalingrad is described in Affidavit 1617. 

The accusation is made on 18 February IMfi that the German 
Wehrm&cht drowned 144,000 Russians in the sea (Volume VII, Pages 
545-S4fi). At another point. 144,000 citizens are agam mentioned 
as having been taken out to sea on femes uid then drowned. I 
refer to Affidavits 1609, 3007. 3140, 1625, and 1625'a. whidi show. 
»Dong other things, that the shippine sgace was so inadequate 
that not even the supplies of the German troops could be entirely 
hsndied by way of the water and that the air transport service 
had to help out. 

It is asserted on 26 Febniify 1946, quite generally, that 
the Wehrmadit participated in the persecution of the Jews 
(Volume VIII, Page 194). I refer to Affidavit 1GZ9. deposed by 
Field Marshal Von KiJchler, who destrnbes at great length the 
■ bsolute refusal of the Wehrmaeht to taJte part in such thing s^ and 
jts endeavors to take measures against excesses. 

Affidavits 1630 and 163^ are o£ significance in this connection; 
they testify especially to the medical help proyided, against the 
wish of certain quarters, during a typhus epidemic amon^ the 
Jews. To show that no orders were issued for the killing of 

IMT XXI 402 


Tlit typical pitca of Holocaust "avidviicB" consists of a Cominuiiift "report" oriflinallf 

wrIttBii in Russian. 


I, Prank A. Ealtrkln, AGO No. £0073. hereby certify thst 1 am 
t horoughly conversant with the English and Russian languages ; uid 
that th? above is A tt\it and correcl translation ot Document No* 
USSR 00 (I), with the exceptiDn af Enclosure 1, Tram beginning to 
\ , ^(without regard to the black raarket prices)."; Enclosure III icvm 
beflnninf to ". * * intervention of Dr.Hadia, however well rtMoned 
they were."; and Appendlcem 5f$ and T, which are missing In the 
Russian t«3tt aubmitted ta me. 

12 January IS^B Frank A. Esttrkin 

Frank A, Efterkla 



Orii. Ru*fti*B 

The Activitiei ol the Defendant Wilhelm FRICIC 
Wilhelm Fridc. former Reic^Lsmmiater of the Interior, became 
In Aufuit 1343 so-calLed ReicSisprotector in Bohemia and Moravia- 
SLmultuieously with this appointment, Hitle]: also reorganised the 
position, duties and rights of the Reiduprotecior, By vlnue oE this 
reorgani^tion the Reichsprotector became in future the reprtieJit- 
ative of Hitler in his character ai Chief of the RcLdi. It was his duty 
to tondrm the members of the ■o^called Protectorate Government, 
to nominate and dismiu German officials in the Protectorate and 
decide oa their auperannuation- hia competence extended further to 
amnesty and aboUtion. 

Fnim the point of view of Czechoslovakia, Wilhelm Fhdc ha» 
also been guilty in his diaracter aa Minister of the Interior. Trick 
v/ai already Minister of the Interior In January 1933, 

Already the Decree at Hitler ct 1.10.1939 (RGBL L page 1331) 
regarding the admiiUstntloa of the Sudeten-^German territory bean 


HBAm <r Eit Mn- tbu^M.^ 1 IDD J.h.f «|lr [IlirTllrrrrfliiA Do 
Amr dn laminLidirii GEidUili hjl Bimmltr bladfi firlf HUvi, 
rr Ul dJam DMeil brtmuDni uifl k IlUieI dJ^D Kmr mH Am 
muJeh HrvHL.Diblii, 4>D dl-n- drulaJir Lcfrruumm, do Am 
nUm^Ti •mbE. U - fur lUtm -k^ dLf t4ll[i-dir r°m] ibimil 
nun Pillinr bprtlrmnl ■I'rdrn mil — lutnib Dihr Jiti liiuW^m 
FUnOfB irUningiti V >rB*n kU|B^ JiD fl— b^ L#o™ir*jrTi 16r LTi"" 
dlE Stdirmoj dir trEAnEiDiir On saitniPi Bir HOultfl* rur 
DnjladiLBiJ und fUi Eura^* dunilLl AA lun DLe jiiUimj]- 
MUilUiUOi- W.^iDtfi.dunl 1101 ifphAl. luui diD nidi dmofli 
Hlffefnninn -irkllA rin (rDaj|±rDuaUilid IViiibki FUJib eUHeIiI 
Linirwic*l1> rBoni JUnHndM darfiti, lIiijIj< Jib im Cinh mmii 

rSniiTciuhrj BnfjJl 

Jin'b rJiDBi thl zLEChBNAU nvuTCFir. ID Be euotp ova 

mt cravihHMiKT □EmhHL. imd m h HiacfLfQiji oi oskp 


z-.' arhnmr -: Brriln, dm T IC. 1*4 

Bo- An 

4ni 1 ID Lftfl tTKfplVi ULA [UA TIiA III I" Vab14iB i^ 

mupi (in< Unl«1HliU"li VBtt Art -' COirikm da ficuvunr- 
qiiulb .-.. ab« dli :r^ BrhxodLuu dn Pulm . -. udJ i^t" 
III 4ti Paliin- bvnjii uilVAdMU '-' AH-^ohi dH Er.d' 
Prlnkiu LudT«Bt^Mi.M uidn WirlhigiLL '-' 


Anolhtr phgtoGopy cartifiBif genuino by thi 
SoviQl War CriniBs Cofnnii$$Joii , . . 




car; .l?!" (bjj I I ■ Abi 1 tiai! ■ Ak« 1 U> 4 je i»ci Bd^Siiiilif {lu] 


Standortkomnundantur Pleskau IS.KDvonber 1943 


An mll« Elnh«U9f flKrtr im Bahn- iind 
R o U b a h o B c h u t z 

El itt erwieHn, daO Zlvtlpersonen — vltUidi Frauen imd Middien 
— Kundschofterdienst fUr die Banditen it\iXsii, g}histige UigUdi- 
keit«n fQr Ansdil^^e auf Bahnen, Strailen und Brildctn rrmitteln 
Oder leLlut Spren^ladun^en ui Obj^iea anbhugsi^ 

Jdi befdiJfi dther: 

L> AUe Zivilpersonen, gteichviel welchtn Alters iind G«diledil8, dit 
■u£ dfrm BahnkdrpA: oder Jn der Ntth* btln^tfen werden, sind al* 
Buiditen ru betrachteQ und zu erschieDen- AusRenanxnien ^nd 
Jeliutventiiidlidi die AiiwltikolDiinf n unter AuMcht. 

Z,} AUe Ferscmen wle iintcr 1) gexkannt, die sich querbeet bcwtfCb, 
■ind m ersdiieQen. 

3.) Allc PersoncA, wl« untA- 1}, die bd Nadit oder in der Dftm- 
meruoff ifdi suf StnUJen /beHnden^ aind zu er&dueGen. 

4.) B«i Ta£e stnd die unter 1) genannten luf StraBen bet»iTen«n 
F^enonen festeunehmen imd peialidiA tu. QbentnUeA. 

Der SUndortkoninUiiulant 



A cBrtrffBd photocopy of a minitographsd documant 
wlHch die Russians say is gtnutne . . . 

Alf Vergeltungftmuanahmcn ordnete ich ^n, 6033 durdi die Gendar- 
merie in den umlie^enden Ortsdiaften iotoit tine VbtTptHtuxig 
■Smtlich» bereits entlassener Kgt, auf ihre politudie Betatigun^ 
wShrend der SowJrtzeLt durdigefuhrt wilrde und 20 Aktivisten urtd 
KP - MitfLieder aua diesen Eteihen featgcnommen und der £Qnd«r- 
behandlungr rugefilhrt warden. Atisserdem *rt&ilte idi StTmsdiarf. 
KnDp AriwefAuAgEn und RiditUnien fur die DunhfQhnmg wetterer 

Bei m^in&in Eintreflen in d«T AiiS5<Adienst&t&ll« Berditsehew waien 
die ersdiossenen Kainerad&n in etnem hergerichteten Toteimmmer 
wurdig aufgebahft. Der DLtJutalellenleiteir hat durdi die W&hf- 
madit 9n Becditsch^w Sfirge erhatten, sodass am 2T.1£. die tJl^er- 
fUhrung der erechoswnen Kameraden nach hier eriolgen lioTinte. 
Die Beisetiung fand am heutig&n Tage um 14 Uhr auf dem Helden* 
friedhof der SS und Polizef in Hegewald statt. — 





Phaio^fiphie ^Mtr V*r T. hiljubiit Tan Jer S<»^i*liicfa«a A.*ll..^TiriniuBr 1 

|H>K^#i, C«bti)n«l 5tJ4llpolit?)im1^ (^'erf^ J ■ unter Dj;tuni Sip: »EK, AlC, PfC 
SK SB" (Jlel linlerHn^ndH), ^Aml V], Uhr.cii, AdUrcr, 3, AUG. !ȣ. VI E L^ 
fff II mtiifir lu){ dttctb unteren Sl|i-Rd twri P'n unt 

Der Chef der Sicherheitspolizei Berlin, den SOJuU 1H2 

und dea SD 
IV Ale — BNr. »5ST/42. 

alle Staatspolizei-leit-atellen, 
■He KriminaIpdlL«ei-]eit-sleU«n, 
die SD< [Lcit) Abschnltte, 

die Kprnmandeure der SidierheltspoUzel und des 5D., 
den V«rbmdang£fuhrer beimKommandeur derKriegsgelangeneri 
im Gcner«]gDuv«mement SS^tubaf. Llaka 
in Lublin^ 


Mora Coffimunitt "evidtnca" . . . 


MrSSrON rOH the INVESTIGATIDK- of crimes committed ETf 









for the Investi^tion of CrimM commited by the- 
OccupLen and their Collaborators 






L— The Government of tht Third Reich and 
Hitjer'a Party orfianiied secretly the Ger- 
man minority in Jugoalavta.^ 

Since 1920, they had their own national or^miiation called 

'^e Schwaeblsdi - Deutsditr Kulturbund". It waj Just this organ- 
[»tlon (and through it ail the GemuDS in Jugoslavia) that the NazJ 


UMM -iidm- . . . 

rdAdA inXiDli 

■ KUI]*IPin|F4l 

arHEEHf»T n did-ati numwaiu fousii aoTBRnHDH 
toTTciAi, r'UHMBnio, L nbumiLi ihi, ajmmva that 

P PUtH WP WPJ IHPBLEOrJED d fl*V B*6fllf r]CI|iMEmjJaLrilS 

■frmLATTMO nnTii>-ivTBCujmC4L ■TPcniHEr'n 

TUV Cfnln] OnruDlDJini hic iDiultfUlna nf Gqdiid Cilina 1> 

FUuul iiBd<E piiUdp'lhn i" llir rmdBni OT Ur OmrtL CMmmU- 

■kn, UinUu nf J<itf ki Unurl £pL>lk4iwAL PinJUHt «r Crirr-I- 

Un DlArlEt Cnin Lb \Itrjtw HidoUJ UtIDu, [>Hnir Allrd TLdir- 

t|f*|ci IHd llVr n[>rTT |ih|UDini PmCaHir d FunilU HrilrlU 
OkLiie VLcLqe Onrvii-DAlmwikl tU PnTuiot DwHir AituL QtulBL 
Irifnti.rri 4I|| drcuBUvun, ui4*[ >Udi pbrilQ-inUidBilu] u- 
pDlBimli *1in PabiFi uifiiiiL dF Uv Dni:ni[Hl:iiL ema/if Hinu- 
>nir4'HrAlrji&urJ In4 otin 
1ft. Cfltomi™nt Infmnl'iri i "nir^i ■lii> "^m bun* 1h dI |I»I» 

liiBp DlhUib Ibi liiB* 194? -1143 

ThM IHl'TnVl'H^ l^r riT4l>u1 (HrRluliin md (uJklil Uimlli>- 

Un i^LUd Lb Hi* rUtavLfif 

■m C«BMili>Lln Ctap |K»BBnjfedi -ru • plm wfUTt kp 

■*lt frmi o'iTw\a.rtAatBa\fMl. dpdIdhbIi nn oirlBl HE W 

iLiLnj KiiBiHn niqp 


5J Jftdvigii Dzido, 2T years of ifie, Warsaw^ 24 Pius XI Street. 

On £2 November 1942 openti^n of the rifht leg w«s carried out. 

Strong swellinek elevated temperature:, unconsciousne;;}. After 4 days 

incision heavy purulent disdiarge. Knee became unmovable — itwl 


6) Heleioa He£er, 2a yean of age, resident of Warsaw^ £4C Cro- 

diDwska Stieet. 

— Paic 3 — 

In November 1942 operation. Fever higher than S* degr. C. Experi- 
ment s were peifonned every two weeks. DiKharge lasted for six 

The wounds have been <ipened one alter the other and the physicians 
induced inflammatory infectji>u5 material. 

According to the Penal Code and the Decree of J<Javeinber I9ii 
about the Central and District Commissions for Investigation of 
German Ciimes in Poland, Law Gazette of the Polish Republic Ng, 
and It a supplement to the report of the Polish Government of 
72 January 3946, submitted to the International Military Tribunal 
according to Article 21 of the Statute. 




X February 1946^ 

Certificate of Translation 

I, Frank A. ESTSIIKIN, ET 20073, hereby ctitify that I am 
thoroughly convcisant with the English and the Russjan languages^ 
and that the above ia a tme and correct translation of Docunoent 
Ko. VSSR- 40e. 



ET 20073 




ETfl X>J1H 



I Krtilv that thg Hbow niplur^R are rhotpgrachs of Yadvim. I>gitio. 
raker in the presence oi Ihe expert physicians, Pr&r. Dr. Victor Grwvo 
l>«broW5ki And Prof. Dr. Adam Grutsa. 





1 Fflbmary 1B4S. 




Onfl affid^vH from an army officer or polHtcal commisur 
was enough to certify any documant is Qenuine at any time . . . 

Hi M April 19-U the Tribunal will sh tllat S32 kUognmi of <rrystjiU 
were senU fiving a net weicht of S&S kilognEiu. 

THE PRESIDENT: What ht this document that you have Just 
put in? 

M. DUBOST: The 30th at Apiil 1944, but I am taking them at 

THE PRESIDENT: I bu aot tskim the date. What I want to 
know is what is the authority for this documeat? It comes, does 
U not, from one of the committees set up by tho FrenA Republic? 

M. DUBQST: No, Mr. President. The Document Is an American 
doeuaient whidt w«4 in tho American archives, under the Document 
Number IS&3-PS. 

THE PRESIDENT; M. Duboet* this note at the bottom at Docu- 
ment 1553-F& was not on the original put in by the United States,. 
w It? 

M* DUB05T; No, Mr. President, but you have before you all 
the originals under the number whldi the clerk of the Court has 
Just haiided you. 

THE PRESIDENT: ^Jess you have an affidavit Identifying 
these oriaJTtals, the originals do not prove themselves. You have got 
to proyg these documenta which you have^just handed up to ua 
either by a witness or byan aflidavit. The documents are documents, 
but they do n&t prove thgmaelves . 

M, DUBOST: These documents were found by the American 
Aimy and filed In the archives ot the Nurembef:g TriaL I took 
them ttijm the archives of the Americaa Delegations and I consideT 
them to be as authentic u all the other docomeats which were 
filed fay my American colleagues in their archives. They were no 
doubt captured by the AmeriCian Army. 

THE PRESIDENT: There are two points, M. Dubost. The first 
Is, that tn che case of ^e original ejchibit, IPM-FS, it was certifle d, 
we imagine, by an officer of the United States v These documents 
VMdl you have now drawn, our attenHoD to are not so certified by 
aayono iA far as we have been able to see. Certainly we cannot 
take Judicial notice ot these documents, which are private docu- 
mentij and therefore, unless they are read tn Court, they cannot be 
put III evideflce. "That can all be rectified very aimolv bv such a 
certiflcate or by ai^afLdavit anneadng these docmnenta ajid_shQWjng 
tEiai they are anaTogouT to the document which is the tJnited 
SUt«s exhibit 

M. DUBOST: They are all United State* documentot and they 
ar* all flled in tlw ardiivef of (he United States in th« nAnwdcui 
Delegation under the Number 1^3-PS. 

IMT VI 333 


. the affidavit or ceriificBtB simply stales where llifl 
do^ucnent was '"found", and that h is "ganuina". 

m Jut.M 

THE PRESIDENT: The American Document Number 1&S3-PS 
hai not yet been mbmltted to the Tribunal uid the Tribunal i» of 
the oplriiQti iKat thgy cwtiot take ludidal _ jK>tl ce ot this exhibit 
without any further certification, md they think that some shor t 
affidavit Identifying the docTitnent must be made . 

ML DUBOST: I will request my collMffiM of the Americaa 
Prosecution to furnish this atfidavit r 1 did not thinfe it pwable that 
this dDcument, whidi was classLfled In their ■rdiLves> could ht 
ruled out^ 

This purpose of extennisation, moreover, does not need to be 
proved by this document. It is sufficiently established by the 
testimony which we have submittei^ to the TdbunaL The witness, 
Boix, $poke theae words, "No one Is allowed to leave thi^ camp 
alive. . . . There is only one exit, and that la the i^hinin^y of 1h« 

In Etocument F^32l, Earhlblt Mumber HF-331, Page 49, at the 
top of the page, we read: 

^The only explanatiorL whidi the SS men nude to the 
prisoners waa that no captive should leave the p^lace alive." 
On Pa^e 179, the paraer^ph before the last oE the Frendi text: 
"The SS told ua there was only one exit^-the diimney." 
On Page 174, the last paragraph before the heading: ^^Gassing 
ftnd CrtEoatiOfi": 

**The ea«nUaI puiptwe of this camp waa the ftrtertBinaUon 
of the greatest possible number of men. It was known as the 
extermination camp '* 

niis destruction, thlat extermination of the int«mes. assumed 
two different forms. One was progressive; the other was brutaL 

In the Second document book whidi is before the Tribunal^ we 
ftnd the report of a delegation o* British Uembers of Parliament, 
dated April 1945. submitted under Exhibit Number R7-331, from 
Whidi we quote these words (the third paragraph on Page 29): 

"Altiiough the work of cleaning out the camp had gone on 
busily for over a week before our visit . . . our Immediate and 
continuing impression was of intense general squalor. . . ." 
Page 3D, the laat paragraph but one; 

"We should conclude, however, by atating that It Is our 
considered arid unanimous opinion, on the evidence available 
to ua, that a policy of ateady sUrvation and inhuman 
brutality was carried out at Buchenwald for a long period 
of time; and that ntdi campa as this mark the lowest pfunt 
of degradation to whidi humanity has yet descended/' 
Ukewise, In the report of a committee set up by General 
Eiaenhower, Document L^liS . whidi we aubmLt under Exhibit 

IMT vr "4 


All PS documents, fm exampr^, are covererf by one affidavit sworn by 
Major Coogan m Nov. 22, I94&. 

H Jui.41 

This particular document. Number 532-PS, as a copy, 1 think 
I am right in saying, does not contain the marijinal note in the 
script whidi the original contains. At any rate it is important that 
copies should contain ev^rythmg which is on the originals. 

Then ther* l5 another matttr to whidi I wish to rrfer. I have 
already said that it Is very important that documents, wh^en they 
Jire put in evidence, should not only be numbered as exhibits, bu t 
that the exhibit numlbec should b& stated at the time; and also 
tv6n noore important, or as important ^ that the certificate certifying 
where the document com&s From should also be pfoduced for the 
Tribunal, Every document put iit by the United Slates bore up on 
it a certlfjcate stating where it h3d_bgen found or what 'wa3_ it^ 
origin , and it is important that that~p"ractice should be adopted in 
every case. 

The only other thing I want to say is that it would be very 
convenient, both to defendants' counsel and to the Tribunal loo, that 
(hey should be informed at least the night before oE the program 
which counsel proposes to adopt for the JoUowing day. It is tnie^ 
as was said, that perhaps that has not been absolutely regularly 
carried out by the Prosecutor on all occasions, but it has been done 
on quite a number of occasions within my recollection, and it is 
at any rate the most convenient practjctf which the Tribujial desirea 
should be carried out; and they would be glad to know above all 
what you, M. Dubost, propose to address yourself to tomonow; and 
the Tribunal would be very grateful to know how long the Frendi 
Prosecutors anticipate their case will take. They would like you» 
before you finish or at the conclusion of your address this after- 
noon, to indicate to the Tribumal and to the defencLantA' counfel^ 
what the program for tomorrow is to be, 

SIR DAVID MAXWELL-FYFE: It Your Honor please, I wonder 
if I could say one word in regard to the position as to documents^ 
because I had an opportunity during rece^ of consulting with my 
friend Mr. Dodd, and also with my friend M.Dubwt. All TS docu- 
ments form a series of captured documents, whose Qrigin and the 
process taken subseg^uent to the article, were verified on £2 NDvem - 
ber bv an aftidavit bv Major CQoean! ^hi^^?a^mt in bv mv 
friend Colonel Storey. It is the submission o£ the Prosecution, 
which, of course, it is delighted to elaborate any time convenient 
to the Tribunal, that all sucJi documenta being gaptured and veriflgd 
i_n that way are admissible , I stress the word admissible, but the 
weight whldi the Tribunal will attadi to any respective documents 
is, of course^ a matter at which th« Tribunal would arrive from 
the contents of the document and the circumstances under which 
It CAine into beinf. That, I fear, is the only reason I ventured to 
intervene at the moment, that there might be some confusion 

iMT vr 3*1 


Docunifiitts which have bean 'Yaund" ar« not indi^duallf ''certifiod" 
"g«n(uii«". ONE aHidaint makes them ALL genuiiie and tiiat is that. 

I* Jul. I* 

betw&eri the gengral vrnfi cation of thg document aj » captured 
dQcumen't^^ which Li_done by Major C^wjtan'a afftdavi t. and th& 
ijidEvidual'cirtIflc8t*~6f "translation, that ia, of the conrctness of 
the tranalation of the different dacumeAts, whldi appeared at the 
end of cadi individual Arnerican document The fAct id that my 
friend, Mr. Ekdd, and I were very aonous that that matter should 
be before the Tribunal, and we should be only too delighted to 
^ve to the Tribunal my further Inlormation whidi it desires- 

THE PRESIDENT; Does that affidavit of Major Cooean apply 
to all the other series oj documents put In by the Unitgd States ? 

SIR BAVID filAXWELL-FYFE: It applies to PS and 1 think 
U ifl D. C. L. R and EC . 

THE PRESIDENT: Doea that certificate then cover Ihla partlo 
ular Sheel of paper which lb marked 532^^. and haj on it nn othi^r 
Identifying mark ? 

SIR DAVID MAXWELL-FYFE: Yes. The affldayjt provei tha t 
Piat waa a document captured from. German so^jrces : it ffivea the 
whole process — what happens after. I have not troubled the Tri- 
bunal by reading it, becau£« as sudi w« submit that it Is admissible 
ai a 5ubmi5siaa Of course, the UMtter of weight may vary, I do not 
want thg Tribunal to be under a_m itegprehensj^n_jjtal_eyga-.da£lL" 
ment was certLfled inijividuallv: what is certified is. of cQurse. a 
non-captured document. It a document cornea from any of the 
saurces mentton&d in Article 21, then someone with authority frfliti 
fes jtQ_ve^nment certifles it as comlnji from one qI these sources and 
that we do tndivldual\y> But jconceming captuT^rf Jocumgnta we 
dQ__not make any individual cert itl cation: wq depend on htaior 
Coogan's affidavit. 

THE PRESIDENT: Yes. but just a moment. Sif David, it is 
perhaps right to say In reference to this particular document, 
532-PS, or the portion of it whldi has been produced, first of all 
that the copy whidi was put before ua did not contain the marginal 
note, and that it is, therefore, wrong. We are in agreement with 
your submission, that it has been certified, as you ^Y±. ^^ ^tajor 
Coogan'a affldavi t, -Arhidi Is admissible; but, of counie^ that has 
nothing to do with its weight That ia the point on whldi 
Dr. Exner was addressing us, 

SIR DAVID RAXWELL-PYFEt So I appreciated it. Your Honor 

THE PRESIDENT; It is a document — being a private document 
and not a document of which we can take judicial notice — which 
has not been read in court by the United States Or other proses 
cutors. and it Ls not ia evidence now because it has not been read 
by M. DubosL 



"CapittT Ttttti prtparad on t mimBograph, so tha only thing ippearing 
an tht "cdpt" vibs whit thsy typed onto the ilsiicil - 

Vou are appCArlng for the Defendant Kaeder, and the DrfrndBni 
Racdcr, I am afraid, at the present rate will hot be In the witness 
box for some tim&. 

DR. BIEMERS : The re^uU oi tJiat Is that the defente counsel . 
yho is not mQmen't&rilv concerned, cannol, understand the cross - 
exam inati on , As Id the tedinical question, I ask the Ccitrt to consider 
that I cannot follow Justice Jadtscin on this technical point. The 
document is mimeoFraph^d bv means ot a stencil- In miTneographinj 
it makes no diflcrencc at nU v.'helher 20, 40, £Q, or 350 copies ar e 
produce^, it makes no difference from the point ot view of time , 
except perhaps 4 or 5 mlnuttj . I consider for this reason Ihal one 
can hardly refer to lechnicfl] difficulties in this matter* 

THE PRESIDENT: Counsel for the Prosecution will consider 
Avhat you say, but no rule has been made by the Tribunal that every 
dncument should be supplied to every counsel during crosa - 
gxantinaticff i. 

GORIKG; r should like to uy agaJn ft) rei^ard to the document 
that this 1> not .. . 

' MR. JUSTICE JACKSON: May I respectfully ask that the witness 
be instructed to answer the question and reserve his explanations 
until hla counsel takes him on. Otherwise, this tro&i-e)CjEmtn«llon 
cannot successfully be conducted^ lii the unse d beli>g reasonable 

in time. 

TH£ PRESIDENT: I have already explained, on several occa- 
tifaOt tliBt il is the duty of defendants when they arc in the witness- 
box, and the duty of witnesKS^ to answer questions directly, If they 
•re capable of being ariswered directly, tn the afBrmative or in the 
negative^ and If they have any explanation io^ make afterwards, they 
un make it after answering the question directly. 

MR. JUSTICE JACKSON: I call your attention tollezn 3, under Jl» 
"Finances," reading as follows: 

"Very critical situaUon of the Reidi Exchequer. Belief InitlaUy 
through the milliard imposed on the Jews and through profits 
accruing to the Reidi from the Ar^Tilzation of Jewish 

You find that In the minutes, do you not? 

GORING: Yes, that is thert. 

MR. JUSTICE JACKSON: And you find the minutes signed by 
Woermann, do you not? 

GORING; Nd, that is not true. 1 beg your pardon? Here" on tho 
pholQstat Woermann has signed it, that U not Bormann, I know 
Bormann's signature well^ it is quite different. 

MR. JUSTICE JACKSON: 1 said Woetmann. 

iMT rx 5„ 

"TTiB rn«n without a sjgnaturft." 

Jt rtpMl H 

COL. AMEN: Will you answer that, Defendant? ItMjSSA^Ji^ 

dMUmcnl lUSl ]ike vou have denied cvfrv aihcr darumi^nt that has 
been shown Jn von tnHav i^ Ihaf mrrprt? 

KALTENBRUNNER: I already sUted yesterday^ and ilso told 
my defense counsel, that ibcse documents, were never submitted to 
me. I should know it today. To a certain decree 1 am to Mame 
for nol having paid more attention as to whether Euch orders were 
Issued in my name. I never denied yesterday that I was partly to 
hivine in this respect but my pasilion to this question can be clearly 
seen from Koller'B lesUmony. 

THE PRESIDENT: 1 do not understand. ^j^^fli^nyi^iaJ 
the signature on the document Is net vnurjt. or thft you may have 
tinned it without lookine at the decree? Whidi Ere you Kayirg? 

KALTENBKUNNERr Your Lcrdship^ this document and thla 
decree were never subinitled to mi. To fien s\nh a document %'DU]d 
^«ve been completely against my inn«r attitude towards the entire 
problem. My attitude m this matter c^n be seen from Koller's 

THE FItESIDENT: I am nol aslcins you what your Inner alti- 
tude is. I am MkiM wDu whether ihe bflmfL_OB_it i^ ^.riH^>. hv 
your _hMd . 


THE PRESIDENT: The Tribunal would tike to look at the 


COL. AMEN ; J^ytvgewrjtJg^rcnaJurgJJgu^^^ship. 

THE PRESIDENT: Yes, let ui look at the documtnt. 

Defendant, who is Rose7 

KALTENBRUNNER: I do not know, Your Lordship. 

THE PRESIDENT: Colonel Amen, (ran you five iuiy idea how 
Urns you will be with your crosf-examLnation? 

COL. AMEN: Perhapi half an hour, dependins on the answers of 

the dcfendiiit. 

THE PRESIDENT: Very weU. Then the Tribunal will adjourn. 
We will sit lomori-ow ai 10 o'clodt to continue this part of the case, 
and will idjoum at half past 12 in order to hear Dr. Thoma and the 
Proseeution upon his do<niments:. 

{Tht TrJlfunQt cdjoumrd until J3 jlpril iS4G at lOOO hotirt.} 

iMT XI m 

Ibni ■• 'lWfellri~ "flrmmil' "niTthri gnnma' 

UmiDfn Um-H U^Sfr-IB, Umi-Ht AND UE5IL-bL TUEU 

HH-UMUiA flTVB Bcwi rLHn.T> Or Tin nnxrziQATiora or 
m IxntAOKanuEV bivltk □aaDHBiDH ram rat umm- 
rumon An rtmncumm or nn cuHD ccbiuittb> b' 

f^ffnaUHIB rOiTrtate CTwciht riiGinjUJh Me 
■i , mjgH^AT.v5« hit; MnK^f„^.,.ft^ 











The Russian rubbflr-$Mmp "certiFicaifl of auttenticity" i$ usually eiTlted cut of this 

one when it appears in anthologies. 

— z— 

tlcVlruf^ (cliJentT St*^cldHhl»aa iti KavWn trtli4««Llcer» AudbwilB 




One fli the gTeaiesr film praifucHis of the 20th century 
wa$ a Russian, Sefgei Eisenslein. 

— 1 — 


Ktriltn^e d4» PCpnH¥Ltralioriil«K«rt Awtit^Ui 




Eisenstein produced tiis 1st fitm (Strike) m 1924. 

— 4 — 





Eisenstein visited Hallvwood in t930, retuined to Russia 
and taught in the Slate Institute of Cinematograph y. 

- s - 


[Same woman as in photo -3- but with vuliite wig) 




His films include Potemkin (192S] . . 
1Q Days That Shook llie World (1928) 

^4 — 






Alexander Nevsky {193Bh with it$ bold sweep of I3lh century battles . . . 





Ivan the Terrible (1944), amith«r nationalistic subject 

— i — 








and "documentary fiims" hr the war eHon ifuring WWII. 






Tha Russians had hundreds of concentration camps with their own epiileinic$, 
fatnine$ and atrocities. Atsfi available were pmpsr $et$. extras, and cgstumes. 




'Documeniary proof" thai llift Nazis castrated peopla. 

— u — 

— 17 — 

— U — 

— » — 



ttors ">wd«nca" from Hollrwood. 







EXHlfJlT 'ir 




i. FROM laafl TO l9tL I was EMPLOYED AT TWENtrhm r 




\s this rsal, or did lliey borrow it Irom a late-night movie? 

» ^ 



■ I ciudi lABlimitUgi JdL Wsl II llv "leri*" or lb palu il h li 

DP Vii Inq IJDnlai in Al lir It iTll 1D|I, * Ull ifllB-iVinri lDri« 

J I Eir nghL kVcIi lirH Bppifln b DB I VigUfl ibipi 

Till DHnnnclin aId iivein Id bn iinin| Ir Ihli |jiLlDm bUlT 

■nrflnrq \i t bnldi 


Tha pictures of the Waruw uprising b«ar i PS docuimnt number 

■nd ire thearftJcally covered by the one affidavit of Major Coogin 

«f the U.S.Army sworn oo Novambar 21, 194&; BUT . . . 

Sickiici 9) pndMlviH 




llifl fnct thit a document hears a PS numbsr does not guaTsntae 
that it is not Russian in origin (saa footntrte}. 




riaiolcBll Nr. ."16 Jft nowjftitrfitn Krieg:PTprlircelirn-KotiimiB*ioi>. ^»i■^it1f Ati^f* 


der Auiseror(Jentlichen Staat lichen Kommis- 
■ ioQ lur Fessttfllung untl U n t e r Suchun g der 
5chHndt4t«n der f a^c h L^ t isch«n deutsch^n Ein- 
dringlinge und ihrer He Lf ershelle r, ueber die 
unffeheuren GreueLtaten und Verbrechtn der 
deutachen Refiftrang in Auichwiti (Os wiez i m). 

Schon bevor die Rote Armee pvlnisdies Gebiet in Obefschlesien 
bcfreLt hatten erreichtcn die Aus»rordentlichc Kommusion zahl- 
relche Bei'idile ucbcr das Vorh^ndensein eines riesigen Lagers, 
riB5 die deutsdie Htgieruna lur Veiniditung russiacher Gcfangener 
in dt;r Umfebung dei Stadt Cvwieziin (Auschwitz) errichtet hatte. 
Naeh der Befrelung. von Polnisdi-ScKlesien durch Sowj*t-Truppen, 
linden Einheiten der Roten Aimee dieses LAger. Au[ Anordnun^ 
dor Ausserocdenthchen StaatskonunUsion fand im Februai und£ L94S elne ein^ehende Untertuchung der im LAger von 
Ausdiwits durdi die DeuUdien begang^nen V^rbredien statt. 
Qic UntPi-juchung wtjrde durdigefuehrt vom Gcricht^offizier dtf 
L Uknlntschen Fmnt mit KUDRYAVTSEV und KUJiMIN als 

Kil. Molcr Dyi ii iii-Mil'ir |ir473riij fJ by line Spyirt ttririrrcitjoTT wTiiA Wferg Mali 
UbSR exhibit akiubcn. 



Thfl sordier pointing llie weapon at the child appears to be (he same 

a$ the soldier with the sadistic smile in the next picture, possibly 

indicating ttiey VMere shooling with a small cast. 

_ 7 _ 










17 - 






In ■ rul trill it migfit ba quHtioi»ri whalhflr (In "pralwliM inlua" 
of Mch ph9tQor«iihs a not txcMdid by ttnir ''pri|iHlicHil nvturp". 




Without the caption the evidence proves nothing . . . 



— 19 — 

he Sis, Uvy, Jean-Paul, eluiliaHt. 

Le pete. Levy, Gts-ton, isKeui«ur. 

Le |?'aa^-i>eire, Blam, lAott. 


, . , so (hat all that is rsquired h a gpod caption wri1er> 


— ss - 


— 23 -» 



Harrpr - til" "nriDw" Im 



HF UlTTtLnTiCnJ aNU MulLDUi UpvJl^TrnAN 



— S — 

_ a _ 




». / »,**!.+• 





- 9 — 




SpHF ducrBii Hiu 

r it I'lrH lUklrlflnrBi mn<*t ll nr ddpnul '-< 

«.-jlrwaidi ■yam 

ham 'jiklH liBT* Lb CiurE, lliiB> lufelniHutri [kiSiutn, BlrmL 
vKIuliI Timinim hirir djJI*il 'Uli bnnDi nrkin bmiB* -r 

■ikU ■ mt4l IHlfTlll br> btvUil i>iBF [iu4ni] lrdU1ll1>i:i4 nuuitH 
b; Ih" brU -trlni *l.ii± hxn lE cur dlipuil 

DP FUOarfBH. i:iB jiu IrU u ihon liDW mBfiv or UiinF 
liLl4ir4n iWif ^^iTiT 

SPEEFH Tl VM in VmirVtleiini aumbn H Ihr md dT ihr vpr 
V« -[jr iiBnc mOOD n^uin DMrn 4ir lAKjnaeiB iirmnJiei uid 

TIT* pItBttani IfT 1,400, in» iqii In nmci 

T^F]-Al:»NBL H-rrBnw, Bi IV Tnr Llt9 jn rlvMd 4« 
nsBHiEnliHi CMiBf 11 j|tJl£llfJ!B' ^'<r '!< I^ '"" ""^ '"^ 

&J'l£n.-i|finii4arH>|iDip«hJ lr4idlrt*iil Urn. mu ■Imi 
■I— Hiinit* JIHF Ibr nroB iL hidLLiuun. x ]tri» hubar UuUll^ 
U« tna Dij[.h.^»ii r.Jln»d IqjUllillvB -rrr briar yW up ig lUI 
llir pnai lUoiE r«iiliiH r»ai thi «urrf il Hiulluiiuii Hidri be 
Irtfiiffmifi le Uv P>npb* l^li ■« purrlj ■ pcinLlmr r»IUr 
vblih I iDLld nid lattrtW ti Hi. lu \l *irliLr<] iJI I^r trcn* im 
iQridi'n vlijdi I bMl iBBod. 1 bave ilknl b^« « u ImiiaubBi 
itill h, I h-Diri 1v iK-fUln m Ihi ip°E *}irUin Uili nnHxiAHn 
xnll -u ui itTlb] fjfl iH rr^m i»«ppa|i af Lhi v<irt UiU ll 
IB iMtmfr irx tvhiff dlirrUMn Ib Ihli Md tm "ilhlB Iba 
«DonrTU-*dnilBliliiI]Ytijihfnnril,^fiS P Uu#iJ a. Um QtoDon 
lh.1 II -mid br m«n ludldntu 1° Live Uiek "lokni f-<p1°r'^ 

4luritl4 4^Ul.. In I llnl plu.1 .1 Lin. ..Ihn U.... I.. priWlJfK 

DIt JlAaiaNIIl. WjU ]0u drwrJbr Hi. vIdI Ld Uu uB.|>r 
BP^n. Hj vbiL mLimblj lnlhwrd Uif ETrKEltcd pnSriHi d 
alw*Jrd4ifrll>=Jl»:'llii' wilfiEH BLilu. I m Iht kilAtri faura^ 
II. ^phr^kun h>T— -h, .nid hi« ■r°gp of btrridii urd h l»i>d 

hVdFliii (ll M nidEni KiiiiDiTifTil iummmTil KlBi'r bit nm bad 
™1t Hth jrpjma H Ibm UfTii jn id-inn, Di m Dvailm »l If «ll 
ol Ibc ifiinllaa llial hf [lEpujloii »uH UVI bnii miilr bdui 
D, nil rr-rtl.Fl™:, tiir i-niF m- il- ■mill uri iF 11* eu^ 

Urn UlbE lli*r Vfl* IIL Ui|i4BUd Jl> HUlli TTt millE mapocllai 

Anollitr vritnasi dBscribes Dachau . . . 

iAlLCH: At ihal Ijmc there was sf» mufSi talk abnul Ihrsr camps, 
also in Germany in our officers tirtlcs. ihal 1 doqidcd lo judge for 
mi'Sflf- Himmli-r gnvt- his fmmrdiatt constnl lo my rcqutjsi. Ai ihal 
linriL, 1 bt'licvc, Dadiau was tbr only Tonccnlr*litni tamp in tKislrncc. 
There 1 found a very mixed assorlmcnl of inmates. One proup 
CDTi£i!tlcd of major crimintjls, fill habiluril ofTcndiTs; oihcr fiitiups 
consisl^d i>f people who rcpciilcrfJy roinmttlcd Ihc famr of^i-nsc 
which WdrC nol crimes, bul only oiTcnscs Thrrc was analhcr j;]'oup 
&| jKTiens who hatlparlicipatcd in Ihu Robm Pytsch, One ot the 
mtn I reccgntzcd as having seen btforc. Ht had b^^n a high-rankin£^ 
SA IcadtT and wuf now ah internee. The camp, run on military 
]\np^. was clean and property ftrpaniy-ctl. Thry bad Ibcir o^vn 
^^ ff h.1jt r^°"^ and ihqij ^yiR ba>;crv- W<^ insisicd on havinc the 
1>^pd otihc inkrnccs served to us. The food was jiPod and onr of 
Ihf ramn ]^a^le^f: Pvniaincd that Ihcv frd <hc ii^maJP^ very well as 
th£v wore ennaflcd on heavy work . All Ihe innvaies whom we 
Sipprcadied explained the reason foi their inlemmenl. For instance^ 
^c jTian to^tt uj^^hal he had commiUcd fojccr,- 20 times : another, 
that he had yommlLtcd assault jnd ptbgr pffcnses IS times . There 
wer& mAny cases of this kind. I cannot, of eourse, say if we were 
shown everything In this large establishment. 

DR KAUFFMANN: You have just mentioned that the question 
had been discussed in military circles, among the officers- Later, 
when you rctumcd^ did you canvty your impresions of Dadiau to 


MILCH: ] scarcely mentioned them lo anybody, only if my more 
intimate comrades broadied the subject- Af 1 have said before, I did 
not go alone; there were several olher gentlemen with me and, no 
doubt> lh«y too must have bad occasion to discuss this subject in 
am* Her circles, 

DR. KAUTTMANN: Unheard of acts of Cruelty were pefpetrated 
in the concentration c&mps. Did you come to hear of them and, if 
SQ, vhen did you flrst htar of them? 

MILCH: On the day on which I was. captured it was levealed to 
me for the flrst time when int«m«es from «n auxiliary camp in the 
vicinity were led past the place where I wa* captured- This was the 
first time I saw it for mySL'lf. The rest 1 learned in captivity from 
the various documents whidi we were shown. 

DR. KAUPFMANN: Then i\ was completely unknown to you that 
mor^ than 200 concerLtration camps existed in Germany and in the 
-occupied lerritories. 

UILCH: It was completely unknown to me. I have already men*' 
tioned the two campif whose existence was known to me- 


Konrad Morgan dascribn Bychvnwjrid antf Dachau. 

MOKGEN: I investigated Weimsr-Bucherwfildp Lublin, AuK^- 
witL, SadisenhauGciv Oranienburg, HertogenboKh, Kr&k^w^PlasE^w^ 
WAr^w, And the Conc^itraticm C&mp Dachau'. And Others were 
investigated after my time^ 

HERK PELCKMANIfi Haw iruny uses did you Investigate? 
How many sentences were passed? How nuny deatJi KntmcnT 

MORCEN: I investigated about SDO csEei^ that 18^ alKtut 800 docu* 
mentSj, And <m? document ^nrould affect several cases. About 
200 were tried during my ■ctivily. Rve concentration cump com- 
manders were arrested by me peraonallyr Two were shot after 
being tried. 

HERK PEIjCKMANN: Ydu had them shot? 

MORGEN: Yes. Apart from the commanden, thet* were 
numerous other death sentences against Ftihrer and Unteiiuhrer* 

HSRR PELCKMANN: Did you have any opportunity ol gaining 
personal insight into the conditions in concentration camp*? 

MOBGEN: Yes, because I had authority to visit concentration 
camps- Only a very few persons had this penmlssion. Before 
beginning an invutigattan, I examined the concentration. camp in 
qu^tion in all its details very closely^ inspecting especial^ those 
arrangemEnts whidi seemed particularly important to me, I visited 
Ihem repeatedly and without notice. I was working mostly in 
Budienwald itself for B months and have lived there. I was in 
Dadiau for One or two months. 

H£RR PELXJKMANN: Since so many v»itors to concentration 
camps say they were deceived, do you consider it possible that you, 
too, were * victim ftf tii<Ji deeeit? 

MORGEN: I have just pointed out that I was not a mere visitor 
to a concentration camp but I had settled down there for a long 
residence, 1 might almost say I established myself there. It is 
almost impossible to be deceived for sudi a long time. In addition, 
the commissions from the Reidi CriminHl Polite Department worked 
under my instructions, and I placed them directly in the concentra' 
tion camps themselves. I d<j not mean to say that in spite ot these 
very intensive efforts I was able to learn of aU the crimes, but I 
believe that there was no deception is regard to what I did leam. 

KERR PELCKMANH': Did you gain the irapresHOn, and at what 
lime, that the concentration canips were places for the extermination 
of human beings? 

MORGEN: I did not gain this impression- A concentration camp 
is not a place for the extermination of human beings. I must say 
that my first vJ^'t^o * etmcentration camp — I mentioned the nrst 
one was Weimar-Budienwald— was a great aurpdae to me. TEe" 

IMT XX 410 

Morgan was the &.S. judge who shot Koch for making human lampshadvs . . 


ramp is ailuated on wpoded heights:, with a wonderful view. Thg 
JnstaJlatiPTTS wpTe~cIe5TT" end freshly patnted. There was much lawa 
and flpwers. The prisoners wert heilthy, normajly fed, sun-lanned , 

Working . ■ . 

PRESIDENT: When are you speaking of? When are you 

tpeakinf Qf7 

MORGEN: I am speaking of the beginning of my Investigations 
In July 1943, 

HERE PELCKMAKN: What crimes did you difcover? 

MORGEN^ Pardon me, E had not — may I continue? 

KERR PELCKMANN: Please, be mon brief. 

MORGENl The installations of the gamp were in good order , 
especially the hospital. The camp authorities. Under the ConunandET 
Plester^ aimed 3tprovidm|; the prisoners with an e xistence worthy 
pI human b&ings. They had regulir mail service- They had a large 
camp Lbrary^ even books in Jar^ign languages. They had variety 
thows. mQtion picturesl, sporting conlests and even had a brothel. 
Nearly all the other eoncflntrationlcflmpa were similar to Budien- 
walj . 

PRESIDENT: What was It they even had? . 

MORGEN: A bi-olhel 

HERll PELCKMANN: What crtmes did you learn about? 

M0R2EN: As I said before, the invest^gationa wer« based on a 
iuspicion oi corrupt practices. In time howeverT T wa* obliged to 
comr to the conclusion that besides those crimes, killings had also 

HERR PELCKMANN; How did you readi the suspicion that 
killings had occurred? 

M0RC5EN: I learned that the &urtibg point for the corruption 
was Ihe asagnment of Jews to the c&mps after the action ml 1!^33, 
I made it a, point to learn all the possible facts about this action, 
■nd in dning sd I found that the majority of the pri&oners who were 
suspected ol knowing something about these cases of corruption, 
had died. This peniliar frequency of killings was noticeable; it 
itnick me because other priBOnera who were not to any key posi- 
tions remained in Buchenwald for years in the best O'f health, and 
were BtiU there, so that it was rather remarkable that it was just 
certain prisoners who might have been possible witnesses who had 
died, I thereupon examined the flies conceming these deceased 
prisoners. The files themselves offered no clues to suspect illegal 
kLllingft. The dates of the deaths were years apart and in eadi case 
dilTerent causes of death were given. But it rtrucfe me that the 
majority of these deceased pris<mers had been put into the camp 

IMT XX 490 


Morg«n Ued himult blua in th« fflc« on other fnatters, so we bis frsa 
to disFflBBrd all of his testimony. 

t Auk. « 

THE PKESlDi:MT; Dr. Pcldimann. he Mid he did not report il. 
Surd/ thai is suffirlcnl. Wt ticnH want 1v knoiv marc about it. He 
did nol i-eporl. Wc arc nol lr>-in£ the wilness. 

Hltm PELCKMANN: I bcft your pardon, I bcHcvc that ii a 
mistake. JE I undcrsloud corrtcUy, He wid he did report, 

THE PRESIDENT: He sHid he made no other report^ ai I under- 
stood ill except 1hi£ that he has spok^ of- 

HERR PELCKMANN: Witness, will you commtiit on that? 

MORGEN; That is true. Asidp from thediief of the Main Office 
of Uie SE, no one else was informrd- 

HERR PELCKtrfANN: Did you not consider it your duly to in- 
form the public or to dear your conscience Eomebow by r*isin£ the 
cry "murder"? 

MORGEN: I would have needed access lo the t«hiijcal means 
for doine this, that is lo Ihe press snd the radio, vhidi J did not 
have. If I had blurts that out al every street eomer, no one would 
have believed me, because this jsysltm was beyond human imagJ- 
ratiDti' I would havtr b«en locked up be insane. 

HERR PELCKMANN: The Camp DatJtau >vas here described ag 
a pure extermination camp by the Prosrcution and b v certain 
witnesses. Is that ttue ? 

MORGEN: I believe that from my inveslij;ation from Ma^__iQ 
July 194i 3 know" the Concentration C^jni> Dachau rather vgH- 1 
must say that 1 had the opposite imbVession- The Conc entration 
Camp Dadiau v^as always con sidtTcd h, very Rood camp, ttie 
prisoners considered it a rest camp^n?^ actually did get th|l 

HERR PELCKMANN: Did you etc the inlernal arrangcmentfi, 
the hospital, and &o forth? 

MORGEN- ] examined all these facilitiFi carefully, and ^^"st 
say the hospHTl ^^^a& in excellent order. ] ^Tnt through all thF 
wards There was no noliceable overerowdlna. and remarkably 
enough thp number of medical instruments which were at the aeryice 
of the prisoners was astgnishlnji. Amonfist the prisoners themselves 
were leading medical specialists . 

HERR PELCKMANN: Very well. You want to say that con- 
ditions were food. But you thereby contradict the testimony of the 
witness, Dr. Blaha. which was made the subject of evidence here. 
Do yQU know his testimony? 

MORGEN: I have read the testimony ol Dr. Blaha in the press. 
and hwe J have had the opporlunity lo look throueh the record of 
the Trial. 1 must sgy I am amaied at this lestimonv. I am of Jhf 
opinion that Blaha. from his own _knQwledac. cannot make such 

IMT XX an 

Hare inaulu to oiir intelligaoca from tFiOM l^fing Htm. 

already be«n pliced at the dispCksal of the Reich, Uul Himraler 
declared: tb*t he now had to actrommodate a kind of concentrfttiDn 
camp with the DeaUi't-Head units an this vtty suitable site- I 
opposed (hifi to begin with, b«<rai4£e I did nat coiuider ■ nncentra' 
tion camp at mil 4he right ifcirid of thine '[>r the town ct Weirnar 
and lis traditionA. However^ he— J meaji Himmlcr— making use ol 
his position, refu&ed Id have an^ discussion about it- And h> the 
camp WAS set up neither to my vatisf action nor to that of the 
population of Weimar. 

DR. SERVATTtJS: Did you have ajiythlne to do with ttie ad- 
minisTraticm of the camp later on? 

SAUCK£:l*: J never had HnythJnf to do with the adminifftrlitiOA 
of the camp. The l^uringian Government m^de fin »tl?mpt at the 
time to influence the planning of the huilding hy sayinf that the 
buLldirig police in Thuringia wished to ^ve the orders for the 
sanitary arrangements In the camp. HirmrOer rejected this on the 
erounds of hts position, saying that he had a constmcUon ofBce 
of his own and the cite now belonged to the Reidi. 

DR. SERVATTtJS: Did you visit the c*inp at any time? 

SAUCKEL: Ab fai- » F c*n remember, on one iln£le occasion »t 
the end of I93T or at the beginning of 1933, I visited and inspected 
the camp with* an Italian conrniissian, 

DR. SERVATIUS: Did you find anything wmng there? 

SAUCKEL: I did not find anything wrong. I ingpeeted the accom- 
modations— I myself had been a prtsoner for 5 years, and SO Jt inter - 
ested ine> 1 must admit that at that time there was no cause lor 
any complaint as sudi. The accommoiiLatiions h^^d been divided ^nlp day 
andr^ght rooms. The beds were covered with blue and white sheets ; 
the kitdiena^ washrooms^ and latrines were beyond reproach, to tha t 
the Italian officer or officers who were inspecting the camp with me 
^TdTTuTt in Italy they would not accommodate their owii soldie^ 
any better . ^^^^^ 

DR. SERVATTUS: liater on did you hear about the events in tiut 
camp which have been alleged here? 

SAUCX£L: 1 heard nothing about such events as have been 
alleged here> 

DR.SSRVATIUS: Did you have anything to do whth the evacu- 
ation of the camp at the end of the war» before the American Army 

SAUCK£L: When the mayor of Weimar informed me that tliey 
intended to evacruate the camp at ^uAcnwal<j and to use the camp 
guards to fight the American troops, I raised the strongest objections. 

IHT xrv ei3 


"Even as old Heidelberg Castle was evidence that old Germany 
had been too wea^ to resist the invading Frenchtnen who destroyed 
it, so the black remains of the synagogues would be a perpetual 
monument reminding the coming generations of the strength of 
New Germany, 

"He reminded the students that thefe were still countries who 
squandered their time and energy with book^ and wasteful dis- 
cussions about abstract topics of philosophy and metaphysics. Those 
days were over. New Germany was a land of action. The other 
countries were sound asleep. 

"But he was in favor of letting them sleep. The more soundly 
they slumbered, the better opportunity for the men of the 'Hiird 
Reich to prepare for more action. The day would come when 
students of Heidelberg would uke their places side by side with 
legions of other students to conquer the world for the ideolojy 
of Nazism. 

"The honor students marciied past him and received a medal or 
a certificate of promotion, Everybody roared the HorsL Wessel Lied. 

» Page 111 — ' 

"One of the most popular lecturers in the entire Folitische Hodi - 
sdiule was Dr. Karl Boemer (Dr. rer. ool. et Dr. phil. Doaent at th_e 

College of Political Scienc^ . Head of the Press Office of the Depart- 
ment of Foreign Politics of the NSDAP, office hours at Party Head- 
quarters, Lennestrasse £}< 

"^ Week after week he analysed the weaknesses and malignant 
jntentiojis. .of . ^e . press in _varipus countri es . I recall a typical 
lecture, directed against the American press. 

■* According to Boemer, the American press is the most foul, the 
most crooked, the most Jew-drenched prQgs__ijLJhg__whQlg__wajcld - 
It is published by crJminab. written by liars, and read by morons - 
Its methods are cheaply sensational, and its policies _are_d]ct ated 
bv i^ropked advertisers: its m.ake-up is puerile. 

*'ln purple language Boemer ridiculed the system of headline±i 
as used by the American press, belittled the format of newspapers, 
and scorned the wealth of advertising material. He prophesied that 
sooner or later the American press would precipitate America into 
another war with Germany — a war which Germany would win. 



StiflniificallT, die Hojoanust is a fiirce. The prossculors admittsd thai 
Ifiay jicktd tht liclinieal ftijttrtisa to )udga thfl avidtne* . . . 

Frendi. I thguLd now like to deal with deUils of the sKperim^nts 

M. DUBOST; Do not go too much into details, because wg are 
not apecialists . It will suinee us to Know that inese expenmen« 
werecarfjed out ttdthout any regard to humanity and on nonvolun- 
tary subjects. Will you please describe to us the dtrocioua dtaract«r 
of these experimejits and their results. 

BALACHOWSKY: Tlie experimenta carried out In Bloch 46 did 
■n-tthout doubt serve a medical purpose, but for the jjreatef part 
they were of no service to science. Therefore, they can hardly be 
called oxpecimenti. The men were used for observing the effects 
of drugs, poisons, bacterial cultures, et cetera. I taken as an ei:ample, 
the use of vacdjie as&^nst exanthematous typhus. To manufacture 
this vaccine it is n&ces*ary to have bacterial cultures of tj-phus. 
For experiments such a£ are carried out at the Pasteur Eflsiiiute 
and the other aimiUr institutes of the world, cultures ace not 
nece&ury as typhus patients tan always be found for samples of 
inlBcted blood. Here it was quite different. From the records and 
the diarl you hav« in hand, we could ascertain in Block 4G 
12 different cultures of typhus germs, designated by the letter BL", 
(meaning Budienwald) and numbeced Buchenwald 1 to Buchen- 
wald 12. A constant supply of these cultures was kept in Blodt 4S 
by means of the contamination of healthy Lndividu^U through sick 
ones; this was achieved by artificial Inoculation of typhus gemn^ 
by means of intravenous injections of 05 to 1 cubic centimeter 
of infected blood drawn from a patient at the height of the crisis. 
Now, it Is well-known that artificial iooculation of typhus by 
intravenous injection is invariably fataL Therefore all tliese men 
who were used for bacterial culture during the whole time such 
cultures were required (from October 1^2 to the liberation of the 
campi died, and we counted 600 victims saciinced for the sole 
purpose of supplying typhus gerrru. 

M. DUBOST: They were literally murdered to keep typhus 
germs alive ? 

BALACHOWSKV: They were literally murdered to keep typhus 
germs alive. Apart from the«, other experiments were made u to 
the efficacy of vaccines. 

M. DUBOST: What is this document? 

BALACHOWSKY: This document con Wins a record of the 
typhus cultures. 

M. DUBOST: This document wu taleen by you from the camp? 

BALACKOWSKY: Yes, I took this document from the camp, 
and its contents were summarized by mi tn the experiment book of 
BlodE 49. 

IMT VI 307 

... so thfty told the Mfitne^sss not to get too tflchnical(t) 

^r JM.n. « 

Kctivcd different kinds of vaccina, ihttir detUu wtre in jftJn>portion 
to the ef fleecy of th« vaccines administered to them- Some vaccines 
had excellent results, with a very low death rate — such was tlie 
case with the Polish vaccines. Others, on the contrary, had a much 
higher death rate. After the conclusion ot the experiments, no 
aurvivors were allawed to live, according to the custom prevailing 
in Block 46, All the survivors of the experiments were "liquiidated" 
and murdered in Block 46. by the customary methods which some 
or my comrades have already described to y[>u, that is by means 
of intracardiac injectLons of phenol tntracardiac injections of 
10 cubic centimeters of pure phenol was the usual method of 
exterminaticrn in Buch^nwald. 

THE PRESIDENT^ We are not really concerned here with the 
proporlEon ot the particular iniecttons. 

BALACHOWSKY: Will you repeat that pleasel 

THE PRESIDENT: Ai I have aaid, we are not reallv concerned 
here with the proportioas in which these injections were given. 
^l^FtTl you kindly not deal With these details? 

M. DUEOST; Vou might tiy and confine the witness. 

BALACHOWSKY: IContinuiJtgJ Then I wiU speak of other 
d eta i]s which may interest y o u . The jr are experiments of « 
psychotherapeutic nature, utilization oJ diermcal products to cure 
typhufi, in Block 46, under the same conditions as before- German 
industries co-operated in these experiments, notably the I. Gr Farben 
Industrie which applied a certain number of driigs to be used for 
experiments in Block 46. Among the profeasofs who supplied the 
drugs, knowing that they would be used in B1«Jc 4B for experi- 
mental purposes, was Professor Lautenschlager dI Frankfurt. So 
much for the question of typhus, 

I now come to experiments with phosphorus, p>articularly made 
On prisoners of ftu&sian origin. Phosphorus burn$ were indicted in 
Blodt 49 on Russian prisoners for the following reason. Certain 
bombs dropped In Genttany by the Allied aviators caused bums 
on the civilians and soldiers which were difficult to heal. 
Consequently, the Germans tried to And a whole series of drugs 
which would hasten the healirtg ot the wounds caused by these 
bums. Thiis^ experiments were carried out in Blocfc 4fi on Russian 
prisoners who were artificially burned with pho&phorus products 
and then treated with di^erent drugs supplied by the German 
chemical industry. 

Now as to experiments on sexual hormones . . . 

M. DTJBOST: What were the results of these experiments? 

BALACHOWSKY: All these experiments resulted in death. 



Sincs victims of acute crttnidi paisoninfi b«cQins unconscious and do not alf dii 
in the same perbd of time if at all tha "p««phoJe" would not liave been mucli lielp . 


in this 1 train and that mt leixt IDO of these dvilian prlAoners had 
been jammed into each, car — locked in — and they had been an Ihe 
road for several da^a without food or water and that approximatel; 
3.000 of them were dead upon arrival and most of the others were 
in a dying condition. 

We saw many dead bodies on the ground. Thes« prisoners had 
apparently crawled out of the car5 and had died on the ground. 
Cur ofliciaU advised us that many of the others who had survived 
th« trip Ln the cars had died since in the camp, and many moi'€, 
although still alive, were starved beyond Tedemptjon. 

Directly across the road from the tsrs — near the entrance of this 
Dachsu Camp — we saw three dead members of the Nazi S3 troops. 
Two had been $hol, and the skull ot cwie had besn crushed. We were 
advised ih^t these three w^re members ot the S3 guards at the 
prison who were captured and killed by Russian inmates oi the 
pi-^son when the camp was liberated by the advancing American 

- p*jf 11-. 


A distinguishing feature of th» Dachau Camp was the giS citamber 
Cor the exef:ut]on of prisoners and the somewhat elaborate lacUicies 
for execution by shooting. 

The gas chamber was located in the center of ft large room in the 
crematory building. It was built ol concrete. Its dimensions were 
about 20 by 20 feet, and the ceiling was some 10 feet in height! In 
two opposite walls of the chamber were airtight doors through which 
condemned prisoners could be taken Into the dtamber lor execution 
and removed after execution. The supply of gai into the diamber 
was controlled by means of two valves on one of the outer walls, 
and beneath the valves was a small ftlass-Covered peephole through 
which the operator could watdi the victims die . The gas was let 
into the diambfir through pipes terminating in perforated brass fiji - 
^^res -^et into the ceiling . The chamber was of size sufficient to exe- 
cute probably a hundred men at one time. 

The room In which the ea$ chamber stood was flanked on both 
ends by warerwms in whidi the bodies were placed after execution 
to await cremation. The size of eadi room was appra3iimat«ly 30 by 
5U feet, At the time we visited the camp these warerooms were piled 
high with dead bodies. In one of the rooms the bodies w^re thrown 
in an irregular heap, In the other room they were neatly stadted 
like cordwood. The irregular pile of bodies was perhaps 10 feet 
high, covering most of the floor space. All of them were naked. 



Cyanida ^a% is lighter than air and Zyklan cannot flow ttirough pipM . . 
(At tN Dachau Tri«l, this gas chamlifli didn't exisL) 


— Piir 10 -- 

Dadiau — ladaty of horrors. 

Dachau, near Muenchen, one of the oldest of Ihe Kail prison 
MKips. It is known iKat irom IWl to 3fl44 up to 30,000 people ^.^.ff 
Entombed here at one time, and 30,000 were presenl, when Jhe AlHt% 
reached Dachau. The Nazis said it was b prison for [wlftlcal din- 
Eenlers, habitual criminals and religious enthusiasts. 

When these &«nes were filmed, over IfiDO priests, repri.»n1!psj 
many denominations^ still remained alive. They c»me irpnt GcrrnanT 
Poland, CzKhosEovakia, France and Holland. 

Jncominj^ prison trains arrived, carrying more d^^d than livinjt, 
Those strong enough to travel were brought to Dadiau from outI)'ihc 
points whidi were threatened by the Allied advance. This iit isaw 
they looked when they arrived. 

Some survived and when the rticuers arrived they adminUlcrrd 
what Aid they nuld. 

Others died after the llberationH 

They were buried by their fellow prisanert. 

As in the case of other camps, l&cal townspeople were brought 
in to vtew the drad at Dadiau. 

This 11 what the liberaton found Inside the buildings. 

Hanging in orderly rows were the clothes of prisoners who hud 
been suffocated in the lethal gas chamber. They had been perGuadL-d 
to remove their clothing under the pretext of taking a showQr for 
whidi towels and soap were provided. 

This is the Brausebad— the ihowerbath. 

Inside the showgrbath — the gas vents- 

On the ceilinj! — the dummy shower heads. 

In the engitieers^ room — the intake and outlet pipeB^ 

Push button^ to cgntrol inflow and outtake of gas. A hand-vJ^y^ 

to regulate pressure. 

Cyanide powder was used to jgenerate the lethal amote. 
TVom the gM chamber, the twdies were removed to the eremnto ry- 

— Psf* It — 

Here is what the cameji crew found inside. 
Theae are the lurvivon. 


an early "jassino" yarn vwth a "flas resflrvoir" insiead of Zyklan. 


of the room and mostly the water was turned off. On the out^ 
Mdc of the room was the gas reservoir and two Has nines lad 
from thg outside into ibC-Ewm. Ther^ wa^ a slot at the back 
and the gas emanated from this slot 

Q. Gas never came from the showers? 

A. Alt the showers vretc plueged. It was just to mahe the effect 
that the prisoners were entering a hath-toom. 

Q. Was this gas thamber taxijlt by SS Hauptsturmluefu-er 

E da not know. 

— Plf* u — 



Q. Do you remember a special car whit^ was operated betwceo 
MAUTHAUSEN and CUSEM, in which prisoners were gassed 
on the journey? 

A. Ves, th« commander personally went with thli car. WASlCKT) 
put the gas into thi^ car. 

Q, How many people could be put into this car? 
A. Twenty or thirty. 

Q. Did this car belong to SS Unlenturmtuehrer WASICKJ?") 
A. This car was ju£t Like a police car, only constructed air-tight 

Q. Did ZIEE^IS drive this car? 
A. Vea, I saw him myself. 

Q. ZIEREIS hinueU drove the car. but he did not put the mv 

Into the car? 
A. The whole poison waa in the handj of WASOHJNSKJ. 

Q, But ZIERE15 knew that the prisoners were beijig gased? 
A. Yes, he usually gave the orders. 

Q- The gassing dC pri«>n«rs was due to the urging oC the SS 

A. I think that they both were in agreement about It, since they 

Were the beat oF friends. If there were too maay people, they 

simply got rid of them. 

Q. Do you remember the last BOO people who were killed by fr 

club or through drowing? 
A^ Yes^ I know how people were led Into the gas diamber ud 

hot and cold water applied on them, and then they had lb 

line up and were beaten until they died. 



Hera ii sdys Th« gas chatnbet was madi out of w<m»iI. 
Cyanide gas can penetrate wooden walls . , . 

tfce CMTAp, n«Et to the crematory . When the trucks came to fetch the 
patienVs we heard tfiV sound of the m&tor across the camp, and the 
Doise ceased rijht by the crematory whose chimney rosr Hl>ove the 
high wall oi the camp. 

At the time of the liberation I returned to these platej. 1 visited 
the fjas chamb&r which was a h&rmeticallv sealed bujldme made of 
boards, and Inside it one cojld still smell the dtsagreeable odor o f 
gaS- I k now that at Auschwitz the gases were the same as those 
which were used against the IJcg, and the only traces theyjeft were 
ttrtiall> pale green crystals which were swept out when ihe windows 
were ppgned. I know these details^ since the ttien^ emplQ^IT m 
dglp,iJ5Lrig the bipcks wfre in contact with the personnel who' gASKa 
^~vLc!ifdi and they told :Ji^m"tha't"Qnc~an3 the same gas wai used 
in both caseS - 

M. DtTBOST: Was this the only way used to exterminate the 
internees in JUvensbriick? 

MME. VAILLANT-COUTURIER: In Block 10 they also expeii- 
mented with a white powder . One day the German Sdtwester, 
Martha, arrived In the block and distributed a powder to som« 20 
patients. The patients subsequently fell into a deep sleep. Four or 
Ave of them were seized with violent fits of vomiting aind thisiaved 
their liveSr During the night the inores gradually ceased and the 
patients died. This I know because I went every day to visit the 
French women in the blod;. Two of the nurses were Frendi and Dr. 
Louise Le Porz. a native of Bordeauit who fame haek, can likewise 
testify to this fact. 

M, DUBOST; Was this a frequent occurrence? 

MME. VAILLANT-COUTURIER: During my stay this was the 
only caie of its kind within the Revier but the system was also 
applied at the Ju^endlagcr, so called because it was a former reform 
school for German juvenile delinquents. 

Towards the beginning of 1945 Dr. Wlnkelmaim, no longer satis- 
Red with selections in the Revjer^ proceeded to make his selections in 
the blocks. All the prisoners had to answer roll call in their bare 
feet and expose theic breasts and legs. All those who were sick, too 
oldr too thin, or whose legs were swollen with oedema^ were set aside 
and then sent to this Jugendlafer a quarter of an hour away from 
the camp at Havensbriid;. I visited it at the Lberation. 

In the blodfs an order had been circulated to the effect that the 
old women and the patients who could no longer work should apply 
In writing for admission to the Jugendlager, where they would be 
far better off, where they would not have to work, and where there 
would be no roll call. We learned about this later through some of 
the people who worked at the Jugendlager — the chief of the camp was 


hipi IK 79110 ipddN ronimD Mwi ifirnnElDui In n diiDi clunafli 

li-o mimlPF. Tlw T"I*'|'°1 ■""> nil" i rrT^ m fn/ hirfps JiuL Ihm ^iD 
iliTiu iji2jijih^, thr Tfira' iuii Ie al (li>l laptl onH raniuM'P, but 
mjii liT'kinr'b tHirrarfj- jW abJ iia-|iLi«. ICnidbuoit- arc naiimnni 
Jjiil It] •■IMP atee ihi? pnlirnr wuch'ik ■ \pw |.rp|^ uml rljPB [ulk ili-ni 
DUil JH-fc iQ B^p ikiinilLioi Inn. ■h-Jihtwl EnuDd w ronnildin. 

Id JtiiMl BUM, bam-Lvr, ihi? i^^nHt i« Eun^x^lmt innr [iral«H;r<.|, 

ami II b|)(iB|Mr|UKrnpDII''BFi'KTD]4l3m'. Ai^ tlir ini^n il KulLjh^*^ 

llprrewfaii nr/id hjiwli lartc nnd n fwSpH of "mflrin iar in rlis IfcinuL 
tlhiT i/niplcuiu lUpiv iwf brtin TnT K\aa] rrainilfl ur r^cu ■□Imnm, 
■dJ Uir pdIlvqI imi pilornid iiuiiil icr ol r^ivf hud irtf, mrH p* xalli- 
inn pmn-. Ihr pmiD, riiirtJi< Ibc ?bMfruai uLv^i l]l»[iiiH>ji - n. lakPB, 
urc^Kmdmf llic tmlllF ft rlm'n^Dg 1i uul nliV Tnindiu. An a ruli^ 
linB«-W| if Ji iBfAl duff hb tcm lokm, no ^lunliirv a«i oTflnv hr- 
l^inmifti arp pwrtnUirJi Uw Iwlihj ol r^iKE rir[i«li '!• llir <imul u 
foUun-H tr* MbiatiiMii Buiun, ttml PnariiiHlL)-, ihauph mrdj. Iff 
VLUiutiBj, Ih-w R\r fuUownl lij umirty, rurfaEian, LtnirD-aiid Ind- 
arltc. ^licTi? a» II iLilrotEjtm nT thr rut Ji]i<l a fci'Liif oT flfTiiHi tf iLd 
hrrar Jhv, TI^hti: up inlpklBliDO ol ■>« Imn buJ a Iri'llrp irf ^n- 
rfii^Han to llkp ?hm^ BDiI llw ni^FQlieD lM«D>r« Itiii Tn[n4l, llvn 
rliih Hid inTRvtii. TJiP iiii|iiniliiMV iir^ ii'i}' pliiiir, iJi^i cquraEwa^ 
BTMfly prciltrapinL ' n|f_pnlirrt l-r- i i i .. !■. rill- nndikiily 
III (hr fimini ir nn^iil'HiiF dcI ii.''..l ' '■ 7^ Tl*- .Lm a 

mricd «]l b U CoU E>rLl , UiriiUH'ln i < i ' . i iLilr !□ Upltl ^ 

Chi" tyr£ air r1>n-'>, ^laikng, nud vin l^ 1 1 ml^r cibti dI 

uphTdD Thp LiL-Lttiit ravrirri KtULlium, w.\,.c\. i£ biui m I uiiObi bhvul, 
UeknrJ, Oh' Ln^lb Biirlh irniqftb ^ Iiii]i«^iilic ud. Thf pjl>f 
|< il Ai-I npid, hjr d n-nh lliil it hibh atialg be FrH. TV hi-' 
vnJripiiH irav W pncial and liud Ea «rii« IhtIcidih, ar Ifari- oipi 1^ loh- 
Aunl hi CTfLuii Bnpi}]^ nf Biifin'k-; liruF lltrrt i' olwr Iriniiut. Tlic 
lutndi pie uTjoUk rlciirlird- Jr^Tliinrarr rra^iuiidiih nl ii\t fh^v Ukl 
■unir, alioEiElhr i«a»<ii. dh> u>tiii. 

Til? niDLijIril ^t kLif€ Lnlullinrpd b^' Ihul or dcprrvloD 3|kl ^jqIi Kt. 
Tbe pdticEil n'liJio L[iiPtfUflQi|. i>ad Llim Im'iini'k iwdj fd^i, iIu ntn 
■ itfinLv e%anor(r; flir' umpraiUrr taO^, i|in Ar,irt ig i-^r^ rwUc anJ 

ilDqi" I'l '''H'liiPi HiiiK. PKl Wphi.i hi?,, EJ1U3 


Kare bib the S.S. niBn looking tKrough a "peephvl^" it (h<»usands 
of uncanscioits peoplg . . . 


Id tess severe cases of cyanid poi^nipg in which the patient finaUy 
reoovgra the early syiuptoms are aa those describect above; the patient 
falls to the ground insensible, conviilsions follow, succeeded by the stage 
of paralysis, in which the i-espiration becomes slow and shallow. After 
a little the respiration btgtna to improve and thf patient, awakea ; 
vomiting now frequently occura. A feeling of constnctioti iji the chest 
and weakness, causing an unsteady gait^ headache, difficulty in speech, 
and drowsiness may continue for a few days; as a rule, however, re- 
covery is rapid and complete. In KoJipin^ki'a case* recovery was com- 
plete in twelve hours. In the often-quoted case of Dr. Arnold- the 
patient (Dr, Arnold) was unconscious for six hours. Before the return 
of full consciousness he had the most horrible sensation of impending 
suffocation. Aa soon as the first disposition to vomit was felt, oon- 
sciousnes? wag perfectly restored and there was a complete cessation 
of all the symptoms. 

The mortality in cases of cyanid-poi^ning is very- great; thu*» in 
a aeries of 364 cases the mortality was 79.4 per cent.^ and the series 
included many cases of sli^t poisoning.' In a series of 40 cases the 
mortality was 95 per cent,* 

Cyanid poisoning may result from the iidialation of the vapoia 
of hydrocyanic acid^; the chief s>'mptoms are a sensation of constric- 
tion of the chest, dizziness, vertigo, and inflensibility . In one case 
there were disturbaneea of the vision.* Hydrocyanic acid is fatal 
to animals tn one-half to an hour when present to th« ejctent of 0,3 
to 0.12 mg. per liter of air. 

To tast diri hypottiests wb pohoned a tflrminatly-ill dog with potassium cynnidt. Tho dog vomiled, 
cailapsed, defecated, gat up, stflgBflred ISfeeir and pasi»d qui. Six hours latei hB vns conscious, 
hurgry and ale normaHy. He died 3 mnntha later.- (Editor's Noto}. 

Iff ■ HHn>inMk»r|fl|r kAnoi BddH Bi riui Id BiDiutidi 

ri UPBBiiiiiDiii pff pli |"iH knm niiaBilii tit|li r>ari diiJbKiuit 

Uwr KnimtBg i>tM*d"h < < < 

"Ekflil HiDlcbi arri TpdcdIdi^", Vol 2. n '?■. HJ 

lui ibi pip IJD Dl lb i*toH.) 

r fm four tOutF. bu! jwotogj 

Hlrl In ni S J «i hFiiHif ^Idih i1 hadlH li lM< I4 1> 

■IlifiHl bumini ImL pWc, but &a diiiaIiid on Iif Enmcd u li> ibt 
■pfBuumBlr Inr irquiwT fnm qWrvtiima ilrud^' DLBdt AL Ebr 
Icinl a\ h^ioBoi Wflbnci m ISH.' Dz WoodbndBV Sirana imlDHl 
Ihit lit undf [Mii lo Imm ■ bmb a llif own Mr. hii aJ ifj rTiyBUll 
piihLUwff -w" n*" -"'f I ITTTTirflt^ "^ ^'-'' -^ ■■■-■" -^ — — ■, 
lurwHpfih^^waAd ■■TbaCilM-CBCT'tl ph in endfiiH UuIIIh 
!■■□ impJn^ M> -tm bUwiI oa ■ eW *i« of Io^ « S f. il; Thf 
En «H n])HiiiHH Iron luat U line, mil ■! ifudnklil ihr fcodig 

kTi , Biuuiit vliliti ■ui^^i]riirl> ■Tpil irclJi and many per" of ebanfd 
buikra -rir Fnjiiil 

'■ Ihr nsuh (tI eip«niiiaklB in «iDD»lKiD wiFh Ibt iTdl qE BhtuIjidi 
DniPK] in ISK^Dr A WilWr SulUr ffiiiDd 1 bol ■ tunuft body itclfibliii 
HI iMOMk ifoiih fcj TmniBd ID ■ iTHtd-Bmyt In tiah; hwm , iinl iW 
teJi 1 j pciDidi ol finl Ffijli at ^MmJiniliiEcaiif jdrr piiH' ^i:f|») 
WO14H & iwjirHl <oT M«h auimd of nuini juiiiihI liBfiJffl . If •'u 
foimiL llul l]i€ loiiirt bm iiei raitr ubd ibra 1^ di> ouv buhibl 

Id rlir B^Ehninl Pel «H ir Fvw in 18^^ DnnBrdfl p?7f«iii«l 
vippiuiinile Willi I nnall btriieii eIov? nrli be FpI used. Il« tDuiid 
1^1 1 bed;y could h fCDBUBLHl flE EK»nl» oT Ij kJugnnu, « 3j poim^, 

pPf faniT, K ibt a aanWC »ridllli> M MlEKraHa, It 13? ypipdt. tcLiU 

yiTn£°**°^''tir '™^^'''' ''^'^'"'^^^"''°' 

Nd vftv jmaFtal aha a wcg^rili DCfMtor*d by Hwi ImmiB^ of 
III? ^lodi. Ibc Oni [tin 0I rjtr ]ooi»d In iiUch llv Onit ^ deiviLnl 

dE kkiltr lit J liqiilD. 10 Olml- ta lUUtU^ lioHliiElIilnl h} bD udiir J^rr- 

blLnglbB* of DiEit VTHEibnl tn ockoig, buT Ihfi liirlbrr bumif r Aw pat 
uly pifl tfl imirb DrirrroLU pp, A RTtBl difJ dfptnill, hlT"- 

WJifH Biti^biJ. rrHolemp, or ml ta uifd m fuel , lb€ Imip on^nr} 


What did they do when it was raining? 

(A cord of waod equals 128 cu.ft.} 

(TTius tha cremation of 10,000 boifias a day using dry wood for fuel would 
foqaire 1DD0 tons d wood, Wet wood in holes is extra.) 


In connection with & murder trial held in Appleton, Wis,, in lOOG, 
Dr. John F. Golden, ^ of Chicago, conducted an experinifint to determin e 
how QuicMy the human body could be consumed by a Bre in the n n^n 
air. A bonfire was st^rted^ green maple wood being used for the pur- 
pose. The body of an adult man weiring about 160 pounds and about 
5 feet, B inches in height was placed on the hrsi and from time to time 
additional wood was added so as to keep up a continuous burning. 
The body Tvaa consumed in four And a half hours, two-thirds of a cord 
of 16-mch green-maple wood having been used . During the procpss 
no dLsagreeable or peculiar odors were evolved. In the resulting ashes 
fragments of bone were Found, the laxgcst not over 2*inches in length . 
ana some of these, although small, were identified as human by Dr. 
George A. Dorsey, at that time of the Field Columbian Museum al 
Chica^, The pieces of bone recovered were sufficient to fill a larg e 
cigar box . 


TliesE are the "funarar urns" which vuere filled wilh human ashes and then smashed, 
50 that "every trace was wiped out" (IMT XXXhl - 232) 

— r — 






Q. Besides your vorfe tn the kitchen did you also work in the 

A. Yh. 

Q. At what date did you begin your work in the crematorium? 

A. From the 9th o£ May. 

Q. What did yoti th€r&? 

Ah I worked the heating for the cremation of the bodies. 

Q. Describe your work. 

A. At first my oceupation consisted cf removing the bodies, then 
I served the heating and had to learn how to put In the corpses, 
then I had to stir up and to take out the Ashea. This way my 
OHUpation during A'/t years. AitenA'ards I had to fill the urns. 
In the first quarter of The year cremations oE single p&rsens took 
place, afterwards there were only mass-cremations, the ashes 
were thrown away. When the Americana advanced, we iiUed 
30Q0 urns of Dutch Jews. We had to smash the urns afterwards 
aflj to throw the ashes away, so~th"at every trate was wiped out . 

Q. At what hour did you work in the cTematorium? 
A. From S.p.m. till ID a.m. 

Q. How many days weekly? 

A. Thii was different. It happened that there oaly were 7 crema- 
tions monthly. The last time we worked through day and night, 
I can't say how many day^ we had to work. Afterwards we had 
to clean the oven and then we were allowed to go to bed. Some 
dayj of rest followed often. 

Q, How many hours daily did you usually work? 

A, We luually worked 12 hourft. When there was much work we 

had to work for 1& hours. Days followed again in whidi there 

was less work. 

Q. Did yoj work all by yourself in the crematorium? 

A. I wasnH alone. 

Q, Who were the men who worked with yom? 

A. SUSSOCK Franz, he Is dead. The the bearers Ignaz FU- 
KOWSKY. a certain DABETH.a Pole, he was there only half a 
year, whose name 1 dont know. Then the bearers TIEFEN- 
BACHER Alfred and FOLSTER Johann. 

Q. Do you know where some of them ate now? 


— Fac* J — 


A, I only know, that TIEFENBACHER Alfred is living in INNS- 
BRUCK and PQLSTCR Johann in Pottendorf near Vienna. 



tioie the sma\i s»ze af the oven. Most crematary ovens are d&sign^d for 3 or 4 
cremations a day. They cannot be operated continuously. They must be pre- 
heated, cooled, cleaned, and repaired. They do not smed or amit smoke. 




MiUionj of faodias cannot hs crurfely crflmatflrf wtthout leaving hugs qusntics 

d flVJdencsH To b«rii a till man body vsing wood can raquire lip 10 40 hours; in a crematory 

ovin, It Itast I > 2 hours dspendirtg on th« fuel. The ash, assuming 

citniplelfl cambustian, weighs 5 - 9 pounds. 


Iti the destruction of the hunwn body by cremation the corpse m » 

wooden cofBzi, from whicli the metallic hiuidles and imme p]ate bEive 
been removed, ie pUc^ in an apparatus especially devieed for the 
piupoee, called a retort, and h&fti, produced either by the combustion 
of ordinaiy illuminating gap or petroleum, i$ applied. The Umpemture 
used is about 3200** F, (or 1760^ C.)- A body of ordinfl^y BJze is com- 
pletely cremated when gas b used as a fuel in on^ hour: when petroleum 
is used^ from pjif' and a half to two hours required- The a^h ^hicn 
remains, which conftisti^i entirely of mineraj aubstancest all organic 
compounds having been drgtroyed^ weighs from 5 1q 9 poundg, d^ 
pending on the meo of the body. Immediately after the cremation the 
skeleton of the body is left intact in form, ite abundant mineral con- 

"Ugal Medicine and Toiicologjr", by Fredaritli Peterson, 
co-fldlted by Haynes and Webster, VolZ |i.BB3. 


Thfl "cMmatory ovsn letters" turn out to be certified phoiocopie* 
which diB Riusians forpot tn bring to cmirt . . . 

bffan to build four powerful crematoria snd gad chambers In 
BirlfteriaU' Berlin d^maAd&il with impatience that the can- 
Btruction be «ipedited and til work completed by the 
begirmlnc of 1643. 

'^In the office recorda of the Ausdiwlts Camp there waf 
discovered a voluminous correspondence iKtween the adminis- 
tration of the c^mp And the Arm of Topt and Son& Among 
them the lollowing letters; 

"*I. A. Top! and Sons, Erfurt; 12 Febniary 1943. 
" 'To Central Construction Office of SS and Palice, AuKfiwitz. 
" ^SubjectrCrematoria 2 and 3 for the camp for prisoners of war. 

' 'We acknowledge receipt of your Wire of 10 February^ as 

* 'We again acknowledge receipt of your order tot fitfe triple 
fumacK, including two electric lifts for raijinf the corpses 
tuid one emergency lift. A practical irLstallation for ftolcing 
coal was also ordered and one for transporting the afhes. You 
are to deliver the complete installation for Crematorium 
Number 3. You are expected to take steps U> ensure the 
immediate dispatdi of all the machines complete with parts,' ** 

I omjt the next document^jwhicfa deals with ^'bath-houjes for 
special purposes" f gas diambera), and present to the Tribunal as 
Exhibit Tlumb&r USSR-fiJ (Document Number USSR-64). a documen t 
which IS appended to the report of the Yugoslav Coyemmentr This 
Is a ceftiH«i photostat ol a dgc^ment extemally having all the 
official (±Laracter of a business document Irom 8 "iound business 
firm." The name of the firm la Didier^Werke. The subject of the 
correspondence:— the construction of crematoria "desired for a 
large camp in Seig ra de." The document in^sented by mo 
characterized the flnm DJdier as a firm wfth considerable experienf? 
in construction o£ crematoria for concentration camps and whitii 
advertised ItSeLf as a firm that understaod the demands of Its cU^nt-:. 
For placibg the bodies into the fumace^ the firm designed a special 
conveyer with a two-wheeled shaft, TTie firm tUimed that it could 
All thu order much better than any other Arms, and asked for u 
small advance, to draw up dnCt plans for the construction uf a 
crematorium In the camp. 

I quote a few short excerpts from thia document — the fitst two 

"With reference to your son's visit and his conversation with 
our expert, Herr 5torl, we note that the Belgrade SS unit 
intends to build a crematorium foe a large camp and that you 
have received instructions to design and construct the building 
in coUaboratfon with local architects." 

IMT VII 584 

. . . but th« dimvnstons are only 18 x 24 inches. 

u Tmti. m 

1 internipt my quotation and I shall quote one more excerpt: 
Tor putting tht bodies into the lumac*, we wguest simply » 
metal iork moving on cylirvdert. 

" Each furnace will have an oven mMsuruig only gOO milli- 
rnetgrs in breadth and 450 miliimetecs in height , as colftns 
will not" be used. For transporiLiig" the 'corpses from th* 
storage point to the furnaces we suggtst luing Light carts on. 
wheels and we enclose diagrams ot these drawn to scale." 
t Interrupt my quotation here and t present to the Tribunal 
Exhibit Number USSR-225 [Docum&iit Number USSR-225). This 
document will bt brought to you presently, Mr. President. May 
I refer It will be presented to you within a few minutes. 

I tubmlt ttlB new document as Exhibit Number USSR-S25 j it 
deals also with the construction of those crematona for concentration 
camps tn Belgrade and contains the correspondence of the firm Kori. 
G.m.b.H- This is a well-ltnown Rmrin which confid&red that even 
every business letter must be ended with "Heil Hitler!" As its 
clients were well known to it^ the Ann Kori once again inquired 
whether "two furnaces would be sufflcient* The &rmf among other 
things, meflltpned that it had already built Jour furnaces for Dachati 
and &v6_icc LubllD.; it emphasized that it5 technically perfected 
fiimaces'~gave fuir"iatisl action in practice. I quote a very short 
excerpt ol this document which the Tribunal will flmd on Page 4'71 
in Volume II of the document book. I quote the first paragraph; this 
is Pa^e 3fi, flrst paragraph of tha text: 

"following our verbal discussion regarding the delivery of a 
crematorium installation of simple construction, we suggest 
cur perfected coal-bu ming f u rn ace^ for crematoria which 
have hitherto given full Mtisfaclion. 

"We suggest two crematoria furnaces for the building planned^ 
hut we edviae you to make further inquiries to make sure 
that two Dvens will be sufficient tot your requirements.** 

I omit the next paragraph and continue the quotation: 

"The area required for the fumaceSi Including space for the 
stokers and other personnel, i^sho^iiby the attached diagramr 
Sketch J- Kumber 39^8 shows an installation with two furnaces. 
Sketch J. Number 9122 shows the arrangement of four 
furnaces Jn Ihe construction projected for Dachau . A further 
sketch, J- Number 9QS0, shows the Lublin installation with 
3 crematoria furnaces and two built-in eompartmenis for 

I omit the next part of the document. The ending is very typical: 

"Awaiting your further news, we wlU be at your service. HeiL 
Hitler! a H, Kori, G.m.b.H." 


Whsn we 58« fictory iinaks wa know it ii a cramatarium . . . 

It Jul m 

THE. PRESIDENT: Would you like to fit down and spelL youf 
name and surname? 

M. DUBOST: WiU you pltas« speU your nam« ajiA sumainel 

VEITH; J-e-a-n F-r-^d-e-r-i-e V-«-i-t-h, I was bom on £8 April 
1903 in Moscow. 

M. DUBOST: You are bf French nationality? 

VEll'H; I am of French nationality, bom of French parents. 

M, DUBOST: En which camp were you interned? 

VEITH: At Mauthausen; from 22 April 1943 until 22 April 1945. 

M. DUBOST; You knew about the work carried out in the fae- 
torifca supplyirifl material to th& Luftwaffq, Who cpntrolled thes g 

f^ctqri^ a? 

VEITH: I was in the Arbeitsdiisats at Mauthaiisen from Jun« 
1943, and I was th«r«fQre well acquainted with all questions dealinfi 
with the work. 

M. DUBOST: Who controtled the factories working tar the Luf t- 
waffe ? 

VEFTH; There were autsLde camps at Mautha us en where worke rs 
were employtTd by Heinkel, MesseischmiJt, ATfa-7i&nne, and FRt 
Saurer-Werke, and there was, moreover, the coti&tructfofl work on 
the Leibl Pass tiinnel by the Alpine Montan . 

M. DUBOST: Who controlled this work, supervisors or 

VEfTH: There was only SS supervision. The work lUelf was 
controlled by the engineers and the firms them«lves. 

M. DUBOST: Did these engineers belong to the Luftwaffe? 

VEITH: On certain days I saw Luftwaffe officers who came to 
viait the Messerschmidt workshop s in the quarry. 

M. DUBOST: Were they able to see for themselves the con- 
ditions under which the prisoners lived? 

VEITH: Yes, certainly. 

M- DUBOST: Did you see any high-rankinf Nazi of&cials visit- 
ing the camp? 

VEITHi I saw a gieat many high-ranking officials, among them 
Hinunler, Kaltenbrunner, Pohl, Maurer, the Chief of the Labor 
Office, Amt D II> of the Reicht and many other visitors whose names 
1 do not know. 

M. DUBOST: Who told you that Kaltentomnncr had come? 

VEITH: Well, our offices faced the parade ground cvertooking 
the Kommandantur; we therefore saw the high-ranking ofAciab. 

IMT VI 232 


n Jin 4 

DR. KAUrFMANN: Could you please rtpeat that again? Did you 
»e the secrecy order? What did jtou see* 

VEITH: Kot the order, I mw th* execution and that is worse. 

DR. KAUTFMANN: My question was this: Do you know that the 
ttrictut Drdera were given to the SS personnel, to the executioners, 
et ttttTa, not to spe^k even iiuide the camp, mudi less outride of it, 
al the atrocitiei that went on and that eyewitnesses who spoke oJ 
them rendered themselves liable to the most ri^oroufl penalties. 
Including the death penalty? Do you know inching about that. 
about sudi A practice inside the camps? Perhaps you will tell me 
whether yc-a yaurieU were allowed to talk about any observations 
oE the kind. 

VEFTHr I know that liberated pri»nen had to sign a statement 
saying that they would never reveal what had happened in the 
camp and that they had to forget what had happened; but those 
who were In contact with the population, and there were many of 
them, did not fail to talk about it. Furthermore. Mauthau^n was 
situated an a hill. There was a crematorium, which emitted flames 
3 feet hieh. When you sge flames 3 feet high comlnj; out of a 
dilmney every night, you are bound to wonder what, it is; and 
everyone must have known that it wa^ a crematorium . 

DR. KAUFFMANN: I have no further question Thank you. 

THE PRESIDENT: Does any other counsel for the defendants 
wish to ask any questions? Did you tell us who the "green prisoners" 
were? You mentioned "green prisonen.'' 

VElTH: Yes, these "green prisoners" were prisoners convicted 
under the commotiL law. They were used by the SS to police the 
camps. As I have already said, they were often more bestial th^n 
the SS themselves and acted as their executioners. They did the 
work with whi<h the SS did not wish to soil their hands; they were 
doing all the dirty work, but always by order of the Kommando- 

This contact with the "green" Germans was terrible for the 
internees, particularly for the political internees They could not 
bear the sight of them^ because they realized that we were not their 
soft, and they persecuted ua for that alone. It was the same in all 
the camps, fn all tha camps w* were bullied by the Gsrman 
Criminals serving with th^ SS. 

THE PRESIDENT: M- Dubost< do you wish to ask any other 

M. DUEOST: Your Honor, I have no more questions to ask. 
IMT VI 241 

Tlit cramatory procetstts dftscribait are impnaiblB . . . 


Slock Na. 41 in the camp was used for medical experiments and 
vivis«ctioas, with piisonen as "ffuinea pigSn^ Medical scientLsta 
came from Berlin periodically to reetilorce the experimental itafS. 
In particular^ new toxins and antitoxins were tried out on prisoners. 
Few prisoners who entered this eKperimental buildmg ever emerged 
alive. Prisoner? were induced to "volunteer'* for cxperimentatiDn 
On the representation that living quarters provided there were iar 
Superior to those in the barradcs and that their rations were far 
superior to those received by ordinary prisoners. 


The design of this installatLon was a strikins example of "Ger^ 
man Industrial effliclency." It had a maximum disposal capacity 
of about 400 bodigs per lO-hour day , which is about S percent of 
the camp 'population at the time of liberation. We were informed 
that when the death rate exceeded the capacity of the crematory, 
the bodies were taken out and burted iji [titi without *ny means 
for identification. Teeth having gold fillings were extracted prior 
to Cremating the bodies. We have been advised that on the day 
followm^ Dur visit to Buchenwald a large cadie of gold fillings 
and gold jewelry wa? discovered in a quatry near the camp. In- 
cluded were literally thouAands of wedding rings alone. 

The crematory was entirely enclosed within a high board fence^ 
No one, except » Small operating force of SS personnel, were 
allowed even to look inside this fence. No prisoner who passed 
within It — as a member of a labor party or for ajiy other reason- 
came Qiit alive . Inside this fence was the incinerator building,. 
centrally located between 2 yards. This building waf of aubstantiat 
bride construction with cement floors, 1 story high, with full-size 
13-foot-high basement ben^athr The main floor contained an admin- 
istration office at the front end, a lodlier and washroom for SS 
personnel At the far end, and the incinerator room in the center- 
The latter contained, in line, 2 batteries oE 3 Arebrick incinerators 
each. Ejftecn to twenty minutes were required for the incineration 
of a. total of IH bodiea^ g adi incinerator having a capacity of abQdie_a , 
or__ a total charfie of IS bodies. Fifteen to twenty, mlnutej werft 
required for the incineration of > charj^g. 

Tiie floor of each incinerator consisted of a. coarse grate, through 
whidi the day's accumulation of bone ash was extracted at the 
end of operation. The fire came from « fqrnace room occupying 
the rear two-thirds of the basementp the flames being deflected 



The chemical reactions described are wrong and all contradict each 


(For example, Zyklon was not "crystallized Prussic Acid", as claimed by 


TO fumigate with it takes hours, because the liquid active ingredient must 
evaporate, rise to the ceiling, and be carried by air currents throughout the 

entire area to be fumigated. 

The toxicity of cyanide gas is dependent on its concentration in the air. 

One cannot kill a man in 1 5 minutes with a concentration of 50 parts per 

million, nor can one kill him in 1 minute with 500 parts per million. 

Since victims of cyanide poisoning become UNCONSCIOUS and may die in 

minutes, or hours later, or may recover with no ill effects after four to six 

hours, the concentration involved must be exactly known... not guessed at 

by listening to unconscious people. 

Take any 5 books on the Holocaust and look up "Zyklon" in the index. You 
will probably find 5 different chemical descriptions of the murder weapon, 

all of them wrong; the chemical reactions involved will be wrong; the 

properties of cyanide gas will be given incorrectly; and the symptoms of 

cyanide poisoning will be largely wrong. 

The gas will be described as heaver than air; the victims will sometimes be 

described as attempting to escape by climbing above the gas, retaining 

consciousness until the end; while S.S. men watch through "peepholes" to 

see whether they are dead or not. Generally, the word "peephole" will 

appear at least once per page. 


Te acciB« ths GormDns of hilling millions of people with carbon monoxide 
Benaralfld by a Dias^l maior . . , 

ft rrt. « 

"The wfaolt organization Kt up for th« ftxtcinunatioii of 
pcoplt wu so cunningly devised and carried aut that ri^t 
up to the last moment the next Ltansport of doomed penons 
could not fuea the Eate of the £i^up whidi had preceded 
thettn The departurt of tniuport» — coiuuting of 1,000 to 
2,000 pcnooa— from the viUace of Sawadkl to the exter^ 
mlnatiob cunp and the extertmnatlon of thi arrivals laited 
Uttti; S o'dofL 

*'The can loaded with Jews arrived La the camp and itopped 
before the maiuEioa. A repraentative o£ the Sondcf Icununando 
nude a short speedi to the new arriv^lj^ He usured th«m 
that they were goinj to work in the East. He promised them 
Just treatment by the luthoritln and adequate food and, at 
the same time, instructed them to take a bath before leaving, 
while their clothing was disinfected. From the courtyard the 
Jews weie then brought to a big warm room on the second 
Boor of the mansion. Thtn they had to undress, and* clad in 
underdothts only, they went downsta^t. passed through i 
corridor with signs fudi as 'To the medical offlcer* and To 
the bath' on the walls. The arrow which showed the way 
To the bath' pointed toward the exit. The Germaos told the 
Jews who came out Into the yard that they would go to the 
bath In a dowd car^ aotj^ true enough, a large cjir was 
brought up to this door » that the Jews coming out of the 
houfe found themselves on a ladder leading straight Inside 
the car. The loading of the Jews into the car lasted a very 
ihoEt time. Police were on guard In the corridar and near the 
car. With blows and shouti they forced the Jews to enter the 
or, stunning them, so that they could not attempt any 
mistacce. When all the Jews were piled iiuide the car, the 
dooH were carefully locked, and the chauiTeitr 5wit£hed on 
the motor, ao that those tn the car were igQisoneti by the 
ftthauat gaa .** 
I eoosider it unnecessary to quote that part of the report wHidt 

testifies that the car in question was the "murder van" already well 

known to the Court 

I win Juat quote one Hnten>ce from Page 10 of this document. 

Paragraph 3: 

"Th us, at leait 340.000 men, women, ai^d children, from new - 
born babiea to aged persoris, were exterminated In HehmM i/' 

I believe that I can end here that part of my stateffieat which 
Boncems the Kcr«t exienainating center*. And now I pass on to 
the aart of my'statement dealinii with religious persecuttons . 

In the Soviet Union as well a« In the occupied countries oil 
^tem 'Bititopt, the GcEman fascist crinliuli bivught ahame upon 

rwT VIII m 

. . . b M stupid that il b not worth dbcvssJng . . . 

31 June « 

Km. JUSTICE JACKSON: Now, was the proposal made «t that 
Ume to resort to poison gas wsH^re? 

SP£ER: I was not able to make out from my own direct obscr^ 
vatiQns whether gas waHare ivas. to be Ktarted, but I knew from 
various associates of Ley's and Gocbbels' that they were discussing 
the qucEtioti of using our two new combat .easoSj Tabun and Sarin, 
They beHeved that these gases would be ot particular efficacy, and 
they did in fact produce the most frightful results. We made these 
observations as early as the aulunnn of ^944^ when the situntLon had 
fcecomt critical and knany people were aeriomsly worried about it. 

iSR. JUSTICE JACKSON: Now, will you tell us about these two 
gases and about their prDduction and their etTectSj their qualities, 
and the preparations that were matte for gas warJsre? 

SP££H: I cannot tell you that in detail. I am not enough of an 
expert. All J kndv^ is ihat th«s« two gases both had a quite extraor- 
dinary eflccl, and thai there was no respiratot-. and no protectioK 
acain&t them that we knew dJ. So the soldiers would have been 
unable^ to protect themseWes against this gas in any way. For the 
manufacture of this gas we had about three factories, all pf whiA 
were undamaged and which until November l94i were workinc at 
full tpced. When rumors reacihed ti& that ga^ might be used, I 
alopt>ed its production in November 1914. I stopped it by the fol- 
lowing means, t blodced tlie a(>-called preliminary production, that 
is, the chemical supplies for the tnaking of gas» so that the gas- 
production, as the Allied authorities themselves ascertained, after 
the end of I^ecember or the beginning of January, actually slowed 
down and finally cvne to a standstill- Beginning with a letter whidi 
is still in existence and whidi I wrote to Hitler in October 11>44, I 
tried through legal methods to obtain his permissiDn to have these 
gat factories elop their production. The reason I gave him was that 
On account of air raids the preliminary products, primarily cyanide, 
were needed urgently for other purposes^ Hitler informed me that 
the gas production would have to continue whatever happened, 
but I gave instructions for the preliminary products not to be sup- 
plied any ^ore« 

MB. JUSTICE JACKBON: Can you identify others of the p^Hip 
that were advocating gas warfaref 

5PEER; In military circles there was certainly no one in favor 
of.flas warfare. All sensible Army people turned j;as warIare.d_Qwni 
as .beinj; utterly insane since, in view of your superiority in, the air, 
it Would not be long before it would bring the most terrible catas* 
trophe upon German cities, which were completely unprotected. 

ME. JUSTICE JACKSON: The group that did advocate it, how- 
ever, consisted of the poHtical group around Hitler, didn't it? 

IMT XVr te7 

Din Frmilrflnna d« fi" din Gaik»rii pIprTnff r d-unipach 
Kti -tiiLlLG«it r<id]jilik<Lluih]ta rrlcilAE priLl|u<l| tu, daB 
mao in An ffiiL|ktii«rcc Ljfi liar bnilmmr^ <nu>'b\ UHll- 

bn reiiLd Form, Kk r* gr]aa In liBiJiiluni LimipUBbLJilrlD , 
Til..l]« b, 

QbrfOnri . - , , 

CU»IH4l«l WtP 

Qrinao'liiD . dOPl 
&LiTlHta-nErl.iiuri]Jikaril -JCOi 

dirarr AtmcLEpliii :^ JelBrt kBim. Dana lat e l^W dii gr- 
Vicbw 1 adJinlihpi ipprcKJdkl. Aua Ba^rtnPDKllen BF^duii 
lictknEvTJndnL diH miD dm Euaftamlf JihuHg, mr 
lUtTD bri acitafBD ^loiflmcflni, ^Licbi luf 4l»r Viigt ab, 
toqdfru mifil ibji Did Eubi kmiUlmcHni niiluLi nan 
Flp«» Durft Hu Lci plikBEioQ dcr ■njflwfnrli'niD Aunlil 
KubikinUlLbrbir mH der Hicblr dn QoHHiBca Kiiaphurffa 
tridlT Dim djfl p^iidw Zatl c id ULIIi^UDniriL Ti* die 
QteLu dti fliinflrii HimpTniiiEei oJEbt iraniEi' b«kiumE ial, 
bciQdp man lidk addi hi^JlI mil daf ml EublkuillimciH 
boBJiiDari TedlidiieiLiuU W S|« «ri:dil rpa dcr mdnea, 


The establishment of the mortality figures which are so important with regards to the 

substances used in chemical warfare is determined in practice by placing a certain 

number of milligrams c of the chemical warfare substance concerned, either in pure form, 

in the form of a gas, fog, or dust, in one cubic metre of air. 

Table 5 

Chlorine 7500 

Phosgene 450 

Perchlorformicacidmethyleseter 500 

Dichlordiethylsulphide 1500 

Chlorpicrin 2000 

Perchlormethylmercaptan 3000 

Xylylbromide 6000 

Bromaceticacidethylester 3000 

Idoaceticacidethylester 1500 

Cloracetone 3000 

Bromacetone 4000 

Ethylsulphuricacidchloride 2000 

The test animal is then placed in this poisoned atmosphere, and a determination is made, 

holding a watch in one's hand, of how many minutes the animal can live in this 

atmosphere, because the mortality product is c.t = W. For reasons of experimental 

convenience, the chemical warfare material, particularly in the case of liquid substances, 

is not weighed on the scales, but rather measured by means of a pipette according to 

cubic millimetres. The desired number of milligrams is obtained by multiplying the 

number of cubic millimetres used by the density of the liquid chemical substance. Since 

the density of the liquid chemical warfare substance is not always known, one is often 

content with the the mortality figure W relating to cubic millimetres, which deviates only 

very inconsiderably 



auf Milligramme beaogcneu Tfidlichkeitrti:n]il W intistens 
nur uncrheblich ab. 

Ill Tab. 5, S. 112, siud die so beatimmtPji TudJk'hkeiU- 
nblefi eiaer Anzahl voel Gflskampfstoffcn wicdergegebtu, und 
JEWiir iiandoU ts sich bier um ortlich wirkt-ndc Gifte, bci dencn 
also die ersle HaberscliQ Farmd c.t = W gilt, bei denon 
aleo c-t &eh.T angeuaheiX ionsUnt iat. In d^r uach^ten 
Tabelle G siiid e iuige r csor|>dv_wirkeridg Gjftc njigegebeu . 
bfej deu^n die TodlichkeJtazijhl von dt^r Konzentration c ab - 

Tmbelle G. 

BUosaurc lOOQ — 4fXX> 

_EgMRDQjyd . _ ■ ^ . . ■ * ■ ■ ■ 700Q0 

Eino Darchsiclit beider T^belkn zoigt un$j daB die 
traditionellen Gifte Biausauie, ChJor, Kohleniuonoxyd, die 
bialier wegen ihTer fuTchtbaren Wirkung beriichtigt und ge- 
fiircbtet warejx und mit vollem Ewht auch noch gefiirchtet 
bleiben miissea, im Gaskampf hintcr anderen, wirksameren 
Stofieii weit zuriickstehcn uad daber im Felde kaum 2u ge- 
brauchen sind. Depu ea iat kaum moglich, mSt ihnen 
Kampfgaswolfceu ht^rzustelieiij dcrcn KnrtipfstofFkpiii^eiitrii - 
tion f [ir Jain;erc Zeit gcniigend groJ3 iatj mn todlich ^irken 
gu toDnfrn. iPieVErgebiiia ist etwaE^beirascIi^pd uad 3^&igt ; 
daB auch die WissenscLaft^ ipsbeaondere die Toxikologia , 
tturct- den Gaskampf erlielilicb an Ausdehnung und Ver - 
tiefuDg gewounen hat. 

Noch ein audefca Ergebnia ist sehr bemerkenswert, 
D^mlicb die Tatsache, dafi zu Vergiftuugeu durch Kampf- 
gase haufig auBerordentlich kleine abeoliite Kampfstoff- 
jnengen geniigen. Fur FLosgen z. B. ist die Todlichkeitg- 
■ahJ C' t^450, d. h. ein Menscb atirbt, wenn er eine MiQUte 
lang Luft einatmet, die im Kubikmetet 4&0 mg Fhoggea 
^ftfhiilt . In di^ser Kinute atmPt der Mensrh aber durcb- 
sclinittlicb e 1 Luft ein, so daB ihm jiur B ■ **7iMoi"g Pbosgen 
gloich 33 nxg COOU zugefiihrt w£rden miiaaeti^ um ihn tod^ 

Mtr^r, ClieiLHcliE EunpNtoffi. 2. Aidlsfa. g 

from the other mortality figure W, expressed in milligrams. 

Table 5, p. 1 12, shows the mortality figures, determined in the above described manner, 
of a number of poison gas warfare agents; these are, of course, locally effective poisons, 
the first II of which, therefore, are governed by the formula c.t = W, in which c.t is nearly 
constant. Table 6 shows a few resorptive poisons [i.e., those which are excreted as they 
are inhaled] in which the mortality figures are dependent on the concentration in the air. 

Table 6 

Hydrocyanic acid 1000-4000 
Cai-bon Monoxide 70,000 

An examination of these tables shows that the traditional poisons — hydrocyanic acid, 

chlorine, carbon monoxide ~ which used to be notorious for their effectiveness and 
which must also, and quite correctly, continue to be feared, are far less effective in gas 
warfare than other agents, and should therefore hardly be used in the field, because it is 

hardly possible, using these substances, to create gas clouds in which the 
concentrations of toxic active ingredient are high enough to produce a fatal elTect 

over a lengthier period of time. This finding is rather surprising, and shows that 
science, in particular, toxicology, has gained considerably in both breadth and depth as a 

result of gas warfare. 

There is another very noteworthy result, namely, the fact that extraordinarily small 

absolute quantities of combat gases are sufficient to cause intoxication. With 

phosgene, for example, the mortality figure is c.t = 450, i.e., a man will die after 

breathing air containing 450 mg of phosgene per cubic meter air for one minute. During 

this one minute, however, that same man inhales an average of 8 litres of air, so that, as 

far as he is concerned, one need only introduce 8.450/1000 mg phosgene, equivalent to 

3.6 mg C0C12, in order to kill him. 

-362- . 

"Animal haat" mfldical expsrimflnts. 

Aro wflsupiHsed to beliova the Germans intendad la carry prostitutes 
a(<Hind on thflir air-sea rescue ocerations? 

Ik Un, « 

Most of the prisoners us&d died from these experiments, from 
mlemal hem&rrhasc of the lungs or brain. Tht survivors 
coughed blood when taken out. It was my job to take the 
bodies out and as saan as the^ wer^ found to be dead to 
sfnd the internal organs to Munidr for ^tudy. About 400 to 
5(Hl prisoners were experimented on. The survivors were 
sent to invalid blodcs and liquidated shortly aflcrwards. 
Only a few escaped. 
"&. Rasdier aiso conducted experiments on the eiTect of cold 

water on human beings. TTiis was dono to flyid a way for 
rcvivinf^ ajrmrn who had falTc-n intn the n^t-nn. The subject 
W^S plated i^ ice cold water and Itept there until he wflS 
uncPHScious- Blood was tflken from his neck and tested eadi 
time his body temperature dropped one degree. This drop 
was determined by a rectal thermometer. Urine was aiso 
-periodically tested. Some men flood it as long »9 Zi to 
3 6 hours . The lowest body term [>era tare readied was 19 
decrees centigrade, but most men died at 25 or 2& degrees. 
When the men were removed from the ice waler attempts 
were made to revive them by artiAc^ial sunshine, with hot 
'water, by elect ro-therapy , or by anima I warmth. For Ih is 
last experiment g j rostittitcs were vsed..apd the body of the 
uriconsciouB man was placed bMwe^n th^ bodies of two 
womeri. Himmler was prescm a I one such experiment. 
I could see him from one of the windows in the street 
between the blodks- I have personally been present at some 
of these cold water experiments when Rasdier was absent, 
and 1 have seen notes and diagrams on them in Rascher's 
laboratory. About 300 persons were used in these experi- 
ments. The majority died. Of those who survived, many 
became mentally deranged. Those who did not die were 
sent to invalid blodfs and were killed just as were the 
victims Oil the air pressure experiments. I Know only two 
who survived, & Yugoslan^ and a Pole, both of whom are 
mental cases. 

"fi. Liver puncture experiments were performed by Dr. 
Brachtl on healthy people and on people who had diseases 
of the ftomaqh and gall bladdler. For this purpose a needle 
was jabbed into the lHver of a person and i small piece of 
the liver was extracted. No anaesthetic was used. The 
experiment is very painful and often had serious results^ 
as the stomacb or large blood vessels were often punctured, 
resulting in hemorrhage. Many persons died of these tests 
for which Polish, Kussian, Ciedi, and German prisoners 
were employed. Altogether about ITS people were subjected 
to these experiments. 

IMT V !„ 

{Bes also 1 Kings 1) 


Typhus is an epidemic dise^^e of prison camps spead by flea - or lice infested 
clathing. The clothing must be titaaviA and stetJIIied. 

— « — 




Deliftum is ■ synqilain of typhus. 

1922 Suftptemant to Ejic)rlapBBdja BriUnnica. " Typhus", 

In t}aHly infectect districts a large number of bgj|iinp^nd dLsJt i- 
fff!Li]i|g stations shoulj bfi established and_ a general disinfection of 
people shoLtkJ be carried out. The foUowirg procedure, as adopted 
by the American Typhus Commission with most satisfactory rcstilts 
in the Serbian epidemic of 1914-5, is recommended. The infested 

rson goes into a_ room, takes off the cbthes. which are steamed or 

yoiled. passes into anotlier rooiji where he is bath ed, then itilo a 
third rooiri where hejs sprayed with netrol. and fi nally into a fqufth 
room in \\1iich he receiv^es clean or sterilizcTJ cjoiln^s . The sterilisa- 
tion of the clothes may be conducted by boiling, bnt better still hy 
makinR: them into U^^htly packed bnndles and placing them in a 
truck or room into wfiich steam is blown. 

Authorities. — Arkwright, Bacot and Duncan, Trans. Soc. Trop. 
Mai- (1919); Borrel, Cantacuz6ne, Jonesco and Nasha, C.R- Soc. 
BioL (1919) ; Camming, Buchanan, Castellani and Visbecq, Report 


Holocaust accusations fall into three categories: the impossibly ridiculous; 
the ridiculously impossible; and the hopelessly insane. 

To accuse an industrialized nation of killing millions of people with Diesel 

exhaust and insecticide to obtain hair socks; hair mattresses; dirty 

underwear; human soap; and a pack-rat's nest full of old watches and 

used false teeth which were kept in a bank vault(!) must surely be the 

product of a lunatic asylum. 

It remains to suggest a motive for the fabrication of these impossible crimes. 

Discussion of German treaty violations runs to thousands of pages in the 

Nuremberg trial transcript. The prosecutors were obsessed with the notion that 

German lack of "guilt" over WWI led to violations of the Versailles Treaty which 

"caused" WW2 and that the key to world peace lay in giving Germans a guilt 


If one believes the Versailles Treaty to have been justified ... that West Prussia was 

"Poland" and not "Germany" ... then this is logical and has been entirely successful. 

The lobotoinized paraplegic which is the Bundesrepublik today is its own worst 


The Germans were well aware of Allied war crimes and atrocities ... the mass 
expulsions, mass rapes, indiscriminate population bombings, slave labor 
agreements, and Katyn ... and felt no guilt for anything in May 1945. 

Under our system of justice it is net enough to find some violation of some law, and 

it is not enough to prove that the defendant has a bad moral character. The 

prosecution must prove every element of the offense charged beyond reasonable 

doubt and may not shift the burden of proof to the defense in any way. 


A defendant on triat in a crimin&r case under U.S. law is not required to Mitjfy, TO 
present evidence, to call witnesses, to defend himself Di la piove his innocencB at 

any time. 

The first thing the defense attorney dues in a criminal trial under our system of law 

is to remind the jury (there is a jury even in mililary trials) that accusations aie nat 

evidence; that the prosacutor's opening and dosing statamants to the jury ere not 

Awidence; and thai he and the defendant are not required lo do anything or prev4 

anything. U the MOtds ol one trial lawyer "Not one word yen have heard up lo 

now, including ttie laji word I ius( said, it euideoce of anything." 

No ona has evoT been cdnvicled of a criminal oFfense under U.S. law art the basis 

of a "snap dish" accarapanied br a "confession" which has disappeared, said (o 

havs been signed by an "accomplice" no one has ever heard of, and which vni 

simply "quoted" fay the prosecutor. 

Na one has ever been convicted of a criminal offense under U.S. law on the basis 

of a "report" written by the prosecuiors: if that ware possible, there would ha no 

need far i trial, bacause tlie indictment would suffice for conviction, 

No one has euer been convicted of a criminal offense undet U.S. law on tht itasii 
of a 'shiunken head" accompanied by an "affidavii". 



The document is in Russian, and is a "certified true copy" on which the signature is 
typewritten. That is, where the word "signature" appears in the translation there is no 
signature on the document: only the type-written word "signature. " 

Sigmund, his signature, his statement and his soap may have gone to a better world, but 
their memory survives in this document. The "human soap" accusation is particularly 
important because it was upheld in the judgement at Nuremberg on the same page 
(IMT 1-252) as gassing millions of Jews and cutting their hair off to make human hair 

We have not reproduced the "original document" because it is almost illegible. ( Graphics 

of Document USSR-197) ("Human-soap confession" )(6 pages) 

As a "certified photocopy" of a negative photostat of a "true copy" of an original which 

was never produced, it is a typical Holoco$t "document". 

See also mazur.htm 

TRANSLrtTJOh OF mcuuErrr u^sK-i^r, 


Thi Lbwuinaii H 01 PuulJii, ^id K d 'LBilllnJ me ^ui'y" 
tm vpilcli I\\r EFciuLun ik lypdMiiUcn Thai ie, wktrf 'kr 
wart "tienaiat'- apfuan In ike traiilailiiw. iMete !• na 
sJenalMte an Ihe Jifcaitf/il.- o"!/ Ike ly;ie\'rlnen wori 


hsvD £!)[» Ed a btOtr vDrld, bin tlwlr mfitaery a 
iliis documrDl. Th? lunicB acmp ^cmsliai a ptulii'ijIulY 
iiii[uriflD[ twEaico iL wd aphrld ir Iht Judgetireal ml 
JV^rriBbrn on tit same nngr (tlUT 1-Z5ZI n gating 
mUlitfia a/ Jem and cuatMf rkfir ialr off lo mott 
Abiiu kai' muntesses- 

he Ime DC rfirtdncd nK'nUElUl ifiXVlPlH" l-Oift U li ito» 
IIK^Ie *in'(ali|lfllp*™-«'p-(il'B [xpUf pbcnJUBl nf»-nije 

\iv!r '>! hh mriBil i-biil ana n.hii' r>«lLniil, il n ■ QpioJ llnki^d 

rtttOKD OF KtilMlNrtTlON or 

UmwiImuZ Vu hUZUIClnllU 
JlMC 19^^ 

Maznr JedB'ft tlml be >ciuiU moir kll liepntiiloi" Ih 

11ia «iln(EE Bud LnlFrpraitr i-art ubiohI cf ihcir Uabllii^ uvOtr 
AflHdB If} ^a 95 of lite CniBmti Ln- Coie nflhc Eluhu 
SuvLtf FtAnUl &lLiiliilR*|iLibliL: 

rEypewiina I Sljnuufra. 

Cjri^now, [n umiims cianilrnlwiw, >iib "cPPliri ihBl fir 
bnifrri kbiBon JbI imia urap accenSng la a •eripe ;iv«n b^ 
Pnfour SpHOKJ. CoulJ you ecB ub ^heiliEi )iiu mnvtd Un 
■ni V ■ mil or ■miUHi IVnm? 


ANSWER: After I received Professor Spanner's instruc 
tjon to start botling human fat into soap, Professor 
Spanner at once, on thesame day, personally handed ne 
the recipe for preparing this soapj in written form; that 
is to say, the recipe had beer> typed on the letterhead 
of the Anatomical Institute. As soon as I had read the 
recipe. Spanner took it from me, and there and then he 
told the senior laboratory assistant von Bargen to stick 
it to a plywood board, and nail up the board with the 
recipe in the building where this soap was prepared, 
that is to say, in the second room of this building—the 
mid<Jlf room, and von Bafger immediately carried out 
this task. This happened on iSth February 1944 in the 
presence of Secretary Horn and four students. On that 
same day, we prcpafed soap from human fat. 

QUESTION: You have been shown a recipe typed in 
the letterhead of the Anatomical Institute. What do you 
have to say in respect of this recipe? 

ANSWER: The recipe shown tome, dated 15th February 
1944, is the same recipe about which I have just testi- 
fied. This recipe was stuck to a plywood board which 
hung in the buiiding where soap was prepared. 

Foiih fully token down from my words, read to me Qnd 
trar^shted Into my native language, PoUsh. 

[typewritten] Signature /Mazur/ 
[typewritten] Interpreter /Kotlyarevskaya/ 

Examiner: Jirdge-Advocale of the Garrison of Gdansk, 

Major of the legat service 

[typewritten] /Vodopyanov/ 
The examination was attended by a member of the 
Special State Comn^ission 

[typewritten] /Zimenkov/ 

True copy; 
[stamp] Special State Commission 
From the docu ments of the 
Special State Commission 



of ihe wiineis Z. Yu. MAZUR 

on 12th June 1945 

The witness and the interpreter from Polish, 
Kbtlyarevskaya, were warned of tbefr tiabDity under 
Articles 92 and 95 of the crimirvaJ Law Code of the Rus- 
sian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic; 

{typewritten] Signatures. 

QUESTION: Could you teU us whether you Wok home 
with you from the factory any soap made from human 
fat; how many times, when e?cactly, and in what quanti- 
ty; and what you did with it at home, and also, to which 
members of your family you disclosed what kind of soap 
it was? 

ANSWER: Yes, I took soap made from hunnan fal home 
with me two or three timesjn February and March 1945. 
Altogether the tcul weight of the soap I took home on 
air those occasions did not exceed 4 kilograms, ^ach 
time, / handed the soap over to my mother. My mother 
knew what kindofsoap it was^ because f had aiready tofd 
her and my sjsten everything in 1944, when we first 
started making this soap, / mean soap made of human 
fat, as a novelty unheard-of until that time. At first my 
mother did not want to take the soap from me and use 
itt hut I convinced her that it was absolutely harmless 
for washing laundry and even for washing oneself^ since 
the caustic soda added to it during its preparation ren- 
dered it completely harmless. To corrvince them furtherj 
I also did what Professor Spai^ner h^d done for me and 
my other colleagues in the factory: t took the soap and 
washed my hands with it in front of them, that is, in 
front of my mother and sisters. In spite of this, my 
mother was contemptuous about the soap, tut all The 
same I think my family used it for washing laundry. 
True, none of my famity ever asked me to bring this 
soap. The soap I brought home, made of human fat, 
was in the form of a hard lump of white stuffy 
with an unpleasant smell. 


Testimony faithfuffy taken down from my words, 
and transfated for me into my native Polish when read 

llypewritlenl Interpreter /Kotlearevskaya/ 

Examiner: Judge-Advocate of the Garrison of Gdansk, 
Major of the fegal service 

ly;>ewritten ] /Vodopyanov/ 

True copy: 
[stamp] Special State Commission 
From the documents of the 
Special State Commission. 

[Handwritten] I hereby confirm that the Records of 
Examination of Z. Yu. Mazur are exactly reproduced 
from the original documents. The text of tlie records is 
true to ttie text of the originals^ which are i^ept omong 
the proceedings of the Speciai State Commission in 

Authorised representative of the Special State Commis- 
sjon, D. Kjzmin. 


of witness. 

In Danzig on 28th May 1945, the Judge -Ad vacate of 
the rear services of the Byelorussian Front, Lieutenani- 
ColoneJ Geitman of the legal services, and the investigat- 
ing Officer of the Judge-Advocate's Office of the 
Second Byelorussian Front, Major Kadensky of the legal 
services, examined the undernamed person as a witness, 
and he gave evidence: Zigmtind Yuzefovich MAZUR, 
bom in 1920, native of Danzig, a Pole who received 
German citizenship io January 1944; completed 6 
classes of the Polish "gymnasium" (grammar school) in 
Qan7ig in 1939;a clerical worker; unmarried; according 


to his declaration, not previously convicted; he lived at 
no. 2/ Betschcrgasse, Danzig, and was employed until 
Aprif 1945 as a Uboratory assisunt at the AnatomicaJ 

Institute of Danzig; his mother lives in Danzig at no, 1 0, 
Neuschoitland Street; he has o command of the Polish 
and German languages. 

The testimony is translated from Pofish into Russian 
by the interpreter of the Danzig Commandant's Office^ 
BogusJava Kostinova. The wofd "German" has been 
altered to "Polish," v^hich should be taken as the 
correct version. 

The wttness was warned of hisJiability for withhold- 
ing evidence and for giving false cvideoce under Articles 
92 and 95 of the Criminal Law Code of ihe Russian 
Soviet Federal Socitiast Republic, 

The interpreter was warned of her liability for 
.refusing to translate and for gfving a false translation 
under Articles 92 and 95 of the Criminal Law Code of 
the Soviet Federal Socialist Republic. 

tn October 1 940^ while in Danzig, I was looking for 

The German official Gustav Lange from the Danzig 
employment office, to whom I had given some of the 
rooms of my flat, promised to ftnd me a better^ more 
suitable job in one of the educational establishments of 
Danzig^ and after this I was sent to the Anatomical 
Institute of Danzig, where I began work in January 
1941. At first I was working as a courier for three 
months. While working as a courier^ I began to take an 
interest In medicine, and with the help of Lange and 
Professor Spanner^ I was appointed to the post of 
laboratory assistant at the Anatomical Institute, from 
January 1941. My duties as laboratory assistant includ- 
ed drawing charts and as&isting [n the dissection of 

The Director of the Anatomical Institute was a 
German from the town of Kiel, Professor Rudolf 
Spanner, who left for the area of the town of Halle in 
January 1945, 

Professor Spanner^s deputy was a doctor, Senior 
Lecturer Wollman— he was an SS officer, but wore 


civilian clothes^ and sometimes black SS uniform. 
Wollman was from Chechoslovakia, and hij Czechoslo- 
vakian surname was Koifik. 

In January 1945 he voluntarily entered the SS 

From October 1 944, a woman, Fosbeck from 
Doppot^ was working as an assistant. She left for Halle 
with Professor Spanner- 

The senior laboratory assistant was von Bargen, who 
came to Oanjfg from Kiel wfth Professor Spanner. 

The attendant for taying out corpses was a German, 
Reichert from Danzig^ who teft in November 1944 to 
join the German army. Borckman, a German from 
Danzigj was likewise an attendant^ but I do not where 
he ts now. 

QUESTION: Telf us how human fat was boiled into 
soap at the Danzig Anatomical lnst[tute. 

ANSWER; In the summer of 1943, a one-storey stone 
building with three rooms was built inside the yard next 
to the Anatomical Institute. The building was construct- 
ed for processing corpses and boiling out bones: this was 
the official announcement made by Professor Spanner. 
This laboratory was designated as a laboratory for 
preparing human skeletons and incinerating flesh and 
superHous bones. But as early as tbe winter of 1943- 
1 944j Professor spanner gave the order to collect human 
fat and not to throw Jt away. This order was given to 
Reichert and Borckman. 

In February 1944, Professor Spanner g^ve me a 
recipe for making soap from human fat. This recipe 
gave instructions to take 5 kilograms of human fat, with 
10 litres of water and 500 or 1,000 grams of caustic 
soda, boil all this for 2*3 hours, then leave tocooL The 
soap floats to the surface, and the residues and water 
remain at the bottom, in buckets. Common safl and a 
further handful of soda were added to the mixture. 
Then fresh water was added and the mixiure was agair> 
boiled for 2-3 hours. After cooling, the finished soop 
was poured out into moulds. 


The soap produced had an unpleasant smdl. To 
eliminate this unpleasant smelt, benzaldehyde was 

The work of preparing soap from human fat began 
in January 1944. The senior laboratory assistant von 
Bargen was the immediate head of the soapfactory. All 
the equipment was taken from the Anatomical Institute. 

The first batch of corpses was delivered from 
Konradstein, from the psych/atn'c hospitaf; I do not 
remember the quantity. 

Apart.from this^ there was a largesupply of corpses 
in the Anatomical Institute, amounting to about 400 
corpse. A large number of the corpses were decapitat- 
ed. The d€c(fp/t<it€d corpses had been guiffotmed in the 
prison of the town of Konigsbergj and in 1944 a guillo- 
tine was set up in the Danzig prison. Isaw this guilto- 
tine in the yard, in one of the rooms of the prison; I 
saw It when I went to the Danzig prison for corpses* I 
attach a sketch of the guillotine. 

When I arrived at the prison for corpses, the corpses 
were fresh, just after execution, and we received them in 
a room next to the one where the guillotine was. The 
corpses were still warm. 

On each corpse there was a labet giving the surname 
and year of birth, and these names were noted down in 
a special book in the Anatomical Institute. I do not 
know where that book is now. I went to the prison In 
Danzig for corpses 4-3 times. 

From the Stutthof Camp, Borkner brought four 
corpses of Russian people, men. 

Borkner and Reichert collected fat from human 

/ boiled soap from bodies of men and women. One 
productive hoiUng took several days^ from S to 7 days. 
The two boffings which / know about, in which / took a 
direct part, yielded a finished product of more than 2S 
kilograms of soap. For these boffings, 70-80 kiiograms 
of human fat were collected from about 40 corpses. 
The finished soap was passed to Professor Spanner, 
who personally stored it in his home. 

The Hitkr government was, / know, interested in 
the work on production of soap from human corpses. 


Thc Minister or Education Rusl, tht Minister of Health 
|?Kt>schti|, the Gauleiter of Danzig Albert . . .rslcr 
jsurnamc partly illcgible|, and also many professors 
frortr oliicf medical institutes, came to the Anatomical 

So / pef^ondiy used soap made from hutnon fat for 
my VMshing and laundry requirements. I took 4 kih- 
grams of this soap for my own personal use. 

Since thi$ work on so^p production w-i:* being 
carried out on Profcssof Spanner's orders, t considered 
it a normal occurrence. 

Keichter, Boickman, von Bargen and our boss, 
Professor Spanner, as well as all our other colleagues, 
also took sojp for their personal use. 

This soap was also given eq some students who were 
helping in the work. 

Professor Spanner said the production of soap from 
human fat must be kept secret, 

The production of soap in our institute was of an 
experimental nature^ but I do not know when it was 
suggested that corpses should be used for soap produc- 
tion on a large scale. 

Professor Spanner was trying to obtain as many 
corpses as possible, and was corresponding with prisons 
and camps, with which he was negotiating forcorpses in 
these places to be reserved for the Danzig Anatomical 

In the preparation room^ we shaved the corpses which 
arrived^ and the hair was burnt; in any case, the facts 
about use of hair are unknown tome. 

In exactly the same way as human fat, Professor 
Spanner ordered Ihat human skin should be collected; 
after degreasir^g, it was treated witch certain chemicals. 
The senior assistant von Bargen and Professor Spanner 
himself attended to the production cf human leather. 
The processed skin was stored tn a box, and went for 
special purposes: what purposes these were, I do not 

Conferences of a scientific nature look place in the 
An^itomical Institute, and I know of about three Such con- 
ferences, but I cannot say what was discussed, since I 
did not attend them. 


Correctfy taken down from my words, transhted into 
PoUsh for me, and confirmed by me. 

Itypewfiticn] Zigmund Ma7ur /signature/ 

judge-Advocate of the rear services of the 

2nd Byeoiorussian Front, Lieutenant-Colonel 

of the legal service, 

[typewritten] /Geltman/ 

Examining Officer^ Major of the legal service, 
[typewritten] A, Kadensky 

[typewritten] Interpreter B. Kostinova /signature/ 

Certified true copy; 
[stamp] Special State Commission 

From the documents of the 
Special State Commission, 

[handwritten] I hereby confirm that this Record of 
Examination of the witness Zigmund Ma2ur is exactly 
reproduced from the original record. 

The te3<t of the record is true to the textofthe orl- 
ginal which is kept among the proceedings of the Special 
State Commission in Moscow, 

Authorised representative of the Special State 
Commission^ D. Ku2min, 

20/1/1946 [stamp] Special State Commissioon 

[AH signatures typewritten unless otherwise stated. ] 



We have been unable \o locate the trousers made of human skin (page 53) in 
arv i^rchivc. Wc have Mm been unahk Ui ItKau- ihc siH;k>. imidt DrhunKiin hrtir 
(page 78|.Qrihcnrigi:T5Jl wEirlimi; German dtHiLimcni^, TIk d^>tllln^:]|[^illk'^LC(l 
bv Teirord Taylor to be in lilt Pence Palace ollhe Hai-uc.lorcnumptcfnic Uw 

of Capti^red German and Reluivd Rvcordi. in iht Nurvmbtrj; Wart rimw Trial. in 
Captured und RclstciJ Records, a National Archiw Conference), fililcd hy 
Roben WoU'e. Athens Ohirt, 1974. avyil^bk iVtHrtl thi: Njlionill Art'hJvcs. un: 
not ihtre, 

We haw. hnwtrvtr. round thi: humiinMiap. Thi^ rtirL-HTiicillv iinicstcd i-vfJciKC 
or unknown nTlgin. f'Toihisday. the tirifii!! ui' Ult wiyp mjTkInt: niin^iHf \\ii^ 
mn been \rdt.til". Hilhery, "rtvijic^3. tli:liniiivf" IX-slruction of (ht Kumptan 
Jem, Kolnncsand Mlilt. Ntw York. !9I{5. pyfift] is in ihePt-iite Piilua "Ulii: 
Hague, iilonjiw-ilh ihe ttjn;ri7,ically iin|cs,it:J huitsiin skin sam^ksol' iLhknowrt 
oTi^in anii twci s.lccl whips lIMT KVI - 546J, 

Of the iw. Brilish humar soLip witini.'s,si:s - siitnL-r> uf imiiniilty i;nfliriidii.iory 
hearsay iill'ldaviis prupured wiih :^c hirlp tpluihi-r poopk - John I k-nry Wiium 
tiJiMippurtnttyemiitruigd, while William Anders*]!! Neclvlive^ijil Scoiland. Hf 
has declined tu d iscu ss his e xpc ni^ncc^ , and appcar!> \i n^wuic that hia s(ory could 
mate him wcahhy. 

The "inp secret" i>rdi;r u« makt? wKiks^niL .>lhnnii:in hair (USSR-51 1 ). niktn 
seriijuhly by Hilbeti;, pnyt- ^54. lijoin^.U- 2ft) nnd hy tltc InslitiLl lur 
Zeiiyi'schichtt (Oruani\it:r(fr MasM-nmord io IVazronal'iO/luli'iii'ii-hen 
Vemlehlisnuslam."*!! by Ino Arrdt ;mtt WrNlF^my SfhellfLT. (o"1«cHl' .^>)i'i:iil 
"{jriyinat douumtnl', but ihc Ru^-tianTi Ux>k ihe i>ngin;il bistk U> Ruvsiii wiih 


Tht'dot^umtni itMririfia neurly ilk-jjitik nejiutiw: phontslnl willi li iypi.-ttfri[li:ii 
sijjiriiluTe. d lypewrintn heading, iw ilkyiblc iniiiid tcrtilymi! ii ami "inx 
copy", .iind iwi? tiormjin sianips. 'ITn; Murks Jtv ntn ^nUlthcd- 

We have been unable to locate the trousers made of human skin (page 53) in 
any archive. We have also been unable to locate the socks made of human hair 

(page 78), or the original wartime German documents. The documents alleged 
by Telford Taylor to be in the Peace Palace of the Hague, for example {The Use 
of Captured German and Related Records in the Nuremberg War Crimes Trial, 
in: Captured and Related Records, a National Archive Conference), edited by 
Robert Wolfe, Athens Ohio, 1974, available from the National Archives, are 
not there. 

We have, however, found the human soap. This forensically untested evidence 
of unknown origin, ('To this day, the origin of the soap making rumour has not 
been traced", Hilberg, "revised, definitive" Destruction of the European 
Jews, Holmes and Meier, New York, 1985, p. 966) is in the Peace Palace of the 
Hague, along with the forensically untested human skin samples of unknown 
origin and two steel whips (IMT XVI - 546). 

Of the two British human soap witnesses - signers of mutually contradictory 
hearsay affidavits prepared with the help of other people - John Henry Witton 
has apparently emigrated, while William Anderson Neely lives in Scotland. He 
has declined to discuss his experiences, and appears unaware that his story 
could make him wealthy. 

The "top secret" order to make socks out of human hair (USSR-51 1), taken 
seriously by Hilberg, page 954, footnote 26) and by the Institut fur 
Zeitgeschichte [Organisierter Massenmord in Nazionalsozialistischen 
Vernichtungslagern, by Ino Amdt and Wolfgang Schefler, footnote 33) is an 
"original document", but the Russians took the original back to Russia with 

The document itself is a nearly illegible negative photostat with a typewritten 
signature, a typewritten heading, an illegible initial certifying it as a "true 
copy", and two German stamps. The socks are not attached. 









{Tran^liition iVom the origiiuil Russian, ol" excerpt of 
''conressktn" ot P;uil Wuldinann. Dociimcni LJSSR'52. 
Nuremberji Trials, emphnsis lis udded) 

"At the end pf 1941, the Sonderkommando of the Security 
Police, which wa& directly subordinate to the State Office of the 
Fiihrer Adolf Hitler, killed d40,000 Russian prisoners of war 
in the Sachsenhau&en Camp, t have the fallowing to report on 
this 'Special Action:' 

**The Russian prisoners of wpriirrived u\ Saclisenhavisen Station an 
ovcrtrowUcd goods triiins. Everyday, 8-lQtruiii>v;irrived.eLiL"hol tlieni 
airrving 1,800, So every day, 2S,0QO RuisNian prisoners of war arrived. 
Hxcciiiian L-oniiiuiL*d (or 3(1 diivs, [t wiis inU'riupiL'd bec:iiise of an, 
outbreak of (yplius. Thu tamp was closed. Tlic cxclmiiIuit deinchniL'ni 
with their iipp;irjliis kit S;ichcnh:uiscn Camp. I did not he;ir whether 
the e\terniination was coniiiuicd in :;oiiil' oilier place, hecnust' [ nas 
held in quanuitint: wilh SLispccled typhus." 

EKecuUon of the Prisoners 

"FVom the station to the camp, the line of Russian prisoners 
of war stretched for about a kilometer. They stayed in the carnp 


for one night without food. Tlie following evening, they were 
taken out for execution. 

"All the time, the prisoners were being taken from the inner 
camp on three trucks, one of which I was driving. The inner camp. 
was about 3/4 kilometers away from the execution yard. The ex- 
ecution Jtself took place in a barracks, which had been equipped 
for this purpose not long before. One room was for undressing, 
and another was the waiting room, In the rooms, a radio was 
playing quite loud music, to prevent the prisoners from guessing 
that death awaited them. Froirt the second room^ they went one 
by one through a passage into a Bmall screened-off room, on the 
floor of which was an iron grating; under the grating, a drainage 
canal had been made. As soon as a prisoner had been killed, the 
corpse was carried away by two German prisoners, and the blood 
was cleaned off tlie grating. In this small room, there was a slit 
measuring about 50 centimeters. The prisoner stood with the 
back of hia head to the slit, and a gunman who was behind the 
slit shot him. In fact, this arrangement was unsatisfactory, be- 
cause the gunman often failed to hit the prisoner. After eight 
days, a new system was introduced. They stood the prisoner 
against the. wall, as before, and then slowly lowered an iron plate 
onto his head. The iron plate contained a hammer, which 
came down and hit the prisoner on the back of the head, 
so that he fell down dead. 

"The iton plate was controlled by means of a foot- 
operated lever which was in the comer of this room. The atten- 
dants were from the above mentioned Sonderkommando. At the 
request of the officials of the eiecution detachment, I, too, 
operated this apparatus. 1 will speak about this below. The 
prisoners of war who were killed in this way were burnt in 
four mobile crematoria, which were transported on a truck 

"All the time, 1 had to drive from the inner camp to the execu- 
tion yarxi. At night, I had to make 10 trips at intervals of about 10 
minutes. During these intervals, I witnessed the execution. One 
of the members of the execution detachment, whose surname I 
never knew, suggested that 1 should operate the apparatus. I 
agreed. In each interval I killed 8 10 people. So in one night I 
killed 80-100 people. During the period of eiecution I personally 


killed 2,400 3,000 Russian prisoners of war, some of whom I shot 
with a pistol, and others I killed with the apparatus described 
above. Once more I repeat that out of a total of 840,000 Russian 
prisoners of war, I personally killed 2^4000-3,000 people. I myself 
expressed a wish to operate this apparatus. The oflficial of the ex- 
ecution commission could not compel me to do so, because he was 
not my superior. There were no other methods of ^rxecution apart 
from these... 

"I can now make no further statements. 1 have described 
everything. If I remember anything later, I shall voluntarily 
report it. 

"I have compiled and written the present supplement 
myself, and I confirm this with my signature." 

tStatem&nt is printerl in Hn^Fjianl 

fNamp "Paul Waldmnnn" k print.pH1 Paul Waldmann 

Poznan^ 10 June 1945 


I hereby confirm that these documents are true copies of 
the originals which are kept among the proceedings of the Spe- 
cial State Commis^on in Moscow. 

Authorized representative of the Special State Commission, 
D.Kuimin, 7/1/1946 

(Stamp) Special State Commission 



The Electrical-Frying-Steaming-Air-pumping-Quicklime- Trapdoor-Gas Chambers 



The Electrical Frving-Steaming-Air-Pumping Quicklime 
Trapdoor Gas Chambers (IS4GJ 

4NJVJH/L/1T/ON 3' J 

tnim with nvdunc guns j,[ their bdet, H-ofiircds a£ hands -Vftn 
chnibi OUT chrou^ the viue^oycred windows. One uid che sam* 
crj* bum from ^tir Lips: "Waicr, ^ring m wnerl" 

Most of ihcm came from Wescem Poland and did not ha^e die 
tlightest idea where thty utrc being ukea. Tht Germaru ordered 
thtm w caVe clothes and valuables, promismj that this was only 
1 tmufcr to another district where they would nan a new life. 
A few Poles went to Bclzec to invcstigvte the nutter. The former 
Russian-Cennan frontier had been near Beluc. The Riu^ans had 
built extensive underground fortifications there. Aicer their with- 
dnu-al these fortifications Ml mco German hands. 

Conagnmerits of Jews bejan la arrive at Beluc in March 1942. 
The trains entered the underground area u a nroin point. Each 
tnin carried about 10,000 Jews, An hour btcr an empty train left 
at another point. This wa5 die regular procednre ac Bclzec. 

The news of what happened spread rajudly throughout die 
dbcrict. Sometimes young Jews succeeded in jumping our of the 
death trains. If diey were not ^hot by the guarcU, ihcy nught reach 
Rava Russka, the n>wn closest to ficlzcc But cheir number was 
vexy small. 

The Bclzec camp is built unJcrgrQund. Tc « an eTecrric crema- 
torium- There arc two halls in the undereround buildings. P eo- 
ple were taken out of the railway cars into the fira hall. Then 
they were led nahcd to the sccoinTil^Hera^n^oo^wcmplM 
ar^nonnou^nte. When the crowd of men stood on it, the floor 
sankdecpinto a pool of water. The moment the men sank 
tt^^^iei^ieclcsr a powerful electric current of millions of TT>Lt s 
wi^^aMcd throughr killin g them aP ac orice. The floor ia^ 
again, and a second cleetfic Cttrpsnt wa; t>ag ed through the bodies, 
biinung them unti] nothing was left of the victinH save a few ishs . 


Lov, dark cells vichoot bevdiei or buoks; damptuo, odon of 
decays a tmaU barred winilow through which the nm owcit— 
dlis was the Jewish prison on Lcntzko Sextet in Lvov^ SS guacds 
fUfTound it on all sides. 
My brother wid I were arrested on a &br ciLiige Ot bivii^ 


rim* f« >b IWdib ndrc 71k -rii gn smun ■« ■ 
llv«HiBB4ilrubuiK«iHidr mUrh L<E<di ibt bmwgLibm i^ 
Ac bfaud ■■□ aw aAd umnlaudat, .^leJ oibudliDliislotiL 
1h« efAddBBVgkbn ■ t nndi DHn ihrt|ib CtflUEA^ 
&mt nh^wlflha wliivb o ImoMl cWiirii orih^ n dv iri-^ 

■ht Eutio] inniTBdb Bid dwn ih iwiUh bJlilJiti iO? BiuHi- 
CUk Ikih Id oina mygfii Imri cbr lii Tin blallilLq bnniB 

^ Iv L fp a uFna ii i Tba nkBrnl ^riudi ri a 

TTrb ibr Hnijf Aoioiiia ij ih* Twbltflla Caai/rya-brb uu 
■VPnOlkilly m Okf inv Imji ran ill ilui wbich V« IDrHB 
■ltd km lili M^rJ rlg1<r flm liEtr^ -u ah* Frm pm. rtm 
ho liont iliEU hii CMPtfy, inil ilxu h' i»™ ap«l wwwj ta * Muk- 
^nuirlinl Tlira,4ifi i!ir piDDT. pliriiim, »»T m^ iw.* Fnm 
bna Fib brlmgnp, Ismi, phcmgiKilii iif Jm riqr hHib, mj Hu- 
liAd* ihi <tfnp lioev. rhiy nui in^v Im maluE, ^ifp u).] ihld. 
Thai iby (QoL ivij frAVI |}« AlKid run Bb d^ ji hf m ^ 
amni ibBa inm dir bt :}iDi|n>B'p rdlH iIV nliEimiy- Hi ■■■ 
Jjiuni blD I EmiAD wiLb I In aing uiJ dv^irrid of A« ^ 
i}« am, rhnwd, lb no. 


^ In 1941 1 wts tt the Wcscrbdrk mnp widi my fuiuly. There 
^ftVR Bvooo people dKn,-iad way Tuesday i^ooo wwc taken 
mwjiy to Polsod They <lwayt west mwiy cflmly, becRue poff ^ 
" from Wlodovn SEot by thaw id» Ind been akeo xwty 
Ay sounded reasQixn^. The cardt ^ere prioced lod I 
kcd ktcf tldt before diey Sed^ people wen oootpelled n> 
jci^n them. 

? 'i fltd from Weterbori: tad w*s hiiidcn, bat my pumtt were 
'•eot TO Foluid Then t Gcnnan igetn betrayed me. For two 
'months I wts kept in prini in AmKerdvp md then >mt to the 
Vught asap, ta Mtrdi t943» ve wen aben to PobmL Mmy 
hoped to meet thcii rekdves there. 

"Befort we left, the rick were treitcd by Dutch noneL When 
we ptsed throagh Gentuny^ Gemun nnnes went throi^ die 
coidio^ handif^ out medicines to the tick. Wha would htve 
thought ttut wc were being led ta slaughter? 

*1 urived ac Sobibar oa April 9, >9+J- ^ ^^ y^^ **^ Cmip 
No, 1 mea were ordered va imdios. They were isnmedktely 
oken to Csnip No. j. 

"A Getman ofliccr «lected rwemy-dght girls for work m CMiip 
No. J. I wax unong them. 

**l ttJiyed IE Sobibur for five montht, eortiag the doduof of 
diose who had been motdoed.** 

The ptisonen working in Ciiiip No. 3 were known u "Ac 
bathhouse gang." Work there weiK 00 Doccaan^yi they were 
IdUing thoiufliidt of people daily- 

The "bathhouse" was a windowless brick bmlding. Ohericbtr- 
jvebftr Hctzinger wis ilways sradDned before vs iron doQ^ 
People wen vcoc ipeo the ^'bathhouse** in pinies of 7oo-Soo> 

Af J ^ipial tht supply 

hPOM QPengg. and rhe bodies dropped belo^^ I w nns&nert w 
pw nndcrground had to load the bndies_ind ca rt chetn twavT 

Before Sabngiad the Germani didn't fear iny evidence. They 
|as bilried the bodies. In 1943 thc)- begni to dig up the bodiu 
md bum them. A party of 1 50 prisoners woriied it the orait 



bin fles^ tDolc place. "One mm, after having his hack bamed, vm 
ant outri de to w ork with 6qo pounds of wood ried tp hi? bait 
badh, lu ihe cemmr £ooi f^ chat loaai a tuund has beeo dug to 
-cury flwjy the blcpod.^ 

PaulM.X^, Levy, pinf esor It dK JmriflUf jfeJ ff dUHJ E^uifT ia 
Brussels and head of the Bdgian TUdio News Service Ixfore hk 
cDuddy was invaded, jave ■ wiitteD datement to the pies m JjoCh 
don DO Norembcr jo* 194^* diord^ aftci his escape from Bnea- 

A gnjT deal has been pbli^ed about the NaaJ cmccntmiaa 
ampt Many of ihe saioiKins mtdc were hardly credible, and 
before the wic, very ofKO* I refused to believt than. Whjx t 
hive iinn »>cb and operieDced for mj'self dunng t year*! deto- 
dcm at Ereendonct, htn^cvcr, sorpasscs amthing that 1 had pievv 
OQsly read, and n^w my crtdulin' ii of another kind; I feel as if 
1 had bad a ftightful nighmuic and wonder how my mind could 
ever htTE iniaeined such Koitotl 

Brtcnddnck is inorc honibJc than Dichiu and Buchenv^d wen 
before the war. Men who were once prisoneis in Gennin omh 
cemnrion camp;, ifteru-xfd; (rmigrstcd Imnr Gettruny, and war 
aiTcsEcd apain pi Eel^uni, ha^e confUmed thi$ to me more than 
once, it is due pnndpallv' to the foUowbg icasom: 

The Ereendonck camp (from the Genritn pomt of view) 

I. is linutcd ctti cncrnv rernror^'i 

a. received far the mast pan eneniv nidonals; 

)« exists while milhaiy opentians (not alwiyi victtifioas) ait 
in progress elseu'hne; 

^ is directed h\ SS men whose imnds are ncrcr at rest, lincc 
^dr lives are bn daager every tune diiey leave the can^. 

More than 100 penons were kiUed each month at Breendoocb. 
according to Frank Fisher, vho reponed for the United Pres on 
the camp a )'ear later.** Kis ^de, who told him of the deaths, led 
Fisher through the torture chambeiv the whipping rooms, ibc 
baming room, the hanging room. "One cell," the correspondent 
wrote, "com^tied nothing but ap a J purgp/tiph a vent outside. ^ 
the wall was a hole t hrough ^'hich the Gemtant forced gas. If tht 
viaim Was strong etiQUgh he could pump in fresh air an^Mteeg 
himself alive for a while. The veak died quickly" 



lltt krgcr pvtuD of tbem wck cncnttd, emi dwn. In Fwii, i 
Jcwidi orguuzatHD, i kor odc Klped Mod s vaisy Jews ■ 
ponble tv aaoccapied Frucb Mny of dir people m the ieott 

oiffinizwcioii MJd "viiii flioi Iita. 

bdKcoDfxatnaonciinpMCBf^t&dvAaghbortiDDd of it« 
Spamti boEdei, jdjood to 4a#» jewc were kilicd. Tbc Ik 
fSanTlMT gnnjis helped muiy tv escipc to Sfnin tod SwitzcibBj 
-vidi ftlse docmnentt, papcn, modest emythu^. 

Ob NoTcmbB II, i^« ifac whole of Fnnct wts cccBpied tf 
Gtrmin iroopt Kow tbc Jew* was widwwc *ny pnieoiofc 
There vs terrible puuc mxng tboa 

.^ ■lermcncaJIv. Thgc t*aplc htd to pis their v'ltg^ ^.^ 

\tfmild flirt tiic llnic cooking- G as inn lu mesciime up and chokei 
3]erTnf^Se>3r |S^>3i^*^rtcnT^Ti into special crcrnimjg^oi 
■hi border between Gtrminy tnd Poland stkI bufnc<i ihere. I he 
Gerauru ud h wis the most ccooDfliical nwdiod^ That ihatn 
wi^ ""Kill Rbsub vitb bnUeo-Jews wiib gB.** ** 

The CMioenTrft«m etmps m France ranged in mediods of cru- 
elty from the (low nmncm tt tiic Ro^'illieu amp pur Conv 
fu^e, TO the torture chamben tud tnodera crtnaiary at Scnnhof* 
in AlsKC 

Fra^i^ois MinriiCf writing in the Juiury io, 1945, number of 
Figaro^ rtvicwcd t book about RDyaUicn by Jean Jacques BcmariL 
who btd been impritoned there- hUufue wna^ 

Hen ■ t mmac v^o nerer niscs bii vc^ice, who dmph^ ttb 
whit he hif stcn , . . A ctmp whhmic forced labor, «itha« i«^ 
Ture dumber, wMioiiT poison gu, vichout i cremtiflry; 1 aitf 
hltmtcs in tppctrutce . , . ■ ist cenp, if one may ay ». Thr 
accutioiier did iwt ihow himclf. He directed efierycbiog fnm 
Pus. His directives weie timpjc He let his victimi itoU; it %m 
mcfdy 1 mtner of allowii^ dicni to d»e. linJc by linle, of hun^. 
The)' nccired taiceiy w)Thug to cat; toup, a lictk marguinc 
No pwrkigei from the MCnde were pennitied. 

At RoyaUicu minds bum into acdvity, wavered and fiiuth 
died. The eeee enihuiiasdc linenen grew drowj:)'. Tbwy 4wti 
^ from waknen- thit was already d» iletp of deatK Sooo that 



My Ivodur Lctb wilked in thk dmdfot ionenl proocHon wid '. 
hit wife Rms tbc twnu in hci *rmc, acd her blind ftdMr^ ChuB.' 
Sapim. Many tbommMoA Ukniiiiu fid^ibon iod ftk^ in^: 
ilDC^ .widi die Jlcwt. At H^ ccmccedy, ibt Jetn wen foreed ^ 
uulrtt. Fifiy-4B dibusukd Jeiwi wen iki^nrcd. llwie iriio -dii^ 
BR dk imcutdjr vcre biuicd «tirb far ifaru dayi* die riuxnof ; 
DDold be heard. The deep nrine WB fnlL ;t 

Ob September 3Ddv i itrw order wu tmed: "Whoercr eo^ 
R>!s t Jew wili be (face Whocrcr gives ap ■ J«w viU rtean 
lOD nuAs." I \na learaed th« muy Rnmins viid XJkniniuic htJ 
nved Jewidi duldniL 

Ic became dar^ercw (o ronahi n Kiev. Eirly in Ocniba; I 
Jefc Nqe far /mn KirT« i Gennan pacrol sopped m&. '^'ou iff 
« ptmoar' he yelled md cektU dk 1q the KanmauUOir. They 
miT me back to Kkt, to ifie concentruioa cttnp on Kirilor 

During the Gat diyi in the Kiiilovka cDaccntraidDn camp they 
g3Tc u£ pnctiotly DoUiing to e«. I hid the great forntne to £nd 
two pDtatoo on which t lived ior eight ^yt- One hundred md 
fifty- to rwo hundred ptople died daiiy from htrnger ind thirst, Qfa 
the niinh day wc were fed. Tlic ratiDD cooflKcd of too gnms of 
brad tod half ■ Ihxr of muddy loup. Hunger torrored v$~ Ov 
swoDcn tongues were covered with t hjrd white film. We labored 
from dawn to dark. The Geroum would lead tts pa$t talcet wd 
fprif^ W^Ttoevw tried to bend ortr f« a moudiful of water vn 
shot on 1^ ipoc 

On the tenth diy we wtre driveti to lite Lukyanovki nrint; 
We stood there— pinie-strickc n. From beneath t he freshly saTtfn 
eaith ttreamed rivers oi bJooa^n^faoaoFTfriMoniurdered Jew 
It <3ied oat to m from bcoeath the earths My hair_ tS^^^S y 
that mamin g. |^^^^^^,„^^ 

"Cover the loeDned Jcwsli blood!" ^e officer ordered. 

Seven! dtyt bter, they took ns to the Gohuyev woodt Tbc 
woods were brighdy lit up with huge boofres. Wt >aw nuipn- 
OTtsly Kt tables. At the tables at officers in parade tmifoniL Kaa 
the boofirs wen uiany small duldicn trerablii^ with fear. Then 
wen UkniruKi md Russin duldren unong ihem, I heard oic 
German officer explain to the soldias haw the game wax to he 

PAGE 313, BELZEC: "The Belzec camp is built underground. It is an electric 

crematorium. There are two halls in the underground buildings. People were taken out of 

the railway cars into the first hall. Then they were led naked to the second hall. Here the 

floor resembled an enormous plate. When the crowd of men stood on it, the floor sank 

deep into a pool of water. The moment the men sank up to their necks, a powerful electric 

current of millions of volts was passed through, killing them all at once. The floor rose 

again, and a second electric current was passed through the bodies, burning them until 

nothing was left of the victims save a few ashes." 

PAGE 408, TREBLINKA: "The second Treblinka camp method, and the most 

widespread one, consisted of pumping all the air out from the chambers with large special 

pumps. By this method death ensued from approximately the same causes as from 

poisoning with carbon monoxide: man was deprived of oxygen. 

And, finally, the third method, less widespread, was killing by steam, based also on 
deprivation of oxygen: the steam drove air out of the chamber." 

PAGE 375, SOBIBOR: "Gas was filtered into the 'bathhouse' through a hose. The 

Germans watched the process of asphyxiation through a tiny window. At a signal the 

supply of gas cut off, the floor of the 'bathhouse' opened, and the bodies dropped below. 

The prisoners working underground had to load the bodies and cart them away." 

PAGE 270, BREENDONCK: "One man, after having his back burned, was sent outside 
to work with 600 pounds of wood tied to his bare back... 

"One cell... contained nothing but an air pump with a vent outside. In the wall was a hole 

through which the Germans forced gas. If the victim was strong enough he could pump in 

fresh air and keep himself alive for a while. The weak died quickly." 

PAGE 280, FRANCE: "They were poisoned in the camps. In trucks which were meant to 
hold twenty people, the Germans placed a hundred. Quicklime was placed on the floor 

about ten inches deep. The doors were sealed hermetically. These people had to pass their 

water - that would start the lime cooking. Gas and fumes came up and choked them to 

death. Bodies were thrown into special crematories... 

PAGE 364, SOMEPLACE IN RUSSIA: "On the tenth day we were driven to the 

Lykyanovka ravine. We stood there - panic-stricken. From beneath the freshly strewn 

earth streamed rivers of blood, the blood of 56,000 murdered Jews. It cried out to us from 

beneath the earth. My hair turned gray that morning." 

See also: blackbook.htm