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A Few Facts 

A Few Suggestions and A Few New Ideas 

about hardwood interior finish and its decorative 
treatment. A book of practical information for build- 
ers of up-to-date homes. 

The buildings shown herein have been furnished with our 
QUALITY millwork. 

Copyright 1915 


Dubuque, Iowa 




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c^itsx^^ S- ~£o£;Tsaf7£:iz 77? fg. Go. 

"The Home 


— F.PLftNG RES/ 


THERE is a time in the 
life of nearly everyone 
when the subject of 
building is of paramount im- 
portance. It may be a mod- 
est cottage of moderate cost, 
but cozy, comfortable, and 
convenient; or it may be a 
mansion befitting a bettered 
financial condition. In eith- 
er event the problem which confronts one, as a rule, is to obtain the most 
practical design and arrangements, the most attractive interior, and the most 
artistic effects for the anticipated expenditure. 

It is an established fact that though many build, few build without mis- 
takes. The experience and sagacity that go to promote success in various 
enterprises and business undertakings may assist but little in the details of 
other crafts. The craft of interior finishing is ours, and it is the mission of 
this little booklet to be of practical assistance to those who contemplate the 
erection of a modern home or building. 

There arc a few facts worth knowing about native woods commonly used, 
their advantages and their limitations. No two woods are alike in grain and 
texture. Some are straight-grained and clear; some cross-grained and gnarl- 
ed; some are angular in their markings; and others show graceful curves and 
wavy spirals. But in these contrasts lie the decorative opportunities of the 
different woods and the atmosphere and character which can be produced in 

no other way than by 
their use. 


The bounty of Nature 
is nowhere more won- 
derfully illustrated than 
iii the fact that Oak, 
one of the most beauti- 
ful and most serviceable 
of woods, is abundant 
and inexpensive. Mon- 
arch of the forest and 
man's best servant, its 
sturdy strength was 
built into the Norse- 

fMiGf/r ffierc&s, IP/zoAfj^r S^j^vra^ 

Page 4 

Quarter-sawed Sycamore — Natural 

Quarter-sawed Red Oak — Old English 

Plain Red Oak — Weathered 

Plain Red Oak — Forest Green 

Selected Red Eirch 

Plain Birch — Imitation Mahogany 

Page 5 

c^/sz^r &- J?o£?tjs chefs 777/^Cr. (So. 

men's ships that storms could not rend apart, The triremes of the great navies, 
of Greece and Rome were of oak timbers, as also their great bridges, aqueducts, 
and buildings, all triumphs of architectural art and skill. The oldest houses 
in England show their oak beams and paneling as sound today as ever. Shrines 
of the early kings carved in Oak have not yet begun to show signs of age. 
From its earliest history up to the present day, when beauty as well 
as strength must hold sway, Oak reigns supreme, King of Woods. The Oak 
was sacred to the early Britons, and tradition has it that in 55 B. G. Caesar's 
army, wintering in England, was set to cutting down the forests and dragging 
the logs into boggy districts. This was to keep the army under strict disci- 
pline and to spite the unfriendly Britons. The Oak withstood even this, for 
when dug up centuries later, it was to have the color and hardness of the finest 
ebony. There are trees still hale in England today which were old enough 
to cut for 4heir lumber when William the Conqueror landed in 1066. Scien- 
tists estimate the limit of longevity among Oaks at about 2,000 years. 

The noblest of our native varieties is the White Oak. The wood, heavy, 
dark, cross-grained, and of a slight yellowish-brown color, prominently marked 
with rays radiating from the center, is used where strength and durability 
as well as beauty are required. 

Red Oak is darker in color, of reddish tinge, and of more open grain. 
There are substantial reasons in favor of its popularity for interior finish, 
among these its durability and handsome grain. Either of these woods is 
greatly improved in its figure by quarter-sawing, but plain-sawed Oak of 
either color is very handsome. 

The term " quarter-sawed " signifies that the log is cut into quarters 
before being reduced to boards. Each quarter is then sawed through its 
center radius, and boards, each one smaller than the one before, are sawed to- 
wards the corners. This method of sawing develops beautiful markings in 
several of the woods, and particularly in Oak, where the peculiar silvery- 

$%5 Jte/u)& ffljuzir oar Croons 


Page 6 

1) MARK 


<M<\ feisty dr ^h^T^c^j^BjM 77?j^<y. Go* 


flaked grain is susceptible to a great variety of handsome effects. Not only 
does this consist in beautifying the figuring, but it is found that material 
thus sawed shrinks less than common sawed stock, an invaluable virtue which 
the cabinet maker is not slow to appreciate. Being much more wasteful in 

sawing, this lumber is correspondingly high- 
er in price than plain-sawed. The illustra- 
tion shows clearly the method of sawing 
and the effect in both the plain-sawed and 
quarter-sawed stock. 

The figure, grain and character of several 
other woods are also greatly improved for 
finishing and trimming purposes by quarter- 
sawing, as, for instance, Sycamore and Gum. 
However, neither of these woods have at- 
tained the favor and prestige enjoyed by 
the Quartered Oaks. 

While quarter-sawing enhances the ap- 
pearance of these woods, others, again, are 
affected in a far different manner and lose 
their figure and open grain effect. This is 
true of Yellow Pine and Fir, and both of 
these woods are quarter-sawed for flooring 
in order to produce the close grain effect 
so essential in the wearing quality of any 

The use of quarter-sawed Oak flooring 
has become general. A beautiful and har- 
monious combination can be secured by 
having the floor, the trim, and the furniture 
in a room all made from the same kind of 
wood. This is especially attractive if quarter- 
sawed Oak is used. The various means of 
finishing the Oaks are explained full)' on 
the following pages. 

The variety of people's tastes and fancies 
has taxed the skill of finishers to the utmost. 
The chapter in this book on "Wood Finishing" tells how we have solved the 
problem as far as our patrons are concerned. 

The use of Oak finish and furniture dates way back in history, but the 
invention of modern machinery and methods of manufacture have now made 
it possible for people, even of small means, to have and enjoy those products 
which formerly were available only for people with wealth. Oak finish will 
always be in style regardless of how other things may change with the flight 
of time. It is one of those standard articles which, because of its many good 
qualities, will always endure and enjoj^ a large sphere of usefulness. 

Quality W/llwomic stands iSupKEitfE 


Page 7 

Quarter-sawed White Oak— Celtic Quarter-sawed White Oak— Fumed 


Quarter-sawed White Oak— Golden Quarter-sawed Red Oak— Light Antique 

Bird's Eye Maple— Natural 

Dark Mahogany 

Page 8 

J^ki^le:^ S- J^o^TsaffEm 77? f&. Go. 


There are many styles of oak finish produced by the skillful staining 
and filling of this wood. Some of these have achieved a well earned popularity 
and each has its own significance. 

ANTIQUE OAK, as indicated by its name, imitates in coloring the oak 
woodwork centuries old in ancient dwellings in England. There are several 
shades of Antique Oak, but no fixed standard otherwise than it is a rich brown. 
It is very similar in appearance to Fumed Oak. 

BOG OAK, a favorite in the decorative art, is dark in tone with a black 
field, and the quartering showing through in a shade of yellowish green, imi- 
tating the lumber sawed from the logs that have been exhumed from the peat 
bogs of Ireland and England. 

GOLDEN OAK is one of the most popular styles of the day, the name 
being suggestive of the color, a rich gold or brown, with the quarterings prom- 
inently marked and of a lighter color than the field. 

WEATHERED OAK has several accepted varieties of finish from a 
number of shades of brown to almost black. It is generally recognized in dull 
effects to imitate weather exposed Oak. 

FOREST GREEN OAK is a very handsome finish, although a decided 
novelty. It is a soft color, being a pale shade of green somewhat resembling 
the first leaves of spring. 

MISSION OAK is familiar to all through the mission furniture now so 
much in vogue. It is a deep, rich brown and has a dull finish. 

ANTWERP OAK is also brown, but of a deeper shade, producing an 
attractive antique finish. 

BLACK FLEMISH is a much admired finish, especially when it is de- 
sired to produce an effect of great weight. Its black tone combines admira- 
bly with red wall coverings and hangings. 

BROWN FLEMISH is not unlike Antwerp, but of a much stronger brown 
tone. This is one of the most popular stains. 

GUNMETAL finish for Oak is not unlike Black Flemish, but gives a 
tinge of blue, instead of deep black. 

MALACHITE, although light green, is not too intrusive, and is affected 
by many people of good taste. 

TYROLEAN OAK is as dark as Black Flemish, but, as its name implies, 
is of a greenish tinge. 

Page 9 

<^?4/bx^>^ <S- JTo&TsaffEm 77?f&. (So. 

EARLY ENGLISH is a dark finish, similar to Weathered Oak in color, but 
with a higher finish, varying from dull-rubbed to a high gloss, as occasion may 
require. It is largely used on Quartered Oak, but can also be produced on 
Plain-sawed Oak. 

FUMED OAK is a finish for furniture and trim of a novelty order and se- 
cures its effectiveness largely from characteristic dull tones. One way to ob- 
tain these has been by submitting the furniture to a chemical bath in a hot 
room. This, however, requires expensive equipment which is now uncalled 
for; as good, if not better, results can be obtained by the use of acid stains. 
Any shade desired — from soft yellowish-brown to a dark, blackish-brown, or 
the shades tending to a greenish cast — may be procured by the use of the proper 

NATURAL OAK is a finish designed to preserve the natural color of the 
wood. Some people prefer a light shade of finish and this will answer the pur- 
pose very well. However, the best results are obtained by staining the Oak 
trim some darker shade. Nearly all wood will turn darker in time, even though 
it is well finished at first, If one of the darker shades is selected, the finish 
will always remain the same color through the years. 

Additional Oak finishes that are in use at the present time are Australian, 
Cathedral, Dutch Brown, English, Filipino, Manila, Oxblood, Rotterdam, 
Silver Gray, Sumatra Brown, and Tobacco Brown. Other kinds of finish are 
used occasionally but those mentioned herein are the most popular ones. 

^/Zoosr jfbr* out* <Sy7Bj\nJS 17?/±mFC 

Page 10 

J?Atez,£;y^ & ^h^rscff&m 77?fct. Go. 


Birch, being one of the 
least costly of the hard- 
woods, finds general fav- 
or for interior finish, It 
is beautiful and inexpen- 
sive; in texture strongly 
resembling Cherry, hav- 
ing a close, fine grain. 
One of the chief virtues 
of Birch is its adaptabil- 
ity to imitation of the far more expensive woods, as Mahogany and Cherry. 
So perfect are the imitative results obtained that many of the great hotels 
and office buildings are finished in Birch throughout, stained to imitate Mahog- 
any. Thus finished, most people are unable to distinguish it from genuine 
Mahogany. Birch is also deservedly popular in its own natural finish. Lus- 
trous and satiny, with a good color of reddish brown, it has character of its 
own and beauty that deserves recognition. 

Selected and Unselected Birch are terms which refer only to the color 
of the wood and not the quality. The heart of a Birch log is reddish brown 
and the outside portion, or sap, is white. The selected wood is naturally more 
expensive than the unselected. The latter, also called plain or mixed Birch, 
shows a variegated color effect when finished natural. This finish is rich and 
pleasing, but not of a uniform color. If imitation of the Selected Birch is pre- 
ferred the white or sappy wood can easily be stained to perfectly match the 
red or heartwood, thus giving the entire finish a uniform color. An excellent 
combination is to have the trim white enameled and the doors stained Mahogany. 
For Mahogany finish the plain Unselected Birch is generally used. Strictly 
speaking, this gives a better effect than the Selected Red Birch, since the variega- 
ted color of the wood brings out, in a measure, the light and delicate shadings 
so characteristic of the various kinds of Mahogany. 

Curly Birch is the choicest selection of the Birch, it being chosen for its 
beautiful curly markings. 
It ranks with some of the 
expensive imported woods, 
and as such is employed 
in fine cabinet work. 

Birch finish is very popu- 
lar for the sleeping quarters 
of residences. When finish- 
ed natural or even with a 
little color added it has 
a restful, subdued tone. 

R.MG t re,e'vi, Re 

■B \o O TTYVV YV l\Xo Yt , 1\V v TV.O\S. 

Quality 7/7/llwoizk insures satisfaction 

Page 11 

Ash — Natural 

Red Cypress 

Quarter-sawed Sycamore — Mahogany 

Bird's Eye Maple — Silver Gray 

Gum — Natural 

Colonial Birch 

Page 12 

J^amle;^ S- ^h^r&crjT&Tz ?7?rcr. Go. 

LOOK for our trade mark 
on your goods. This is 
your guarantee of Quality 
Milhvork. Insist on having 
Farloe products. Others imi- 
tate; we excel. The best is the 
cheapest in the end. Buy 
Farloe Quality Milhvork and 
you will have the best. 


The wood of Maple is light colored, 
fine grained, strong, and heavy. Being 
somewhat deficient in markings, it is less 
popular for interior hardwood finish, 
where beauty is desired, and gives way 
to Bird's Eye Maple and Curly Maple. 
Bird's Eye Maple is selected for pecu- 
liarly distorted fibres, supposed to be 
produced by the injur}- to the bark of 
the growing tree, which tends to set the 
trunk to sprouting. Often a multitude of small twigs covers a consider- 
able area close together. As the tree grows, each of these twigs becomes 
the center of a series of wood rings, which are revealed when cut and polished 
as "Bird's Eyes." To saw a "Bird's Eye" log in the ordinary way would 
be to lose most of the beauty of the grain, which can only be obtained by 
tangential sawing. 

Curly Maple is the choicest selection of the Maple. In beauty Curly 
Maple often excels the most striking "Bird's Eye" wood. Curly Maple is 
not easily accounted for. The wood fibres are longer than in the straight 
grain and lie upon each other in ripples. This peculiar marking is found in 
a few other woods, principally Mahogany, Birch, and Yellow Pine. 

Either Bird's Eye or Curly Maple are delicately beautiful when employed 
in either cabinet work or interior finish, and rank among the rarest woods. 
Xo one can tell which tree is going to reveal the beautiful Bird's Eye or Curly 
grain. The sharp eye of the sawyer detects it and this lumber is put aside, 
being far more valuable than plain lumber of the same species. Some lumber- 
men boast that they can "spot" the standing trees; others declare there is no 
outward sign dependable. 




c )7je originate, others i/nitata 

Page 13 

J*A/zz,£;y^ S- J?o^7T&cffEtt 77?f&. Go. 

C.J.Lundberg Res. RocRford 


A r e d d i s h - b r o w n , 
coarsely- fibred hardwood, 
Mahogany has naturally 

a fine figure, while the 
finish develops beautiful 
contrasting figure shades 
or high lights, even 
though no figure is ap- 
parent in the rough state. 
The chief variety used 
is known as the common 
Mahogany, a hard and 
durable wood with its 
capability for taking a fine finish, its chief recommendation. With, perhaps, 
the exception of our Oaks, no woods possess like advantages of combined sound- 
ness, large size, durability, beauty of color, and richness of figure. So, when 
compared with other woods, Mahogany costs no more to finish and stands 
better than any other, the only point to weigh against this last great feature 
is the difference in first cost of wood in the rough. But, since Mahogany stands 
better and longer, and needs no attention afterwards, surely the sole advantage 
of less first cost that any other wood may possess is almost overcome. 

Another merit equal to any thus far mentioned is the warmth of its color 
and the glory in the figure of this beautiful wood. The air of elegance, ar- 
tistic effect and gentle breeding it imparts to all its surroundings, its joy and 
life — ^fxll these can not be measured by a few cents per square foot. Its grow- 
ing splendor with age that gives increasing satisfaction may be safely con- 
trasted with the tameness of other woods, which, though pleasing always, 
do not improve like Mahogany. 

A beautiful, harmonious effect can be produced by finishing your living 
room or dining room in Ma- 
hogany and later equipping 
the room with furniture, etc., 
of the same wood. This rich- 
looking wood supplemented 
with the proper floor cover- 
ing and wall decorations will 
well repay the owner for his 
extra care, and will be a last- 
ing source of pride and pleas- 
ure to the folks in the home 
and to their visiting friends. 

xS/iKEr^J&hsr "implies Qz/al/tk 71/illwoizi? 

Page 14 

JfaizisEir &- .Zh^T&cirjsFz 77?FCr. Go. 


A heavy wood, quite hard, 
of light reddish brown color, 
Sycamore, or Butt on wood, as 
it is sometimes called, when 
quarter sawed and properly 
finished, makes a striking 
appearance, owing to its 
great beauty. 

Heretofore its natural 
charm has been destroyed in 
many cases by staining the 
wood and preventing the development of many fine markings, which are 
thrown to the surface if properly treated. When quarter sawed and finished 
by experienced workmen, a beautiful silver leaf is developed by a wholly 
natural process and the surf ace " assumes a charming pink hue. Sycamore, 
although of but moderate cost and none too common, is generally conceded 
to be one of the handsomest woods used in interior finish. 


Cherry is a fine grained wood, tough and light, capable of taking the 
finest finish and is a nearer approach in color and grain to Mahogany than 
any other wood. When Cherry is nicely filled and well rubbed down and not 
varnished, it has a soft glow not possessed by any other wood. Cherry trees, 
as a rule, are rarely sacrificed, unless past bearing and decayed, so the source 
of supply is limited and precarious. For this reason Cherry, of late years, 
has not been a practical wood to be used for interior finish, and other woods 
have all but crowded it out as an interior finish. 

These three woods 
are not used very much 
in this class of work, 
except where the wood 
is common and cheap. 
These woods are all soft 
and easily dented. All 
have very coarse grain, 
but, if care is taken in 
selecting the material, 
odd and pleasing effects 
may be obtained. 


V\ aT s Wall I Q W YV , lowau. 




Page 15 

Ash — Antique 

Gum — Imitation Cherry 

Yellow Pine — Dutch Brown 

Cypress — Natural 

Plain Birch — Golden 

Plain Oak— Bog 

Page 16 

J^A/zis&y^ S- ^b^7^^crj^£:7^ 77?7^<y. Go. 

L.J. Mead Re<- 

Aurora, 111. 


This wood compares 
with White Oak in hard- 
ness and its grain close- 
ly resembles Plain-Saw- 
ed Oak. When properly 
finished odd and pleas- 
ing effects can be pro- 
duced. This is espec- 
ially the case when 
rotary cut veneers are 

used. Although open grained and porous, proper filling and finishing will 

bring it to a very high polish. 


The rise of Red Gum lumber into prominence forms an interesting chapter 
in the industry. It was formerly considered so difficult to season that few 
mills cared to deal with it, but that difficulty has been largely overcome. In 
the past, Gum, having no market value, was left standing after logging; or, 
where the land was cleared for farming was girdled and allowed to rot, and 
then felled and burned. Not only were the trees a total loss to the farmer, 
but, from their great size and the labor required to handle them, they were 
so serious an obstruction as often to preclude the clearing of valuable land. 
Now that there is a market for the timber, it is profitable to cut Gum with 
other hardwoods, and land can be cleared more cheaply. This increase in the 
value of Gum timber will be of great benefit to the South in many ways. 

Throughout its entire life Red Gum is intolerant of shade. As a rule seed- 
lings appear only in clearings or in open spots in the forest. It is seldom 
that an overtopped tree is found, for the Gum dies quickly if suppressed, and 
is consequently nearly always a dominant or intermediate tree. In a hard- 
wood bottom forest, the timber trees are all of nearly the same age over con- 
siderable areas, and there is little young growth to be found in the older stands. 
The reason for this is the intol- 
erance of most of the swamp 

Red Gum reproduces both by 
seed and by sprouts, fairly 
abundantly every year, but 
about once in three years there 
is a heavy production. In the 
Mississippi valley the aband- 
oned fields on which 3 r oung 
stands of Red Gum have sprang 
up are, for the most part, being 

TNSIST that only F. k L. Quality 
-■- Millwork be used in your new home 
and see that our Tp~~^T trade mark ap- 
pears on every pJ^Jj shipment. It's 
your guarantee ^^ of perfect ma- 
terials and workmanship. If you do 
not find it you have been imposed upon. 
Accept no substitutes. There is no 
millwork just as good. 


Page 17 

c&AKLEY- (S- -foJZTSCJTEIS 77?F- G . C?o. 

rapidly cleared again. The second growth here is considered of little worth 
in comparison with the value of the land for agricultural purposes. 

A large amount of Red Gum growing in the South can be economically 
transported from the forests to the mills only by means of the streams, owing 
to the expense of putting in railroads solely for handling the timber. Green 
Red Gum, however, is so heavy that it scarcely floats, and to overcome this 
difficulty, various methods of driving out the sap before the logs are thrown 
into the river have been tried. One method is to girdle the trees and leave 
them standing a year. That partly seasons them, but does not give time for 
the sapwood to decay. The logs from such trees float readily, and the swamps 
and streams are utilized to carry the logs to the mills. 

The rapidity with which Red Gum has come into use in this country and 
elsewhere is the best evidence of the wood's real value. Its range of uses 
extends from the most common articles, such as boxes and crates, to those of 
highest class, like furniture and interior finish. It is only moderately strong 
and stiff, and is not a competitor of Hickory, Ash, Maple and Oak in vehicle 
manufacturing and other lines where strength or elasticity is demanded; but 
m nearly all other classes of wood uses, Red Gum has made itself a place. It 
has pushed to the front in spite of prejudice. As soon as the difficulties of 
seasoning were mastered, its victory was won. Its annual use in Michigan, 
the home and center of hardwood supply, exceeds 20,000,000 feet in manu- 
factured articles, exclusive of what is employed in rough form. In Illinois, 
the most extensive wood-manufacturing state in the Union, Red Gum stands 

second in amount among the hardwoods, the only one above it being White 
Oak. In Kentucky, only White Oak and Hickory are more important among 
the factory woods, while in Arkansas, where the annual amount of this wood 
in factories exceeds 100,000,000 feet, it heads the list of hardwoods. 

As a veneer material, it is demanded in four times the quantity of any 

other species. The veneer is nearly all rotary cut, and it goes into cheap 

and expensive com- 
modities, from berry 

crates to pianos. 

The wood weighs 

36.83 pounds per cubic 

foot. It is straight- 
grained, the medullary 

rays are numerous but 

not prominent, the 

pores diffuse but small, 

and the summerwood 

forms only a narrow 

band, like a line. The 

annual rings do not 

produce much figure, 

Quazztt ^jsst; JPjztce is forgotten 


Page 18 

e^ygx^r S- J?oz:tsc:ttie:iz 77? f&. Go. 

but this wood has another kind of figure, the kind that characterizes English 
and Circassian Walnuts, smoky, cloudy, shaded series of rings, independent 
of the growth rings. They have no definite width or constant color, but the 
color is usually deeper than the body of the wood. This figure is one of the 
most prized properties of Red Gum. It is that which makes the wood the closest 
known imitator of Circassian Walnut. 

All Red Gum is not figured, and that which is figured may be worked in 
a way to conceal or make little use of the figure. It shows best in rotary cut 
veneer and tangentially sawed lumber. Various woods are imitated with Red 
Gum. It is stained to look like Oak, Cherry, Mahogany, and even Maple. 

Gumwood also makes a very good foundation for white enamel finish, 
and for this reason is a very desirable wood for trim in bathrooms. It is a favor- 
ite wood in bedrooms and other sleeping quarters. The last few years we have 
furnished a good many Gumwood jobs and our customers are well pleased 
with the finish. It is really surprising to see how much satisfaction is ex- 
pressed by owners who have used Red Gum finish. 

It is not to be wondered at, however, for the natural beauty of Gumwood 
is remarkable. This wood is becoming more popular each year as people be- 
come acquainted with its merits. You will make a wise choice if you select 
Red Gum for the trim in your home. 

Right-hand side of illustration shows a nook built to accommodate a piano. 

This is a novel feature for a Bungalow, where everything is open 

and it is difficult to find a suitable place for the piano. 

^iG/ir tP/zfc&s, JP/eoA/y^r zS'&jzvscm; 

Page 19 

Page 20 

e^gz^r c£ JTojejtscjteiz 777ra. Go. 


YT J. DeBu.Vn\Re>s. (XpYvYvcyto-r^ Joyvo., 


Cypress makes a good 
wood for inside finish if prop- 
erly dried, prepared, and 
put in place. Get good, even- 
colored cypress, finish it well, 
and most people could not 
tell it from Red Birch. In 
finishing up Cypress the 
painter's work is the most 
difficult, for if the proper 
materials are not used the 
grain will raise and no amount of rubbing down will give the proper effect. 
Nature has done for Cypress what no other wood can boast — -invested 
it with every honest virtue essential to easy working, general utility (it being 
adapted for exterior work as well), durability, and natural beauty. The wood 
is light, strong, pale-yellow in color and has a fairly close grain. It may be 
stained, finished natural, or stained to imitate other woods, and is of moderate 



Yellow Pine, also known as Southern Pine, and as one of the most exten- 
sively used of interior finishing woods, needs no recommendation. Its own 
natural beauties and the long strides that have been made in staining it in 
imitation of the more expensive woods gives it a place in every modern home. 

Curly Yellow Pine, like Curly Birch and Curl}'- Maple is a variety occa- 
sionally found in Yellow Pine lumber, and because of its intricately waved 
grain is exceedingly valuable and finds a place among the finest woods. 

When Yellow Pine is used as interior finish it should be stained a little 
darker than the natural 
color. If left in the nat- 
ural color it darkens with 
age. The use of some 
standard coloring stain 
will fix the color so there 
will be no change through 
years of use. This wood 
finds some place of use- 
fulness in almost every 
home that is built. Being 
moderate in price and 
practical in service, it 
will always be popular. 


I flaW './mark 

Page 21 












i— i 










^AmLEV & JToJSTSCHEIZ 77?FC?. (?o. 

The Care and Finishing of Hardwoods 


^HE care and finishing of hard- 
wood plays a far more import- 
ant part than the average 
person would suppose. Often times 
manufacturers of interior woodwork 
are pained and mortified at seeing 
a fine job of millwork ruined after 
leaving their hands, by almost sinful 
ignorance or by unskillful and in- 
different finishing. 

All wood is porous, and the drier 
and the more thoroughly seasoned it 
is, the more readily it 
absorbs the moisture "All Wood 
and is affected by dim- Porous" 
atic conditions. So it 
may be seen that when hardwood, in 
the white, is exposed to a damp at- 
mosphere, it expands or swells, and 

when it is dried out to its normal condition it will be found warped and 

twisted, out of shape. In the case of doors, panelling and other cabinet work, 

the best made joints will be found 

gaping apart. It takes much time and 

labor to repair the damage, and even 

then the chances are that the work will 

never be up to its former standard. 
Before leaving the factory all the 

hardwood doors and cabinet work are 

scraped and sandpapered, 

so as to present a perfectly 

smooth and absolutely 

clean surface. Now, let 

the wood become ever so 

slightly damp and the re- 
sult will be the grain is 

raised; that is, the fine 

fibres seem to detach from 

the surface and stand on 

end, so to speak, giving 

the wood a fuzzy appear- 
ance called " whiskers/' 

Or escaping this, should 

5%7 originate, others imitcite 

. ' ~ ■>; i 

Page 23 

Page 24 

e^4/ex^>^ c? -Co&T&affBjiz ?7?Fa. Go. 

B.H. Roderick Res. Broadhead, Wis. 

particles of dust or dirt 
accumulate on the sur- 
face, either before or 
during the several stages 
of finishing when the 
surface is sticky or tacky 
from freshly applied 
finishing material, the 
result is quite as bad. 
In both cases the wood 
shows a cloudy or mud- 
dy effect, which detracts 
materially from the 

clearness of the tone and thereby hides the finer markings of the wood and 

clestro3 r s much of its beauty. 

Freshly plastered buildings, are responsible for much damage to woodwork. 
Mortar contains large quantities of water, and until the moisture is thoroughly 

Freshly clried 0Ut ° f the WaI1S| the house is not m P ro P er condition to re- 

Plastered eeive interior finish * 0ften > in the rush of building, it is not nn- 
Buildings USUal to See the pouting or cementing of the cellar left until the 
last, or, at least, until the interior finish is put in place. Moisture 
from the water used in making the concrete permeates the upper rooms, buckles 
or humps the hardwood floors, and swells and twists the woodwork. Here the 
manufacturer often receives the blame for an imperfect bill of goods when the 
fault really lies at the door of the contractor, or perhaps the owner himself, who, 
through ignorance or apparent indifference, subjects the woodwork to ruinous 

Damage is often done to woodwork in the white before it reaches its desti- 
nation. Damp warehouses and freight cars are often responsible 
for this same effect, or the goods are carelessly exposed at the Dama S e to 
point of transfer. All these troubles would have been avoided Woodwork 
had the work been fin- 
ished at the mill before 
shipping. It must also 
b e rememb er e d t h a t 
there is a natural" come 
and go" to all Avood, 
whether improperly ex- 
posed or not, and for 
this reason the only way 

Stain t0 avoid " white 
Door streaks m l^- 


els of doors or 
other framed 

I&j^fjzti^ <£frksr "i/npliex Qi/ai,iti^ 711/llwomh' 



Page 25 

J%\feLE^ £> J?0£?TSaHEIZ ?7?FCr. &O. 

work is to have the panels stained and filled before framing the same together. 
If the finishing of the woodwork is done at the mill the panels are taken care of 
in this way and there can never be any of those unsightly white streaks around 
the edges. You will also find after the interior finish has been set up in the house 
and the painters have begun work on it that some of the prettiest pieces of cas- 
ings, or base-boards, or chair rail, or other mouldings seem to be in places where 
they do not show to advantage, while in the most conspicuous places the wood 
may often seem commonplace. If the wood had been finished before being in- 
stalled, the carpenters would have recognized the handsome pieces at once and 
put them where they would show best and make a prettier job throughout. 

Finishing should only be done where there is proper light, ventilation, 
and an even temperature, all of which are absolutely necessary to facilitate 
drying and hardening. The best results are obtained at a temperature of 70 
to 75 degrees Fahrenheit, even- 
ly maintained night and da3 r . 

In finishing, the rule is to 

make haste slowly. In many 

cases earlier delays of one kind 

or another have thrown the 

builder behind his contract time 

„_ , TT and the burden 

Make Haste . xl , . 

of the rush is 

finally with the 
painter. Urged on by both 
contractor and prospective oc- 

INSIST that only F. & L. Quality Mill- 
work be used in your neAV home and see 
that our trade TjT^r mark appears 
on every ship- ]0\\ ment. It's your 
guarantee of per- ^^ feet materials 
and workmanship. If you do not 
find it you have been imposed upon. 
Accept no substitutes. There is no 
mi 11 work just as good. 

QaAZ/ry 771/ZLWoizir stands iSupizeme 

Page 26 


c^SZ^r dr ^Jb^TSaJTEIZ 97?7^Cr. Go. 

cupants of the house, the finisher, too often begins his job while the carpenters 
are at work, the plumbers still busy, and perhaps the plasterers patching up here 
and there. The air is full of dust, which settles on the half dry woodwork and 
specks it. The several coats follow one another before the preceding one is fairly 
dry. The result is a foregone conclusion; a fine bill of interior woodwork ruined 
in the finishing. 

With the manufacturer alone lies the remedy for these evils. 
The Evils Speaking for ourselves, we have stood the brunt of complaints 
Remedied and the occasional loss of confidence on the part of our patrons 

until in very self defense we felt compelled to take measures for 
the proper care and protection of our millwork. For this purpose we have ex- 
pended thousands of dollars in enlarging our finishing department. We have 
erected a concrete building of the latest modern construction, of which the 
entire upper floor, comprising an area of over seven thousand square feet, 
has been devoted entirely to our finishing department. Having done this 
much, not only to protect our customers, but also to assist them in securing 
good results, we feel their interest in a first class job should compel them to 
take advantage of the opportunity we offer. 


The first and most important requisite of all Millwork is that the lumber 
be thoroughly dry and well seasoned. For hardwood interior finish this is an 
unalterable condition that can never be disregarded. With many manufactur- 
ers of millwork this has proven to be their greatest difficulty and expense, 
but with us it is the minimum. As we are the largest manufacturers of interior 
finish in the world, it should not seem surprising that our lumber shed and 
dry kilns surpass all others. All lumber used in the mill is housed and dried 

^fjt e^S^z>^ 'ffi/uzir our Croons 



U LE- 

PAGE 27 

Page 28 

J*AMjr,&^ S- ^!b^Tsaj^E:i^ 77?fct. Go. 

in our immense shed. The hardwood lumber is passed through the kilns, 
which are centrally located in the building, as shown in the illustration on 
page 22. The main kiln is seventy feet wide and ninety feet long, with a nom- 
inal capacit}' of 400,000 board feet, or an actual drying capacity of 200,000 
board feet. The hardwood Lumber is taken from the freight cars and piled on 
trucks and pushed into the main kiln. Throughout the following weeks, as 
more is put in, the lumber gradually moves to the other end of the kiln, where 
the truck is taken out and elevated to the platform above where it is stored. 
The warm air, constantly radiated from the kilns, warms the whole shed, 
virtually making a vast kiln of it, and especially the platform directly above 
the kiln itself. In addition to the hardwood lumber, all our pine lumber gets 
the benefit of this drying, for it is all stored in the shed, and so none of it is 
subject to adverse weather conditions. Our new building for finishing affords 

One of Seven 220-Foot Alleys in Our Mammoth Lumber Shed 

J^aair for* our* aJ^k^^ ffij^izfc 



4 i DJ 


Page 29 

JfA/ZZs&y^ &> J?0£7TSaf7EIZ 77?FG. (?o. 



facilities that are unequalled anywhere. We have already shown 
that ventilation is an important factor in the finishing of hard- Our 

wood, and to this end we have installed a fan system of venti- Finishing 
lation, which keeps the air throughout the building in circulation Room 

and facilitates the hardening process. 

Daylight, another imperative essential in the discriminating color work 
connected with staining, is amply provided for by means of large windows, ^ 
spaced at close intervals around the outside walls and supplemented by roof 
skylights. The required degree of heat is evenly maintained night and day 
throughout this department. To avoid dust, a common annoyance of the 
trade, our finishing department is on the fifth floor and entirely shut off 

from other buildings 
Avoid of the plant and every 
Dust possible care taken to 

exclude dust laden 
draughts. Having perfect con- 
ditions of heat, light, and ven- 
tilation, it goes without saying 
that dampness, the greatest 
enemy of interior finish, is un- 
known within our building. 

For many years past, where 
it has been specified in our con- 
tracts b}' a few far-seeing own- 

TNSIST that only F.&L. Quality Mill- 
A work be used in your new home and see 

that our trade 
on ever}'' ship- 
guarantee of per- 
and workmanship. 

mark appears 

ment. It's your 

feet materials 

If you do not 

find it you have been imposed upon. 

Accept no substitutes. There is no 

milhvork just as good. 

Quality 7/2/LcvroMK fnsmvs satfs/aetfon 

Page 30 

e^H/S^.O^ Cr -ZhzjTSCffEJR TTIfG. (?0. 

ers and architects and with all our government jobs, we have insured the 
quality of our work against exposure to the weather and second rate finishing 
by first giving the back of all work a coat of paint, staining the wood if desired, 
then applying a filler to close the pores, and lastly give a coat of shellac in 
order to produce as smooth and non-porous a surface as glass. I nsur ine 
It is now our desire to protect our work, as well as our patrons' Youf 

interest, by so finishing every piece of hardwood interior finish MUlwotk 
that goes out of our establishment, and to this end we strongly 
recommend that everyone contemplating building give this matter his most 
careful consideration. 

It is possible only in the largest manufacturing plants to maintain an 
up-to-date finishing department with an expert in charge, who is in touch 
with the newest ideas and productions advanced by the large manufacturers 
of stains, wood dyes, and other finishing materials. It can readily be under- 
stood that in the smaller towns the painter, who pursues many other branches 
of his trade besides hardwood finishing, can hardly be expected to keep familiar 
with the latest methods of finishing. 

A Corner in the Finishing Department 

Olf/Z ^^AD^ ffijUZTf 2/OUr GuAKJWTEfi 


Page 31 

Page 32 


J^AMisEv S- J^o&TsaffEiz 7??fc?. Go. 

WATCH for our trade 
mark on your goods. 
This is your guarantee of 
Quality Milhvork. Insist on 
having Farloe products. Oth- 
ers imitate; we excel. The best 
is the cheapest in the end. 
Buy Farloe Quality Milhvork 
and you Avill have the best. 

Staining has become one of the most 
important factors in the finishing of even 
the most expensive hardwood interiors. 
The best Oak is treated to a little yellow 
to give it a creamier color. The hand- 
somest of Mahogany has a little Venetian 
red worked into its pores to brighten its 
grain and make the color even. Less 
expensive hardwoods are used even in the 
finest buildings, being stained in close 
imitation of the costlier woods. These 
requirements tax even the skill of an ex- 
Staining pert and should be delegated to him alone. With our en- 
to Imitate larged facilities and corps of expert workmen in this depart- 
Costly Woods ment, we are in a position to satisfy the most critical taste, 
and reproduce any sample of finishing submitted to us. We 
have a complete line of hardwood samples, including every variety of stain 
and finish, and we cheerfully submit these to our customers to aid them in 
making a selection. 

A Few Words by Others 

(By an Architect of National Reputation) 




V HERE is nothing 
about a new 
house that will 
give the owner more 
satisfaction than fine 
milhvork. If the interior 
finish of your 
house is well 
smoothed , keeps 
its shape, all 
joints tight and nicely 
fitted, it is easy to keep 
clean, and always sat- 
isfactory. On the other 
hand, there is nothing 
about the house that is 
more annoying than 
poor interior finish, of 
rough materials, open 
joints, and casings warp- 
ed from the walls. 

<=/Zooiir for* our* .^k/?^ 92?j\7zrr 

Page 33 

Page 34 

c^sx^r S- -^b&r&crjTjEjiz 77?fc?. Go. 

Begin superintending 
your milhvork by being 
careful to buy it of a 
good, responsible firm. 
If you buy it yourself, 
get estimates only from 
such parties as you know 
will do good work. 

Remember, that while 

one of your objects is to 

buy this millwork as 

cheaply as possible, your 

Main main object is to have it well done, as it will only be clone once for 

Object this particular house. You are buying something that you probably 

will not see until it arrives at the building to be put in place, and 

you will have to trust largely to the firm that executes the work. 

If you let it with the general contract, insist on the contractor buying 
it of good parties, even if you have to add a few dollars to his contract. Any 
reliable and responsible contractor, however, will buy of the best people, as 
he knows it is for his interest, as well as yours, to have the work satisfactory. 
When your millwork is received, check it up carefully with the invoice 
that will accompany it, or have your foreman do so. 

Regarding quality, all hardwood or natural finish work should be free 
from knots or other defects on the face surface. For first quality of pine work 
for painting, such as is generally used for second story finish, the doors should 
be clear stock; no knots or dark sap, and the remainder of the finish with 
only a few such slight defects as will cover usually with two coats of paint. 
In making stairs the mill man should furnish a sketch, carefully laid out 
in accordance with the architect's drawing, which will enable your carpenter 
to put in his rough work before plastering and have it in shape so finish work 
will fit. The finish stair work should come all smoothed, and in the case of 
main stairs the treads 
and risers should be care- 
fully housed in strings 
and ready to go together. 
All hardwood doors 
should be veneered doors 
on a body of pine, free 
from sap and of thor- 
oughly kiln dried lum- 
ber. This makes a door 
that will always keep its 
shape, and has the ad- 

ffiiGfir IPjzic&s, IP/eoAfj^T S&jgvrojg 



Page 35 

T^yreup tf$tes\teaMsJum/s&<sa mti gf &£ Qual%millwf)rk£> 

9f& <3ftju>E fflj\uic our (joods 

Page 36 

cJ?4>ex^>^ S- -Co^tsctjfiehz 77?FCr. Go. 

INSIST that only F. & L. Quality Mill- 
work be used in your new home and see 
that our trade TF~*T mark appears 
on every ship- W$y\ ment. It's your 
guarantee of per- ^^ feet materials 
and workmanship. If you do not 
find it you have been imposed upon. 
Accept no substitutes. There is no 
millwork just as good. Read page 55. 

vantage of not being too mas- 
sive and heavy, as it would be 
if of solid hardwood. 

Such items as mantels and 
bookcases should be put up at 
the mill like cabinet work, 
ready to be installed. All this 
material should be thoroughly 
seasoned and kiln dried before 
being worked. Otherwise it 
will not keep its place, but will 
shrink and warp. This you 
have to depend upon the mill 
people to attend to, and as all mills are not fitted up properly to kiln dry mater- 
ial, this is another reason why you should be careful in selecting your mill firm. 
AVhen the millwork is received do not put it in place until the new build- 
ing has thoroughly dried out, It, should be kept in a dry place until the house 
is ready to receive it. Many a good mill job has been spoiled by being allowed 
to lay around where the material would gather dampness and by being fasten- 
ed in place before the building has dried out, 

Therefore, make sure the plastering is absolutely dry, as kiln dried finish 
will take in moisture like a sponge. If, after the finish has been delivered, 
there comes a wet day, with a damp wind blowing, it will take in moisture 
from the damp air, and, of course, afterwards shrink, so that too great care 
cannot be taken in seeing that the house is first absolutely dry before any 
finish is delivered; and, in the second place, after it has been delivered, in pro- 
tecting it from the circulation of damp air or rainy days by closing up the 

Gr,S.Gc'\\ > oer^so^, Res. "DesWovnes, ^awo, 

Quality ?II/llwomk stances tSuruEMz; 

Page 37 

Page 38 


c^AteisE^ & JTo&T&ctJir&iz 77?f&. (?o. 

building, covering with tarpaulins, or something of that sort, If possible, 
it is a very good plan to have the furnace or heating apparatus connected up, 
so that on cold, damp or foggy days a little heat can be introduced into the 
building to offset the effects of the outside atmosphere. These are important 
matters— so important that I would prefer to overlook almost anything 
else than overlook this. If the finish is ever so good, and the work ever so well 
done, a little carelessness in this respect will offset it all. 

If your work has not already been partially finished, stained, filled, etc., 
at the factory, it is also very important that this be looked after immediately. 
Then, too, it is desirable, if possible, to have the painter fill or back paint the 
backs of all casings, base, mantel pieces, stairwork, paneling, etc. This is not 
generally contemplated in a moderate cost house, but is a distinct advantage 
if strictly good work is desired, as it prevents moisture from being absorbed 
on the back side of the finish, should the plaster be a trifle damp or the work 
be otherwise exposed. 

While I appreciate that economy must always be kept in mind in build- 
ing houses of moderate cost, and very pretty effects can be obtained with 
stains, etc., yet I generally advise using hardwood finish in the main rooms 
of the first floor. The first cost is, of course, a little more, but it would be 
better to economize in furniture or something that can be replaced at any 
time and have this very prominent, permanent, and practical feature of a 
house right to start with." 

— (W. J. Keith, in "The Building of It.") 

Dr. C.E. Still Res. Kirksville , Mo. 

/isrsisron JF*j£ QimLiT^ WiJLLWomrc 


Page 39 


'/ujwork /Z7SU/&S satisfaction 



Page 40 

U fe£- 

JfateL&y^ S- -^b&rscrff&iz 77? fc?. Go. 


"Present taste in modern dwell- 
ings calls for free use of hardwoods. 
It is immaterial which are used, but 
highly essential that the best sea- 
soned woods should be selected; and 
further, that they should be skill- 
fully treated and finished. 

" The principal recommendation 
of hardwood is that it admits of a 
treatment which renders it impervi- 
ous to the effects of atmospheric 
changes, and, therefore, can he made 
more durable and ultimately less 
expensive than pine wood. Hard- 
wood, well seasoned before used; 
that is, treated properly by filling 
and finishing, presents the most 
attractive, serviceable, and reliable 
style of woodwork that can be intro- 
duced into a home. Well finished 
hardwood obviates the expense and 
annoyance of constant renewals, 
which pine work calls for in patch- 
ing, puttying, and painting. 

"Pine work seems peculiarly and 
incomparably adapted for cheap 
work. A good article of Common 
Pine, suitable for ordinary work, can be procured and worked at considerable 
less expense than would be involved in using good hardwood. The use of poor 
hardwood in any work should not be tolerated or thought of under any cir- 
cumstances for the simple rea- 

A modern hallway showing inlaid glazed doors 

opening into dining room at the left and 

living room at end of hall. The doors 

are sliding. 

son that it is certain to create 
annoyance and expense, to 
which no house owner, especi- 
ally of moderate priced pro- 
perty, should be subjected." 
—Fred T. Hodgson, in the 
" Hardwood Finisher." 


"The one thing necessaiy in 
a room devoted to finishing is 

TNSIST that only F. &L. Quality Mill- 
•*- work be used in your new home and see 
that our trade \ F ^f mark appears 
on every ship- \j$\] ment. It's your 
guarantee of per- ^v^ feet ma t e r i a 1 s 
and workmanship. If you do not 
find it you have been imposed upon. 
Accept no substitutes. There is no 
mi 11 work just as good. 

9)ib originate, other>& imitate 


Page 41 

Page 42 


u m- 


<^Ai^i,£;y^ S- ^o^tsciyeiz 77? f&. Go. 

a stove or fire place, or 
other means of heating 
by which it may be kept 
warm and dry in cold 
weather. A good light is 
also desirable, as well as 
a bench or table of some 
kind to hold pieces while 
they are being worked 
on. As for shelves and 
other arrangements, they 
may be safely left to the 
workman, who can de- 
cide these matters to suit 
his convenience or wishes. 

"The necessity for doing finishing in a warm, dry atmosphere arises 
from something more than the convenience and comfort of the finisher, for 
in a cold room it will be often impossible to work, on account of the action 
of the material. When applied to the wood, instead of being clear and trans- 
parent, it will be cloudy and milky looking. In the words of the work- 
shop, the finish chills, and this will especially be the case if the Avood is in 
the smallest degree damp, either from an aqueous stain or from the atmosphere. 
Even if the wood is perfectly dry, but too cold, the finishing material will 
chill when it is first put on. The room need not be excessively hot, as a 
temperature of seventy degrees Fahrenheit does very well in ordinary cir- 

"In this country, at any rate, it is chiefly cold and damp combined, which 
have to be guarded against, and I think it will be pretty safe in concluding 
that a room which is not too cold to sit in will do very well. If it does not, 
you will soon be aware of it from the work chilling. Even if the heat of the 
room is suitable, chilling may result from the wood being too cold. In cold 
weather, therefore, work should not be begun on any thing which has been 

25k/^7TK £frk-Sr "///jp/i&9 Ql/JILITV 7?I/LLWOBJf 

Page 43 

Jfyk/zzs&y^ & ^o&TsafiEiz 77? FG. Go. 

exposed to excessive cold 
till it has had time to get 
sufficiently warm. Thus, 
it would hardly do to begin 
finishing anything which 
has been standing in cold 
weather in an unheated 
place from Saturday after- 
noon to Monday morning, 
even though the air in the 
workshop might be warm 
enough. Of course, it is not 
meant that the wood must 
be actually warm to the 
touch, for all that is wanted is that it should not be so cold as to chill the finish 
It will thus be seen that a warehouse or an exposed room, which might be suitable 
enough for some kind of work, is not, at any rate in the winter. time, the place in 
which to do finishing work. " — (David Denning, in" Wood Stains and Polishes.") 

A.fl.M OOR gjjfeg MaRSHflULTOWN Jowa. 


It will not be amiss here for us to say a few words to the owner. We 
have treated quite extensively, in this book, the subject of taking care of ex- 
pensive hardwood finish. For instance, the care of hardwood doors as treated 
on page 49. It would be to your interest to watch your finishers and see that 
they care for your millwork properly. If you have employed a building sup- 
erintendent, remind him to be on the lookout and see that no part is slighted. 
Often times it occurs that finishers are in a hurry to " clean up" and get away 
from the job, and to do this they are apt to skip places that will not be seen, 
or rush over work that will not show prominently. All slights of this character 
will reveal themselves 
sooner or later. Protect 
yourself against these 
things by securing an 
honest and capable finish- 
er to do your work. 
While he may be the last 
artisan to serve the job, 
he is by no means the least 
in importance. " Quality" 
workmen to construct 
your home are quite as 
important as "Quality" 
materials for their use in 
its construction. 

Oil/? <%RAD& ffljVZTT ?/OUr GimJZXNTEJS 

tradeJ lFL. 

Page 44 

glinds will Enhance &fcjfrtisticjippearanee gffiasrj(pme 

Modern hardware has overcome the only objection to blinds. They can now be used 
together with full size window screens and storm sash, all on the outside, and operated from 
the inside, without raising the window. A variety of designs can be obtained by making 
part slats, and part panel, with design cut in panel. 

Page 45 

Page 46 

CHARLEY & JToetschem 777F-G. Go. 

A Few Pointers 

AS there is a natural "come and go" to all wood, it is well to remember the 
only way to avoid " white streaks" in panels of doors and other framed 
work is to have the panels stained and filled at the mill before framing them 

BE sure you have your cellar grouted and cemented before you are ready 
for the finish. The dampness from the wet concrete has ruined many 
a first-class job. The moisture given off while setting and drying will go up 
through the entire building, visiting every nook and corner, cause the doors 
and windows to swell, result in open joints of all framed work, make the 
panels swell and buckle, spoil the mitres and other joints of the carpenter, 
thus ruining what might have been a first-class job. 

TILE floors in bath rooms, vestibules, etc., should be completed and dried 
out before installing any hardwood interior finish or floors. This applies 
especially to veneered doors or other material in which glue was used in its 
manufacture. Moisture and glue joints are not good friends and never will be. 
Damp floors or walls or moist air will open the best glue joint ever made. 
There is only one way to safeguard against this and that is to drive out the 
moisture with warm, dry air. See page 49 about care of veneered doors. We 
mention these facts often and emphatically because they are very important. 

CONSIDER your specifications incomplete unless your architect has speci- 
fied your millwork to be hand-smoothed, back-painted, stained, filled, and 
shellaced at the factory. We employ only competent and experienced men 
who do finishing only, year in and year out. 

((/ T*HERE is nothing about a new house that will give the owner more sat- 
JL isf action than fine millwork. If the interior finish of your home is well 
smoothed, keeps its shape, all joints tight and nicely fitted, it is easy to keep 
clean and always satisfactory. On the other hand, there is nothing 
about the house that is more annoying than poor interior finish of rough ma- 
terials, open joints and casings warped from the wall." — W. J. Keith, in "The 
Building of It." 

WE strongly recommend the use of if -inch veneered doors. A modern 
mortise lock cuts into the stile of a lf-inch door and weakens it so it is 
apt to warp or twist. Use lf-inch doors and avoid this trouble. Home owners 
are glad to know these things, as most of them find out these facts when it 
is too late. 


Page 47 

JtAMZsJZy- & J?OJ?TSCJ7Em 77?7^e7. Go. 

Built-in furniture adds character to the interior of the home. Its cost is not prohib- 
itive even for the most modest dwelling, and there is pleasure and satisfaction m having 
your interiors distinctive. 

The reception hall usually offers opportunities for a great variety of arrangements. 
This well proportioned triple 'arch over stairway adds individuality to the home, yet does 
not take up much room and is not very expensive. 

ffiiGf/r tP/zfe&s, tPjzoAfFT S&izvfcrj? 

Page 48 

1) MARK 

JfafcZsEtv & J?o^Tsc?ffE:m 77?fct. Go. 


One coat of filler and one coat of shellac or varnish must be applied to 
veneered doors before the doors are exposed to any kind of weather. Ee mem- 
ber all materials must be thoroughly seasoned and kiln dried for the proper 
manufacture of hardwood veneered doors. All wood is open and porous, 
especially when dry and if exposed "in the white" will rapidly absorb moist- 
ure. The better seasoned; the greater the necessity for proper treatment. 
Do not let veneered doors stand around "in the white." Give them a good, 
heavy coat of filler immediately. Hardwood veneered doors are the highest 
attainment of the door makers' art. They cannot be treated and handled in 
the same manner as the ordinary pine door. 

Veneered doors should not be used for outside purposes, where directly 
exposed to the elements. We suggest y ou use solid pine doors, or, if hardwood 
finish is necessary, use double thick doors with splined stiles. Doors used in 
such exposed places should be painted outside rather than finished with varnish. 
Wherever exposed to the weather, even if protected by a vestibule or porch 
roof, exterior veneered doors should have at least two more coats of best spar 
varnish than inside doors, and every coat should be applied to all edges as well 
as both surfaces. Veneered sash doors should have the varnish well worked 
in around the glass. 

Follow carefully the foregoing instructions and } r ou will have good results. 
Do not blame the manufacturer if 3^011 ignore these suggestions. Neglect may 
result in open joints, veneers peeling, grain raising, buckled panels or even 
in warping and twisting. We recommend that all veneered doors be made 
at least if inches thick for best results. The modern mortise lock practically 
cuts ah inch stile in two, thus greatly weakening the door, allowing it to warp 
and twist. 


First the doors should be correctly fitted and the top and bottom edges 
beveled slightly that the veneer may not strike. They should be painted at 
the top and bottom with two coats of good white lead and oil paint. This is 
very important as the moisture is apt to get in around the doors and if not prop- 
erly painted will penetrate to the core and disintegrate the glue. The doors 
should be carefully stained and filled with a good filler, also treated to a coat 
of shellac. We recommend the use of oil stains exclusively. The so-called 
water or acid stains, when applied, raise the grain of the wood and are apt to 
have an injurious effect upon the glue under the surface. For the final finish 
the doors should be given two more coats of a good grade of varnish. Use only 
the best quality as the ordinary varnish does not stand moisture. When 
veneered doors are treated in this manner they will withstand any ordinary 
at m spher i c con d it ions . 

If veneered doors are not to have the proper treatment, our advice is to 
use Solid Pine doors. 

*yy& <£ftnz>jz Tffjuzfr our <7oons 



PAGE 49 

Page 50 

a%473Z^r & J^oj&TsafTEitt TTIjfct. Go. 


The finishing of an Oak floor is a very important feature, upon which 
authorities fail to agree, but the question resolves into a matter of cost, as to 
the color or brilliancy of finish desired. Personal taste and artistic or decora- 
tive effects are the guide for the floor finisher. 

The "Clear" grade of Oak flooring should have a natural Oak filler — 
color of Oak. For the "Select" and "Sap Clear" grades, a light golden oak 
filler should be used, and after the floor is filled, it should be gone over with a 
little burnt umber mixed with turpentine to darken light streaks. This will 
make the "Select" and "Sap Clear" grades look like the "Clear" grade, 
except that it will be slightly darker in color. In filling the "No. 1 Common" 
grade, a dark golden oak filler should be employed, and the light streaks should 
be darkened in the same manner as the "Select" and "Sap Clear" grades. 
If a little care is used in laying this grade, splendid results can be obtained. 

First: Treat the floor with a paste filler of desired tone, to fill up the pores 
and crevices. To thin the filler for application, one has a choice of using 
turpentine, benzine, wood alcohol, or gasoline to get the right consistency. 
When the gloss has left the filler, rub off with excelsior or cloth, rubbing against 
the grain of the wood. It keeps out dirt and forms a good foundation, which 
is the key note for successful treatment of floors. Allow the filler twelve hours 
to set or dry before applying a wax or varnish finish. Never use a liquid 
filler on any floor. 

A wax or varnish finish can be used. The wax finish is preferred by many, 
due to economy and ease of renewing places that show the wear. The renew- 
ing can be easily applied by housekeeper or servant. 

Wax Finish: The best method for applying the wax is to take cheese- 
cloth and double it to get a little more thickness; then make it into a sort of 
bag; put a handful of Avax inside of this and go over the floor thoroughly. 
You will find that you can work the wax through the meshes of the cheese- 
cloth to give an even coating over the floor. This prevents too much wax 
in spots and wasting it. After the floor has been gone over with the wax 
and allowed to dry, say about twenty minutes, it is ready for polishing. Rub 
to a polish with a weighted floor brush, first across the grain of the wood, then 
with it. (A clean, soft cloth can be used in place of the brush if desired) ; 
then a piece of woolen felt or carpet should be placed under the brush to give 
the finishing gloss. After waiting an hour, a second coat of wax should be ap- 
plied in the same way as the first and rubbed to a polish. 

Varnish Finish: This is usually more expensive than the wax finish, 
but it gives a very hard surface, yet at the same time it is elastic. Two or three 
coats should be applied after the application of the paste filler. Each coat 
should be thoroughly rubbed with oil and pumice. 

The durability, and therefore the true economy, in oak flooring is said to 
make it the cheapest wood for residences, apartment buildings, clubs, hotels, 
and office buildings. Oak flooring gives a fine finish under wax or varnish. 
It will stand up under a treatment of floor wax or varnish and look well all the 

Quality W/llwomk stands iSupremb 

Page 51 

A Pergola breaks the monotony of a broad treeless ln Wn WK«™ <*» + i 

er a drive - 

Jkaarrm &kj£ Qzmzsrr Wizcm 

r OJZJf 


Page 52 

U I? ^ 

c&^r & -Co&TsaiiEK 7??FCr. Go. 

INSIST that only F, &L. Quality Mill- 
work b e us ed in your new h omea nd see 
that our trade \ ^r mark appears 
on every ship- pJ^J nient. It's your 
guarantee of per- ^r feet materials 
and workmanship. If you do not 
find it you have been imposed upon. 
Accept no substitutes. There is no 
millwork just as good. Read page 55. 

When considering the gener- 
al exterior appearance of a 
house, it is often advantageous 
to have a Pergola or "open 
porch/' on one end of the build- 
ing. This can be placed over 
a terrace or may be entirely 
independent of the house. Fre- 
quently the Pergola is used as 
shown on page 52 to cover a 
walk or driveway. If used in 
this way and covered with vines it makes a shelter from the summer sun and 
adds very materially to the beauty of the grounds. It also serves to break the 
harsh line between a broad lawn and woods. The woods form a background 
which accentuates the lines of the Pergola and increases its attractiveness. 
Another common use made of the Pergola is shown in the illustration at 
the bottom of this page. Here it is attached to the house and in reality 
serves as a side porch. When covered with vines it makes a fine, cool, 
sitting porch. 

The suburban or country home is incomplete without the Pergola. The 
variety of arrangement which is possible in its use is such that it can be suited 
to the most critical taste and at the same time be useful and ornamental. 
Many prominent architects, knowing the real merits of the Pergola, work 
it into their plans as often as conditions will allow it. 

The cost of the Pergola is small. They usually consist of beams sawed 
on one or both ends; these beams being supported by square or turned columns 
as suggested by the illustrations. They should be made of Cypress or Fir 
or some other weather-resisting wood. Where the landscape will permit, the Per- 
gola can be arranged in the 
form of a semi-circle, or 
it can be built around a 
tennis court or a flower 
garden. It is also popu- 
lar to have the Pergola 
located over the auto 
driveway to form a porte- 
cochere. The fact is the 
Pergola is a versatile 
f o r m o f architecture 
which can be made in 
form and general con- 
struction to meet the 
most fastidious taste. 

QuA£JTy-7IJfL£,wojRK insures satisfaction 

Page 53 

Page 54 


e%4/ex^>^ S- ~£bj5Tscff£:iz 77?fct. Go. 

Good Advice 

Years ago some genius uttered the following words: t{ A word to the wise 
is sufficient." Generally speaking, this old adage is true. However, many 
well-meaning people, who lack this wisdom, go on in their endeavors and learn 
in the hard school of experience. 

We would like to state again what we have been advocating for nearly 
forty years; that in considering materials for building purposes; only "quality" 
counts. This is especially true of mill work. The interior finish in a home is 
always a prominent feature. A poor job of stairwork, or cabinet work, is al- 
ways a source of regret. A first-class lot of cabinet work and stairwork is a 
source of pleasure and pardonable pride. Insist that your contractor buy 
"quality" millwork. By so doing you are sure that you will get the best. 
Our business has been built up on "quality" and square dealing. 

The advantage of having interior trim, stairs, etc., stained and shellaced 
here at the factory before shipment, is being recognized by a larger number 
of home-builders each year. This is the only sure way of getting a strictly 
first-class lot of millwork. This matter is covered fully on pages 23 to 44. 

We have hundreds of unsolicited letters from satisfied customers which 
is evidence that our "Quality" products are right when they leave our hands 
and stay right when delivered and installed in the home. Don't take chances 
by buying from unknown or irresponsible firms; insist that all material be the 
best grade. 

We can meet any competitors price on the same "Quality of material 
and workmanship." Use our "Quality Millwork." "A word to the wise is 


As is usually the case with high grade goods, the high quality of our mill- 
work has led to many imitations. HoAvever,the nature of our product has made 
it difficult for us to combat the imitators. Millwork, to the ordinary ob- 
server, is just millwork. The superior construction and materials are often 
not apparent at first sight, but are revealed in the test of time. Many un- 
scrupulous dealers and contractors have taken advantage of this fact and 
have furnished cheap millwork which netted them a greater margin of profit, 
when our "Quality Millwork" was specified. The result was an inferior and 
unsatisfactory job, for which we were blamed, while in reality we did not 
even furnish the millwork. 

To overcome such dealing we are now putting our trade TF3*jr mark con- 
spicuously on every shipment and on the edges of all our B^lJ doors. We 
urge you to look at your millwork as soon as it is received, >^ and see 
that our trade mark appears on it. Don't accept any substitutes. If our 
trade mark does not appear you are being imposed upon. Our trade mark 
is your guarantee of perfect millwork. 

97e or itffi7€it<9, others im itate 

lJ (?>■ 

Page 55 

e^47SX^>- C? ^^r^CT^^ 77?FCr. &0. 


A modern home is not considered 
complete without a screened in porch. 
On the first floor of a two-story dwell- 
ing this is desirable for use as a 
dining porch or as a living porch. 
On the second floor the sleeping 
porch can be arranged for. The out- 
door bedroom or " sleeping porch" 
is not a craze or temporary fad, but 
a feature of genuine merit. In this 
generation, thousands of people are 
engaged in indoor employment. Of- 
ten times proper ventilation in offices 
and other places where workers are 
housed, is not ideal nor even ade- 
quate. To offset this confinement, 
one should sleep in the fresh open 
air. Physicians are advocating and 
prescribing the " fresh air" life more 
a r^ntif ,tt.i i t • • « and more ' In other words "back to 

A Beautiful Hall and Living Room nature n 

^ The solarium, or "sun room," is a pleasant feature for winter use. The 
dining porch, screened for summer use, can be enclosed with sash for the 

This shows a modern home with large Dining and Sleeping Porches 

Page 56 

^^ l^*f IP*** 

<^A/zz,&y^ S- -Co&T&afi&iz 77?fc?. <2?o. 

long winter season. 
Fresh air and sunshine 
are great boosters of 
health and strength and 
add to one's years of life. 
"Built-in" bookcases, 
sideboards, cupboards, 
etc., should be used free- 
ly. Such features oc- 
cupy little room (often 
otherwise wasted), and 
add much to the attrac- 
tiveness of a room. A 

Convenient book cases and mantel at end of living room. 

bookcase on each side of the mantel; a buffet in the dining room; and suitable 
work tables in the pantry or kitchen; make a house a real home. A linen 
closet and bedroom wardrobes are also popular and veiy desirable. 

Suggestions are numerous along this line. AVe will not stop here to de- 
scribe others in detail, but in passing we mention the following: Beamed ceil- 
ings, paneled wainscoting, colonnades, hall seats, consoles, mirror doors, and so 
forth. The illustrations shown on these two pages demonstrate the use of some 
features just mentioned. 

The Sun Room. A large porch sashed in for use during the winter season. 
A comfortable ''health booster." 

Ozfft 3i&\n& ffljuzir 2/our GimizAJVTfig 


i ^ d M ffltP] & tARii 

Page 57 

Page 58 

JtAfeLEjir & J?ojE7T&afiEm ?7?^a. Go. 


If the value of. Mahogany is assumed to be 100, other woods will com- 
pare with it as follows: 

Mahogany 100 

Curly Maple 150 

Bird's Eye Maple 85 

Curly Birch 80 

Curly Yellow Pine 75 

Cherry 60 

Quartered White Oak 45 

Selected Red Birch 40 

Quartered Red Oak 36 

Quartered Sycamore 33 

Butternut 32 

Ash 31 

Plain White Oak 28 

Plain Red Oak 27 

Redwood, 26 

Maple 25 

Fir 25 

Plain Birch 24 

Gum 22 

Cypress 20 

Pine 18 

Yellow Pine 16 

Basswood, for Paint . 15 

Poplar, for Paint 14 

Pine, for Paint 12 

Chestnut 30 

In compiling the above table the various woods are figured on the cost- 
basis of the different kinds of lumber, taking into consideration the varying 
cost of manufacture, waste in cutting, together with other items which tend 
to influence the price. These percentages, therefore, cover comparisons only, 
wherein the price of the wood is the one great factor. Any article in which 
labor or the cost of manufacture is the principal item, will, of course, not 
permit of the same comparison, since the work on any such article is apt to 
be about the same, whether made in one of the cheaper or more expensive woods. 

While a comparison of the above percentages shows a decided difference 
in the cost of some of the higher priced woods, especial ly as considered with 
the cheaper finishes, the fact is, you can have a room or two trimmed in a 
modern way, in some of 
the best woods, at a com- 
paratively small cost. 
The ordinary room does 
not require much finish, 
and the cost of installing 
the work, also the ex- 
pense of finishing by the 
painter, is practically the 
same in either event. 

The Hall, Living Room, 
and Dining Room, even 
of a moderate cost 
home should be finished 
in Oak or one of the 

other hardwoods. 

A neat Reception Hall showing large, convenient ty 
arranged mirror. 

Quazitt JvksT; ^tercz is Jbipotten 





Page 59 

J?AKis£;^ 3 -ZbizTscrffEtt 77?f&. Go. 

miPh^ h iL y i?^ embodies some desirable features, 

such as the book cases, large fire-place and broad mantle shelf shown above. 

A fine example of a plain Birch Reception Hall. The body is finished with White Enamel, 

To ™Sf' f^ wW*^ - are S ^f Mahogany giving a rich, harmonious effect 
lo insure a first class job this finishing should all be done at the factory. 

~£>ooif jfbr* our* <5 p x>az>& 9^?jmb/t 

Page 60 

J^gz^r & -Co&T&afTEjiz ?7?Fa. Go. 

Gc.-5.GaKR Res 

|AoviRO^, W\s. 


In the foregoing pages 
we have tried to empha- 
size the importance of 
p n r c h a s i n g mill w o r k 
which will endure. Fath- 
er Time will submit your 
home to severe tests, re- 
m gardless of whether it be 
p_ — - J a humble cottage or a 

palatial mansion. Our 
Quality Milhvork has 
withstood these tests 
many times and amid all 
kinds of circumstances, 

and, Avhere it has been given proper treatment, has never failed. We have 

furnished milhvork for thousands of buildings of every kind and description. 

However, we are specialists when it comes to getting out milhvork for a modern 


Hundreds of unsolicited letters have been received from pleased customers, 
in which they express their satisfaction with our products, and their apprecia- 
tion of our Quality Milhvork. 

Whenever you have an opportunity to visit our city, call on us, and it 
will be a pleasure for us to take you through our factory and show you the var- 
ious processes which we employ in the manufacture of our goods. It is with 
pardonable pride that we state, our plant is the largest, most modern and 
best equipped Sash and Door and Special Milhvork factory in the 

In order to maintain a high degree of manufacturing efficiency we are 
constantl3 r adding new machines and discarding old ones. We also have skilled 
machine men and tradesmen const ant \y studying how to improve our methods 
of manufacture. Just recently we have installed an expensive electrical sys- 
tem for the generation and distribution of power throughout our plant. All 
these improvements are made with the idea of keeping strictly " up-to-date," 
to enable us to continue producing the highest grade of milhvork at a mini- 
mum cost to our customers. The excellent products of our o 'ganization will 
speak for themselves. Our plant represents the highest degree of factory de- 
velopment and embodies every new device and modern method known, for the 
manufacture of high grade milhvork. 

This immense plant, which is ever and always "At your service" is the 
home of Quality Milhvork. 

•^IG/fT iPjefO&S, ^P/ZOAf.PT £j? J K\S/c& 

Page 61 

Page 62 

cfe\Mjr,&^ S- ^h^T^cm^m 77?Fa. Go. 


WHEN we are furnishing the milhvork for a job which is to be stained, 
filled, shellaced, etc., at our factory it is our custom to send finished wood 
samples to the owner to enable him to intelligently select suitable shades and 
colors. These samples of the various woods are stained, varnished, and 
finished complete. By looking over the samples, a home builder can see in 
advance just how his interior woodwork will appear when it is completed. 
This custom has proved itself to be popular and practical, and many wise 
builders have availed themselves of this opportunity. 

This service and opportunity is open to all builders, for whom we are fur- 
nishing interior finish. 

May we have the pleasure of estimating the millwork for your new home? 

We will give you the very best Quality and the best of Service. 

" There 9 s a Reason" 


A I A those who appreciate excellence and the best in millwork, we especially 
* invite to come to Dubuque and inspect our factory when it is in full 

To watch the use of modern machinery for manufacturing our various 
products is an interesting and instructive experience. 

Many contractors, dealers, and owners have made the trip through the 
mill and have expressed wonder at the magnitude of our operations and the 
extensive equipment employed to produce our finished product — "Quality 
Milhvork. " After becoming familiar with our thorough methods of executing 
work you will not wonder at the statement which we have repeatedly made, that 
our business has been built on " Quality." 

You're near the end of this appeal, 
We hope we've made it clear, — 
That "Quality" Millwork is the thing, 
For you to buy this year. 

For Home, or School, or Church, or Bank, 
For Warehouse, Club, or Store, — 
If "Quality Millwork" you will use, 
Your troubles will be o'er. 

9Yzt <3ft2\r>£; 712/uzir our Croons 

TRADER |r-rfpH .'MARK 

Page 63 

J?AIZLEY- & J?OJZTSCffEtt 7??FG. C?0. 

The best is the cheapest in 

the end. 
We can save you money. 

Send us your plans for an 


Do It Now 

Farley &f Loetscher Mfg. Co. 

"At Your Service" 


Watch for our Trade Mark on your goods. 
This is your guarantee of Quality Mill work. 
Insist on having Farloe products. Others imi- 
tate, WE excell. It is economy to buy the 
best. Buy Farloe Quality Millwork and you 
will have the best. 


TRADE^ [if^n (/"MARK. 

! :l 

Quality TU/liwomk stands iSufkeme 

!H if 

Page 64