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ABRAHAM, KARL: Manifestations of the Female 

Castration Complex i 

ABRAHAM, KARL: Rescue and Murder of the Father 

in Neurotic Phantasies 467 

BRILL, A. A.: Tobacco and the Individual .... 430 
EISLER, MICHAEL JOSEF: Pleasure in Sleep and 

Disturbed Capacity for Sleep 30 

FERENCZI, S.: The Symbolism of the Bridge ... 163 

FREUD, SIGM.: Dreams and 'Telepathy 283 

PFISTER,0.: Plato: A Fore-Runner of Psycho-Analysis 169 

R6HEIM, G.: The Significance of Stepping Over . . 320 

SCHROEDER, THEODORE: Prenatal Psychisms and 

Mystical Pantheism . 445 

SOKOLNICKA, E: Analysis of an Obsessional Neurosis 

in a Child 306 

STRACHEY, A. S.: Analysis of a Dream of Doubt 

and Conflict 154 

VARENDONCK, J.: A Contribution to the Study of 

Artistic Preference 409 

WESTERMAN-HOLSTIJN, J.: From the Analysis of a 

Patient with Cramp of the Spinal Accessory . . 139 


BRYAN, DOUGLAS: A Grammatical Error .... 332 

BRYAN, DOUGLAS: A Note on the Tongue ... 481 
COLE, ESTELLE MAUDE: A Few 'Don'ts' for Beginners 

in the Technique of Psycho-Analysis 43 

DALY, C. D.: A Simple Lapsus Linguae 46 

HERBERT, S.: The Unconscious Root of Aesthetic Taste 47 

HERBERT, S.: A Child's Birth-Myth Story .... 187 



HERBERT, S.: Three Dreams 329 

HILLER, ERIC: Some Remarks on Tobacco . . . -475 
JONES, ERNEST: Notes on Dr. Abraham's Article on 

the Female Castration Complex 327 

MULLER, F. P.: A Spermatozoa Phantasy of an 

Epileptic 50 

PFEIFER, S.: Disappointment in Love during Analysis 175 

r6hEIM, G.: Psycho-Analysis and the Folk-Tale . . 180 

STODDART, W.H.B.: A Symbolism of Appendicitis 45 



heim 189 




CLINICAL 344, 4S 5 

DREAMS 351, 4^7 

GENERAL 333. 483 

SEXUALITY 353, 488 


BAUDOUIN, CHARLES: Suggestion and Auto-Suggestion . . 87 
BERGUER, GEORGES: Quelques traits de la vie de Jl^su au 

point de vue psychologiqoe et psychanalytique ... 89 
erANCHI, LEONARDO: The Mechanism of the Brain and the 

Function of the Frontal Lobes 399 

BLANCHARD, PHYLLIS: The Adolescent Girl 240 

BRETT, G. S. : History of Psychology 243 

BRIERLEY, SUSAN S.: An Introduction to Psychology ... 82 
CHAMBERLOT, FREDERICK: The Private Character of Queen 

Elizabeth 256 

■ CHOWK, ALICE A.: The Stairway 4^7 

GLUTTON-BROCK, A.: Shakespeare's 'Hamlet' 495 

CORIAT, ISADOR H.: What is Psycho-Analysis f .... 76 

CORIAT, ISADOR H.: Repressed Emotions 234 

CORIAT, ISADOR H.: The Meaning of Dreams .... 394 
^ DUNLAP, KNIGHT: Mysticism, Freudianism and Scientific 

f,;. Psychology ■ i^7 



ELLIS, HAVELOCK: Little Essays of Love and Virtue . . 405 
FAY, DUDLEY WARD: A Psycho- Analytic Study of Psychoses 

with Endocrinoses ^00 

FLOGEL, J. G.: The Psycho -Analytic Study of the F»mily 370 

FORSYTH, DAVID: The Technique of Psycho- Analysis ... 224 
FRAZER, Sir JAMES GEORGE: Les Origines magiques de la 

roy^"t^ 4QQ 

FREUD, SIGM.: Dream Psychology j I^ 

FREUD, SIGM.: Delusion and Dream ........ -^zt 

FREUD, SIGM,: Leonardo da Vinci 223 

FREUD, SIGM.: Beyond the Pleasure Principle ..... 367 

GALLICHAN, WALTER M.: Our Invisible Selves .... 387 

GREEN, GEORGE H-: Psychoanalysis in the Qass Room . . 217 

HALE. WILLIAM BAYARD; The Story of a Style ■ ■ - ■ 385 

HALL, G. STANLEY: Jesus, the Christ, in the Light of Psychology 247 
HARTLAND, EDWIN SIDNEY: Primitive Society, the Beginnings 

of the Family and the Reckoning of Descent . . . . 113 

HINGLEY, R. H.: Psycho- Analysis .227 

HUG-HELLMUTH, H. von: A Study of the Mental Life of the 

Child 236 

JACKSOK, JOSEPHINE A.: Outwitting our Ne.ves .... 232 

JUNG, EMIL: Die Herkunft Jesn gy 

KEMPF, EDWARD J.: Psychopathology 55 

KNIGHT, M.M: Taboo and Genetics 252 

LOISY, ALFRED: Essai historique sur le sacrifice . . . , 497 

McDOUGALL, WILLIAM: The Group Mind ' 99 

McDOUGALL, WILLIAM: National Welfare and National Decay 403 

MAGIAN, A. C: Sex Problems in Women 401 

MEDICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL: First Report of the Miners' 

Nystagmus Committee 4Q2 

MITCHELL, T. W. : The Psychology of Medicine 65 

MORDELL, ALBERT: The Literature of Ecstasy ■ - . . 396 ■ 

MURRAY, MARGARET ALICE: The Witch-Cult in Western 

Europe 2154 

PATTERSON, L.: Mithraism and Christianity 97 

PENN, LORD DAWSON OF: Love -Marriage -Birth Control . 398 

PFISTER, O.: An vieil evangile par un chemin nouveau . . 88 

PLEBS TEXT BOOKS NUMBER ONE: An Outline of Psychology 246 

PUTNAM, J. J.: Addresses on Psycho-Analysis 68 

PYM, T. W.: Psychology and the Christian Life 248 

RALPH, JOSEPH: How to Psycho -Analyze Yourself .... 232 

READ, CARVETH: The Origin of Man and of his Superstitions 109 

RINALDO, JOEL: Psycho-Analysis of the 'Reformer' ... 233 

RIVERS, W. H. R.: Instinct and the Unconscious . -^^^ 

ROFFENSTEm, GASTON: Zur Psychologic und Psychopathologie 

der Gegenwartsgeschichte ... 246 

RORSCHACH, HERMANN; Psychodiagnostik, Methodik und Er- 

gebnisse eines wahmeHtaungsdiagnostLschen Experimentes 85 

RUSSELL, BERTRAND: The Analysis of Mind 24I 


SAINTYVES, P.: Les Origines de la m^decine. Empirisme on 

magje?' 499 

SAXBY, I. B.; The Education of Behaviour 239 

SOMERVILLE, H.: Practical Psycho-Analysis 49S 

STODDART, W. H. B.: Mind and its Disorders 84 

STRANSKY, ERWIN: Psychopathologie der Ausnahmezustande 

und Psychopathologie des Alltags 07 

VALENTINE, C. W.: Dreams and the Unconscious .... 77 

VARENDONCK, j.: L'£volution des facult^s conscientes . . 493 

VARIOUS: Psycho-Analysis and the War Neuroses .... 73 

VODOZ, J.: 'Roland' 395 

' WARREN, HOWARD C: AHistoryoftheAssociationPsychology 244 

WESTERMARCK, EDWARD: The History of Human Marriage 249 

WOODWORTH, ROBERT S.: Psychology 245 



268, 509 





W. H. R. Rivers, MD., D.Sc, F.R.S., F.R.C.P 408 











The psychological phenomena which we ascribe to the so- 
called castration complex of the female sex are so numerous and 
multiform that even a detailed description cannot do full justice 
to them. These questions are made still more complicated by their 
relations to biological and physiological processes. The following 
investigation, therefore, does not pretend to present the problem 
of the female castration complex in all its aspects, but is limited 
to the purely psychological consideration of material gathered 
from a wide field of clinical observation. 


Many women suffer temporarily or permanently, in childhood 
or in adult age, from the fact that they have been bom female. 
Psycho-analysis further shows that a great number of women have 
repressed the wish to be male ; we come across this wish in all 
products of the unconscious, especially in dreams and neurotic 
symptoms. The extraordinary frequency of these observations 
suggests that this wish is one common to and occurring in all 

' Amplified from a paper read before the Sixth Internationa! Psycho- 
Analytical Congress in The Hague, 1920. 


■women. If we incline to this view then we place ourselves under 
the obligation of examining both thoroughly and without prejudice 
the facts to which we attribute such a general significance. 

Many women are often quite conscious of the fact that certain 
phenomena of their mental life arise from an intense dislike ot 
being a woman ; but, on the other hand, many of them are quite 
in the dark as regards the motives of such an aversion. Certain 
arguments are again and again brought forward to explain this 
attitude : for instance, it is said that girls even in childhood are 
at a disadvantage to boys because boys are allowed greater 
freedom; or, in later life, men are permitted to choose their 
profession and can extend their sphere of activity in many 
directions, and especially that they are Subjected to far fewer 
restrictions in their sexual life. Psycho-analysis, however, shows 
that conscious arguments of this sort are of limited value, and are 
the result of rationalisation— a process which veils the motives 
lying deeper. Direct observation of young girls shows unequivocally 
that at a certain stage of their development they feel at a dis- 
advantage as regards the male sex by their poverty in external 
genitals. The results of the psycho-analysis of adults fully agree 
with this observation. We find that a large proportion of women 
have not overcome this disadvantage; or, expressed psycho- 
analytically, they have not successfully repressed and sublimated 
it. Ideas belonging to it often impinge with great force, arising in 
their strong charge of libido, against the barriers which oppose 
their entry into consciousness. This struggle of repressed material 
widi the censorship can be demonstrated in a great variety of 
neurotic symptoms, dreams, etc. 

The observation that the non-possession of a male organ 
produces such a serious and lasting effect in the woman's mental 
life would justify us in denoting all the mental derivatives relating 
to it by the coUective name 'genital complex'. We prefer, however, 
to make use of an expression taken from the psychology of male 
neurotics, and to speak of the 'castration complex' also in the 
female sex ; we have good reasons for this. 

The child's high estimation of its own body is closely connected 
with its narcissism. A girl has primarily no feeling of inferiority 
in regard to her own body, and does not recognise that it ex- 
hibits a defect in comparison with a boy's. A girl, inc^able of 
recognising a primary defect in her body, forms then the following 


idea, as we have often observed: 'I had a penis once as boys 
have, but it has been taken away from me'. She therefore en- 
deavours to represent the painfully perceived defect as a secondary 
loss, one resulting from castration. 

This idea is closely associated with another which we shall 
later treat of in detaU. The female genital is looked upon as a 
wound, and as such it represents an effect of castration. 

We also come across phantasies and neurotic symptoms, and 
occasionally impulses and actions, which indicate a hostile tendency 
towards the male sex. In many women the idea that they have 
been damaged gives rise to the wish to revenge tliemselves on the 
privileged man. The aim of such an impulse is to castrate the man. 

We find therefore in the female sex not only the tendency to 
represent a painfully perceived and primary defect as a secondary 
idea of 'having been robbed', but also active and passive phantasies 
of mutilation alongside each other, just as in the male castration 
complex. These facts then justify us in using the same designation 
in both sexes. 

As was mentioned above, a girl's discovery of the male genitals 
acts as an injury to her narcissism. In the narcissistic period of 
development a child carefully watches over its possessions, and 
regards those of others with jealousy. It wants to keep what it 
has and to get what it sees. If anyone has an advantage over it 
then two reactions occur which are closely associated with each 
other; a hostile feeling against the other person is associated 
with the impulse to rob that other of what he possesses. The 
union of these two reactions constitutes envy, which represents a 
typical expression of the sadistic-anal developmental phase of the 
libido.' . ,., : , . . ., 

A child's avaricious-hostile reaction to any additional possession 
it has noticed in another person may often be lessened in a simple 
manner : one tells the child that it will eventually receive what it 
longs for. There are many ways in whi ch such pacifying promises 

' The character trait of envy is treated more in detail in an article 
by the author to appear shortly, 'Erganzungen zur Lehre vom analen 
Qiarakter '. 


may be made to a little girl with respect to her own body. Her 
doubts may be relieved by telling her that she will grow as big 
as her mother, that she will have long hair like her sister, etc., 
and she will be satisfied with these assurances ; but the subsequent 
growth of a male organ one cannot promise her. However in this 
latter case the little girl herself makes use of the method that 
has often been successful ; for a long time she seems to cling 
to the hope of this expectation being fulfilled as to something 
that is obvious, as though the idea of a life-long defect were quite 
incomprehensible to her. 

The following observation of a little girl, two years old, is 
particularly instructive in this respect. The little one saw her 
parents taking coifee at table. A box of cigars stood on a low 
cabinet near by. The child opened the box, took out a cigar and 
brought it to her father. She went back and brought one for her 
mother. Then she took a third cigar and held it out against the 
lower part of her body. Her mother put the three cigars back in 
the box. The chUd waited a little while and then played the same 
game over again. 

The repetition of this game excluded its being due to chance. 
Its meaning is clear ; the little one grants her mother a male organ 
like her father's. She represents the possession of the organ not as 
a privilege of men but of adults in general, and then she can 
expect to get one herself in the future. A cigar is not only a 
suitable symbol for the child's wish on account of its form. The 
child of course has long noticed that only her father smokes 
cigars and not her mother. The tendency to put man and woman 
on an equaUty is palpably expressed in presenting a cigar to her 
mother as well. 

We are well acquainted with the attempts of little girls to 
adopt the male position in urination. Their narcissism cannot 
endure their not being able to do what another can, and therefore 
they endeavour to arouse the impression that their physical form 
does not prevent them from doing the same as boys do. 

When a child sees its brother or sister receive sometliing to 
eat or play with which it does not possess Itself it looks to those 
persons who are the givers, and these in the first instance are the 
parents. It does not like to be less well off than its rivals. A girl, 
who compares her body with her brother's, often in phantasy 
expects that her father will 'make her a present' of that part of 


the body she painfully misses ; for the child's narcissistic confidence 
still leads her to believe that she could not possibly be permanently 
defective, and creative 'omnipotence' is readily ascribed to the 
father who can bestow on the child everything it desires. 

But all these dreams crumble after a time. The pleasure principle 
ceases to dominate psychical processes unconditionally, adaptation 
to reality commences and with it the criticism of one's own 
wishes. The girl has now in the course of her psychosexual 
development to carry out an adaptation which is not demanded 
of boys in a similar manner ; she has to reconcile herself to the 
fact of her physical 'defect', and to her female sexual r61e. 
The undisturbed enjoyment of early genital sensations will be a 
considerable aid in facilitating tlie renunciation of masculinity, for by 
this means the female genitals will regain their narcissistic value. 

In reality, however, the process is considerably more complicated. 
Freud has drawn our attention to the close association of certain 
ideas in the child, namely, that the idea of a proof of love is 
insq>arable from that of a gift The first proof of love, which 
creates a lasting impression on the child and is repeated many 
times, is feeding from the mother. This act brings food to the 
child and therefore increases its material property, and at tlie 
same time acts as an agreeable stimulus to its erotogenic zones. 
It is interesting that in certain districts of Germany (according to 
my colleague Herr Koerber) the suckling of a child is denoted 
'Schenken' (to give, to pour). The child within certain limits repays 
the mother's 'gift' by a 'gift' in return — it regulates its bodily 
evacuations according to her wishes. The motions at an early age 
are the child's material gift par excellence in return for all the 
proofs of love it receives. 

Psycho-analysis, however, has shown that the child in this 
early psychosexual period of development considers its faeces as 
a part of its own body. The process of identification further 
establishes a close relation between the ideas 'motion' and 'penis'. 
The boy's anxiety regarding the loss of the penis is based on this 
equating of the two ideas ; the penis may be detached from the 
body in the same way as the motion is. In girls, however, the 
phantasy occurs of obtaining a penis by way of defaecation— to 
make one herself — or to receive it as a gift : the father as beatus 
possidens is usually the giver. The psychical process is thus 
dominated by the equation : motion — gift - penis. 


The little girl's narcissism undergoes a severe test of endurance 
in the subsequent period. The hope that a penis will grow is just 
as little fulfilled as the phantasies of obtaining one by herself or 
as a gift Thus disappointed tlie child is likely to direct an intense 
and lasting hostility towards those from whom she has in vain 
expected the gift. Nevertheless, the phantasy of the child normally 
finds a way out of this situation. Freud has shown that besides 
'motion* and 'penis' signifying 'gift' there is still a third idea 
which is identified with both of them, namely, the idea of 'child'. 
The infantile theories of procreation and birth adequately explain 
this connection. 

The little girl now cherishes the hope of getting a child from 
her father — as a substitute for the penis not granted her, again as 
a 'gift'. The wish for a child can be fulfilled, although in the 
future and with the help of a later love object. The wish therefore 
signifies an approxknation to reality. The child by raising the 
father to the love object now enters into that stage of libido 
development which is characterised by the domination of the 
female Oedipus complex. At the same time maternal impulses 
develop through identification with the mother. The hoped-for 
possession of a child is therefore destined to compensate the 
woman for her physical defect. 

We regard it as normal for the libido of a woman to be 
narcissistically bound to a greater extent than in a man, but it 
is not to be inferred from this that it does not experience far- 
reaching alterations right up to adult age. 

The girl's original so-called 'penis envy' is at first replaced 
by envy of the mother's possession of children in virtue of the 
identification of her own ego with the mother. These hostile 
impulses need sublimation just as the libidinal tendencies directed 
towards the father. A latency period now sets in, as with boys, 
and when the age of puberty is reached the wishes which were 
directed to the first love object are re-awakened. The wish for 
the gift (child) has now to be detached from the idea of the 
father, and the libido thus freed has to find a new object. If this 
process of development is gone through in a favourable manner, 
the female libido is from now on attached to the idea of ex- 
pectancy in connection with the man. Its expression is regulated 
by certain inhibitions (feelings of shame). The normal adult woman 
becomes reconciled to her own sexual r6le and to that of the 




man, and in particular to the facts of male and female genitality ; 
she desires passive gratification and longs for a child. The castration 
complex then gives rise to no disturbing effects. 

Daily observation, however, shows us how frequently this normal 
end-aim of development is not attained. This fact should not 
astonish us, for a woman's life gives cause enough to render the 
overcoming, of the castration complex difficult. We refer to those 
factors which keep bringing back to memory the 'castration' of 
the woman. The primary idea of the 'wound' is re-animated by 
the impression created by the first and each succeeding jnenstruation, 
and then once again by defloration; for both processes are connected 
with loss of blood and thus resemble an injury. A girl need never 
have experienced either of these events ; the very idea of being 
subjected to them in the future has tlie same effect on the 
growing-up girl. We can readily understand from the standpoint 
of the infantile sexual theories that delivery (or child-birth) is 
conceived of in a similar manner in the phantasies of young girls ; 
we need only call to mind, for example, the 'Caesarian section 
theory' which conceives of delivery as a bloody operation. 

In these circumstances we must be prepared to find in every 
female person some traces of the castration complex. The individual 
differences are only a matter of degree. In normal women we 
perhaps occasionally come across dreams with male tendencies in 
them. From these very slight expressions of the castration complex 
transitions lead to severe and complicated phenomena of a pro- 
nounced pathological kind, and it is with these latter that this 
investigation is principally concerned. In this respect also, therefore, 
we find a similar state of affairs to that obtaining in the male sex. 


In his essay on ' Das Tabu der Virginitat ' Freud contrasts the 
normal outcome of the castration complex, which is in accord with 
the prevailing demand of civilisation, with the 'archaic' type. 
With many primitive peoples custom forbids a man to deflorate 
his wife; the defloration has to be carried out by a priest as a 
sacramental act, or must occur in some other way outside 
wedlock. Freud shows in his convincing analysis that this peculiar 
precept has arisen from the psychological risk of an ambivalent 


reaction on the part of the woman towards the man who has 
deflorated her. Living with the woman whom he has deflorated 
might therefore be dangerous for a man. 

Psycho-analytical experience shows that an inhibition of the 
psychosexual development is manifested in phenomena which are 
closely related to the conduct of primitive peoples. It is by no 
means rare for us to come across women in our civilisation of 
to-day who react to defloration in a way which is at all events 
closely related to that 'archaic' form. I know several cases in 
which women after defloration produced an outburst of affect and 
hit or throttled their husband. One of my patients went to sleep 
with her husband after the first intercourse, then woke up, seized 
him violently and only gradually came to her senses. There is no 
mistaking the significance of such conduct : the woman revenges 
herself for the injury to her physical integrity. Psycho-analysis, 
however, enables us to recognise a historical layer in the motivation 
of such an impulse of revenge. The retaliation is connected with 
the recent defloration ; this experience undoubtedly serves as a con- 
vincing proof of male activity, and puts an end to all attempts 
to obliterate the functional difference between male and female 
sexuality. Nevertheless every profound analysis reveals the close , 

connection of the phantasies of revenge with all the earlier events -^ 

— phantasised or real — which have been equivalent to castration. &: 

The retaliation is found to refer ultimately to the injustice suffered > 

at the hands of the father. The unconscious of the adult daughter 
takes a late revenge for the father's omission to bestow upon her 
a penis, either to begin with or subsequently; she takes it, however, 
not on the father in person, but on the man who in consequence 
of her transference of libido has assumed the father's part The 
only adequate revenge for the suffered injustice — the castration — 
is castration. This can, it is true, be replaced symbolically by 
aggressive measures; among these strangling is a typical sub- 
stitutive action. 

The contrast of such cases with the normal issue is evident 
The normal attitude of love towards the other sex is both in 
man and woman indissolubly bound up with the conscious or 
unconscious desire for genital gratification in conjunction with the 
love object On the other hand, in the cases just described we 
And a sadistic-hostile attitude with the aim of possession arising 
from anal motives, in place of an attitude of love with a genital 


aim. The tendency to take away by force is evident from numerous 
accompanying psychical conditions. This phantasy of robbery exists 
in close connection with the idea of transferring the robbed penis 
to oneself. We shall return to this later. 

The woman's wishes for masculinity, as already mentioned, only 
occasionally succeed in breaking through in this 'archaic' sense. 
On the other hand, there is a considerable number of women 
who are unable to carry out full psychical adaptation to the female 
sexual r61e. A third possibility remains to these women, namely, 
the way to homosexuality in virtue of the bisexual disposition 
common to humanity ; they tend to adopt the male r61e in erotic 
relations with other women. They love to exhibit their masculinity 
in dress, in the way of doing their hair, and in their general 
behaviour. Other cases approximate to these in which the homo- 
sexuality does not break through to consciousness ; the repressed 
wish to be male is here found in a sublimated form, i. e. masculine 
interests of an intellectual and professional character and other 
kinds are preferred and accentuated. Femininity, however, is not 
consciously denied ; they usually proclaim that these interests are 
just as much feminine as masculine ones. They consider it irrelevant 
to say that the performances of a human being, especially in the 
intellectual sphere, belong to the one or the other sex. This type 
of woman is well represented in the woman's movement of to-day. 

I have not thus briefly described these groups because I lightly 
value their practical significance. The phenomena of both types 
are well known, however, and have been sufficiently treated in 
psycho-analytical literature, so that I can rapidly pass on to the 
consideration of the neurotic transformations of the castration 
complex. There are many of them and they must be described 
exactly, some of them for the first time, and rendered intelligible 
from psycho-analytical points of view. 


The neurotic transformations originating in the female castration 
complex may be divided into two groups. The phenomena of one 
group rest on a strong, emotionally-toned, but not conscious 
desire to adopt the male r61e, i. e. on the phantasy of possessing 
a male organ. In the phenomena of the other group is expressed 


the unconscious refusal of the female rfile, and also tlie repressed 

desire for revenge on the privileged man. There is no sharp hne 

of demarcation between these two groups. The phenomena of one ; 

group do not exclude those of tlie otlier in the same individual ; 

they supplement each other. The preponderance of this or that 

attitude can nevertheless often be clearly recognised. One may then 

speak of the preponderating reaction of a wish-fulfilment type or 

a revenge type. 

We have already learned that besides the normal outcome of 
the female castration complex there are two abnormal forms of 
conscious reaction, namely, the homosexual type and the archaic 
(revenge) type. We have only to recall the general relation betvk^een 
perversion and neurosis with which we are familiar from Freud s 
investigations in order to be able to estimate the two neurotic 
types above described in respect to their psychogenesis. They are 
the 'negative' of the homosexual and sadistic types; they contain ; 

the same motives and tendencies, but in repressed form. \ 

The psychical phenomena which arise from the unconscious 
wishes for physical masculinity or for revenge on the man are 
difficult to classify on account of their multiplicity. It has also to ^ 

be borne in mind that neurotic symptoms are not the sole ex- • 

pressions of unconscious origin which have to concern us here ; 
we need only refer to the different forms in which tlie same I 

repressed tendencies appear in dreams. As mentioned at the 
beginning, therefore, this investigation cannot pretend to give an 
exhaustive account of the forms of expression of the repressed 
castration complex, but rather to lay stress on certain frequent 
and instructive forms and especially those which have not hitherto 
been considered. 

The wisk-fuifibnent which goes farthest in the sense of the 
female castration complex comprises those symptoms or dreams 
of neurotics which convert the fact of femininity into the opposite. 
The unconscious phantasies of the woman proclaim in such a 
case : I am the fortunate possessor of a penis and exercise the 
male function. Van Ophuijsen gives an example of this kind in his 
article on the 'masculine complex' of women. This case of the 
conscious phantasy from the youtli of one of his patients gives 
us at first only an insight into the patient's still unrepressed 
active-homosexual wishes, but at the same time clearly demonstrates 
the foundation of neurotic symptoms which give expression to the 




same tendencies after they have become repressed. The patient 
in the evening would place herself between the lamp and the wall, 
and then would hold her finger against the lower part of her body 
in such a manner that her shadow portrayed the form of a penis 
on her. She thus did something veiy similar to what the two years 
old child did with the cigar. 

In conjunction with this instructive example I mention the 
dream of a neurotic newly-married woman. She w^as an only 
child. Her parents had ardently desired a son and had in 
consequence cultivated the narcissism and particularly the mascul- 
inity wishes of their daughter. According to an expression of 
theirs she was to become quite 'a celebrated man'. In her youthful 
day-dreams she saw herself as a ' female Napoleon ' ; she began 
a glorious career as a female officer, advEince^ to the highest 
positions, and saw all the countries of Europe lying at her feet. 
After having thus shown herself superior to all the men in the 
world a man appeared at last who surpassed not only all men but 
also herself; she subjected herself to him. Marital relations in real 
life were accompanied by the most extreme resistance against 
assuming the feminine r61e ; I shall mention symptoms relating to 
this later. I quote here one of my patient's dreams. 

'My husband seizes a woman, lifts up her clothes, finds a 
peculiar pocket and pulls out from it a hypodermic morphia 
syringe. She gives him an injection with this syringe and he is 
then carried away quite weak and miserable.' 

The woman in this dream is the patient herself who takes 
over the active rflle from the man. The possibility for this is 
afforded her by a concealed penis (syringe) with which she practices 
coitus on him. The weakened condition of the man signifies that 
he is killed by her assault. 

Pulling out the syringe from the pocket suggests the male 
method of urinating, which seemed enviable to the patient in her 
childhood. It has, however, a further significance. At a meeting 
of the Berlin Psycho-Analytical Society Boehm drew attention to 
a common infantile sexual theory: the penis originally ascribed 
to both sexes is thought to be concealed in a cleft from which 
it can temporarily emerge. 

, Another patient, whose neurosis brought to expression the 
permanent divorce between masculinity and femininity in most 
manifold forms, stated that during sexual excitation she often had 




the feeling that something on her body swelled to an enormous ■, 

size. The tendency of this sensation was obviously to delude j 

herself that she possessed a penis. ' 

In other patients the symptoms do not represent the complete 

wish-fulfilment in the sense of masculinity, but a corresponding j 

expectation for the near or distant future. While the unconscious , 

in the cases just described expresses the idea, 'I am a male', it i 
here conceives the wish in the formula, ' I shall receive the " gift " 

one day, I absolutely insist upon that!'. 

The following conscious phantasy from the youth of a neurotic 
girl is perfectly typical of the unconscious content of many neurotic [ 

symptoms. When the girl's elder sister menstruated for the first ; 

time she noticed that her mother and sister conversed together 
secretly. The thought flashed across her, 'Now my sister is certainly 
getting a penis' ; therefore she herself will get one in due course. ; 

The reversal of the rea! state of affairs is here highly characteristic: 
the acquisition of the longed-for part of the body is put in place 
of the renewed 'castration* which the first menstruation signifies. 

A neurotic patient in whom psycho-analysis revealed extraordinary 
narcissism one day showed the greatest resistance to treatment, and 
manifested many signs of defiance towards me which really referred 
to her deceased father. She left my consulting room in a state of 
violent negative transference. When she stepped into the street 
she caught herself saying impulsively : ' I will not be well until 
I have got a penis'. She thus expected this gift from me, as a 
substitute for her father, and made the effect of the treatment 
dependent upon it. Certain dreams of the patient had the same 
content as this idea which suddenly appeared from her unconscious. 
In these dreams being presented with something occurred in a 
double sense (to receive a child or a penis). 

Compromises between impulse and repression occur in the 
sphere of the castration complex as elsewhere in the realm of 
psychopathology. In many cases the unconscious is content with 
a substitute-gratification, in place of the male organ and the fall 
wish fulfilment by present or future possession. 

A condition in neurotic women which owes one of its most 
important determinants to the castration complex is enuresis 
noctuma. The analogy to the determination of this symptom in 
male neurotics is striking. I mention, for example, a dream of a 
patient fourteen years old who suffered from this complaint. He 



was in a closet and urinating with manifest feelings of pleasure when 
he suddenly noticed that his sister was looking at him through 
the window. When a little boy he had actually demonstrated 
with pride before his sister his masculine way of urinating. This 
dream ending in enuresis shows the boy's pride in his penis, and 
enuresis in the female frequently rests on the wish to urinate in 
the male way. The dream represents this process in a disguised 
form and ended with a pleasurable emptying of the bladder. 

Women who are prone to enuresis nocturna are regularly 
burdened with strong resistances agamst the female sexual functions. 
The infantile desire to urinate in the male position is associated 
with the well-known interchange of urine and sperma, and of 
micturition and ejaculation. The unconscious tendency to wet the 
man with urine in sexual intercourse has its origin here. 

Other substitute formations show a still greater displacement 
of .the libido in that they are removed some distance from the 
genital region. When the libido for some reason or other has to 
turn away from the genital zone it is attracted to certain other 
erotogenic zones, the particular ones being chosen as the result 
of individual determinations. In some neurotic women the nose 
achieves the significance of a surrogate of male genital. The not 
infrequent neurotic attacks of redness and swelling of the nose in 
women is conceived in the unconscious phantasy as an erection 
in the sense of masculinity wishes. 

In other cases the eyes take over a similar r61e. Some neurotic 
women get an abnormally marked congestion of the eyes with 
every sexual excitation. In a certain measure this congestion is a 
normal and common phenomenon accompanying sexual excitation. 
However, in those women of whom we are speaking the condition 
is not simply a quantitative increase of the phenomenon for a 
short period, but a redness of the sclerotics accompanied by a 
burning sensation, while swelling persists for several days after each 
sexual excitation. In such cases we are justified in speaking of a 
conjunctivitis neurotica. 

I have seen several women patients, troubled by many neurotic 
consequences of the castration complex, in whom this condition 
of the eyes was associated with a feeling of a fixed stare which , 
they conceived to be an expression of their masculinity. In the 
unconscious the 'fixed stare* is often equivalent to an erection. 
I have already alluded to this symptom in an earlier article dealing 



with neurotic disturbances of the eyes,' In some cases the idea 
exists that the fixed stare will terrorise people. If we pursue the 
unconscious train of thought of these patients who identify the 
fixed stare with erection we can then understand the meaning of 
their anxiety. Just as male exhibitionists among other things seek 
to terrify women by the sight of the phallus, so these women 
unconsciously endeavour to attain the same effect by means of 
their fixed stare. 

Some years ago a very neurotic young girl consulted me. The 
very first thing she did on entering my consulting room was to 
ask me straight out whether she had beautiful eyes. I was startled 
for a moment by this very unusual way of introducing oneself to 
a physician. She noticed my hesitation and then gave vent to a 
violent outburst of affect on my suggestion that she should first 
of all answer my questions. The whole conduct of the patient, 
whom I only saw a few times, made a methodical psycho-analysis 
impossible. I did not succeed even in coming to a clear diagno- 
sis of the case, for certain characteristics of the clinical picture 
suggested a paranoid condition. Still I was able to obtain a few 
facts concerning the origin of a most striking symptom, which in 
spite of their incompleteness offered a certain insight into the 
structure of the condition. 

The patient told me that she had experienced a great fright 
when a child. In a small town where she then lived a boa constrictor 
had broken out from a menagerie and could not be found. On 
passing through a park with her governess she thought the snake 
suddenly appeared before her. She became quite rigid with terror 
and ever since had been afraid that she might have a fixed stare. 

It could not be decided whether this experience was a real 
one or whether it was wholly or partially a phantasy. The associ- 
ation, snake = rigidity, is familiar and comprehensible to us. We 
also recognise the snake as a male genital symbol. Fixity of the 
eye is then expUcable from the identification, fixed eye ^ snake 
= phallus. The patient, however, protected herself against this 
masculinity wish of hers, and its place was taken by the compuls- 
ion to get every man to assure her that her eyes were beautiful, 

' See ' Uber Einschrankungen und Umwandlungen der Schaulust usw. ' 
Jahrhuch der Psyckaanalyse, 1914, Bd. IV, or the same article in 
'Klinische Beitrage zur Psychoanalyse', 1921, S. 168 f. 


i.e. had feminine charms. If anyone hesitated to answer her 
question in the affirmative we have to assume that she was ex- 
posed to the danger of becoming overwhelmed by a male-sadistic 
impulse which was repressed with difficulty, and so fell into a 
state of anxiety at the rising tide of her masculinity. 

1 should like to point out here that these various observations 
by no means do justice to the great multiplicity of the symptoms 
belonging to this group. 1 supplement these examples, which 
illustrate the vicarious assumption by various parts ofthebodyof 
the male genital r6Ie, by adding that objects which do not belong 
to the body can also be made use of for the same purpose, pro- 
vided their form and use permits in any way a genital-symbolical 
utilisation. We may call to mind the tendency of neurotic women 
to use a syringe and to give themselves or relatives enemas. 

There are numerous points of contact here with the normal 
expressions of the female castration complex, especially with 
typical female symptomatic acts. For example, thrusting the end 
of an umbrella into the ground may be mentioned; the great 
enjoyment many women obtain from using a hose for watering the 
garden is also characteristic, for here the unconscious experiences 
the ideal fulfilment of a childish wish. 

Other women are less able or less inclined to find a sub- 
stitute-gratification of the masculinity wishes in neurotic surrogates. 
Their symptoms give expression to a completely different attitude. 
They represent the male organ as something of secondary impor- 
tance and unnecessary. Here belong all the symptoms and phan- 
tasies of immaculate conception. It is as though these women want 
to proclaim through their neurosis: 'I can also do it alone\ One 
of my patients experienced such a conception while in a dream- 
like, hazy state of consciousness. She had had a dream once 
before in which she held a box with a crucifix in her hands; the 
identification with Mary is here quite clear. I constantly found 
the anal character traits particularly pronounced in neurotic women 
who showed these phenomena. In the idea, 'to be able to do it 
alone', is expressed a high degree of obstinacy which is also pro- 
minent in these patients. They wish, for example, to find every- 
thing in the psycho-analysis alone, without the help of the physi- 
cian. They are as a rule women who through obstinacy, envy 
and self-overestimation destroy all relationships in their environ- 
ment, even their whole life. 


The symptoms we have described up to the present bear the 
character of positive wish-fulfilment in the sense of the infantile j 

desire to be physically equal to the man. The last-mentioned j 

forms of reaction, however, already begin to approximate to the J 

revenge type. For in the refusal to acknowledge the significance \ 

of the male organ there is expressed, although in a very mitigated ,j 

form, an emasculation of the man. We therefore arrive quite ^ 

easily at the phenomena of the second group. ; 

We regularly meet two tendencies in repressed form in these j 

patients: the longing for revenge on the man, and the desire to « 

take by force the longed-for organ, i.e. to rob the man of it ; 

One of my patients dreamed that she in common with other * 

women carried round a gigantic penis which they had robbed J 

from an animal. This reminds us of the neurotic impulse to steal. 
The so-called kleptomania is often traceable to the fact that a j 

child feels injured or neglected in respect of proofs of love— |- 

which we have equated with gifts— or in some way feels disturb- T 

ed in the gratificadon of its libido. It procures a substitute |. 

pleasure for the lost pleasure, and at the same time takes revenge | 

on those who have caused it the supposed injury. Psycho-analysis 
shows that in the unconscious of our patients there exist the 
same unpulses to take forcible possession of the 'gift' which has 
not been received. 

Vaginismus is from a practical point of view the most impor- 
tant of the neurotic symptom serving the repressed phantasies of per- 
forming castration on the man. The tendency of vaginismus is not 
only to prevent intromission of the penis, but also in case of its 
intromission not to let it escape again, i. e. to retain it and thereby 
carry out castration on the man. The phantasy therefore culminates 
in robbing the man of his penis and appropriating it to oneself. 

The patient who had produced the previously-mentioned dream of 
the morphia syringe showed a rare and complicated form of refusal of 
her husband at the commencement of their marriage. She suffered 
from an hysterical adduction of her thighs whenever her husband 
approached her. After this had been overcome in the course of 
a few weeks a high degree of vaginimus developed as a fresh 
symptom of refusal; the vaginismus only completely disappeared 
under psycho-analytic treatment 



The same patient, whose libido was very strongly fixed on her 
father, once had a short dream previous to her marriage, whicfi 
she related to me in very remarkable words. She said that in the 
dream her father had been run over and had thereby 'lost some 
leg or other and his power'. The castration idea is here not only 
expressed by means of the Meg' but also by the 'power'. Being, 
run over is one of the most frequent castration symbols. One of 
my patients whose 'totem' was a dog dreamed how a dog was 
run over and lost a leg. The same symbol is found in a phobia 
that a definite male person may be run over and thereby lose, 
an arm or a leg. One of my patients was the victim of this 
anxiety with reference to various male members of her family. 

For many years and especially during the late war I have 
come across women who take particular erotic interest in men 
who have lost an arm or a leg by amputation or accident. These 
are women with particularly strong feelings of inferiority; their 
libido prefers a mutilated man rather than one who is physically, 
intact; the mutilated man has also lost a limb. It is obvious 
that these women feet themselves physically closer to the mutil- 
ated man, they consider him a companion in distress and do not 
need to reject him with hate like the sound man. The interest 
of some women in Jewish men is explicable on the same grounds;, 
the circumcision is looked upon as at any rate a partial castration,, 
Eind so makes possible a transference of libido to the man. I know 
cases in which mixed marriages were contracted by women chiefly 
as a result of an unconscious motive of this nature. The same 
interest is also shown in men who are crippled in other ways and 
have thereby lost the masculine 'superiority'. 

It was the psycho-analysis of a girl seventeen years old that 
gave me the strongest impression of the power of the castration 
complex. In this case there was an abundance of neurotic con- 
version phenomena, phobias, and obsessive impulses, all of which 
were connected with her disappointment at her femininity and 
with revenge phantasies against the male sex. The patient had 
been operated on for appendicitis some years previously, i The 
surgeon had given her the removed appendix preserved in a 
bottle of spirit, and this she now treasured as something sacred. 
Her ideas of being castrated centred round this specimen, and 

' The removal of the vermiform appendix in men also often stimulates 
their castration complex. 



it also appeared in her dreams with the significance of the once 
possessed but now lost penis.* As the surgeon happened to be a 
relative of the patient it was easy for her to connect the 'castra- 
tion' performed by him associatively with her father. 

Among the patient's symptoms which rested on the repression 
of active castration wishes was a phobia which can be called 
dread of marriage. This anxiety was expressed in the strongest 
opposition to the idea of a future marriage, because the patient 
was afraid 'that she would have to do something terrible to her 
future husband'. The most difficult part of the analysis was to 
uncover an extreme refusal of genital erotism, and an extraordi- 
nary accentuation of mouth erotism in the form of phantasies 
which appeared compulsively. The idea of oral intercourse was 
firmly united with that of biting off the penis. This phantasy, 
which is frequently expressed in anxiety and phenomena of the 
most varied kinds, was in the present case accompanied by a 
number of other ideas of a terrifying nature. Psycho-analysis suc- 
ceeded in removing this abundant production of morbid phantasy. 

These kinds of anxiety prevent the person from having inti- 
mate union with the other sex, and thereby also from carrying 
out the unconsciously intended 'crime*. The patient is then the 
only person who has to suffer under those impulses, in the form 
of permanent abstinence and neurotic anxiety. This assumes a 
different form as soon as the active castration phantasy has be- 
come somewhat distorted and thereby unrecognisable to conscious- 
ness. The modified appearance of the phantasies makes possible 
stronger effects of these tendencies externally. Such a modification 
of the active castration tendency can take such a form as that the idea 
of robbing the man of his genital is abolished and the hostile 
purpose is displaced from the organ to its function; the aim is 
now to destroy the potency of the man. The wife's neurotic 
sexual aversion often has a repelling effect on the man's libido 
so that a disturbance of potency occurs. 

A further modification of the aggressive tendency is expressed 
in an attitude of the woman to the man that is seen fairly fre- 
quently and which can be exceedingly painful to him; it is the 
tendency to disappoint the man. Disappointing signifies to excite 


* Another patient imag^ed she had a brother and had to remove 
his appendix. 


expectations in a person and not fulfil them. In relations with the 
man this can occur through response up to a certain point follow- 
ed by refusal. This behaviour is most frequently and signific- 
antly expressed in frigidily on the part of the woman. Dis- 
appointing other persons is a piece of unconscious tactics which 
we frequently find in the psychology of the neuroses and is 
especially pronounced in obsessional neurotics. These neurotics 
are unconsciously impelled towards violence and revenge, 
but on account of the contrary play of ambivalent forces these 
impulses are incapable of efifectuaUy breaking through. Because 
the hostility cannot express itself in actions these patients excite 
expectations of a pleasant nature in their environment which they 
do not subsequently fulfil. In the sphere of the female castration 
complex the tendency to disappoint can be represented in respect 
to its origin as follows: 

First stage: I rob you of what you have because I lack it 
Second stage: I rob you of nothing; I even promise you what 
I have to give. 

Third stage: I do not give you what I have promised. 
In very many cases the frigidity is associated with the con- 
scious readiness to assume the female rdle and acknowledge that 
of the man. The unconscious striving has in part the object of 
disappointing the man who is inclined to infer from the conscious 
readiness of his wife the possibility of mutual enjoyment ; while 
there also exists in the frigid woman the tendency to demonstrate 
to herself and her partner that his ability signifies nothing. 

If we penetrate to the deeper psychic layers we recc^ise how 
strongly the desire of the frigid woman to be male dominates in 
the unconscious. In a previous article I have attempted to demon- 
strate in conjunction with Freud's well-known observations on frig- 
idity t that this condition in the female sex is the exact analogue 
of a disturbance of potency in the man, namely, 'ejaculatio praecox'.^ 
In both conditions the libido is attached to that erotogenic zone 
which has normally a similar signiiicance in the opposite sex. In 
cases of frigidity the pleasurable sensation is as a rule situated in 
the clitoris and the vaginal zone has none. The clitoris, however, 
corresponds developmentally with the penis. 

' Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie, 4. Aufl., sTs^f 
» 'Cber Ejacolatio praecox'. Internationale Zeitsckrift fur Psycho- 
analyse, 1916-17, Bd. IV, S. 171. 



Frigidity is such an exceedingly wide-spread disturbance that 
it hardly needs description with examples. On the other hand, 
it is less well-known that the condition appears in varying degrees. 
The highest degree, that of actual anassthesia, is rare; in these 
cases the vaginal mucous membrane has lost all sensitiveness to 
touch, so that the male organ is not perceived in sexual inter- 
course, and its existence is therefore actually denied. The common 
condition is a relative disturbance of sensitivity; contact is perceiv- 
ed but is not pleasurable. In other cases a sensation of pleasure is 
felt but does not go on to orgasm, or, what is the same thing, 
the contractions of the female organ corresponding with the acme 
of pleasure are absent It is these contractions that signify the 
complete and positive reaction of the woman to the male activity, 
the absolute affirmation of the normal relation of the sexes. 

Some women desire gratification along normal paths but endea- 1 

vour to make the act as brief and formal as possible. They refuse 
all enjoyment of any preliminary pleasure ; especially do they be- 
have after gratification as if nothing had happened that could 
make any impression on them, and turn quickly to some other 
subject of conversation, a book or occupation. These women thus 
give themselves up to the full physical function of the woman for 
a few fleeting moments only to disown it immediately afterwards. 

It is an old and well-known medical fact that many women 
only obtain normal sexual sensation after a child has been born. 
They become, so to speak, only female in the full sense by way 
of maternal feelings. The deeper connection of this is only to be * 

comprehended by the castration complex. The child was even | 

at an early period the 'gift' which was to compensate for the V 

missed penis. It is now received in reality, and thus the 'wound' is ' 

at last healed. It is to be noted that in some women there exists ^- 

a wish to get a child from a man against his will; we cannot ^\-, 

fail to see in this the unconscious tendency to take the penis from the 
man and appropriate it— in the form of a child. The otlier extreme 
belonging to this group is represented by those women who wish 
to remain childless under all circumstances. They decline any 
kind of 'substitute', and would be constantly reminded of their 
femininity in the most disturbing manner if they had children. 

A relative frigidity exists not only in the sense of the degree 
of capability of sensation, but also in the fact that some women 
are frigid with certain men and sensitive with others. 




It will probably be expected that a marked activity on the 
part of the man is the most favourable condition to call forth 
sexual sensation in such relatively frigid women. This, however, 
is not always the case; on the contrary, there are many women 
in whom a humiliation of the man is just as essential a condition 
of love as is the humiliation of the woman to many neurotic 
men.» A single example may be given in illustration of this by 
no means rare attitude. I analysed a woman whose love-life was 
markedly polyandrous, and who was constantly anesthetic if she 
had to acknowledge that the man was superior to her in some 
way or other. If, however, she had a quarrel with the man and 
succeeded in forcing him to give in to her, then her frigidity dis- 
appeared completely. Such cases show very clearly how necessaiy 
acknowledgement of the male genital function is as a condition of 
a normal love-life on the part of the woman. We here arrive at a 
source of the conscious and unconscious prostitution of women. 

Frigidity is a necessary condition of the behaviour of the 
prostitute. Full sexual sensation binds the woman to the man, 
and only where this is lacking does the woman go from man to 
man, just like the continually ungratified Don Juan type of man 
who has constantly to change his love-object. The Don Juan 
avenges himself on all women for the disappointment which 
happened to bim once on the part of the first woman in his life, 
and the prostitute avenges herself on every man for the gift she 
had expected from her father and did not receive. Her frigidity 
signifies a humiliation of all men and therefore a mass castration 
in the sense of her unconscious; her whole life is given up to 
this tendency.* 

While the frigid woman unconsciously strives to diminish the 
importance of that part of the body denied her, there is another 
form of refusal of the man which strives for the same aim with 
the opposite means. In this form of refusal the man is nothing 
else than a sex organ and therefore consists only of coarse sen- 
suality. Every other mental or physical quality is denied him. The 
effect is that the neurotic woman imagines that the man is an 
inferior being on account of his possession of a penis. Her selF- 

' See Freud, Beitrage zur Psychologie des Liebeslebens, sections 1 
and n, ' Kleine Schriften zur Neurosenlehre ', Bd. IV. 

= The remarks of Dr. Theodor Reik in a discussion at the Berlin 
Psycho-Analytical Society have suggested this idea to me. 



respect is thereby enhanced, and she may even be pleased at 
being free from such inferiority. One of my patients who showed 
a very marked aversion to men had the obsessing hallucination 
of a very big penis at the sight of any man and in any situation. 
This vision brought to her mind again and again that there is nothing 
else in men than their genital organ, from which she turned away 
in disgust, but which at the same time represented something that 
greatly interested her unconscious. Certain phantasies connected 
with this vision were of a supplementary nature. In these the patient 
represented herself as though every opening of her body, even 
the body as a whole, was nothing else than a receptive female 
organ. The vision therefore contained a mbtture of overestimation 
and depreciation of the male organ. 


We have already shown that the tendency to depreciate the 
importance of the male genital underlies a progressive sexual 
repression, and often appears outwardly as humiliation of men 
as a whole. In neurotic women this tendency is often shown by 
an instinctive avoidance of men who have pronounced masculine 
characteristics. They direct their love choice towards passive and 
effeminate men, and by living with them can daily renew the 
proof that their own activity is superior to the man's. Just like 
manifest homosexual women they love to represent the mental and 
physical differences between man and woman as insignificant 
One of my patients when six years old had begged her mother 
to send her to a boy's school in boy's clothes; * then no one will 
know that she is a girl'. 

Besides the inclination to depreciate men there is also found 
a marked sensitiveness of the castration complex towards any 
situation which can awaken a feeling of inferiority, even if only 
remotely. Women with this attitude refuse to accept any kind of 
help from a man, and show the greatest disinclination to follow 
a man's example. A young woman betrayed her claims of mas- 
culinity, repressed with difficulty, by declining to walk along a 
street covered in deep snow behind her husband and make use 
of his footsteps. A further very significant characteristic of this 
lady may be mentioned here. When she was almost a child she 


had had a strong desire for mdependence, and in adolescence she 
was very jealous of the occupations of two women in particular : 
the cashier in her father's office, and the woman who swept 
the street in her native town. The cause of this attitude is ob- 
vious to the psycho-analyst. The cashier sweeps together money, 
the crossing-sweeper dirt, and both things have the same signifi- 
cance in the unconscious. There is here a marked turning 
away from genital sexuaUty in favour of the formation of anal 
character traits, a process which will be mentioned in another 

A characteristic behaviour of some children shows the strength 
of the disinclination, to be reminded of one's own femininity by 
any impression. In little girls it not infrequently happens that they 
give up in favour of the stork fable knowledge they have already 
obtained of procreation and birth. The rflle bestowed upon them 
by nature is distinctly unwished-for. The stork tale has the ad- 
vantage that in it children originate without the man's part being 
a more privileged one in respect of activity. 

The most extreme degree of sensitiveness in the sense of the 
castration complex is foimd in certain cases of psychical depression 
in the female sex. Here the feeling of misfortune on account of 
their femininity exists wholly unrepressed ; these women do not 
even succeed in working it off in a modified form. One of my 
patients complained about the complete uselessness of her life 
because she had been bom a girl. She considered the superiority 
of men in all respects as obvious, and just for this reason felt it 
so tormentingly. She refused to compete with men in any sphere, 
and also rejected every feminine performance. In particular she 
declined the female erotic r61e, and equally so the male one. In 
consequence of this attitude all conscious eroticism was entirely 
strange to her ; she even said that she was unable to imagine 
any erotic pleasure at all. Her resistance against female sexual 
functions assumed grotesque forms. She transferred her refusal 
to everything in the world that reminded her, if only remotely, 
of bearing fruit, propagation, birth, etc. She hated flowers and 
green trees, and found fruit disgusting, A mistake which she made 
many times was easily explicable from this attitude; she would 
read 'furchtbar' {'frightful') instead of 'fruchtbar' ('fruitful'). In 
the whole of nature only the winter in the mountains could give 
her pleasure ; there was here nothing to remind her of living 



beings and their propagation, but only stones, ice and snow. She 
had the idea that in marriage the woman was quite of secondary 
importance, and an expression of hers clearly showed that this 
idea was based on the castration complex. She said that the ring 
— which was to her a hated female symbol — was not fit to be a 
symbol of marriage, and she suggested a nail as a substitute. 
The over-emphasis of masculinity here evidently developed from 
the penis envy of the little girl which appeared strikingly undis- 
guised in the patient's adult age. 

In many women the incapability of reconciling themselves to 
the lack of the male organ is expressed in neurotic horror at the 
sight of wounds. Every wound re-awakens in their unconscious 
the idea of the 'wound' received in childhood. Sometimes a de- 
finite feeling of anxiety occurs at tlie sight of wounds, and some- 
times this sight or the mere idea of it causes a 'painful feeUng 
in the lower part of the body'. The patient whom I mentioned 
above as having a complicated form of vaginismus spoke of her 
horror of wounds at the commencement of the psycho-analysis and 
before there had been any mention of the castration complex. 
She said that she could look at large and irregular wounds without 
being particularly affected. On the other hand, she could not bear 
to see a very small and somewhat open cut in her skin or on 
another person if the red colour of the flesh was visible in the 
depth of the cut; this gave her an intense pain in the genital 
region coupled with marked anxiety, 'as though something had 
been cut away there'. Similar sensations accompanied by anxiety 
are found in men with marked fear of castration. In many women 
it does not need the sight of a wound to cause phenomena of the 
kind described, but they also have an aversion, associated with 
marked affects, to the idea of surgical operations, even to knives. 
Some time ago a lady who was a stranger to me and who would 
not give her name rang me up on the telephone and asked me 
if I could prevent an operation that had been arranged for the 
next day. On my request for more information she told me she 
was to be operated on for a severe uterine haemorrhage due to 
myomata. When I told her it was not part of my work to prevent 
a necessary and perhaps life-saving operation she did not reply, 
but explained with affective volubility that she had always been 
'hostile to all operations', adding, 'whoever is once operated on 
is for ever afterwards a cripple for life'. The senselessness of this 



exaggeration is comprehensible if we remember that that operation 
carried out in phantasy in early chUdhood makes the girl a 'cripple'. 


A tendency with which we are well acquainted and which has 
already been mentioned leads in the sphere of the female castration 
complex to modifications of the aversion, to conditional admission 
of that which is tabooed, and to compromise formations between 
impulse and repression. 

In some of our patients we come across phantasies which refer 
to the possibility of a recognition of the man and to the formula- 
tion of conditions under which the patient, after their fulfilment, 
WQiJd be prepared to reconcile herself to her femininity. I mention 
first of all a condition I have met with many times; it runs: 'I 
could be content with my femininity if I were absolutely the most 
beautiful of all women'. All men would lie at the feet of the 
most beautiful woman, and the female narcissism would consider 
this power not a bad compensation for the defect so painfully 
perceived. It is in fact easier for a beautiful woman to assuage 
her castration complex than for an ugly one. However, the idea 
of being the most beautiful of all women does not have this 
effect in all cases. We are well-acquainted with the expression 
of a woman, 'I should Uke to be the most beautiful of all women 
so that all men would adore me; then I would show them the 
cold shoulder'. In this case the craving for revenge is quite clear; 
this remark was made by a woman of an extremely tyrannical 
nature which was based on a wholly unsublimated castration 

However, the majority of women are less blunt, they are 
inclined to compromise and to satisfy themselves with relatively 
harmless expressions of their repressed hostility. In this connection 
we can understand a characteristic trait in the conduct of many 
women. Let us keep in view the fact that sexual activity is essen- 
tially associated with the male organ, that the woman is only in 
the position to excite the man's libido or respond to it, and that 
otherwise she is compelled to adopt a waiting attitude. In a great 
number of women we find resistance against being a woman dis- 
placed to this necessity of waiting. In marriage these women take 





a logical revenge upon the man in that they keep him ivatting on 
all occasions in daily life. 

There is another condition related to the above mentioned *If 
I were the most beautiful woman'. In some women we find 
readiness to admit the male activity and their own passivity 
connected with the idea that the most manly (greatest, most l 

important) man should come and desire them. We have no diffi- 
culty in recognising here the infantile desire for the father. I have 
previously mentioned an example of a phantastic form of this * 

idea from one of my psycho-analyses. I was able to follow the - 

development of a similar phantasy through different stages in the £ 

psycho-analysis of another patient. The original desire ran: 'I ? 

should like to be a man'. When this was given up, the patient 
wished to be 'the only woman' (at first 'the only woman of the 1^ 

father' was meant). When also this wish had to give way to reality ; * 

the idea appeared: 'As a woman I should like to be unique'. 

Certain compromise formations are of far greater practical 
importance, and though well-known to psycho-analysts nevertheless 
merit special consideration in this connection. They concern the 
acknowledgement of the man, or to be more correct, his activity 
and the organ serving it, combined with definite limitations. Sexual 
relations with the man are endured, even wished-for, so long as 
the woman's own genital organ is avoided, or is, so to speak, 
considered to be non-existent. A displacement of libido to other 
erotogenic zones (mouth, anus) takes place, and a mitigation of 
feelings of discomfort originating in the castration complex is 
associated with this turning away of sexual interest from the 
genital organ. The body openings which are now at the disposal 
of the libido are not specifically female organs! Further determinants 
are found in the analysis of each of this kind of cases; one only 
need be mentioned, namely, the possibility of active castration 
through biting by means of the mouth. Oral and anal perversions 
in women are therefore to a considerable extent explicable in the ^i 

light of the castration complex. 

Among our patients we certainly have to deal more frequently 
with the negative counterpart of the perversions, i.e. with con- 
version symptoms which occur in relation to the specific erotogenic 
zones, than with the perversions themselves. Examples of this kind 
have already been mentioned above. I referred among other 
cases to that of a young girl who had the phobia of having to 



do something horrible to her husband in the event of her mar- 
riage. The 'horrible thing' turned out to be the idea of castration 
through biting. The case showed most clearly how displacement 
of the libido from the genital to the mouth zone gratifies very- 
different tendencies simultaneously. In these phantasies the mouth 
serves equally for the desired reception of the male organ and 
for its destruction. Such experiences warn us not to be too ready 
to overestimate a single determinant. Although in Ijie preceding 
presentation we have estimated the castration complex to be an 
important impelling force in the development of neurotic pheno- 
mena, we are not justified in over-valuing it in the way Adler 
has done when he one-sidedly represents the 'masculine protest' 
as an essential causa movens of the neuroses. Experience that is 
definite and is verified every day shows us that neurotics of both 
sexes who loudly proclaim and lay emphasis on the masculine 
tendency frequently conceal — though only superficially — intense 
female-passive desires. Psycho-analysis should constantly remind 
us of the over-determination of all psychical ideas; it has to 
reject as one-sided and fragmentar^f every psychological method 
of working which does not take into full account the influence 
of various factors on one another. In the present work I have 
collected material belonging to the castration complex from a 
great number of psycho-analyses. I expressly mention here that 
it is solely for reasons of clearness that I have only occasionally 
mentioned the expressions of the female-passive impulses which 
were lacking in none of my patients. 


Women whose ideas and feelings are influenced and governed 
by the castration complex to an important degree — no matter 
whether consciously or unconsciously — transplant ike effect oj this 
complex on to their children. These women may influence the 
psychosexual development of their daughters either by speaking 
disparagingly of female sexueility to them, or by unconsciously 
giving them indications of their aversion to the man. The latter 
method is the more permanently effective one, because it tends to 
undermine the heterosexuality of the growing-up girl. On the other 
hand, the direct method of depreciation can evoke real effects of 


a diock, for instance, if a mother says to her daughter who is 
about to marry *What is coming now is disgusting'. 

There are in particular those neurotic women whose libido 
has been displaced from tlie genital to the anal zone and who 
give expression to their disgust of the male body in this or similar 
manner. These women produce serious effects on their sans without 
foreseeing the result of their attitude. A mother with this kind of 
aversion to the male sex injures the narcissism of the boy. A boy 
in his early years is proud of his genital organs, he likes to ex- 
hibit them to his mother and expects her to admire them. He 
soon sees that his mother ostentatiously looks the other way, even 
if she does not give expression to her disinclination in words. 
These women are especially given to prohibiting masturbation on 
the grounds that it is disgusting for him to touch his genital 
organ. Whereas touching and even mentioning the penis is most 
carefully avoided by these women they tend to caress the child's 
buttocks, and cannot speak enough of the 'bottom', often getting 
the child to repeat this word; they also take an excessive interest 
in the child's defaecatory acts. The boy is thus forced to an 
altered orientation of his libido. Either it is transferred from the 
genital to the anal zone, or the boy is impelled towards his own 
sex, his father in the first instance, and feels himself bound to 
his father by a bond which is quite comprehensible to us; at the 
same time he becomes a woman-hater, and later will be con- 
stantly ready to make very severe criticisms of the weaknesses 
of the female sex. This chronic influence of the mother's castration 
complex seems to me to be a cause of the castration-fear in 
boys of greater importance than occasionally uttered threats of 
castration. I can produce abundant proofs of this view from my 
psycho-analyses of male neurotics. The mother's anal-erotism is 
the earliest and most dangerous enemy ol the psychosexual devel- 
opment of children, the more so because the mother has more 
influence on them in the earliest years of life than the father. * 

To everyone of us who are practising psycho-analysts the 
question occurs at times whether the trifling number of individuals 
to whom we can give assistance justifies the great expenditure of 
time, labour and patience. The answer to this question is con- 
tained in the above exposition: If we succeed in freeing such a 
person from the defects of her psychosexuality, i.e. from the 
burdens of her castration complex, then we obviate the neuroses 


of children to a great extent, and thus help the coining generation. 
Our psycho-analytic activity is a quiet and little recognised work, 
and for this reason all the more attacked, but its effect on and 
beyond the individual seems to us an aim worthy of much 







Science has so far treated the biological plienomenon of sleep 

descriptively, but it is unable to explain it satisfactorily as a ». 

dynamic process. Our assured knowledge regarding sleep is very 

deficient. We recognise it as a fundamental phenomenon in the 

orgaaic world, which, like breathing and taking nourishment, aids 

in the periodic recuperation of the individual. We do not know 

the exact nature of this recuperation, at any rate not with the 

same accuracy as with the processes of respiration and digestion. 

The peculiar association of the state of sleep witli certain mental 

phenomena has rendered its understanding more difficult, and 

has made problematical that experimental investigation to which 

we primarily owe most of our real knowledge. Biologists have 

formed the c^inion, which appears to us quite reasonable, that 

a general significance is to be attached to sleep almost in the 

same way as to the concept 'life', and therefore its problem does 

not directly concern physiology, Nevertheless, when it has to be 

discussed there are evident signs of discomfort. There is no doubt 

that a hidden and unconfessed perplexity is felt regarding the 

problem of sleep. 

Psycho-analytic investigation has not avoided this question ; 
but what it has to say about it does not fall into line with its 
other results without some explanation. Ferenczi, ' in a work which 
lays more stress on theoretical than clinical aspects, considers that the 
sleep of a new-bom child Is a hallucinatory attempt to return to the 

' ' Entwicklungsstufen des Wirklichkeitssinnes. ' IntemaHonale Zeii- 
schrifi fur arstliche Psyckoanalyse, 1913, Bd. 1, S. 12S. 




protection of its mother's womb. This is not a direct observation 
but an abstraction which is arrived at logically and easily from 
the sum of psycho-analytical experience. Freud' following the 
same train of thought has made this abstraction clearer. 'We 
are not accustomed to give much thought to the fact that every 
night a human being removes the garments with which he has 
clothed himself, and also those complements of the organs of his 
body which as far as possible replace whatever is lacking in them, 
for instance, spectacles, false hair and teeth, etc. It can also be 
said that he carries out a similar unclothing of his psyche on 
going to sleep — he renounces most of his psychical acquisitions. 
Thus in two directions he brings about a remarkable resemblance 
to the situation in which his life began. Sleep is somatically a 
re-activation of the sojourn in the womb, fulfilling the same con- 
ditions of restful posture, warmth and absence of stimuli ; indeed, 
many people assume in sleep the foetal attitude. The psychic con- 
dition of a person asleep is characterised by an almost complete 
withdrawal from his environment and all interest in it.' In another 
place Freud says:' 'We can say in the light of the libido theory 
that sleep is a state in which all investments of objects, both 
libidinal and egoistic, are given up and withdrawn into the ego. 
Does not this throw a new light on recuperation IJy sleep and on 
the nature of fatigue? The picture of blissful isolation in intra-uterine 
life, which the sleeping person conjures up again every night is 
thus confirmed and amplified on the mental side. In the sleeper 
the primal state of the libido-distribution is again reproduced, that 
of absolute narcissism, in which libido and ego-interests dwell 
together still, united and indistinguishable in the self-sufficient Self.' 

These are the most important contributions that psycho-ana- 
lysis has made to the problem of sleep. These two statements 
of Freud, which are more in the nature of brilliant apergtis, never- 
theless contain the essence of all his clear-sighted observations 
which have been so carefully put together. His view of the nature 
of sleep is peculiar to the psycho-analytic line of thought, and it 
has nowhere been foreshadowed in academic biology and psycho- 
logy. We anticipate all subsequent discussion when we remark 
that in the first instance we have nothing to add to these 

' 'Metapsychologische Erganzung zur Traumlehre '. Iniemationale Zeit- 
sekrift filr Sntlicke Psychoanalyse. 19I&-17, Bd. IV, S. 277. 

» Vorlesungen zur Einfiihrung in die Psychoanalyse, 151 7, S. 486. 


Statements. Our investigation of the problem does not go back so 
far; the clinical pictures of the condition which underlie the in- 
vestigation admit of a further and, perhaps for practical purposes, 
a more important conception. We shall keep as far as possible to 
experiential evidence, but at the same time we shall find that we 
can support Freud's ingenious conclusions from clinical ob- 

One of the most familiar psycho-analytical observations is that 
in every infant gratification of the oral libido promotes sleep. It is 
immaterial whether this gratification occurs through taking nourish- 
ment or through continued sucking of a finger. This intimate 
association of oral gratification and need for sleep at a time when 
the individual has no other desire to appease must produce an ex- 
ceedingly firm connection, to which nothing of equal significance 
in later phases of development can be compared. Therefore we 
shall not be surprised if both oral gratification and sleep henceforth 
show a tendency to become more and more strengthened in their 
union, which primarily was perhaps a loose one, and in patho- 
logical cases to act in sympathy with each other. In investigating 
this notion by suitable examples, and apart from theoretical con- 
siderations, we shall hope to obtain a better understanding of a 
number of phenomena. I shall give a somewhat detailed description 
of the first case for the sake of clearness. 

I. A bright and vivacious girl, eighteen years ot age, who 
was very appreciative of the pleasures of life, became ill with the 
following nervous disturbance which first appeared after an episode 
on an excursion. At the prospect of going into company she was 
seized with a kind of spasm of the throat, i. e. a choking reflex 
which belongs to the well-known group of globus hystericus. This 
symptom so alarmed her that she gave up her intention and shut 
herself up at home. She gradually had to recognise that this 
trouble was not of a temporary nature, but tended to occur more 
and more frequently, with the result that she had an increasing 
aversion to meet acquaintances. At the same time she developed 
an extraordinary and ingenious capacity for hiding from the world her 
true condition, of which she was very much ashamed ; and she almost 
completely succeeded in doing so. The next result of the neurosis 
was that she considered herself incapable of playing the part of 
a woman, and she had therefore refused several quite suitable 
offers of marriage. As a pretext for this state of affairs she said 


that she did not wish to owe her future husband to the influential 
position of her father, since no one would marry her for herself. 
Before she came for analysis she had discovered a kind of anti- 
dote to the sudden spasm in her throat. Wlien it was impossible for 
her to avoid going into company the feared attack did not occur 
if she could manage to place unobserved a piece of dry food, for 
example, bread, in her mouth, and to swallow it down. If she got 
over the worst she felt a little relieved and was able to remain. 
But this means of relief was not reliable and often failed. After 
three years of an endless and fluctuating struggle against the demon 
of the neurosis the patient had for a long time become incapable 
of venturing even one step outside the house without her bread 

The nature of her suffering, a common and well-known one, 
should not prevent us from apprehending the real state of affairs. 
The same facts are always confronting us in life; it only 
depends on our attitude and reflection what deductions we draw 
from them. 

The present case shows the choking reflex as a psychic symptom 
which bore a number of different meanings, and which, as we 
might gather from the complaint of the patient, was conditioned 
by many factors. Its previous history alone proves that it is not 
a question of a simple globus, but a conversion symptom in which 
an unusual wealth of affect is condensed. This is the rule in every 
mono-symptomatic hysteria which after long duration enters into 
association with the most important experiences of life. We might 
mention as further characteristics of the symptom, that it settled 
in the throat like an erectile formation, and that it never produced 
a disturbance of eating.* The incorporation of a firm object as a 

'The patient suffered from an oral libido fixation of unusual dispo- 
sitional strength which had never abandoned its infantile r61e, and had 
evoked no reactions. It was for the most part directly attached to the 
nutritional function ; for she showed a marked pleasure in eating. She 
liked to suck soup or water slowly; drinking quickly gave her less 
pleasure. She sometimes licked her plate for a joke; she said she did 
this like animals. At night a frequent flow of saliva occurred; this phe- 
nomenon existed in other members of her family. Her father and sister 
occasionally suffered from nervous vomiting, and a near relative on her 
father's side was bom with a malformation of the palate. In this case 
therefore archaism of the mouth was marked anatomically as well. 



m^c charm has another meaning. The patient betrayed what 
significance the oral region possessed for her by her tendency to 
keep her mouth covered as far as possible. 

The analysis first showed that the initiation of her malady was 
determined by a remarkable circumstance ; the neurosis followed 
on a prophecy. When the patient was a little girl her aunt, who 
later on played a part in her life, caught her doing a forbidden 
act— onanism— and censured her for it. Her aunt told her, 'If 
you do it again you will become ill when you are a big girl.' 
This date (a big girl) coincided with the age at which her 
elder sister married. Her aunt had therefore been right, she could 
not become a bride and wife like her sister. When in the further 
course of the analytic treatment a strongly repressed 'masculine- 
complex' — the'renounced longing to be formed like a boy— came 
to light, that ominous prophecy appeared in a new light as 
a correlate of a threat of castration, the threat which gives 
us so much trouble in many neuroses. These two factors, the 
repressed masculine complex * and the threat, led to a serious 
interruption of her genital sexuality. It is true that onanism 
was continued after puberty, and even developed into homo- 
erotic acts with the co-operation of a governess. However, it 
remained rather a kind of mechanical gratification, and appeared 
in connection with the repressed psychic material only so far 
as it became a poor substitute for the heterosexual object 
choice which was inhibited, though firmly adhered to in the 
unconscious. The tenacity of her neurosis aided this substitution, 
and added to its temporary significance as a possible form 
of relief of definite libidinal tension. At the same time it 
offered a guarantee that after such strongly repressed quant- 
ities of energy became free the original attraction to the male 
would finally be strengthened. 

Besides this infantile cause of her illness a recent one was the 
marriage of a cousin. Circumstances had enabled her to share in 
the intimacies of a long betrothal, and she had experienced unsatisfied 
excitations which she would never seriously acknowledge to herself. 
Her former tendency to repress sexual feelings, and a mental 
innocence that was artificially guarded in the family circle, now 
came into action ; but this time the measure was full and the 

' One event among those of childhood was very painful to her; in a 
sexual game her person was spumed with derision. 

' A 


neurosis broke out. Its course was determined by the dispositional 
strength of the oral libido. It took possession of this component 
instinct with unusual force, and produced almost the entire range 
of those pathological phantasies which draw nourishment from this 
impulse. I should like, incidentally, to call attention to two re- 
sults, because they seem to me characteristic products of the 
oral phase, and in their genera! nature to leave traces on every 
human character. The regression of the libido to the oral or 
cannibalistic stage changes not only its form, but also its content, 
until it is unrecognisable. It is then difficult to recognise in the 
symptom the original libidinal excitation as such. In the present 
case I had to regard an excessive envy and certain murderous 
phantasies as the strongest psychical emanations by means of which 
the libido had betaken itselfto lower levels and had formed its relation 
with the world ; these phantasies and envy were quite foreign to 
her conscious personality and contrasted remarkably with the rest 
of her character. Envy in particular seems to me to be always a 
narcissistic side-stream arising cut of the oral instinct, and is an 
important clue towards establishing a character based on this com- 
ponent instinct. Wherever it is possible to observe envy at an early 
stage, m children, for instance, we find that it is directed only 
against people to whom there is simultaneously a hbidinal 

Owing to the progress of the Uhiess the effective oral libido, 
which up to this time had been latent, obtained control and took 
possession of her whole personality which had to subject itself 
to it entirely. At the same time the patient adopted a remarkable 
behaviour during sleep, and this supplemented the neurosis in an 
unexpected direction. Her need for sleep had always been great, 
and her vivid description of it gave rise from the first to the 
supposition that it concerned an act from which she derived a 
considerable amount of pleasure. That a sleeper should experience 
pleasure of this kind is plausible to anyone. Only analysis finds 
sufficient grounds in this very fact for seeing a problem here. The 
patient's pleasure in sleep had now in neurosis adopted a sympto- 
matic form. Some details are easily understandable, such as a tendency 
to he on her stomach completely covered up, in order to procure comfort 
and warmth as a preliminary condition for sleep. When sleep came 
the tendency to increase this condition did not cease. She men- 
tioned three so-called 'sleep actions' which she carried out from 


time to time without any subsequent memory of them. ' She slipped 
oflF her night-dress during the night in her sleep and found her- 
self lying naked in the morning ; she got out of bed and urinated 
without waking, and never used the chamber clumsily ; finally 
while asleep ehe emptied the glass of water put ready for her 
without letting it fall or knocking it as she put it back. It even 
happened that she drank two glasses which had been left on her 
table. I should say that in this case the actions signified automatic 
sleep activities, not dream activities, the latter being more com- 
plicated processes which convert psychical material into action. ^ 
In this case there was no question of the elaboration of a phan- " 
tasy, because the patient never produced further associations to - ^ 
the subject 

Nevertheless, the case, by reason of its relative simplicity, seems 
suited to furnish the starting point for the explanation of more 
complicated cases. vThe meaning of the first sleep action, which 
like the others must be regarded as an expression of her auto- : 

erotic strivings, is quite clear if we take Freud's hypothesis of = 

the sleep state. It may then be said, she sleeps 'naked as in her 
mother's womb'. The two other activities are reminiscent of foetal 
actions. We know that the foetus makes swallowing movements, 
for amniotic fluid is found in its stomach. It also empties its 
bladder, for the amniotic fluid often contains the chemical con- _ 
stituents of urine.' ; 

I do not consider it arbitrary to interpret the sleep actions of , ■ 

the patient in this way. We seem to have here a slight indication 
that the oral phase of the libido is not the first, but that it at- 
taches itself to a preceding phase which might be termed the ; 
lethargic or apnoeic* In the present case the regression had at- ] 
tained the oral stage, which in consequence of its intimate con- X 
nections had simultaneously activated elements of the primary , > 
sleep state. As for the rest, I see no difficulty theoretically in 

' It was only from the effect remaining after waking that she concluded 
she had done something during her sleep. 

' These are the same two functions which almost all children can be 
trained to perform automatically, so that they carry them out in their 

' The second term is the more appropriate one, as will be shown 
by my remarks at the end of this paper. 


drawing the farther conclusion that the pathological regression 
of the libido can pass directly to the lethargic stage; tlie hysterical 
sleep illness described by Charcot would be an example of this. 
Certain peculiarities of this illness, the tendency to attacks of 
spasm and inhibitions of breathing, throw a greater light on the 
part played by this stage. However, such considerations are outside 
the scope of this investigation. 

2. The next example is of an amazing disturbance of the ability 
to sleep to which was partly due the fatal termination of the 
case. I did not obtain my knowledge of the history of this illness 
from an analysis carried out in an orthodox manner. But I had 
known the patient for more than fifteen years; and her physical 
and mental development had been entrusted to my care during 
this period. I was also able to observe directly the circumstances 
of her decease. This can be taken as equivalent to the results of 
an analysis. 

The neurotic predisposition of the patient was clearly 
manifested, if only in the difficulties of her education when a child. 
The years up to the latency period were characterised by a loi^ 
tarrying in different forms of auto-erotism, among them a strong 
oral manifestation of the libido. The suppression of the component 
instincts did not take place evenly; a certain precocity remained 
as the residue of considerable infantile aggressive tendencies (set 
free by the excessive tenderness of her father). When she had 
grown up into a beautiful and admired girl a peculiar narcissistic 
condition developed. 3he was almost defenceless against the 
homage of admirers, and she was disarmed by every interest 
shown her, so that she was erroneously considered to be of a very 
sensual nature which had to be watched. This was really not 
necessary, because she never over-stepped the prescribed limits. 
She treated her affairs with remarkable openness and told them 
with evident pleasure. It was her wish to be loved and hear 
others talk about her. The social environment in which she lived 
offered no opportunity for much mental development. Her first 
difficulties commenced with her marriage. She failed to enjoy 
sexual feeling, which came as a surprise to her relatives. She 
proved to be frigid. She soon complained of strong aversion to 
the sexual act, although she loved and highly esteemed her 
husband. A constant restlessness, associated with hypochondriacal 
and anxiety conditions took possession of her, and without 


knowing it she took revenge on her husband for tlie unsatisfied 
excitations experienced. She kept him in check by frequent and 
sudden indispositions. She declined psycho-analytic treatment, 
which I proposed at this time, remarking that pregnancy would 
be a better remedy for her trouble. The whole restlessness of 
the young wife was now turned to this hope; in which was also 
evident the secret thought that the new state would offer her the 
desired opportunity of obtaining a respite from her obligations 
as a wife. The advent of the expected pregnancy found her in 
an intolerable frame of mind. On the one hand she very seriously 
and ambitiously endeavoured to prove her love for her husband 
and to repay his patient constancy with true affection. On the other 
hand her physical repugnance— her dread of cohabitation— in- \,' 

creased to nausea. New symptoms appeared in a sinister sequence: 
hostile impulses against him who had caused her illness, trans- 
ference of these impulses to the expected child, and terrifying 
feelings as a sequel to repression. A journey taken by her husband, 
which she interpreted in her unconscious as his leaving her alone 
and helpless in ber miserable condition, led finally to the out- 
break of the actual illness, which her relatives could no longer 
overlook. One night without any external cause, either accident 
or feverish illness, her anxiety and despondency increased to a 
psychic shock which put an end to the foetal movements of which 
she had just previously become aware. Next day it was obvious 
that the child was dead. Owing to unfortunate circumstances tlie 
removal of the dead foetus was delayed several days, and only 
carried out when threatening symptoms arose (haemolytic icterus 
and sterile decomposition of the placenta). An excessive weakness 
and complete loss of psychic resistance followed the operation. 
The most trifling item in the treatment was used neurotically. 
Gynaecological examinations induced almost deUrious states of 
excitation. A therapeutic and painfully strict dietary provoked 
loss of appetite. When endeavours were made to combat this loss 
of appetite in consequence of her increasing weakness, vomiting 
was always the result. Haemorrhages from the uterus occurred for 
which the gynaecologist could find no organic cause. These haem- 
orrhages bore the character of an excessive menstruatio praecox, 
and aU symptoms indicated that the chief motive of the illness, 
the neurotic anxiety in respect to sexual intercourse which was 
again in prospect, had provoked this condition; for the excessive 


nausea of the patieot now attached itself to this new symptom. 
She ceaselessly complained, 'If only the bleedings would stop 
I should be able to eat'. But the vomiting accompanied by violent 
physical tension and exhaustion did not allow the bleeding to stop. 
A profound mental change took place with the increase of her 
symptoms, and her mental attitude took on infantile traits. The sym- 
ptoms reacted with a temporary improvement according to the severity 
of the treatment. One symptom, however, resisted all efforts at 
alleviation — that of insomnia resulting from resistance to the relapse 
into the oral phase. It indicated the measure of the pathological 
force necessary for the suppression of the oral libido. This alarming 
condition was maintained for four whole weeks; for so long was 
the robust constitution of the patient able to stand the ravages of 
insomnia. At a moment when consciousness was already clouded 
she committed suicide in a way explicable by a knowledge of 
her predisposition (death from burning). 

If we take into consideration the fundamental characteristics 
of this case, i. e. its structure, we come to the following con- 
clusion. The more active an individual has been in his oral phase, 
and the more energetically this stage of development has been 
later repressed, the greater is the chance that his ability to sleep 
will be aiTected by a pathological regression of the libido. The oral 
libido requires a high counter-charge which is in certain circum- 
stances apt to remove the general wish-to-sleep of the ego (draw- 
ing in of the libido). In support of this idea I will refer the 
reader to a case which Abraham * has published in an important 
work on the oral organisation. It needs only a very triiling trans- 
position of the facts quoted there to make clear the relationship. 
Abraham's patient showed in his childhood an utterly ungovernable 
oral impulse {gnawing the bed-post). Later, grati6cation of this 
zone became a condition of falling asleep, whereupon mastur- 
bation which almost always directiy follows oral libidinal activity 
appeared as an intermediate link. Every attempt to check the 
oral libido or masturbation 'had to be purchased by the patient 
with long periods of stubborn sleeplessness'. The insomnia of 
melancholies, who (according to Abraham) fall ill in consequence 

' ' Untersuchungen tiber die friiheste pragenitale Entwicklungsstufe 
der Libido", Internationale Zeitsckrift fUr drzUicke Psychoanalyse, 
igie, Bd. IV, S. 86-7. 


of 'repulse of a threatening relapse into the oral organisation', 
iinds its explanation in this relationship, i 

I will attempt by a few short examples to demonstrate the 
connection of the capacity to sleep with the oral organisation. It is 
in the nature of the clinical material that these examples refer to 
disturbances of sleep, for thus they Erst become accessible to obser- 
vation. The first case is an exception because there the regressive 
hbido did not meet with a resistance in the direction of the oral 
instinct but an increase and establishment, by which the previously 
great need for sleep was increased and converted into regressive 

3. I should like to discuss the following connections from the 
analysis of a very complicated neurosis, which however ran its course 
with unobtrusive symptoms and only imperceptibly iniluenced the 
patient's external life. I shall omit all irrelevant material. This is tlie 
case of a man with labile potency who suffered in unusual situations 
(new relationships with women) from ejaculatio praecox, but on 
other occasions from ejaculatio tardiva, so that he was never very 5 

certain about bis virility. He frequently performed coitus with . } 

diflerent persons, which however gave him incomplete gratification; ■< 

this was expressed amongst other tilings in two symptoms. .\ 

He masturbated between the occasions of cohabitation, because he 
found even a short abstinence irksome, and his sleep was disturbed, 
since he could not go to sleep at night directly after sexual inter- 
course or onanism, in both of which, therefore, some impulse remained 

This latter fact I had to assume from the statement long since 
made by Freud, that sleeplessness is the result of unreleased sexual 
excitations. The interpretation of this symptom was arrived at 
when a considerable oral hbido fixation had been revealed in 
the sexual constitution of the patient, and its later history traced. 
Great activity in this direction had been evinced in childhood but 
at puberty practicaUy no r61e was assigned to it. The patient was 
a very great lover of kissing, yet this tendency of his oral libido 
never afforded him full satisfaction; his other auto-erotic tendencies, ^ 

' See also Freud: 'Trauer und Melancholic', IniemaHonale Zeit- 
schrift fUr arztliche Psychoanalyse, Bd. IV, S. 288. 

Great releases of affect often render possible a temporary regression 
to the oral stage; at such moments 'ones feels as though one's throat 
were being throttied'. 


which managed without a love object, did not permit of its be- 
coming a perversion. In this way this component impulse, cut oft 
from conscious life, was able to retain in the unconscious its 
potential force, so as finally to become effective, i, e. pathological, 
after diminution of complete enjoyment in the sexual act, in a 
temporary disturbance of sleep. It is worth noting that the oral 
libido behind the symptom of sleeplessness did not have to give 
up its incognito. This is shovm in the next case similarly. 

4. A man of forty-eight became a martyr to insomnia which 
set in with the decline of his genital functions, when he had 
lost all sexual craving. This insomnia is explained by the fact that- 
in the process of ageing the impulses capable of becoming con- 
scious were put out of action, while the unconscious — repressed — 
impulses had experienced the increase usual at the climacterium, 
amongst them an oral libido which had been inactive up to that time. 
Since the oral libido could not then come to the fore in the 
sexual activity now abandoned, its complement, insomnia, took its 
place. It may serve as an indirect proof of the patient's unusual oral 
disposition that his daughter up to fifteen years of age was a tliumb- 
sucker and later io her sexual indiiference very much recalled 
the present condition of her father, whom she resembled in physical 

5. In a case of extreme insomnia which developed as the result 
of a mentally-conditioned and ■ deeply-rooted aversion to normal 
sexual intercourse — its motive was a protest against the immorality 
of the mother with whom the patient identified himself— an 
oral perversion appeared as the final bearer of the patient's still 
existing sexual impulses. Nevertheless, before this broke out in- 
somnia had been permanently established. The patient suffered 
all his life from salivatio nervosa. 

I believe this series of observations might easily be augmented 
by following out the leading points of view. We may assume that 
under certain conditions there is a complementary relation between 
impulses or, in case we do not wish to reduce the need for sleep 
to the rank of an impulse, tliat impulses unite with the cardinal 
phenomena of life which belong to organic nature. The follow- 
ing considerations support this view. Consciousness is a phenomenon 
of life of primary significance. Consciousness in the real sense 
begins with respiration. In a sense every human being might say 
that since he began to breathe he became conscious of himself 



Pathology teaches us that there are profound connections between 
consciousness and breathing. In all those morbid disturbances or 
interruptions of consciousness which we denote by the popular 
collective term 'fit' (syncope, epilepsy, certain hysterical attacks), 
inliibition in breathing is the dominating symptom that distinguishes 
these states from sleep. In the sense of the Freudian libido theory 
we have to assume that every regressive process, in so far as it 
is not absorbed into the ego, concerns an organ that responds dis- 
positionally to it. There is no difficulty in drawing the theoretical 
conclusion that also in the respiratory organ such a libido position 
can be established. I first obtained this idea from a case of hys- 
terical dyspnoea. Later I found the same regressive path to the 
respiratory organs in the investigation of a case of infantile anxious 
readiness, which had not yet become a phobia and culminated in 
something like eclampsic attacks.^ At that time I said to myself 
that there must be a retrogressive movement of libido to an 
apnoeic phase, which phase I had previously called lethargic. 
I have no desire, however, to simplify artificially a great number 
of very complicated phenomena by this terminology and will 
therefore break off at this point. In the cases related above I was 
more concerned to indicate the parallelism. If I have thrown some 
light on the parallels between liie oral impulse and the need for 
sleep, I have provisionally fulfilled my task. ' 

' See Freud: Vorlesungen zur Einfiihrung in die Psychoanalyse. 
1917, S, 461. He says : ' The word Angst {angusiiae, narrowness) 
emphasises the character of constriction in breathing', 

* Our therapeutic endeavours have so far shown little success in the 
nervous disturbances of sleep. This unfortunate circumstance can be 
explained from the fact that the automatic state of sleep, which is 
usually related to various auto-erotisms, is at first charged with but 
little psychic energy, and only later assumes its relations to the different 
mental activities. Psycho-analytic treatment finds a natural limit where 
the purely psychic, which is an isolated product, is merged into the 
general current of life. 










1. Don't fail to notice the entry of the patient into the con- 
sulting room, regarding punctuality, facial expression, tone of voice, 
manner and general appearance. Extreme neatness or untidiness of 
the person or self-admiration are points of practical value. 

2. Don't allow the patient to sit in an upright chair. Provide a 
couch to encourage relaxation. 

3- Don't sit within the patient's view. The analyst should be 
obliterated from view both literally and mentally. 

4. Don't talfc once the patient has taken up the supine position. 
Keep silent and let the patient break the silence at the beginning 
of every hour. 

5. Don't fail to note the first remark. This will probably be 
found to have a bearing on the analysis and may act as a key 
to it. 

6. Don't allow the patient to leave the couch or change tlie 
supine position so that the analyst is in view. The desire of the 
patient to view the analyst is to watch the effect of his disclosures 
on the analyst's face. If the patient insists on turning towards the 
analyst, this resistance should be analysed at once. 

7. Don't give your point of view to the patient Take the patient's 
standpoint and work from that. 

8. Don't argue with a patient. It takes two to make an argu- 
ment and the analyst would be infringing the passive role. The 
patient grows tired of trying to argue if there is no response. 

9. Don't forget to note the nature of the transference. A heavy 
positive transference in the early stages should cause the analyst 
to be on the alert for just as heavy a negative. 



lo. Don't fail to note signs of a counter transference. These 
will be found in the analyst's dreams and should be dealt with 
immediately. A counter transference means the need for further 
analysis for the analyst. 'The analyst can proceed in an analysis only 
so far as he is analysed himself.' (Freud.) 

ri. Don't administer cut and dried philosophy. That mode of 
procedure is suggestion and not psycho-analysis. 

12. Don't divulge any personal affairs to the patient. The instinct 
of curiosity in the patient is always uppermost regarding the analyst. 
Don't be tempted to relate incidents in one's life to help the 
patient. He will probably use such communications for his own 
unconscious purposes during the analysis. 

13- Don't fail to note the unconscious actions of the patient. 

14. Don't fail to note the reactions of the patient, e. g. angry 
voice, hushed tone, emphasis, tears, excitement, etc. 

15. Don't draw the attention of the patient to the findings in 
the analysis too early in the work. The transference may be in- 
complete and the egoism of the patient will resent these disclosures. 
A serious reaction, such as the contemplation of suicide, may be 
the result. Don't forget that the neurotic's chief dictum is: 'I am 
not as other men are'. 

16. Don't touch the patient. The patient may complain of all 
manner of symptoms during the analysis, some of which might involve 
a physical examination. They should have attention from a general 
physician and not from the analyst; e.g. the development of a skin 
rash may cover a desire to expose the person to the analyst 

17. Don't continue the analysis after the time has expired even 
if the patient has arrived late. Cease and rise from your chair no 
matter what the patient happens to be saying at the moment. 

18. Don't allow patients who come for analysis to meet either 
on entry or departure. This is a frequent cause of jealousy and fresh 
resistances are set up. 

19- Don't fail to note the manner of the patient's departure. 
Heed the facial expression and the tone of voice. 

20. Don't forget that some unconscious action or unguarded remark 
on departure may furnish material for the next analysis. 





A male patient under analysis and during the stage of dealing 
with his homosexual complex told me one day that he had swallowed 
a grape pip and was afraid it might give him appendicitis. I did 
not take the matter seriously and let it pass. 

A fortnight later he reverted to the matter and regarded the 
fear as a curious one, because he knew quite well that a grape 
pip would 'dissolve' in the digestive juices; so I told him to analyse 
the fear. His analysis was as follows: 

His concept of the appendix was that of a tube leading into a 
hollow cavity and that appendicitis was a swelling up — a distension — of 
this cavity, which might be caused by a grape pip passing through 
the tube into the cavity. A grape pip is a seed which could ger- 
minate into life. Seed = Semen. The distension of the cavity would 
therefore be with a child. Moreover, until fourteen years of age he 
imagined the female to be fashioned just like the male and supposed 
fertilization to be induced via the mouth. 





We had been dining, five men and one lady. After dinner there 
was no means of the lady relieving herself; so she had to wait till 
late in the night, which must have been particularly trying, as 
we were all drinking freely, in a dry heat of iiS". 

After dinner on the way home, the lady was talking about 
medicines and remarked: 'I have some excellent pills. They are 
made of Charcoal, Bepsin, and Pissmuth.' Having said this she 
laughed hysterically, and I laughed outright, which put her at her 

However, the next day she very cleverly brought the conversation 
round to slips of the tongue, and then said: 'Oh! Wasn't it strange? 
Last night I said "Bepsin" instead of "Pepsin" to Major Daly'. 










Psycho-analysis has made it evident that the ' source of artistic 
inspiration lies in the unconscious, the material worked up by the 
artist being his own deeper self, which finds expression in his creation 
as a projection of himself. Pfister has further shown that drawings 
may have unconscious symbolical meanings, quite apart from their 
pictorial value. But it is possible to go a step further still. It 
would seem that artistic taste in general is based — at least to a 
large extent— on unconscious associations that find a symbolic 
expression in conscious aesthetic predilections. 

This comes out neatly in the following cases, which have come 
under the writer's notice during the course of psycho-analysis. In 
each instance aesthetic valuation was dependent entirely upon an 
unconscious complex. 

Case I. Violent dislike of yellow. 

Immediate association; mustard; further with mustard: sUmy, 
'mashy' — dislike of 'mashy' food, and finally — diarrhoea. As a 
matter of fact, the patient had a strong coprophilic complex, of 
which the most obvious symptom was frequent attacks of nervous 

Case 2. Excessive delight in yellow. 

The patient, a homosexual, loves to wear ties with yellow or 
orange in them, lives in a room with yellow wall-paper, etc. 

Immediate association with yellow: his mother's hair, which 
was yellow, and of which she was extremely proud. The patient, 
like all homosexuals, passed through a period of strong fixation 
on his mother. Further association with yellow: the yellow colour 
of the anus (in hght-haired boys). Patient has a strong coprophilic 
complex with pederastic phantasies. 

Yellow also leads him back to the yellow colour of infantile 
faeces and to the remembrance of a scene in his fifth year, when 




he refused to eat scrambled eggs on account of their resemblance 
to a child's motioni 

Case J. Dislike of the colour combination red and purple. 

Association: tiie reddish -purplish aspect of the vulva. The dis- 
like arose for the first time when he saw a large flaunting flower 
painted in red and purple, which reminded him of the vulva. The 
patient is a voyeur, and often compares the spread-out vulva to a 

Case 4- Strong aesthetic predilection for stone quatries. 

The patient, who is a homosexual, finds that tliey have some- 
thing 'manly'. Then he thinks they represent something 'naked', 
A dream of his reveals the whole truth: he dreams that he sees 
at one side of a road a stone quarry, and at the other a beautiful 
nude youth. He does not know which to choose. He himself found 
the psycho-analytical explanation. 

Case s- 

A lady finds that she has a strong predilection for certain designs, 
which on analysis are all found to have this one thing in common, 
that the several parts of the design are repeated, and are chasing 
each other, as in a whorl. Thus she divides the small window 
panes of a large window by imaginary diagonals, and constructs 
the pattern given below; also rose-designs, arranged within a circle or 
square have a special attraction for her. On analysis it becomes 
quite clear to her that not only do the three sections of the rose 


chase each other, but two sections together (as i and 2) suggest 
the two halves of the nates, and this three times over in the design. 
The next association is the Manx coat of arms, three legs arranged 
in a circle and 'kicking' each other: this brings us nearer to the 
solution. She also remembers the somewhat meaningless geography 
rhyme 'Long-legged Italy "kicks" little Sicily', for which she had 
a curious fondness. The kicking and the nates together bring out 
the person's complex: flagellation ideas. Her earhest recollection is 
from school when she was about five years old, when she wit- 
nessed a (male) teacher chastizing another little girl on the bare 



buttocks. This was resented violently at the time, but nevertheless 
was repressed into the unconscious with a lustful tone, which still 
expressed itself in a flagellation complex. 

These individual examples show clearly that all such apparently 
idle fancies as artistic predilections have definite causal foundations, 
and are determined by individual unconscious factors. The old adage 
De gustibus non est disputandum thus finds its appropriate psychic 




About nine years ago Herbert Silberer' published an article on 
dreams of spermatozoa in whicli he expressed the opinion that 
other investigators would come across representations of sperma- 
tozoa in many dreams, and he further added that it would be 
desirable for them to examine these cases carefully from the point 
of view of death wishes, in order to find out whether this con- 
nection which he had observed was the rule. Hedwig Schulze^ 
has since confirmed this connection of dreams of spermatozoa with 
death wishes. She further discovered that the wish to be born again 
lay behind the wish to be dead. Silberer considered his case parti- 
cularly worthy of consideration because it very clearly proved to 
him the correctness of a new kind of observation which the majority 
of people would accept with incredulity. Many persons who have 
only a little knowledge of psycho-analysis will be inclined to be 
mistrustful of a phantasy concerning the body of tlie father (much 
more so than of one concerning the mother's body), and we can 
imagine that the opponents will not admit the striking evidence 
upon which the correctness of Silberer's observation is said to be 
based, because it concerns the interpretation of symbols which one 
might be always justified in doubting. On account of this I am 
particularly pleased to be able to publish the following case because 
without any interpretation it demonstrates in an indisputable manner 
the actual occurrence of the phantasy of being a spermatozoon in 
the father's body, and coupled with it thoughts of death and re-birth. 

The man was an epileptic who was not being treated psycho- 
analytically, and there were no grounds for believing that he had 

' 'Spermatozoentramne', yahrb. f. psychoanalyt. ». psychopath. For- 
schttwgen^ Bd. VI, S. 141 ff. 

' 'Ein Spermatozoentraum im Zusammenhang mit Todeswiinschen ', 
IntematioHale ZHtsckrift fur Psychoanalyse, Bd. II, S. 34. 



been influenced by psycho-analytical theories or anything of that 

The patient's wife consulted me on account of her husband's 
mental confusion which had existed for two days and which follow- 
ed three epileptic attacks that had occurred the day before. 
He had never been confused previously, but according to her de- 
scription had suffered from typical epileptic attacks for the last 
eleven years (he smacks his tongue, becomes suddenly unconscious 
and falls down with tonic convulsions passing into clonic ones, 
passes urine during the attack, and after the fit is stuporose and 
gradually falls asleep). He had never had any attacks when he was 
a sergeant-major, but only since he had been in a civU post. He 
had had convulsions when a child. For several years he had taken 
a good deal of alcohol. 

On my first visit the patient, who was about forty-five years 
old, was moderately orientated in time, but he hallucinated music 
and the audience around him, and occupied himself with an imagin- 
ary electric wire which was connected with the production of the 
music. He was afraid that his wife would touch the wire. He 
was cheerful and fairly quiet except that he continually moved his 
right arm in order to produce the music from the imaginary wire. 
According to his wife's account he played all the time with his 
penis and said that clay came from it. He named objects in- 
correcdy, and on reading from a paper and writing from dictation 
he frequenUy misread and misheard. He had no tremors. Briefly, 
the man showed a delirium of occupation with epileptic and alcoholic 
features, but we shall see diat the content of this delirium to be 
ascribed to intoxication was similar to a dream. 

The patient who had not slept for two days and nights was 
given 0.1 00 grammes of luminal and fell asleep in five minutes. 
When he awoke next morning the delirium had passed. His 
emotional state on waking is worth noting. He cried with emotion and 
with such violence that he made a kind of bellowing noise, and 
assured me that he had recovered. He had retained an accurate 
memory of his delirium and also of reality; for instance, he immedia- 
tely recognised me. 

He told me quite spontaneously and with evident pleasure, but 
at the same time as though astonished at something extraordinary, 
what had happened to him. 'Just think of it, I have been in my 
father's bowels as a littie seed, as phlegm. The door opened and 

52 F. P. MULLER 

the last to come out was Fritz'. (He meant himself, he used the 
childish method of expression in giving his Christian name instead of 
employing the pronoun. Fritz is not his actual name). He said that 
he had found his deHrium and the dreams following it very pleasant. 
1 finally obtained the following details from him. 

In his delirium he was promoted to company sergeant-major, 
and marched at the head of his company of •Schutterij' (an old 
Dutch civil guard). He conducted the music as band-master. He 
was accompanied to his grave in Utrecht with music. He also 
visited his mother's grave there. He saw the coffin into which 
he was to go, and felt how the sexton lowered him in the coffin 
into the grave, and how sand was then thrown on tlie coffin. Then 
his body putrified, and a large hole came in his breast. There was 
' sand between his skin and flesh. He had pain in his sexual organs, 
and sound came from his glans penis. The hole in his breast now 
became smaller until nothing remained of it but a little animal like 
an earth-worm. He was now no longer aHve. Then he was with 
his sisters and brodiers and many others as semen in his father's 
sexual organs. It was so arranged that none of the semen was 
lost. The door moved round and round. (In connection with this 
an object which decorated the wall opposite the patient played a 
part). First his brothers were born, he who was the youngest child 
was hurled out last. He went into the chamber-pot as a little bit 
of phlegm. Also his two little sons (whom he actually has) were 
bom from his own semen. 

I was not able to discover which of these events the patient 
experienced in his delirium and which in his dreams. However, 
this is immaterial as both delusion and dream are products of the 
imagination. The chief fact is that the patient has created a phantasy 
and its principal theme, his death and re-birth as a spermatozoon 
in his father's body, is represented quite undisguised. Like so many 
things ab-eady discovered by analysis that have later been corro- 
borated by their occasional undisguised appearance in dreams and 
delusions, so here too an undistorted phantasy of the father's body 
has shown that a human being is actually able to long to be back 
again to his existence as a spermatozoon. 

Many details, however, require analysis even in a phantasy so 
transparent as the present one, but as a detailed investigation was 
not undertaken with this patient I only feel justified in expressing 
a few suppositions. 



A return to the mother's womb is symbolised by his visit to 
his mother's grave, which therefore precedes that to his father's 
body: one might say, the patient in his phantasy goes the same 
road in an opposite direction to that which he once took when he 
entered into hfe. In agreement with this there also occurs a 
seeking and finding the mother in the dreams of spermatozoa 
quoted by Silberer. It is worth noting that there is a great simiJ- 
arity between the events accompanying and subsequent to the 
patient's burial and Agatha's last disgusting dream. We find a 
similar agreement between the patient's remark that clay comes 
out of his penis and symbols of sperm in the dreams Silberer 
mentions. On the other hand one misses in Silberer's dreams the 
wish to be born again, which in the case I have observed is mani- 
festly of more importance than the death wish, hi the present 
case death is only a means to a new Ufe, just as it appears to 
be in the dreams analysed by Hedwig Schulze, while Silberer's 
Agatha did not even wish to be conceived. We can explain this 
difference: in a case like Agatha's narcissism wins and diere- 
fore one longs for non-existence, in other cases a longing to return 
newly born into the world springs from the allo-erotism that is 

The patient does not like to end his present life without having 
experienced the realisation of a wish unfulfilled during liis military 
career, and so he is promoted to company sergeant-major in his 
phantasy. Also he is buried to the accompaniment of music, which 
in Holland is only done for officers. Music here' is also a symbol 
of life, for he who makes music makes life (i.e. noise); further 
the patient produces music by means of electricity which is itself ' \ 

usually a symbol of procreation. When he is afraid that his wife will 
touch the wire it coincides very well with her account that he had 
only cohabited with her once in one or two months, and then 
practised coitus interruptus. (I only learned later that his marriage 
was an unhappy one.) 

The fact that in reality he lost all his semen stimulated in his 
phantasy the opposite with regard to his father's semen. He identified 
himself with his father. We may deduce this from the fact that 
not only he himself was bom from his father's semen, but also 
his two little sons from his own semen. The chamber-pot into 
which he fell obviously symbolised the female sex organ, and 
likewise probably the coffin in which he was buried represents the 

54 F. P. MULLER 

same organ. That he is in his father's bowels perhaps points to 
the wish for homosexual intercourse with liis father. Finally, the 
pleasure which he felt in the events of the dream, and his peculiar 
emotional state on waking are, as it seems to me, to be ascribed 
chiefly to the idea of being born again. 



PSYCHOPATHOLOGY. By Edward J. Kempf, M. D. {Kimpton, London, 
1521, Pp. 762. Price 63s.) 

We are apprised of a new Star in the West Before the War 
Dr. Kempf's name was not known in Europe, but since the War 
sundry rumours have reached us from America announcing the high 
esteem in which his work is there held. One gathers that he is re- 
garded as an exceedingly original thinker and investigator in psycho- 
pathology as well as being the leading psycho-analyst in America. A 
certain note in Dr. Kempf's writings, and the tone in which he presum- 
ably allows his work to be advertised, makes one wonder whether 
he altogether regards this estimate of his standing with disfavour. It 
was with no little curiosity- and sense of expectation, therefore, that 
we turned to the magnutu opus before us. 

And it truly is a ponderous tome. Massive in both size and weight, 
excellently produced, and lavishly decked with interesting and beautiful 
illustrations, it can be described by no other word. As a first orientation 
we inquired into the author's sense of obligation to his precedessors in 
this field, a not unnatural procedure with a book which is a passionate 
defence of psycho-analysis. We noted that the names of such leading 
analysts as Abraham, Brill, Ferenczi, and Rank do not occur at all in 
the index, nor does that of Jung. Adler's name occurs once only— a 
fact all the more striking since the book is distinctly Adierian in tone— 
and Freud's name six times only. Of these six one is given in error ; 
in a second one Freud is classed among such analysts as Morton 
Prince and Boris Sidis, so that the author seems to conceive of psycho- 
analysis in a distinctly catholic sense; in a third one Freud is quoted 
as warning against the indiscriminate cultivation of transference- in 
two others Freud's conception of ' conversion ' is criticised in the fol- 
lowing manner. It is 'a biological riddle and utterly unintelligible' 
(p. 5}. 'It is not only confusing but unnecessary ... It is nothing less 
than a reducHo ad absurduin to assume that repressed anger can be 
"converted" into a physical distortion' (p. 291). The true way of 
stating what actually happens is apparently this : ' The repressed affect, or 
rather the hypertense repressed autonomic segment, simply forces the ass- 
umption and maintenance of a fixed attitude, stereotyped function or 



■ an idea, which requires as constant innervation and affective reenforce- 

meot as the performance of countless movements to attain an end. ' ' 

The extent to which a writer acknowledges his obligation to prev- 
ious workers cannot always be strictly correlated, however, with the 
amount he has actually learned from them, so we next made a. careful 
study of the book with a view to determining this point on the one 
hand, and on the other ascertaining the nature of Dr. Kempf's own 
contributions to the science of psychopathology. It may be said at once 
that, although our original expectations were not fulfilled, we were by 
^ no means disappointed. Dr. Kempf has evidently learned a good deal 

t from psycho-analytical writings and he has also done a great deal of 

; independent work. Of his powers of thought we formed a less favour- 

* able impression: what might pass with some as original ideas more 

often seemed to us to be merely novel modes oi formulation, the util- 
ty of which was not always obvious. The tendency to isolate himself 
from other workers, hinted at above and shewn in many ways throughout 
the book, is perhaps the author's chief weakness. Not only is there not 
(. the slightest attempt to correlate his experience and points of view 

\ with those of other workers, but there seems to be a positive distaste 

against such a procedure ; the task of following the author is made 
f extremely difficult not merely by the way in which he adheres through- 

i out to his own language and terminology, which he has of course 

f every right to do if he finds it more helpful, but by his failure to 

*■ indicate the relation of this terminology to that otherwise employed. 

* A prominent merit of the book which wins our sympathetic interest 

I from the outset is the author's essentially biological outlook. No attempt 

is made to describe the findings of psychopathology in terms of some 
ethical system, and there is no trace of any of the anagogic or mystical 
interpretation of data that has so hampered the scientific work of other 
i writers. For Dr. Kempf Man is primarily an imperfect animal who has 

L become trained to respond in certain ways to certain stimuli. The 

I meaning of man's behaviour he sees in the need to regain a state of 

rest and comfort by neutralising, in more or less suitable ways, these 
disturbing stimuli. Nothing could be in better accord with this funda- 
mental principle of modem clinical psychology than the following 
statement. 'These affective-autonomic tensions or cravings, constituting 
the zftsk to do, to be, to have, etc., compel the organism to expose the 
favorite receptors of the craving so that they may receive from the 
environment those stimuli which have the quality, through counter stim- 
ulation, of arousing autonomic reactions, which, in turn, neutralize 
the undue autonomic tensions and restore a state of comfortable auto- 

• It is only fair to say that there are a few other and more compliment- 
ary references to Freud in the text which are not entered in the index. 


nomic tonus. Through this principle, the constant tendency of the 
everchanging environment and metabolism to cause a state of autonomic 
tension and unrest is relieved, more or less, by a compensatory effort 
to reestablish a state of autonomic comfort' (p. 6g8). This mechanistic 
view is extended to man's activities as a whole : ' Man's civilization is 
simply the building of a more comfortable, controllable environment 
within the greater environment . . . Civilization is to be recognized as 
a protective compensation against the anxiety and autonomic unrest 
caused by the unfulfilled wish and uncontrollable environment' (p. 27). 
Further, 'the infant seems to be so constituted that no socialized 
interests exist in its personality until the compensations to prevent nn- 
pleasant social experiences begin to develop tkem ' (p. 77). 

Dr. Kempf's criterion of mental normality is anything that serves 
to maintain the functional status of virility, goodness and happiness, 
and he devotes a special chapter to the biological definition of this 
standard and to its relations to current sociological ones. In his im- 
patience of irrational social conventions that ignore the facts of biology 
he fulminates against ascetic prudery with a vehemence and out- 
spokenness which, for obvious reasons, is commoner in America — one 
thinks of social writers like Mencken and Lippmann — than in Europe. 
'Vulgarity is as intolerable to the prude as prudery is to the vulgar 
and both of these tendencies are to be avoided, because one is con- 
ducive to a biological degeneration of Man and the other, to his castra- 
tion . . . We must not accept from religious fanatics or purveyors of 
sex that the body is a filthy desecration of the soul ' (p. 3). ' The 
psychiatrists who avoid the sexual problems of their cases and the 
psychoanalytic method of studying them are to be classed with the 
medical cults that avoid the study of anatomy and physiology. Their 
resistance to the problems of sex is as rational as the medieval per- 
secution of dissection ' (p. 17). 

The main content of the book is an attempt to express the data 
of psychopathology in terms of physiology and biology. In doing so 
the author evidently bases himself almost entirely on Sherrington's 
work on integration and PavlofTs on the conditioned reflex; he also 
takes the more questionable step of accepting the James-Lange hypo- 
thesis of the peripheral origin of emotion. He agrees that cortical 
localization and the study of the intra-cerebral neurones, important as 
such work may be in its own sphere, contribute little to the under- 
standing of the problems of personality as a whole. The key to these 
he finds in the functioning of the autonomic apparatus. He accepts the 
fundamental importance of Freud's conception of the Wish, but 'no 
one should be misled into assuming for its source a " psychic energy " ; 
it may be completely accounted for if it is recognized to be none 
other than a localized autonomic-affective craving and its compelling 


influence on the striped muscle apparatus of the personality . . . The 
term "affective craving" has a distinct advantage in that it can be 
clearly correlated with its physiological source in the streams of craving 
or itching sensations that are aroused by increased tensions of different 
segments of the autonomic apparatus' (p. 2j). All cravings, emotions 
and sentiments 'can probably be best understood as having a peri- 
pheral origin in characteristic variations of postural tension of autonomic 
or visceral segments' (p. 24). 

He adopts the same mechanistic view of the personality as does 
Freud, that is, he regards behaviour as essentially a series of efforts 
to change the environment in such a way as to expose the person to 
such stimuli and sensations as will still whatever craving, of either 
external or internal origin, that may be at the moment a disturbing 
influence. The way in which he prefers to express this may be gleaned 
from the following quotations: 'The neutralization theory of the dynamic 
or autonomic mechanism of the personality is as follows: The different 
segments of the autonomic apparatus are stimulated to assume different 
types of postural tensions and activities, which give rise to an affective 
nervous stream, which, in turn, coordinates the projicient apparatus and 
compels it to act so as to eaipose the receptors of the organism so 
that they will acquire certain types of stimuli and avoid others. The 
stimuli which must be acquired in order to avoid prolonged unrest 
and distress, which may become decidedly maJnutritional in their 
influence, must have the capacity to counter-stimulate the autonomic 
segment so that it will resume a state of comfortable tonus ' (p. 9). 
'The egoistic unity can not attack the segmental cravings directly, but 
controls them through controlling the final-common-motor paths of the 
projicient apparatus' (p. 13). The same idea is formulated elsewhere 
as two laws: ' i. When an autonomic-affective craving is aroused, either 
to compensate for the deficiencies due to metabolism (as in hunger) 
or through the influence of an exogenous stimulus (as in fear), it com- 
pels the projicient (striped muscle) apparatus to shift the exteroceptors 
about in the environment so that they will acquire such stimuli as are 
necessary to counterstimulate and neutralize the autonomic derangement 
so that the segment will assume comfortable tensions. 2. The projicient 
apparatus that shifts the receptors about so as to expose them to 
appropriate stimuli is organized and coordinated so as to bring a 
maximum of affective gratification with a minimum expenditure of 
of energy' (p. 24). 'The conditioning of the autonomic apparatus to 
react so as to produce pleasure-giving sensations upon the acquisition 
of certain classes of stimuli, and unpleasant sensations upon being 
exposed to the presence of other stimuli, is the very foundation of the 
differences in interests and aversions that are to be met in everyone' 
(p. 699). In Dr. Kempf's opinion this mode of formulation has great 


advantages: 'Not until we learned to understand the integrative funct- 
ions of the organism were we actually able to explain in a physiological 
manner such phenomena as the adjustments of allied and antagonistic 
wishes and thoughts, functional conflicts, inhibition or suppression, re- 
pression, summation and dissociation of antagonistic cravings, the 
necessity of symbolical compromises in methods of thinking, the source 
of the pressure of the repressed craving or wish in the postural ten- 
sions of visceral segments and its manner of causing delusions and 
hallucinations' (p. 8). The rest of the book consists of this 'ex- 
planation '. 

The inevitable question must now be asked whether this admixture 
of Freud, Sherrington and Pavloff brings us any nearer the under- 
standing of psychopathological problems, and whether it has enabled 
Dr. Kempf to make any original contribution of his own to the solution 
of these problems. Here the reviewer has to walk delicately lest he 
incurs Dr. Kempf's wrath by being so simple-minded as to accuse 
him of mere neurologizing tautology (p. 9). But does Dr. Kempf fore- 
stall the accusation because it is fimdamentally true, so that he has to 
defend himself by any device he can think of, or is he justifiably 
warning the superficial and stupid reader against falling into an easy 
trap f We can only say, whatever the consequences, that with the best 
will in the world and with anxious attention to his formulation we 
have failed to be impressed by its value. After all, the final test in 
such matters is in the application. And, although Dr. Kempf himself 
may for some reason feel happier when using such language, we do 
not find a single example in all the numerous case-histories recorded 
where the use of it has seemed to us to throw light on the actual 
problems of the case. What really happens is that Dr, Kempf de- 
scribes the events in the life-history of his patient just like anyone else 
and only here and there suddenly, and as it seems to us irrelevantly, 
throws in a remark about their postural tonus or projicient apparatus; 
a man is struggling against a homosexual propensity or a jealousy oi 
his father, whereupon it is obvious, or should be to the reader, that 
his autonomic apparatus is undergoing a compensatory effort to re- 
establish a state of comfortable tonus. It may well be so, but we must 
believe it purely on Dr. Kempf's authority ; the ' reader will seek in 
vain for the faintest evidence of what is actually going on in the 
patient's viscera, or for any reason to think there is any causal relation 
between what is supposed to be going on and the patient's mental 
difficulties. Let us look at an example given by Dr. Kempf: 'When 
an artisan loses his right hand in an accident and complains of in- 
somnia, loss of appetite and a "sinking feeling" in his abdomen, we 
know {sic) that the stomach and viscera in the epigastric region have 




assumed postural tensions that are the source of a stream of fearful 
feelings ... It is the uncomfortable tension of the viscera that forces 
him to go through the dnidgery of learning to apply his left hand' 
(p. 185). What is this but an ipe dixit} Against the conclusion may 
be advanced all the arguments that have led the vast majority of 
psychologists and clinicians to reject the James-Lange hypothesis, and 
which need not be repeated here. 

Our judgement on this matter is based on purely clinical grounds. 
It tallies, however, with that reached on other lines by Dr. Thacker in 
his review of Dr. Kempf's first book on the subject (see this Journal, 
Vol. n, p. 237). Dr. Thacker, a distinguished pupil of Sherrington's, is 
fully qualified to speak on the technical aspects of the conceptions 
relating to autonomic functioning, and his opinion coincides with the 
present reviewer's to the effect that, by vague and unwarranted ex- 
tensions of these conceptions, Dr. Kempf simply erects the autonomic 
apparatus into a deus ex machina, the very mention of which is 
supposed to explain everything. 

We do not wish this criticism, however, to be taken in too sweeping 
a sense. That some day a correlation will be established between not 
only tiie various emotions, but between every individual wish-impulse, 
on the one hand and specific changes in autonomic functioning on the 
other is the expectation of most clinical psychologists, including psycho- 
analysts. The similar neurological expectation of a generation ago that 
a like correlation would be established with changes in the central 
nervous system, particularly the cerebral cortex, may also yet be fulfilled. 
But we do not imagine that anyone now thinks that if it were so the 
correlation would provide us with a knowledge of the source of the 
impulses in question. Is there any more reason to suppose that this 
source is to be found in the autonomic apparatus, as Dr. Kempf appears 
to think? Or will it not prove that both departments of the nervous 
system, the cerebro-spinal as the autonomic, are merely executive in 
function, systems for registering and carrying out the response to 
endocrinic or metabohc intracellular excitation? Our criticism of 
Dr. Kempf's work is therefore a double one: we cannot accept his 
view of the causal importance of the autonomic apparatus, and we do 
not find that he has contributed much of importance to the more 
humble task of correlating mental and autonomic functioning. 

The book contains in the next place the application of the prin- 
ciples considered above, together with an exposition of Dr. Kenjpf s 
views as to the mechanism of neurotic and psychotic disorder. These 
are far from easy to discuss, for Dr. Kempf does not give us the im- 
pression of being a close thinker, and his presentation is often ex- 
ceedingly general in nature ; one can therefore only record impressions. 


To begin with, Dr. Kempf appears to be convinced of the essentially \ 

sexual nature of neurotic suffering. He writes, for instance: 'Wherever ' 

we have an individual, male or female, who is conscientiously absorbed 

in striving to suppress the sexual functions from making him or her i 

aware of their conditioned needs, we have a neurotic individual as the '* 

result' (p. 88), and, again: 'No individual can have a psychosis or 
anxiety neurosis so long as he can maintain his sexual potency without 

jeopardizing his needs for social esteem' (p. 709), The conception of ' 

conflict is equally fundamental. One passage (p. 28) gives the im- * 

pression that this conflict is between different autonomic segments, but '' ' 

this is doubtless a misunderstanding on the reviewer's part, for else- 
where (e.g., p. 20) Dr. Kempf speaks of 'uncontrollable autonomic 
affective cravings originating in autonomic segments opposed by the 
ego'; for him, symptoms 'gratify autonomic cravings that cannot be 
gratified by external realities because social conventions and obligations 
force the e^o to prevent the autonomic cravings from acquiring the 
external stimuli which they are conditioned to need' (p. 64). ^ 

We fancy, however, that this last statement must have been care- 
lessly formulated, since it does not appear to represent Dr. Kempf's 
true position. We take this to be one between Freud's and Adler's, 
though nearer to the latter's; it would seem to be Freudian as to the 
aetiology of the neuroses, but Adierian as to their mechanism. It will 
be remembered that, schematically put, Freud considers symptoms 
to be a compromise-formation contributed to equally by the ego and 
the sexual instincts in opposition to each other, while Adier holds that 
they are created by the ego instincts alone as a compensation for a 
real or imagined inferiority (which he first thought was always a sexual 
one). Now, so far as we can judge. Dr. Kempf holds, with Adler, that 
symptoms are created by the ego as a compensation for some secret, 
real or imaginary, inferiority, but, approximating a little to Freud, he 
finds that this inferiority is practically always of a sexual nature. 
' Compensation is one of the most fundamental attributes of living tissue 
and occurs particularly where there exists some sort of painful irritation 
or the tendency of the autonomic-affective apparatus to be forced into 
the fear state ' (p. 69). The commonest inferiorities leading to patho- 
logical compensations are 'segmental cravings for masturbation and 
homosexual and heterosexual perversions' (p. 71). The course of events 
is, according to him, as follows : when a person is not sexually potent 
in the full adult sense (genital heterosexuality) the feeUng of biological 
and social inferiority engenders anxiety, and the symptoms result from 
the compensatory efforts on the part of the ego to escape from this 
fear. The conception of impotency and castration as the main source 
of inferiority dominate the book, the criterion being taken very much 
from an adult point of view, estimated, that is, by racial and social 


standards ; Dr. Kempf considers that in evolulioii fear has proved the most 
successful means of combating 'biological inferiority and perverse waste' 
(p. 700). It is evident that the theory, being elaborated essentially from 
the point of view of the adult male, is more difficult to apply to 
women, and one wonders how it could apply at all to the neuroses of 

One sees that the theory is an ingenious one and has further the 
merit, fundamentally, of simplicity. It retains Freud's insistence on the 
importance of infantile, 'per\-erse' sexuality for the aetiology of the 
neuroses, but adopts Adler's views of the conscious (not unconscious) 
mechanism of the symptoms as a flight from this, and, like him, erects 
an inverted pyramid on the inadequate basis of the castration complex 
alone. He falls into Adler's error of overlooking the positive narci.ssistic 
basis imderlying the castration complex and sense of inferiority, and 
doubtless for the same reason, from lack of adequate training in the 
technique of reaching the unconscious proper; he does not, however, 
follow Adler in desexualising the supposedly dominating wish for 
virility. It is not necessary here to repeat any of the numerous 
criticisms of Adler's doctrine that have appeared from the side of 
psycho-analysis; the reader may be referred to the latest of them, by 
Professor Freud, in this Journal (Vol. I, pp. 393-5). 

So far it has been possible, we hope, to follow Dr. Kempf's line 
ol thought We cannot, however, say the same for the nosological 
section of the book. Here it seems to us that Dr. Kempf has given 
his phantasy fullest rein, and the result is a most astonishing classific- 
ation of mental disease which is like a maze without a clue. Not 
only is it unlike any other scheme of classification, but, what is really 
incommoding, the author has made no effort to indicate its connections 
with known territory, so that we have to pick our way as best we can. 
It starts fairly simply by dividing all mental disorders into 'benign' 
and 'pernicious', which one would think might correspond with the 
usual division into neuroses and psychoses were it not that some 
epileptoid, dementia praecox, manic-depressive and prison cases come 
under the first heading, while manias, compulsions and obsessions are 
given under both. The main difference between the t\vo groups is that 
m the former the patient 'retains tiie tendency to accept the personal 
source of the wishes or cravings which cause the distress' (p. 195), 
this not being so with the latter; the former can therefore be analysed 
and corrected, the latter not 

The benign neuroses are divided into two groups, 'suppression 
neuroses ' and ' repression neuroses ' respectively, the essential difference 
being that in only the former is the patient conscious of the nature of 
the cravings that have made him ill. These in no way correspond, as 

. 1 


might have been expected, with actual neuroses and psychoneuroses, 
for 'psychoneuroses' are listed in both groups and the 'suppression 
neuroses' even contain the war neuroses and mild types of manic- 
depressive insanity as well. The essential cause of war neurosis is a 
maladaptation to the causes of fear, which are (i) potential death or 
injury, and (2) an uncontrollable subconscious craving to commit sub- 
missive homosexual perversions (p. 287), a guess which is an approxim- 
ation to the truth. Morbid fear in general is not always a reaction to 
repressed impulses, as Freud holds; it is sometimes this and sometimes 
the direct effect of the memory of past danger (as used to be believed 
in pre-analytical days and as is still believed by Morton Prince and 
others). On the basis of this distinction Dr. Kempf divides phobias into 
two classes (p. 730). 

The pernicious neuroses are divided into three groups: (l) 'Com- 
pensation neuroses', which seem to represent an accentuation of the j 
mechanism present in the ' repression neuroses ', (2) ' Regression neur- ' 
OSes', where the compensation has failed, so that the patient regresses 
to an earlier, irresponsible level, and (3) 'Dissociation neuroses', in 
which the uncontrollable cravings dominate the personality. Manic cases 
come under the first of these captions, depressive cases under the 
second. 'The depressives are either types who renounce all competitive 
interests in the world, give up hope of winning the love-object through 
the striving methods of maturity and regress to an infantile, or intra- 
uterine mother dependence ; or, autoerotic, they struggle anxiously, 

desperately to escape the obsessing cravings of the pelvic segment' i 

(p. 712); there is here no hint of the central part played by hate in ; 

the genesis of depression. On the other hand the) importance of repressed 
homosexuality in paranoia is recognised, though only fitfully. Dr. Kempf 
makes the interesting statement that 'the most important determinant 
of the malignancy and incurability of the psychopath's methods of 
thinking is hatred ' (p. S5o), one which contains a great deal of truth. 

More than half of the book is taken up with descriptions of cases, 
and Dr. Kempf deserves great praise for the labour and skill witli 
which he has recorded this valuable material. It is most interesting 
in itself and is interestingly presented. It is accompanied by a series of 
beautiful and well-reproduced illustrations, from classic art, from anti- 
quarian finds, photographs of characteristic expressions and postures, 
of apparatus invented by insane patients, and so on. One of his main 
objects here, successfully achieved, is to demonstrate the wide occur- 
rence of unconscious symbolism quite apart from psychopathology : 
'When one recalls the ridiculous tirades some inspired psychiatrists 
levelled at the psychoanalysts' recognition that the appearance of a 
knife, wand or beast in a dream or hallucination probably had 


phallic or erotic significance, it seems worth while to publish illu- 
strations of such things having an actual phallic value. These same 
thinkers, who would refer to the asocial sexual cravings as "bestial", 
seem to be too prejudiced to recognize that the bestialness might be 
expressed by the image of a beast, and, conversely, the sacredness of 
socially approved love by beautiful images of many varieties' {p. 19). 
Since the days of the Salpctriere Iconographie there has been nothing 
in the literature of clinical psychology to compare wilh these wonderful 
illustrations, which are certainly the most striking feature of the book. 

One turns with interest to the matter of the actual analyses and 
interpretations offered by Dr. Kempf, but the result is rather disappoint- 
ing. On the whole the case-histories are not much more than detailed 
anamneses from mainly conscious material, and the strictly analytic side 
is distinctly weak. Here and there sharp insight is shewn, as, for in- 
stance, where he traces delusions of poisoning to the sexual value of 
food conditioned by the sucking experiences of infancy (p. 91), but 
on the other hand there are only too many examples — such as the 
conclusion that cravings to steal are 'often caused by the erotic affect 
trying to get further excitation in order lo become potent enough to 
obtain gratification' {p. 732) — where adherence to theory has evidently 
been more attractive than actual investigation. 

In psychotherapy Dr. Kempf proclaims himself an unhesitating ad- 
herent of the psycho-analytic method, in spite of tlie remark that it 
'has not, however, been used long enough to justify absolute confidence 
in its capacity to effect permanent cures' (p, 733); we wonder what 
surgical method would not be satisfied with the period of twenty-five 
to thirty years. He gives no account of technique, perhaps wisely, and 
refers the reader for instruction in it to the works of Freud, Jung, 
Piister and Jelliffe, an astonishing selection that tells one a great deal 
about Dr. Kempf. 

Special attention should be called to the excellent remarks on the 
subject of heredity and transmission {pp. 80, 117, etc.); Dr. Kempf 
refers to cases where the transmission of neurotic reactions could be 
traced through four generations, each one infecting the next one afresh 
in the way now familiar to psycho-analysts. 

Mention should also be made of interesting analytic studies of 
Bootb, Guiteau and Czolgosz, the assassins of Lincoln, Garfield and 
McKinley respectively {pp. 439-448), of the Christ myth apropos of 
Michel Angelo's 'Pietk' l^. 565), and of Darwin's neurosis {pp. 208-251). 
In the last of these, by the way, there occurs a revealing passage in- 
dicating that Dr. Kempf is in the well-known second phase ol the 
assimilation of a new theory: he quotes the following very general re- 
mark of Darwin's 'I felt convinced that the most complex and fine 
shades of expression must all have had a gradual and natural origin ' 





as evidence that 'Freud's contribution, tiiat the sexual functions evolve 
gradually as a variation from nutritional functions, is neither a new nor 
a radical departure ' (p. 229). 

We do not trace any influence of Jung's recent views, and both he 
and Adler are referred to only quite incidentally. Some light on his 
attitude towards them may be thrown by the following curious passage 
'Darwin's theories were more generally accepted by the younger 
naturalists who were training for competition with the established 
naturalists; and the older men, who could not reconstruct their work, 
were unable to accept the theory, preferring their "standing" rather 
than the actual truth. Tlie feud bet\veen Freud, Jung, and Adler has a 
similar mechanism' (p. 238). We must regard this as a regression from 
the true aims of scientific work to the more primitive method of 
appraising the value of investigations by the age of the investigator 
The passage italicised by the author in the following sentence is more 
cabbahstic and we leave the interpretation of it to the reader: 'The 
only critic of psychoanalysis who can be considered at all reliable by 
the medical profession is the man who has himself practiced psycho- 
analysis and did not have to abandon it because of his own affective 
discomforts' (p, 735). 

To sum up. The book is one of undoubted value and should be in 
every Ubrary of works on clinical psychology. It will provide the reader 
with a mass of interesting material and will also make him think. On 
the other hand we consider that the value of the theories it propounds 
is greatly overestimated by many American writers and that they 
signify little more than a strenuous, but only partly successful attempt 
to digest the work of Freud and Adler. In our opinion the essential ^^. 
defect underlying them proceeds, however much Dr. Kempf may 
protest to the contrary, from an imperfect familiarity with the un- 
conscious mind. If he would consent to study psycho-analysis by the 
only direct and first-hand way possible we are convinced that his 
future contributions to the science of psychopathology would be more 
fruitful than this one is. y.. J. 

The Psychology or Medicine. By T. W. Mitchell, M.D. (Methuen & Co., 
London, 1921. Pp. 187. Price 6s.) 

In these days when every tyro thmks it necessary to write a book 
on medical psychology it is refreshing to come across one written by 
an author of the wide and balanced outlook and critical judgement for 
which Dr. Mitchell is so justly known. The book is distinguished by 
these qualities and is written with a rare lucidity that makes it a pleasure 
to read. 


We have here a review of the recent history of medical psychologn,- 
together -with the present position of that science. It begins with 
a faultless account of the school of hypnotism and suggestion about 
which no one is better qualified to write than Dr. ]\litchel]. He then 
discusses the facts and theory of dissociation, in the light particularly 
of the work done by Morton Prince and Pierre Janet The rest of the 
book is almost entirely devoted to Psycho-Analysis and gives a some- 
what impersonal, exceedingly clear and accurate account of it. We would 
especially commend to the reader the chapter on the Unconscious, for 
we know of nothing better written on the subject than this. His account 
of the different conceptions that have been included under this term, 
and his distinction between the descriptive and systematic senses in 
which it is employed by Freud, are unrivalled. Especially worthy to be 
singled out is also the sane chapter on the prevention of neurotic illness, 
from which we cannot refrain from quoting the following paragraphs. 

'The outcome of a too passionate attachment between mother and 
son may lead to a similar wreckage of a boy's life. So, also, a too great 
devotion between brotiier and sister may lead to a failure of both to 
fulfil their destiny. However beautiful we may consider such devotion 
to be, we must remember that it is like the pale and delicate beauty 
of disease and death, rather than that of health and the fulfilment of 
life. Absorption in the family is a shrinking from the adventure of life ; 
and to accept the adventure of life should be the privilege and the 
duty of every human being.' 

'And when the children grow up, the parents must be ready and 
willing to let them go free; to allow them to break from the family 
and its attachments; to encourage them to seek objects for their love 
in the outside world rather than selfishly to bind them to themselves 
and the narrow confines of the home. The respect for filial love and 
obedience, instilled into our minds from our earliest years, is but an 
echo of the selfishness of those who, when they are growing old, are 
unwilling to renounce the gratifications of their youth. The craving for 
love, as for life, is perennial in humanity. It has its roots in the un- 
conscious, and like all unconscious cravings it is selfish. And youth must 
be protected from the selfishness of those who are growing old. Here 
lies the justification of the poet when he says: 

Therefore I summon age 
To grant Youth's heritage." 

The book in our judgement does not call for any adverse criticism, 
but the following comments may be made on'matters of detail. It is only 
a partial truth to say of either Janet or Freud that 'they try to explain 
hysteria entirely in psychological tenns ' (p. 24), for, while the work of 
both these writers has been mainly psychological, they have been 



equally alive to the physiolo^cal correlates of their findings and have 
many times insisted on the importance of connecting the two aspects of 
hysteria; it would be truer to say that Janet's doctrine is a medical 
and Freud's a biological one. We note three historical slips; Freud did 
not treat the celebrated Frau Anna O. with Breuer (p. 42); it was 
Adler, not Maeder, who was 'the first to insist that the dream is 
occupied with the dreamer's current problems and must be interpreted 
as an unconscious effort at adjustment of the difficulties of his life' 
(p. 108); it was not Freud, but KrafFt-Ebing, who instituted the con- 
ception of the obsessional neurosis, in 1S64 {p. 117). Dr. Mitchell writes 
of dream SiTnbols: 'The associations which would lead to tlie discovery 
of their meaning have not been formed in the life of the individual" 
they were formed in some far back period of the history of the race' 
(p. lOS). We consider the first of these statements to be more than 
doubtful and think that it would have been well to have worded the 
second one more cautiously by inserting the word 'probably'. In the 
account given of transference during treatment (pp. 140-1} a misleading 
impression is apt to be produced on the reader's mind by the undue 
stress laid on the openly erotic manifestations, which in practice are 
rather rare, certainly in comparison with the more negative aspects of 

There are a couple of points we should like to see elaborated in 
a future edition, cramped though Dr. Mitchell obviously is for space. 
In describing the development of the psycho-analytic technique (p. 82) 
he seems to convey the impression that the search for memories related 
to a particular symptom was replaced by the method of free association, 
a method which of course was the essentia] one in all stages of the 
development. It would have been better to have contrasted the three 
st^es of working from a symptom, search for complexes, and investi- 
gation of resistances, which constitute the actual changes in development. 
We are a litde surprised that Dr. Mitchell has not taken advantage of 
his interest in precise definition to give an account of the three senses 
in which the term 'regression* is used in Psycho-Analysis (p. 94). In 
his account of the obsessional neurosis (p. 131) there might have been 
room for a sentence or two giving the relation of the ambivalency to 
the conflict bet\veen love and hate, with an indication of the anal-sadistic 
source of the disorder. In discussing McDougall's and Ferencai's views 
on suggestion (p. 155) there is no aUusion to Trotter's relation of it to 
the herd-instinct. Further we should be glad to see a short account of 
the different modes of falling neurotically ill, on the lines of the types 
indicated by Freud. 

In describing the views of Adler, Jung and Maeder, Dr. Mitchell has 
been so anxious to avoid all criticism until the last page of the book 
that he has, as we think, unduly refrained from illuminating these views 



with explanatory comment. For instance, the reader would find Adler's 
doctrine of the 'will-to-power' (pp. 125-6) much more intelligible if 
he were told that it had evolved from the doctrine of ' masculine protest ' 
and from an over-estimation of the importance of the conflict between 
maleness and femaleness. The confusion instituted by Macder, Jung and 
Silberer (p. 114) as to the prospective function of dreams could have 
been more clearly brought out by indicating that it was one between 
the dream as such, i. e. the formation of a dream, and the latent content. 
Similarly it would be worth while pointing out the hiatus in Jung's 
doctrine that 'regression of the libido results when a person turns back 
from any task which life may bring to him' (p. 124)— namely, that no 
explanation is given here ol the specific form and direction taken by 
the regression, as indeed none can be without taking into account the 
influence of infantile fixations. 

Dr. Mitchell is scrupulously fair to Jung, and goes so far as to ascribe 
the development of his doctrines to an intense desire on the part of Jung to 
help his patients more than Psycho-Analysis had been able to. He grants that it 
might be justifiable to make guesses along prospective lines to help the patient, 
even if the theorj- underlying this procedure was scientifically unsound, 
But he is careful to point out the subjective dangers entailed in this 
and adds: 'From the psycho-analytic point of view it is a defeat; it is 
a return to suggestion — to the personal influence of the physician used 
as a means of directly combating the neurotic symptoms rather than as 
means of overcoming the resistances to self-knowledge and so securmg 
a solution of the conflicts which are at the root of the malady . . . Psycho- 
analysis differs from some forms of analytical psychology in that it 
adheres strictly to the principles of science and does not pose as an. 
ethical system or as an esoteric religion' (pp. 178-9)- 

in conclusion we cordially congratulate Dr. Mitchell on producing 
what is easily the most valuable book of its scope in medical psychologj- 
and can unhesitatingly recommend its use as a text-book to all students 
and workers in the subject. E- J- 

Addresses on Psycho-Analysis. By Professor J. J. Putnam. (The Inter- 
national Psycho-Analytical Press, London, 1921- Pp- ix + 47o- ^""=6 
I2S. dd.) S 

The International Psycho-Analytical Press is to be congratulated on ■ | 

havmg been able to issue as its first volume this interesting collection T 

of the late Professor -Putnam's contributions to Psycho-Analysis. In view 
of Professor Putnam's eminent position as a neurologist, his championship ^1 

of Psycho-Analysis has rightly come to be looked upon as a factor of 



great importance in the history of Psycho-Analysis in English-speaking 
countries, and there can be no doubt that with his death in 1918 the 
movement lost a loyal friend, a staunch supporter and an investigator 
distinguished by unusual breadth of view, openness of mind, courage 
and ability. His writings on Psycho-Analysis were, however, 'scattered 
through a considerable number of European and American periodicals, 
some being written in English, others in German, so that the present 
volume will be of great service to the English-speaking student at the 
same time as it provides a welcome memorial to a remarkable and noble 

The book consists of twenty-two essays: some of these are chiefly 
devoted to the exposition of psycho-analytical doctrine ; others present 
original clinical material; while still others suggest certain extensions 
of the generally accepted psycho-analytical point of view. On all subjects 
Professor Putnam writes with a charm and lucidity that is too often 
lacking in psycho-analytical literature, and even in matters in which the 
reader may be inclined to disagree with the author there is much to 
be gained from a close study of his views, which are always tolerant, 
broad-minded and suggestive, and which are put forward in a manner 
that gives evidence of a most unusual combination of intense earnestness 
and engaging modesty. 

As regards the expository writings, nothing need be said except 
that they are excellent throughout and are of such a kind as to remove 
from the doctrines of Psycho-Analysis that appearance of absurdity, 
'far-fetchedness', or repulsiveness, which less skilful presentations are 
so apt to convey to the student who is approaching the subject for the 
first time. In this respect they are nowhere equalled or excelled, except 
perhaps in a very few of the didactic writings of Professor Freud 

The clinical articles present some useful material, though the analyses, 
as communicated, are sometimes rather tantalizingly incomplete. It is 
interesting to note that, while laying full weight upon the psycho- 
pathological factors productive of neurosis, Professor Putnam also lays 
stress upon the desirabiUty of so modifying the social environment as 
to impose somewhat less strain upon those individuals who are unable 
to live up to the very high standard of inhibition and sublimation that 
is so frequendy demanded; as when he says (p. ni): 'we talk of in- 
dependence, but, in fact, the community is almost frantic in its demands 
for conformity. The key to the solution of these difficulties must be 
sought, not primarily in the education of the younger generation, but 
in that of the older. It is with the lack of knowledge on the part of 
the parents and the disregard by physicians of the need of acquiring 
and imparting adequate information on these subjects that tiie reform 
must deal. There can be no doubt but that our social and ethical 


customs, which represent the filtered experience and wisdom of the 
race, are of unmense value. But the ends which they mainly seek and 
the methods which they follow are not chosen with reference to the 
needs of the neurotic child'. 

Professor Putnam's most original contribution to Psycho-Analysis is 
of course his contention that certain important aspects of human conative 
processes have been overlooked by the majority of psycho-analysts, and 
it is to this contention that a considerable number of tlie essays here 
collected are devoted. Professor Putnam rightly regards this as ' the one 
important difference ' between Freud's position and his own, a difference 
which, he says (p. 156) consists in the fact that 'in estimating mental 
conflicts I attach great importance to an intuitive recognition, which 
I believe to be bound up with the very nature of every mental act, of 
the contrast between the capacity of the mind for infinitely varied self- 
expression and the somewhat painfully felt inadequacy of each partial 
attempt at self-expression'. This doctrine, which, as stated thus in its 
simplest form, appears to apply only to the sphere of psychology, ac- 
quires a metaphysical aspect in virtue of Professor Putnam's views as 
to the nature of the whole to which partial expression is given in every 
mental act; this whole consisting, in the last resort, not merely of the 
individual mind or individual organism but of humanity itself or (by a 
fiirther extension) of the total universe. The individual is therefore, 
according to Professor Putnam, constantly endeavouring with the in- 
adequate means at his disposal to express the whole universe of which 
he is a part, a process which, it would appear, is ultimately connected 
with the fact that all phenomena are capable of reduction 'to a single 
principle, to one single form of activity'. 'Without "comprehending" 
this fundamental fact, i. e. without feeling or recognising its identity 
with the deepest in us, we cannot really comprehend anything at all — 
or, otherwise expressed, without recognising this background for our 
speech and our concepts, we can only go on speaking in metaphors and 
symbols, without being conscious that we are only using metaphors 
and symbols'. But when, on the other hand, wc come to comprehend 
this most fundamental truth and become ever more and more aware 
of the reality underlying the symbolism of our life, we gain the power 
of understanding everything from the deepest and purest essence of 
our nature. We then discover that, whereas the form of every mental 
process is the same (namely, a striving to manifest itself), its result 
varies endlessly, according to its completeness or incompleteness. 'The 
manifold phenomena of our life express symbolically the varieties and 
graduations of this process. Our feeling of power, our joy in success 
or disappointment at failure, indicate that we are continually measuring 
ourselves by a fairly definite, though not always definable norm of 
perfection' (p. 192). 



If this view is correct, it becomes almost impossible to study 
psychology apart from metaphysics, and accordingly Professor Putnam 
is frequently engaged in urging the desirability of introducing meta- 
physical considerations into psychology, psychiatry and psycho-analysis. 
As is well known, Professor Putnam's position has not so far recommended 
itself to the majority of psycho-analysts, and this not necessarily because 
they reject his metaphysics, but probably rather because they have 
remained unconvinced of the importance or accuracy of his doctrines 
on their psychological side. Few if any psycho-analysts, or indeed 
psychogists of any school, have so far admitted that Putnam's supposed 
universal desire to give complete expression to the universe or even to 
the individual organism represents a useful formulation of the ultimate 
conations of the human mind, and as long as adequate empirical support 
for this side of Putnam's doctrine is lacking, it would seem to be un- 
desirable to complicate the already sufficiently difficult psychological 
problems by resort to metaphysics. Furthermore, it must be admitted 
that the psychological evidence Putnam himself adduces in favour of 
his views is verj- deficient. We are nowhere shown the actual working 
of the supposed desire to express the whole personality; there is an 
almost complete failure to reveal this desire as an active and important 
factor in the mental life and mental conflicts of Professor Putnam's 
patients. Professor Putnam's views with regard to the operation of this 
desire, so far from emerging naturally from his case descriptions, give 
the impression of being to a very large extent purely theoretical con- 
structions deviftd of foundation in clinical and psychological experience. 

Professor Putnam would seem indeed to be himself often doubtful 
about the practical use and application of his doctrines, as when he 
says (p. 87) . ' I do not feel quite sure how much positive use psycho- 
analysts can make of these philosophic principles in the actual treatment 
or training of tlieir patients. It is my belief that some use can be made 
of them, just as use has been made of them in the teaching of children 
in the Kindergarten. The primary requisite, however, is that we as 
physicians should have these principles m our minds, for without them 
we cannot do adequate justice in thought to our patients' deepest cravings 
and intuitions'. And again (p. 412), 'for many situations, and in the 
case of many patients, as when the main problem is the discovery of 
well defined causes of specific phobias, it does appear unnecessary to 
deal much, if at all, witii considerations relating to the " whole meaning " 
or possibilities of development or "aspirations" of the individual as a 
whole. In other cases however . , . this is, I think, not true'. 

In one place, however, Professor Putnam does attempt to give a 
definite formulation of the practical consequences of his doctrine 
(pp. 305 ff,}, but it appears — to the reviewer at least — that we may 
agree with all the more important points here raised without necessarily 


committing ourselves to the doctrine of ' expressive desire ' (as it may 
perhaps conveniently be called). Even here, moreover, the conclusions 
seem to be advanced, so to speak, in vacuo: there is a total absence 
of illustrative material and the reader is left without assistance in the 
task of working out these practical consequences in their application to 
actual cases. 

All this of course docs not prove the incorrectness of Professor 
Putnam's views; it indicates however the necessity of much further 
detailed study before they can be definitely accepted. 

The insistence with which Professor Putnam dwells upon 'the 
necessity of metaphysics', in spite of the little practical use to which 
he puts his doctrine in his published cases, cannot but raise a suspicion 
that in advancing his philosophic views he was under the influence of 
certain psychic factors, ol which he was not, or was at best only 
partially, aware. It would be fascinating, though of course quite out of 
place here, to speculate upon the nature of such unconscious factors. 
We must confine ourselves, in passing, to the single suggestion that the 
influences which led to Professor Putnam's philosophical position are to 
a large extent the same as those which enabled him to welcome the 
method and results of Psycho-Analysis in general; inasmuch as he 
saw in Psycho-Analysis as a method of psychic integration a potent 
weapon for the attainment of more complete and more harmonious 
'self-expression' than would otherwise be possible. 

Professor Putnam's position has certain important elements in common 
with that ofjimg; but differs from Jung's, first, in that it is much more 
clearly expressed and defined, secondly (and this is the more important 
point), that in Professor Putnam's case metaphysical leanings are never 
allowed to obscure the clear recognition of the interplay of primitive 
— and above all sexual — influences. Professor Putnam is indeed never 
tired ol emphasising 'the importance of these latter influences and of 
repeating that his views are to be regarded as extensions rather than 
as modifications of psycho-analytic theory. 

He is also able to sympathise with Adier; though here again only 
in so far as Adler's work can be regarded as affording an addition to, 
and not a substitute for, the doctrines of Freud. In accordance with his 
own philosophical views, he is inclined to regard 'feelings of inferiority' 
as largely due to an intuitive comparison o( each individual effort with 
the innate feeling of the greater and more successful effort that we are 
capable of making. 

Even though we may not agree with the more metaphysical aspects 
of Professor Putnam's teaching, there 'is much to be learnt from the 
portions of the book devoted to tiis subject — more especially in a 
realisation of the modesty and open-mindedness appropriate to the 
present stage of the development of Psycho-Analysis. Epoch-making as 










they are, the discoveries of Psycho-Analysis as yet have reference to a 
portion only of the human mind and are still very far from being able 
to provide anything in the nature of a complete psychology. Being well 
aware of the various subtle mental influences that may lead to the loss 
or distortion of the truth so hardly attained by means of Psycho-Analysis, 
analysts are sometimes apt to cultivate the virtue of fidelity to an extent 
that may endanger freedom of outlook and receptivity to new points 
of view. The lesson to be drawn from Putnam's life and work is that 
broad-mindedness and a wide field of interest are not incompatible with 
the most unreserved acceptance and retention of the results of psycho- 
analytic thought. 

The publishers are to be congratulated on the exceptionally attractive 
appearance and general get-up of this, the first volume of the Inter- 
national Psycho-Analytical Library. On the other hand, the book suffers 
from a rather unusually large number of minor printer's errors — a blemish 
that it should be possible to avoid in future volumes. The book includes 
a preface by Professor Freud, an obituary notice by Dr. Ernest Jones 
— reprinted from this Journal — a portrait of Professor Putnam and a 
bibliography of his writings on psychological subjects. J. C. F. 

Fsvcho-Analysis ajto the War Neuroses. By Drs. S. Ferenai (Buda- 
pest), Karl Abraham (Berlin), Ernst Simmel (Berlin) and Ernest Jones 
(London). Introduction by Prof. Sigm. Freud (Vienna). (The International 
Psycho-Analytical Press, London, 1921. Pp. 59. Price 5s.) 

This book on Psycho-Analysis and the War Neuroses is a symposium 
to which Freud has written an introduction. 

Three of the writers, Abraham, Ferenczi and Jones, deal chiefly with 
the psycho-analytic theory of the war neuroses, while Simmel takes up 
the question of treatment and essentially a treatment calling for quick 
results, which although not psycho-analytic is a useful contribution to 
this part of the subject. 

The first and perhaps most important fact to be noticed in the three 
theoretical papers including Freud's introduction is that all four writers 
have arrived at the same fundamental factor operative in the causation 
of the war neuroses— namely, injury to the person's narcissism. And 
further, they have all approached the solution from somewhat different 
angles, and also without any exchange of thoughts on the subject Each 
contribution is the individual and independent view of the writer. 
Communication between the writers was excluded on account of the 
war conditions prevailing at the time. Abraham was in East Prussia, 
Ferenczi in Budapest, Freud in Vienna, and Jones in England. The 


priority in point of time for the ideas expressed must certainly go to 
Ernest Jones whose paper was read before the Royal Society of Medicine, 
April 9, 1918. Abraham's and Ferenczi's papers were read before 
the Fifth International Psycho-Analytical Congress, September, 191 8, and 
Freud's Introduction appeared in the Spring, igiQ. 

The majority of the readers of this book and especially tliose con- 
cerned with the treatment of the war neuroses tt'ill be disappointed in 
the little that is said or suggested as regards treatment of these con- 
ditions, for except in Simmel's paper very little information is given on 
this part of the subject. English readers particularly will feel this lack, 
as the successfiil treatment of the 'neurasthenic' pensioner is still a very 
serious problem confronting the medical profession. Jones states that he 
has made an intensive study of some half-dozen cases of war neurosis, 
but unfortunately does not tell us what was the therapeutic result. 
Abraham makes a few tentative remarks on the therapy of these neuroses, 
while Ferenczi does not specifically mention it. However, it must be 
admitted that sufficient time had not elapsed when these articles were 
written to form an opinion as to the value of this or that method of 
treatment. It is hoped that later these writers will again express their 
views and experience with especial reference to the treatment of the 
war neuroses. 

Freud's introduction to this book contains nothing like the force 
and clearness usually portrayed in his writings. Perhaps this indefiniteness 
is due to his not having had an Qpportunity ol closely investigating 
these cases, for we know that Freud is the last person to express 
a definite opinion without full investigation. And this fact seems to be 
borne out by his statement, ' . . . most of the neurotic diseases which 
had been brought about by the war disappeared on the cessation of 
war conditions ', Freud is undoubtedly here speaking of Austria and 
Germany, and this is apparently to be taken in general as a true state of 
affairs as far as these countries are concerned, and would therefore 
account for the lack of material for further investigation. However, this 
does not apply to England, as we unfortunately know too well. 

There is another remark of Freud's that will be criticised. He states 
on page 3 that war neuroses could not occur in professional soldiers 
and mercenaries. This is certainly not in accordance with our experience, 
and I should be very surprised if it were applicable to Austria and 
Germany. I am doubtful if Freud really means it as he has stated. I am 
rather inclined to think that the paragraph to which it belongs has 
been loosely written, for it conveys the idea that Freud considers the 
war neuroses are to be explained by the conflict between the old ego 
of peace time and the new war-ego of the soldier. Now this explanation 
is only correct in part and his above quoted statement is invalidated 
by his later remarks. 



Ferenczi reviews and criticises the literature on the war neuroses 
from the standpoint of psycho-analysis. He seems to accept a fact 
pointed out by Morchen, BonhOffer and others that the traumatic neuroses 
are never seen in prisoners of war. I suppose the ' others ' are also 
German or Austrian writers, for no English author could have made 
such a statement. Numbers of English soldiers who have been prisoners 
of war are still suffering from war 'neuroses. 

Ferenczi points out that an advance has taken place in the attitude of 
leading neurologists to the teachings of psycho-analysis, and quotes 
the writings of many German authorities to this effect ' 

In his remarks on the theoretical aspects of the war necroses he 
deals with the psychical symptoms. He finds that most of these symptoms 
are due to increased ego-sensitiveness, the result of the libido being 
withdrawn from the object into the ego. The symptom of anxiety is the 
sign of the shock to the self-confidence occasioned by the trauma. The 
tendency to outbursts of rage and anger is a highly primitive method 
of reaction to a superior force. The entire personality of most of the 
victims of trauma corresponds to the child who is fretting and naughty 
in consequence of a fright. 

Abraham approaches the question of the aetiology of the war neuroses 
directly from the sexual standpoint. He finds that the war neuroses' 
have confirmed his original views regarding the importance of sexualit>- 
in the traumatic neuroses of peace time. He considers that at least in 
the majority of war neurotics there already existed prior to the war the 
predisposition to neurosis in that they were labile people, especially as 
regards their sexuality. Their sexual and social capacity of functioning 
was dependent on their making certain concessions to their narcissism. 
War placed these men under totally different conditions which signified 
the renunciation of all narcissistic privileges; these they could not forego 
and thus the neurosis broke out. He also makes a short reference to 
Uie so-called ' seeking for pension ' of the injured soldier, and shows 
that narcissism also explains the conduct of these patients. Narcissistic 
avarice dominates, the genital zone has lost its predominance, and anal- 
erotism is strengthened. 

Jones in his contribution shows how the war neuroses can in a great 
measure be explained on the basis of Freud's theories. 

He considers that the specific problems characteristic of the war 
neuroses are in connection with two broad groups of mental processes. 
One of these groups relates to war adaptation, the other to fear. On the 
question of war adaptation he points out that the soldier has to adjust 
his mental attitude to things to which he is quite unaccustomed and 
which repel him. A conflict is thus aroused, and a satisfactory solution 
of this conflict being unattainable under war conditions a neurosis develops 
as the only way out The ability to adjust will depend upon how far 


he has been able to solve satisfactorily his infantile conflicts. 11 these 
have been solved by means of marked reaction-formations then war 
conditions are likely to revive the old conflict and now a neurosis is 
the result These processes are of course unconscious. 

On the question of fear Jones discusses the relation between morbid 
anxiety and real fear. He points out that morbid anxiety is a defence 
reaction of the ego against the claims ol unrecognised libido. Real fear 
consists of three components, two useful ones — various activities suited 
to the occasion, and anxious preparedness — and a third useless one 
^^developed dread or fear. It is this latter component that resembles 
morbid anxiety. He then goes on to show tliat this part of real fear is 
directly related to narcissism, and suggests that here we may have the 
key to the states of terror in the war neuroses. 

Simmel states that his metliod of treatment of the war neuroses is 
a combination of analytical-cathartic hypnosis with analytical conversations 
during the waking state, and dream interpretation carried out in the 
waking state and during deep hypnosis. This treatment he says resulted 
in a relief of the symptoms in an average of t\vo or three sittings. 
This line of treatment has been carried out by English psychotherapists 
during the last two or three years, and in a few cases has also been 
followed by a rapid relief of the symptoms. But we have discovered 
that the cures are not permanent, in the majority of cases relapses 
rapidly occurred, and further treatment along the same lines did not 
result in a second relief of the symptoms, except in very rare cases. 
Probably when Simmel made his observations he had not had time or 
the opportunity of coming across the relapses, for in conversation with 
the reviewer in September, 1920 he admitted that the results obtained 
by his method were very unsatisfactory as regards pennanence. 

Simmel's explanation of the war neuroses is unconvincing and in 
parts contradictory. He states on page 3 1 that the unconscious meaning 
of the symptoms is for the most part of a non-sexual nature, and in 
the same paragraph he says that the war affects and ideas which form 
the symptoms have a certain intrinsic relation to sexuality. 

Though Simmel's article is useful as giving his experience of a par- 
ticular line of treatment of the war neuroses, yet it has very little to 
do with psycho-analysis. It seems a pity that it should have been in- 
cluded in this book, the purport of which is essentially psycho-analytic, 
as it is apt to give readers a wrong impression leading them to believe 
that Simmel's methods are included under psycho-analysis. D. B. 

What is Psycho-Analysis f By Isador H. Coriat, M.D. (Moffat Yard 
and Co., New York, igig. Pp. 127. Price * i-SO.) 



This book attempts to present mainly the tenets of Freud in the 
form of question and answer; the author (already well known for his 
other works in abnormal psychology) succeeds in some degree, and he 
also provides suggestions for mental hygiene and character formation. 
Nevertheless his enthusiasm for a concise catechism apparently leads 
him into some misleading and ambiguous statements which are obvious 
to the Freudian, but which are apt to confuse his other readers. 

The 'division o£ consciousness' (page 57) is a gross error. Since 
consciousness is the term used to denote the mental processes of which 
a person is aware at a given moment, the unconscious could not be a 
division of the conscious. This term, like the analogous ones 'splitting' 
or 'dissociation of consciousness' is based on the old confusion between 
'consciousness' and 'mind'. 

Two conflicting statements are to be found regarding the sexual 
symbol (page 5i}, and the latent content of the dream (page 90), the 
latter one of which approximates more to the truth than that ' the sexual 
symbol is an effort to escape from the more grossly sexual '. It is rather 
'an effort to escape' the vigilance of the censorship, and hence gratify 
grossly sexual wishes by its use m consciousness. 

Also the term ' spiritualised ' (p. 72} used in connection witii dreams 
is not compatible with a scientific terminologj'. 

No doubt this book will be welcomed by readers who have neither 
time nor inclination to pursue a larger work but who wish to gain a 
bird's eye view of the subject; and the bibliography in which most of 
the standard works are quoted will appeal to those readers who require 
more detailed information and accuracy. 

EsTELLE Maude Cole. 

Deeams and the UNCONSCIOUS;: An Introduction to the Study of 
Psycho-Analysis. By C. W. Valentine, M.A., Professor of Education in 
the University of Birmingham. (Christophers, London, 1921. Pp. 144. 
Price 4s. 6d.) 

One can understand the reason for a book written to expound psycho- 
analysis and also that for one written in criticism of it, but what is 
one to make of an exposition professing to be an 'introduction to the 
study of psycho-analysis ' which dissents from most of |the views held 
by psycho-analysts and from a good many the author falsely imputes 
to them? 

The aim of the book is stated to be the [endeavour to provide an 
eiqjosition of what the author terms 'the new psychology' and to link 
it on to academic psychology. The method of doing this is quite simple. 
One enters the familiar third stage of opposition, and decrees that what 



is true in psycho-analysis is not new while what is new is not true. 
Those of us who appear to have forgotten what a prominent part the 
study of the unconscious played in the psychological lectures and text- 
books of our youth, for instance, need to be reminded that 'psychology 
has long taught that there are often influences at work on our minds 
which are not present in consciousness' (p. 21). 

In his aim the author has found assistance in the works of Drs, Rivers, 
Myers, McDougall, Bernard Hart, Brown, Crichton Miller and Hadfield. 
It would be very difficult to find any element common to this hetero- 
geneous collection of writers beyond the scepticism they all evince about 
most of Freud's main conclusions, so that the reader will be surprised 
to find them christened here as 'neo-Freudians'. The prefix in this 
connection, as with the designations ' neo-Malthusian ', ' Neo-Darwinian ', 
and so on, should surely signify that the writers thus indicated have 
revived an older body of doctrine and have added to it while retaining 
its main principles. Psycho-analysis, never having lapsed, is in no need 
of being revived, and we cannot see how at any age a harsh opponent 
of the most distinctive Freudian principles could well be termed a 
' neo-Freudian '. 

Professor Valentine begins with a general account of conflict and 
repression and endeavours to approximate the latter conception to the 
accepted psychological ones of 'avoidance of pain' and the 'experience 
of trial and error', He admits three forms of repression: deliberate 
putting out of the mind, non-deliberate putting out of the mind, both 
of which are functions of consciousness, and the subsequent unconscious 
pressure against the return of the elements thus expelled; but not what 
is for Freud the most important form of repression — namely, the keeping 
of certain unconscious ideas out of consciousness (p. 38), That repression 
is ever the cause of neurotic trouble he doubts, for 'the forgetting 
(which is al! that repression seems to mean to the author) might have 
been an accompaniment of the development of tlie disease, the disease 
itself being caused by a more ultimate cause' {p. 37). 

Freud's libido theory meets with no acceptance. 'He indulges in 
unnecessarily sweeping generalisations. He finds the influence oi sex in 
ahnost every abnormal mental process, though he covers this by a 
paradoxically wide interpretation of the term sex' (p. 18). What the 
words 'unnecessarily' and 'paradojdcal' mean in this context is not 
clear, nor how Freud could have avoided making these generalisations 
if they corresponded with his experience. Professor Valentine is especially 
concerned to defend the innocence of childhood against the imputation 
of sexuality, as indeed against other imputations. In quoting, for instance, 
from the present reviewer a list of anti-social impulses which have been 
modified in the child in the course of education, he makes the irrelevant 
complaint that.. 'it gives no hint of the many natural good impulses of 


the child ... A mere infant may be as unselfish in his impulse as an 
adult, with a beautiful abandon indeed which is rare in later life' 
(p. 75), considerations which were not in question. He thinks that in 
the majority of children interest in matters of sex is no greater than 
a score of other interests 'unless and until the interest in sex is 
stimulated by an attitude of secrecy on the part of adults' (p. 75J, a 
contingency which, by implication, he appears to regard as of rare 
occurrence. Represents it as a view of Freud that the 'partial impulses' 
of sucking, delight in kissing and anal excitation, sadism and masochism 
become only later associated with sex (p. 76), whereas of course Freud 
holds that they are inherently sexual in nature from the beginning. But 
'in any case it seems unnecessarj' to stress the significance of sex in 
early childhood' (p. 76). 

Professor Valentine is very chary about admitting even ti\e possiii/it}' 
of the process of sublimation, since he explains most of the supposed 
cases of it as being the diverting of non-sexual impulses to social aims 
instead of to the reinforcement of sexual ones. Thus there is no 
subHmation in art or religion (p. 121). He even denies to educators the 
insight the present reviewer had credited them with of recognising the 
sublimating value of sport and work. For him sublimation is conceivable 
only when a close association can be set up between the two alternatives. 
Professor Valentine does not realise that this is also the psycho-analytical 
view, and that we quite agree with his statement that 'anything beyond, 
of the nature of a side (i. e. non-associated) outlet for an otherwise-to- 
be-repressed impulse, must be regarded as uncertain' (p. 125). Only 
he has no inkling of the extent to which such associations can be forged 
in the unconscious. 

Freud's theory of dreams is made up of three equally important 
constituents: (i) that a dream is caused by the disturbing perseveration 
of unfinished thoughts from the day; (2) that its sole function is to 
guard sleep so far as is possible ; {3) tiiat it does this by associating 
the disturbing tiioughts with an imagined wish-fulfilment, usually a 
repressed one, in a form that is unrecognisable to the censoring activity 
of the conscious mind. Let us see how Professor Valentine deals with 
these three constituents, remembering that dreams are the main subject 
of the book. Thejirsi of them he states in a slightly different way and 
calmly proclaims it to be an original discovery of his own which completes 
Freud's theory (pp. 107, no, in). The second Qne he casually refers to as 
'Freud's idea that the dream is often {sic) a means of not disturbing 
sleep but of guarding it' (p. 105), and he seems willing to accept the 
idea provided it is restricted to some dreams only and also supplemented 
by ideas about other functions of dreams. By the way, the understatement 
of Freud's view in this instance may be matched by an overstatement 
in another; Amongst the 'very sweeping generalisations in reference 


to dreams* which 'Freud unfortunately allows himself to make' (p. 88) 
we have the following; 'Freud says that all (italics in the original) 
dreams have ultimately a sexual significance; yet some of the dreams 
which he himself gives are concerned with quite other things' (p. 89). 
We fail to see the incompatibility here, for many neurotic phantasies 
are 'concerned with quite other things' although they all 'ultimately 
have a sexual significance'. But it happens that the premise is quite 
untrue. Freud, so far from ever having made this statement, has ex- 
pressly denied it {Traumdeuiung, S. 270). The third constituent of the 
theory, or rather a part of it, is singled out from the rest and is so 
distorted in presentation as to make it appear that the 'dominant 
Freudian conception of the dream ' is that it is ' a means of experiencing 
in fancy the fulfilment of repressed wishes' (p. no). So, according to 
Freud, the object and function of dreaming is to enable us to enjoy 
forbidden lascivious pleasures I We wonder whether Professor Valentine 
assimilates new theories in his own subject in this fashion. He elsewhere 
{p. 92) amiably volunteers to improve Professor Freud's education by 
referring him to a well-known passage in Plato's 'Republic' of which 
'I believe he nowhere shows a knowledge'. If one is unable to learn 
from Freud one can at least teach him. 

The wish-fulfihnent constituent of Freud's theory of dreams finds in 
general no favour with Professor Valentine. 'There is, I think, no doubt 
that some dreams cannot be explained as the obvious or disguised 
fulfilment of either repressed or unrepressed wishes, and Freud even 
gives some examples himself in the Traumdeuiung' (p. 90). Needless 
to say to anyone who has read the Traiimdetitung, Freud does nothing 
of the sort With fear-dreams Professor Valentine makes a gallant attempt 
to find some sort of wish-fulfilment in the fascination of the fear itself, 
since 'in sleep that rational control which would refuse to dwell pain- 
fully on imaginary evils is either absent altogether or is reduced to a 
minimum . . . Perhaps a profounder psychology might even say that 
these thoughts of evil are due to a species of sub-conscious craving, 
for there seems to be inherent in man some strange attraction towards 
the fearful . . , Thus, in a sense, it may be said that our fear-dreams 
may be fulfilling some sub-conscious primitive craving not satisfied in 
waking life ' (pp. 0, 97). But in general he finds Freud's interpretation 
of fear-dreams 'most unsatisfactory' and 'still more inadequate in view 
of the appearance of so many fear-dreams at a very early age, and at 
a period when Freud himself holds that dreams are interpretable on 
the basis of their manifest content' (p. 95). This is in reference to 
dreams of his own boy, between the ages of five and six, which were 
in a considerable number of cases dreams of being trampled on by 
horses or being chased by bears (i. e. typical father symbols). As to 
Freud's imagined statement that all dreams up to a fixed date are 



necessarily of this infantile type which need no interpretation, it would 
be very unlike Freud, with his knowledge of the variability of infantile 
development, to make any such 'sweeping generalisation'. On the 
contrary, when dealing with this topic {Vorlesungen, S. 133), to avoid 
any misapprehension he expressly warns his readers against the idea 
that all dreams of children are of this nature, points out that distortion 
often sets in very early in childhood, but nevertheless maintains that 
observation of the first few years of life will disclose a number of such 

Professor Valentine makes very little reference to symbolism, but 
his grasp of the subject may be gathered from the following example. 
In a dream of his own he gathered some grapes and offered them to 
a (man) friend, ' though they were much over- ripe ' ; the reader will be 
relieved to learn that this act was 'symbolic of the long overdue 
hospitality' (pp. 102-4). Freud is mistaken in thinking that dreams 
never deal with trivialities; on the contrary, even the latent content is 
often of quite a trivial nature (p. 8g, etc.). Nor are we to accept Freud's 
view that dreams are always egocentric, for they may be due to higher, 
moral and religious impulses (pp. 111-13}. There is no need, however, 
to continue further with instances of the author's ejqiressions of dis- 
belief in one element after another of Freud's theory, especially as he 
rarely finds it necessary to give any serious reason for his personal 

Throughout the book psycho-analytical evidence and conclusions are 
repeatedly discounted on the plea that they refer only to neurotic 
people, the author being evidently under the illusion that these constitute 
a race apart. It was largely in order to meet this quite unfounded 
objection that Freud wrote his Traumdejitung from his own dreams, 
and yet, in spite of this, we are told here that 'Freud, himself, calls 
attention to the fact that his study of dreams is almost entirely based 
upon the dreams of neurotics' (p. 113). Sheltering behind this illusion 
on the one hand, and making extensive depreciation, restriction and 
modification on the other, he naturally comes to the final conclusion 
that 'we cannot, in the present state of our knowledge, regard most 
dreams as of great significance for the understanding of normal 
individuals' (p. 113); this only means that Professor Valentine has learned 
little from them for this purpose. In fact, 'we have not adequate evidence 
that dreams have any biological function of appreciable importance, 
and if that is so it is not surprising that the mechanism of the dream 
is irregular and incomplete. Much of the dream activity is probably 
due to chance (!) associations of parts of the brain still partially active, 
and so many dreams may be of no real significance' (p. 114). 

Thus, like a philistine tourist, we refum from our grand iour un- 
impressed with what we have seen, with a self-satisfied air of virtue 


at having 'done the sights' ol which everyone is talking, but finding 
them vastly over-rated, and glad to be back in the comfortable land 
of roast beef where such matters as dreams and emotional conflicts are 
left to cranks and hysterical women. For with dreams naturally goes 
the rest of the 'new psychology"; since it is to be inferred that 'so 
far as the sub-conscious self is concerned we are, indeed, "Such stuff 
as dreams are made of" (p. 114). 

This wholly superfluous book will not enhance its author's reputation 
among those qualified to judge. Unreliable as an exposition and super- 
ficial as a criticism, it had better never have been written. E. J, 

An Introduction to Psychology. By Susan S. Brierley, M.A. (Metliuen 
& Co., London, 1921. Pp. 152. Price 5s.) 

This little book differs conspicuously Irom most of the earlier 
English text books of psychology, in tliat stress is laid throughout upon 
the conative and affective rather than upon the purely cognitive aspects 
of the mind and that due account is taken of the widening of psycho- 
logical outlook brought about by the results of psycho-analysis. Mrs. 
Brierley is, indeed, not content with the mere substitution of a dynamic 
for a static point of view, but even ventures to point out the psycho- 
logical bases of the errors into which her more rationalistic predecessors 
have so often fallen (pp. 48 ff.). The insistence throughout upon the 
biological standpoint has had the beneficial result of making the book far 
more ' alive ' than most of those conscientious and painstaking but often 
somewhat wearisome treatises, in which much space is allotted to 
sensation, perception, judgment and reasoning, while emotion, feeling, 
behaviour and desire are cramped (almost by way of afterthought, it 
would appear) into a brief chapter or two at the extreme end. Not 
that the study of the purely intellectual processes or even of the 
sensations is in itself unimportant or uninteresting: it is rather that the 
treatment of these aspects of the mind in detachment from the rich, 
full-blooded life of feeling and desire almost inevitably carries with it 
(except to the specialist) a sense of artificiality, dulness or even triviality, 
that makes it unsatisfactory to the student who is making his first 
acquaintance with psychology. Such a sense of dissatisfaction would 
probably be felt with more than usual keenness by the class of student 
that Mrs. Brierley has more particularly in view, namely those who are 
attending classes organised by the Workers' Educational Association. 
She has therefore, it would seem, been very well advised to depart 
from the usual arrangement of text books in the past. 

The present book is divided into two parts — the first or smaller part 
being devoted to the scope, methods and fields of psychology, while 


the second and larger part treats some of the more important general 
problems of psychology from the biological standpoint as already indic- 
ated. It IS mterestmg to note that in spite of this change in point of 
view, sensation, perception and thought still receive their fair share of 
attention (though not as so often before, a disproportionate share) 
Mrs. Brierley is far too good an all-round psychologist to neglect the 
important part played by cognition, as dealt with in the older text 
books; the cognitive processes are however everywhere treated as 
they actually appear in tlieir conative and affective settings and as sub- 
serving biological ends. 

Quite apart from the very stimulating and refreshing point of view 
from which this text book is writtbn, Mrs. Brierley's treatment of her 
subject has the advantage of being extremely lucid without being 
superficial (except of course such measure of superficiality as is inevitably 
imposed by the small compass of the book). The book is also for the 
- most part extremely accurate and careful in its statements, both of 
facts and theories. There are of course a few minor points which might 
perhaps advantageously be altered in a later edition Thus in tlie 
frequency curve illustrating grades of intelligence (p. 29) 'border-line 
deficient' would probably not be accepted by most authorities as 
a convement or accurate term to represent the equivalent on the sub- 
nonnal side to 'slightly superior' upon the super-normal side. Again 
It IS surely conb-ary to the practice of most psychologists to talk of 
pleasure sensations' (such as 'those aroused by taste and sexual 
stimulation') as being comparable to 'pain sensations' (such as toothache 
a burn, colic, etc.) (p. 63). ]n this respect Mrs. Brierlev, like a good 
many other writers, might have profited by the adoption of the distinctions 
made by Wohlgemuth in his recent valuable contributions to the subject 
There is also, it would appear, some lack of clearness or consistency 
in the concept of the horme and its distinction from the hbido Wliereas 
m the earher part of the book the horme is taken to signify die sum 
total of the 'bio-psychic' energy of an individual (and therefore to 
include ti.e hbido in Freud's sense), on p. 146 we read 'that it is not 
possible ... to make an absolute distinction between tiie horme and 
the libido, bet^veen the group instincts labelled "self-preservative" 
and tiiosc referred to as "sexual*"; where tiie horme seems to take 
the place of Freud's 'ego-impulses' and to be a co-ordinate and not 
a super-ordinate concept as compared with the libido 

But tiiese and a few similar points are but very minor blemishes 
upon an excellent and useful piece of work. The chief regret that the 
reader is likely to feel is tiiat Mrs. Brierley, witii her undoubted gifts 
of clear thought, sound judgment and easy exposition, has not venhired 
upon a fuller and more ambitious presentation of her subject than tiiat 
contained in the present modest volume. I C F 


Mind and its Disorders. By W. H. B. Stoddart, M.D., F.R.C.P. 
(H. K. Lewis & Co., London, 4th Edition 1921. Pp. 592. Price 22s. 6d.) 
This is perhaps the most widely read British text book of psychiatry 
at tiie present day and is so well known that it is not necessary to give 
a general account of it. Its outstanding value is its comprehensiveness, 
pathological anatomy and chemical tests being dealt with as adequately 
as the clinical and psychological aspects of the subject. The book is 
excellently illustrated. 

To us it is of especial interest to watch the gradual evolution of 
the various editions of the book in an increasingly marked psycho- 
analytical direction. Dr. Stoddart is a tliorough-going analyst both in 
theory and practice and has incorporated into the book a special chapter 
on psycho-analysis as well as numerous other references. It is true that 
the fact of this incorporation being subsequent to the original plan and 
structure of the book produces a distinctly uneven appearance, for the 
attempt to harmonise the newer with the older psychology here cannot- 
be called altogedier successful. If Dr. Stoddart will not shrink Irom the 
task, there is no doubt he could produce a much more valuable text 
book by scrapping the original plan and entirely re-writing the book. 
The result would be very instructive, for the reader would then traverse 
the whole subject with a more unitary point of view than is now possible 
for him. 

The chapter on psycho-analysis itself is fairly adequate except that 
the subject of resistance is very insufficiently dealt with and tlie importance 
of it for both theory and practice not dwelt upon. We consider 
Dr. Stoddart is unduly pessismistic in the impression he gives of the 
outlook for treatment of homosexuality (p. 191), perversion (p. 194) 
and paranoia (p. 315). To allot two thirds of the space to consideration 
of the Weir Mitchell therapy in the treatment of hysteria strikes one as 
very disproportionate. There is needed a section on hypochondria, for 
the nearest approach to the subject comes under the heading of 
melancholic hypochondria (p. 313). We doubt whether Dr. Stoddart has 
thoroughly thought through his views on the psychology of neurasthenia, 
ior the older and newer conception of the condition are here confounded. 
His argument that as the disorder is traceable to repressed auto-erotism, 
and that as the latter originates in an infantile fixation the condition 
must accordingly be classed as psycho-neurosis, is vitiated by the 
fallacy that the conditions which he has in mind as thus arising are really 
cases of hysteria. If would be wiser to confine the term neurasthenia 
to those cases of manifest, not repressed, auto-erotism where there is 
no psychical genesis. ^ J- 




Dr. med. Hermann Rorschach. (Ernst Bircher, Bern and Leipzig, igzi. 
Pp. 174. Ten plates.) 

This book contains an account of experiments on the interpretation 
of ink blots carried out on 405 subjects, including both normal indi- 
viduals (educated and uneducated) and patients suffering from a large 
variety of mental disorders. In these experiments attention is directed 
almost exclusively to the form (as distinct from the content) of the inter- 
pretations given by the subjects— these interpretations being subjected 
to a minute analysis, as the result of which the author draws a number 
of conclusions, which are in every case interesting and suggestive, but 
which are in many instances admittedly in need of further corroboration 
and which must be looked upon at present as hopeful indications for 
future research rather than as definitely established results. 

The most important of these conclusions concerns an apparent 
correlation of two distinct groups of mental traits on the one hand with 
a relative preponderance (in the experiments) of kinaesthetic or colour 
influences on the other. Thus where kinaesthesis or colour appreciation 
predominates in the interpretation of the blots, we find respectively 
(p. 69): 

Kinatiikesis Colour 

Differentiated Intelligence. Stereotyped Intelligence. 

More original productivity. More reproductivity. 

More inner life. More outer life. 

Stabilised aifectivity. Labile affcctivity. 

Less adaptation to reality. More adaptation to reality. 

More intensive than extensive rapport More extensive than intensive rapport 

Moderate, stabilised motility. Excitable, labile motility. 

Clumsiness and want of skill. Sldl] and dexterity. 

Thus in the kinaestheHc class are found 'those who think for them- 
selves, the productive intelligences . . . Among the schizophrenics 
are the paranoid cases, patients who may indeed have more or less 
systematised ideas of persecution and grandeur, but who always exhibit 
a self-created delusional system. Paranoids may also be found in the 
other class, but these cases show hardly a sign of system in their 
delusions. Further, there are to be found on this (kinaesthetic) side such ' 

Kors^off cases as show a marked pleasure in confabulation. Thus on 
the side of predominant kinaesthesis there are collected all those subjects 
—both healthy and diseased— who live more in their own thoughts and 
phantasies than in the outer world, or a least those for whom "inner 
work" is more important than the process of adaptation to reality. 


' On the other side we find, among normals, ' practical men ', those 
■who live easy or superficial lives, or whose intelligence is more re- 
productive than productive in nature; also the unintelligent and, following 
on them, the feeble-minded, the debiles and imbeciles. Among the 
schizophrenics we find here the motor-excitable and incoordinated group 
of katatonics, the hebephrenics and the querulants; further, all epileptics 
■ and, finally, all organic patients with the exception of Korsakoff cases 
and arte rio-Ecler otic dements.' 

The two opposite types here described are called by Rorschach 
' introversive ' and ' extratensive ' respectively, without any implied refer- 
ence to introversion or extroversion in Jung's sense. 

The division established in this way is thus strongly reminiscent of 
that which has been already made by Heymans and Wiersma, Otto 
Gross and others, which is perhaps most generally known under the 
name of 'perseveration', and on which further hght has been thrown by 
the recent British experimental researches of Webb, Lankes and Wynn 
Jones, whose work seems to show that not one single factor, but rather 
two distinct but easily confused factors, are in reality involved. This 
agreement with the results of previous investigations, though not ment- 
ioned by Dr. Rorschach, adds of course to the interest of the present 
results, which in turn afford additional evidence in favour of the 
existence and importance of the factors concerned- Rorschach's factor 
of ' introversion ', affecting as it does character rather than sensation, 
would appear on the whole to be allied to Webb's ' W ' rather than to 
Lankes's or Wynn Jones's 'perseveration', and in this case his experi- 
mental methods may eventually prove of great utility, no strictly ex- 
perimental diagnosis of 'W' being at present available. 

As well as indicating the existence of the ' introversive ' and ' extra- 
tensive' types. Dr. Rorschach's experiments appear to show at the 
same time that kinaesthesis is negatively correlated with skill in movement 
and adaptation to the external world (at first sight, at any rate, a some- 
what paradoxical result), while appreciation of colours is positively cor- 
. related with freedom from emotional inhibition and control. 

Besides the two types already described (which, as the author is 
careful to show, represent the two extremes of a continuous series and 
not distinct groups without intermediate cases) Dr. Rorschach also distin- 
guishes two further opposite types, which cut across the previous two. 
These further types he calls the Koartierter and the Ambiaequaler Typus 
respectively; the former being characterised in the experiment by an 
absolutely small amount of both kinaesthetic and colour influences (mani- 
fested by pedants, depressives, melancholies and simple dements), the 
latter by an absolutely large amount of such influences (manifested by 
persons with many-sided gifts, by compulsion-neurotics, maniacs 
and katatonics). In the former both 'introversion' and ' extratenslon ' 


are supposed to be present in a low degree, while in the latter they I 

are both 'present in a high degree. • 

For the psycho-anaiyst, Dr. Rorschach thinks the blot interpretation l 

test, as employed by himself, may be useful in a variety of ways: j 

(l) as a means of differential diagnosis as regards the presence of neurosis 

or of schizophrenia, (2) as a means of prognosis (extension kmaesthesis "■"; 

being probably more favourable in this respect than flexion kinaesthesis) 1 

(3) as affording clues with regard to the genesis of a neurosis or to \ 

possible paths of sublimation, (4} when applied before and after analysis, ' 

it may afford interesting experimental evidence as to the nature of the , ■' 

mental changes produced by analysis (p. 115), ■ 1 

Since the book thus contains much interesting material, it is greatly 
to be regretted that the presentation of the experimental results is in . 
certain important respects unsatisfactory. Although the author's con- 
clusions are based on 'statistics', no full numerical presentation or ' ' 
analysis of the records obtained is anywhere attempted; one of the 
great advantages of the experimental method being thereby sacrificed, 
and the reader being left with no opportunity of estimating for himself 
the validity of the inferences drawn from the experimental data. The 
numerous examples furnished at the end of the book should be of use 
to future experimenters on the same lines, but they in no way com- 
pensate for the lack of a more complete presentation of the results. 

A reproduction, in exact colours, of the ten ink blots used in the 
experiments is supplied with each copy of the book. T C- F 

Alltags. By Professor Dr. Erwin Sb-ansky. (Ernst Bircher, Bern and 
Leipzig, J92I. Pp. 35.) 

The author reviews a large number of 'exceptional states', ranging 
from trivial everyday lapses to severe pathological conditions. He 
endeavours to show that nothing is gamed by the assumption of a 
dissociation or splitting of the personality, and himself considers these 
conditions in the light of the general lability characteristic of all affective 
mental life. Though interesting in certain respects, tiie explanations 
offered would seem to be too general in nature, and— in tiieir present 
state— to take too littie regard of specific mechanisms to be of much 
assistance. I C F 


Suggestion and Autosuggestion. A Psychological and Pedagogical 
Study based upon the Investigations made by M. Com6 at Nancy. By 


Charles Baudouin, Professor of the Jean Jacques Rousseau Institute, Geneva. 
(Allen & Unwin, London. 1920. Pp. 288. Price los. 6d.) 

This much-advertised book is certainly written in a lively and interest- 
ing fashion, but so far as we can see that is its chief merit. The author 
gives an account of Coup's psychotherapeutic work and views, illustrated 
from his own experience and quickened here and there by an elementary 
knowledge of psycho-analysis. We cannot find that Cou^ has added 
anytiiing of value to what was long known about suggestion and auto- 
suggestion, nor anything at all in fact beyond a few questionable novel 
formulations. The French passion for simplistic certitude, which so often 
creates the illusion of lucidity, is well seen in the so-called 'law' 
that 'the force of the imagination is in direct ratio to the square of 
the will', or in the 'formula of suggestibility': 

fi X f2 X fa X fo 



How can readers with any scientific discipline be expected to take 
such a work seriously? It seems to us that Cou6 has merely exploited 
the partial oblivion into which the subject of suggestion has fallen of 
late years and revived our ancient knowledge of it as a new discovery. 

The translation, by Eden and Cedar Paul, is well done, like all their 
translation work, but in the Glossary we note two points calling for 
comment. The 'preconscious' is said to be 'usually spoken of by 
psychoanalysts as the "foreconscious"'; we do not think that the latter 
word wiirbe found in the writings of any English psycho-analyst Then 
the 'subconscious' is said to be 'usually spoken of by psychoanalysts 
as the " unconscious " '. This is obviously untrue, for by the ' unconscious ' 
we mean something totally different from the 'subconscious' and the 
two terms are in no sense interchangeable. '''■ J- 


Au viEiL EvANGiLE PAR ON CHEMiN NOUVEAU. La psychanalyse au service 
de la cure d'ame. Par O. Pfister. Traduit par H. Malan. (E. BLrcher, 
Berne, 1920.) 

Ce petit volume de 91 pages s'adresse aux pasteurs dont le v6ritabre 
ministfere est la cure d'Ame. L'auteur s'applique k leur faire entrevoir, 
k I'aide de quelques exemples, I'espoir qu'ils peuvent fonder sur la 
psychanalyse. Ces exemples n'ont pas la pretention d'initier les lecteurs 
k la pratique de la psychanalyse; ils illustrent remarquablement Tadjuvant 
precieux qu'est la psychanalyse pour le pasteur des ftmes qui voit vemr 
k soi, au cours de sa carrifere, tant d'anxieux, d'inhibtSs, de scrupuleux, 
d'obs^d^s, de non satisfaits d'eux-mfemes ni des autres et qui menacent 
de verser dans le sectarisme, ou dans I'asc^tisme. 


L'auteur montte it ses lecteurs comment la psychanalyse petit les 
aider k d^bfouiller les difficult^, qui relfevent autant de la conduite 
morale que de la vie religieuse, de ceux qui s'adressent k eux. D indique 
que c'est le moyen de les amener k la constatation de la ndcessite d'une 
r^g6n6ration morale et religieuse, et de preparer une reeducation com- 
pile. Celle-ci aura son point d'appui k I'origine meme des deviations, 
et elle sera effective, parce qu'elle enseignera au patient k faire usage 
de ses puissances affectives d^tenues dans les complexes inconscients. 

La traductrice a su trouver un frangais clair et simple que ses lecteurs 

certes n'auront aucun mal k comprendre. 

F. Morel. 


PSYCHANALYTiouE. By Georges Berguer, Docteur en Th^ologie. {Edition 
Atar, Paris and Geneva, 1920. Pp. cviii+267. Price 15 Swiss Francs.) 

The immense influence that Christianity has exercised over a large 
portion of civilised humamty for a period of nearly 2,000 years must 
make any serious study of the founder of Christianity from the psycho- 
logical point of view worthy of profound attention on the part of the 
psycho-analyst. The discoveries of Psycho-Analysis on their part seem 
to call imperiously for application not only to the religious consciousness 
of the individual worshipper {an application which has to some extent 
already been made^or at least begun) but also to the personalities of 
those religious heroes or geniuses who have profoundly modified the 
nature and course of the religious consciousness of mankind. Dr. Berguer 
is to be congratulated therefore in his courageous attempt to apply the 
results of his obviously extensive studies in psychology and comparative 
theology to the person of Christ himself. . , 

The book is divided into two parts, the first of which consists of an 
extensive introduction of over 100 pages devoted to the methods of theo- • 
logy, psychology and psycho-analysis, to the relations between Christianity 
and the religious mysteries of antiquity, to the nature and documentary 
value of the historical material bearing on the life of Christ and to the 
arguments of those who have denied Christ's real existence. 

In the course of this introduction. Dr. Berguer admits that the 
documentary evidence available is insufficient for the formation of a 
satisfactory historical life of Christ, and insists that it is all the more 
important to shift the emphasis from the historical to the psychological 
point of view, to understand the personality of Christ as depicted in 
the accounts we possess, the effect he made by his teaching and 
example, and the mentality of the persons through whose agency our 
knowledge of Christ is obtained. With this insistence on the psycho- 
logical as distinct from the theological or historical point of view every 


psycho-analyst will heartily agree. Historical problems are of course 
important enough in their own sphere, but for the understanding of 
the nature and influence of religion and of religious founders it is 
doubtless to psychology far more than to history that we must look 
for enlightenment It is in fact the psychological realities rather than 
the historical realities that are important in religion, and, as accentuating 
the former in place of the latter, Dr. Berguer's altitude represents an 
immense advance on that adopted by most ministers of Christianity at 
the present day. 

Dr. Berguer proceeds however to take a further step, the correctness 
of which is less immediately obvious and which is likely indeed to 
arouse some misgivings among his psycho-analytical colleagues. Although 
Dr. Berguer lays little stress upon the historical accuracy of the in- 
cidents of Christ's life, he nevertheless considers Christ's real existence, 
the fact of his having actually lived and died, to be of immense 
psychological importance. It is, he thinks, owing to the actual life and 
death of Christ that Christianity has been able to exercise so great an 
influence on the spiritual life of mankind. Thus, when comparing the 
developments of Hellenistic paganism with those of Jewish theology, 
he says (p. txxiv): 

'C'est \k !a grande difference qu'il faut signaler entre !e proph^tisme 
h^breu et ce qu'on pourrait appeler le d^veloppement proph<itique du 
paganisme gr^co-romain. Des deux parts, I'ame humaine a travaill^ 
selon les memes lois ; des deux parts la poussde vitale profonde appelant 
im dieu s'est manifest^e sur les mftnies voies et a models des figures 
raessianiques. Seulement, sur la ligne juive il s'est trouv6 k un certain 
moment de I'histoire de la race, une personnalit^ historique qui a con- 
centre sur elle les lignes proph^tiquement dessin^es et qui a trouv6 en 
elle-raeme le secret et la force de vivre ce que sa race avail r^v6 de 
plus haut et de plus divin, de le vouloir realist, de s'offrir h sa realisation. 
II y a eu quelqu'un chez les Juifs, qui ... a v^cu la vie du Messie 
pressenti. Get accomplissement heroique, du reste, I'a brisi, I'a immoW, 
parce que, au sein d'un monde attache au mal, il a laisse lomber tous 
les traits inferieurs de I'image esquissee pour n'en realiser que la 
sublimits. Dans la ligne du paganisme helienistique, aucune personnalite 
ne s'est rencontree, qui prtt sur soi d'etre le Sauveur atlendu. Sur cette 
ligne, le r&ve est reste un rgve, qui nc s'est traduit au dehors que par 
la sympbolique expressive des cultes des mystferes. Personne n'a projete 
dans une vie vecue ce que I'tane humaine chantait au plus profond 
d'elle-in6me sur le mode prophetique ... En fin de compte, si le 
Chrislianisme a vaincu, c'est parce que jesus Christ a \6c\i '. 

And again (p. Ixxxvi): 

'Cette vie constitue, nous en sommes convaincu, le point de depart 
et la puissance !a plus forte qui aient ete donnas aux individus humaios 


pour arriver a effectuer la sublimation k laquelle ils aspirant ... La vie 
de J^sus est une affirmation et une demonstration de la sublimation 
jusqu'au divin des instincts humains et, par consequent, une garantie 
inalienable qui s'est inscrite dans I'histoire, qui permet de ne jamais 
desesperer de i'effort et qui lui fournit une base certaine. La vie du , 
Christ introduit ainsi dans le monde des valeurs nouvelles que rien ne 
peut plus arracher k I'humanite. En ce sens elle modifie la psychologique 
meme de Thomme; an plut6t elle y ajoute une dynamique nouvelle qui, 
sans en changer le mecanisme interne, hii permet de franchir des 
bomes qu'elle n'aurait jamais franchies autrement ' 

We have cited these passages almost in full because they seem to 
represent most clearly the fundamental standpoint of the book:. It was, 
according to this view, to the fact that Christ actually lived, lived as a 
personality of supreme moral excellence (i. e. possessing the highest 
degree of sublimation), that the success of Christianity (i. e. the satis- 
faction it has been able to give to human needs and aspirations) is 
principally due. 

To psycho-analysts, who have become more and more habituated 
to accept purely psychological causes (including imagined events) as, 
for many purposes, equally significant with external occurrences in the 
determination of thought, feeling and conduct, this insistence upon the 
aetiological importance of the real (as distinguished from the merely 
imaginary) event, will doubtless come as something in the nature of a 
shock. It is true that they will agree with Dr. Berguer as to the 
immense importance of converting dreams into reality (i. e. the transition 
from the Pleasure-Principle to the Reality-Principle). They will also 
perhaps agree that the personality of Christ itself represents, in many 
important respects, such a transition. But they will certainly feel less 
inclined to believe that the actual existence of a particular person 
possessing unusual powers of sublimation represented the essential 
cause of the success of Christianity' and of its religious adequacy. 
Still less perhaps wiU they be willing to regard Christ as an actual 
historical instance of perfect sublimation; such a phenomenon would 
be so unusual that it could scarcely be accepted without good 
(historical) evidence, whereas, as Dr. Berguer himself points out, the 
historical evidence concerning Christ is lamentably inadequate and, 
moreover, most certainly biassed in nature, being written from the 
point of view of religious edification rather than from that of historical 

It would seem indeed that in insisting on the historicity of Christ 
as a perfect moral being Dr. Berguer is needlessly sacrificing one of 
the principal advantages to be derived from his adoption of the 
psychological point of view. From this latter point of view it would 
appear that, just as in the individual a train of psychological events of 



great importance — sublimatory or neurotic— may be started either by 
an important real event or else by a trivial or imaginary one, so in 
mankind a religious conversion may be brought about either by an 
event which is really quite exceptional in nature, or else (and this is 
more probable) by one of quite an ordinary kind, but which is wrongly 
interpreted as strange or miraculous, owing to a mental predisposition. 
In either case it is, we are inclined to think, this mental predisposition 
that is important, since, when it exists, vast changes may be brought 
about by relatively insignificant stimuli, while in its absence the most 
powerful stimuli will be without effect. In our present case, since the 
significance for the mental history of mankind of Christ's personality 
cannot well be doubted, this personality would appear— from the 
psychological point of view — to be equally important, whether our 
traditional ideas concerning Christ are true historically or not. In view 
then of the unsatisfactory nature of the historical evidence, Dr. Berguer 
would seem to have weighted himself with an unnecessary burden in 
making so much of his case depend thus upon the real existence of 
Christ as a being possessing moral qualities of an exceptional kind. 

This, or something like it, must, we think, be the judgement that 
is passed on Dr. Berguer's attitude from the point of view adopted by 
most psycho-analysts. Criticism of this kind must not however blind us 
to the fact that Dr. Berguer's view is a genuine attempt do deal with a 
tremendous problem that is as yet far from being solved— the question 
why the religion of Christ prospered where its rivals so largely failed, 
what were the elements that gave it a success immensely greater in 
extent and duration than that enjoyed by the (in many respects similar) 
cults of Isis, Osiris, Serapis, Mithra, the Eleusinian mysteries, etc. To 
this question Dr. Berguer's answer is simple and is given in the quotations 
we have made above from his book. It is to the effect that Christ by 
actually living the perfect life, which in other cases had proved possible 
in imagination only, introduced new values into human existence which 
were not capable of being introduced by the working of phantasy alone. 
In view of the importance of this statement for Dr. Berguer's position, 
it is much to be regretted that he has not considered in greater detail 
the psychological mechanisms by which this conversion to Christianity 
was achieved ; such reasons as these given in the second passage cited 
being obviously far too vague and brief to be of much assistance. 

Though the present reviewer cannot help thinking that Dr. Berguer's 
explanation is insufficient and that a more complete solution will 
ultimately be found in analysing the psychological appeal of Christian 
doctrine and teaching,, it remains of course undoubtedly true that the 
personality of Christ (as it actually existed or as it was imagined to 
exist) did exercise a very potent influence over the early Christian 
Church. We turn therefore with all the greater interest to the second 


part of Dr. Berguer's book wiich deals psychologically with this personality, 
remembering that the fruits of the psychological study of Christ would 
remain of importance, even though Dr. Berguer's views concerning the 
actual existence of Christ as a representative of the highest degree of 
sublimation proved to be groundless. 

In the first chapter of this second part Dr. Berguer treats the story 
of the birth of Christ in the light of Rank's 'Myth of the Birth of the 
Hero ' and also of the teleological and anagogic interpretations associated 
with Jung and Silberer. While admitting the correctness of Rank's causal 
treatment, he considers the latter interpretations to be of at least equal 
importance, and gives two distinct meanings of this kind with reference 
to Christ: (i) the two pairs of parents in the myth symbohse the 
existence of two aspects of man's nature and descent — his animal origin 
on the one hand and his more mysterious, idealistic, quasi-divine 
tendencies on the other; (2) the overcoming of difficulties and the 
reunion with the real parents in the myth symbolise the finding of 
the ' real father ', in the sense of the most complete and harmonious 
expressions of man's inner nature — a concept which is developed more 
fully as the book proceeds. 

The second chapter considers the infancy and youth Of Christ, while 
the third deals with the Baptism and Temptation. As regards the 
Baptism, Dr. Berguer again finds the existence of both material and 
functional symbohsm. Thus the dove, besides its well-known sexual 
significance, signifies also the union with the 'Father' (which in turn 
has itself a double meaning— one, the actual reconciliation between 
Father and Son; the other, a reconciliation with Christ's own moral 
tendencies which are projected and personified as the 'Father' — this 
point being of fundamental importance for Dr. Berguer's conception of 
Christ's personality). The opening of the Heavens also signifies the 
gratification of an incestuous desire directed to the mother and at the 
same time the breaking down of the barrier between Earth and Heaven, 
between ourselves and the Divinity, 

The three temptations on their part, Dr. Berguer suggests, exhibit 
a correspondence to what are, according to Silberer, the three possible 
issues of a 'crisis of introversion': (i) magic, (2} dementia praecox, 
(3) mysticism. The temptation to make stones into breid corresponds 
to magic, an analogy being drawn here with the temptation that may 
beset all reformers to become rich or celebrated (i. e. to satisfy their own 
desires) in order— as they rationalise it— to be able to help humanity 
the better. The falling from the temple corresponds to fanaticism and 
loss of touch with reality (dementia praecox), while the third temptation 
corresponds to false mysticism, inasmuch as it demands a concession 
to existing prejudices. 

The next chapter is devoted to Christ's teaching. After rightly 


emphasising the positive nature of this teaching in contradistinction to 
the more negative injunctions of so many ol Christ's followers, Dr. Berguer 
deals interestingly with the influence on Christ of contemporary thought 
(particularly as regards Jewish Messianism and Eschatology), with the 
symbols employed by Christ in his teaching and with the parables. As 
regards these two latter points however, the explanations offered seem 
to be, in some respects, seriously incomplete, as when it is said 
(p. 102): 

'Ui, oil tons les conseils demeurent infruciueux parce qu'ils n'en- 
grfenent pas avec la vie, parce qu'ils restent ext^rieurs h la personne, 
revocation des symboles litemels et universels p^nfctrc plus profond^ment ; 
elle laisse, en effet, le champ libre h I'intcqir^tation personnelle, et 
ainsi elle nfi risque pas, comma les commandements precis et les conseils 
directs de violer !a conscience. Et puis, elle ouvrc aux developpements 
ult^rieurs un horizon beaucoup plus vaste. ' 

Surely the much more satisfactory and fundamental explanation is that 
advanced by Ernest Jones, i, e. that abstract, difficult or relatively un- 
attractive ideas gain in intensity and motive power by being clothed in 
symbolic form, inasmuch as the symbols employed (being, as they are, 
in the nature of compromise formations) stand nearer to the original 
sources ol feeling than do the ideas themselves. The matter is of 
importance because a realisation of the dynamic relationships involved 
in such cases would appear to be essential to a full understanding of 
the nature of anagogic symbolism, and those who (like Dr. Berguer in 
this book) are largely concerned with the interpretation of symbolism 
on this level are liable to misunderstand tlie ultimate psychological 
significance and ethical value of this symbolism unless they keep these 
dynamic relationships constantly in view. Religious and moral symbolism 
owes its value to the fact that it renders possible tlie deflection of desire 
to sublimated aims to an extent that would not otherwise be possible. 
At the same time it must be borne in mind that this symbolism 
represents always to som"e extent a compromise with primitive un- 
conscious forces and a departure from strict adlierence to the Realit\-- 
Principle, and is therefore to be regarded as a concession to our 
relatively feeble powers of sublimation rather than as something that is 
inherently valuable in itself. Any attempt to insist on the retention of 
this symbolism among individuals, classes or races, who are capable of 
more direct efforts of sublimation and more efficient comprehension of 
abstract ideas constitutes therefore a retrograde rather than a progressive 
moral influence — an influence of which orthodox ministers of religion 
are however often guilty. 

The fifth chapter is devoted to the Miracles. After certain general 
considerations, in the course of which we are reminded (i) that to 
Christ's contemporaries there was nothing impossible in the occurrence 


of miracles, since they knew of no natural order which would be in 
conflict with them, (2) that miracles were expected from the Messiah 
Dr. Berguer divides the recorded miracles into three categories' 
(a) cures, which can for the most part be satisfactorily explained in the 
hght of modem psycho-therapy (the healing of the Gadarene beine 
taken as an example and coasidered in detail), (b) events, such as the 
feedmg of the five thousand, in which-according to the view here 
propounded-a moral significance was mistaken for a material significance 
(whence the miraculous element), (c) a third class, such as the tumine 
water mto wme, which cannot be explained on either of the above 
prmciples and as regards which it is probable that we have to do with 
simple legendary growdis based on inaccurate reports and memories 
of real events. 

After a brief chapter devoted to the Transfiguration, Dr. Berguer 
deals m the seventh chapter-perhaps the most difficult in the book- 
with 'The Personality of Jesus.' He first considers the difficulties with 
which Christ was confronted owing to the fact that the adoption of the 
r61e of the long expected Messiah represented the only way of fulfilling 
his mission, while on the other hand this role was much too narrow 
and nabonal for his purposes. Then follows (and this is the difficult 
part) a more detailed treatment of Christ's conception of the 'Father- 
In the course of this we leam, among other things: (i) that Christ's 
Father corresponds to what psycho-analysts have called Libido 
(obviously in Jung's enlarged sense), to Schopenhauer's Will, to Gaston 
Fromrael's obligahOH morale and Bergson's ^lan vital; {2) that in Christ 
there were absent those elements of intra-psychica! conflict which lead 
to dissociation and neurosis, the whole personality proceeding in an 
orderly and harmonious manner towards the self-appointed end ('I and 
my Father are one"), there being thus no necessity in the case of Christ 
for anything in the nature of a religious conversion; this continuity 
between the Father' and himself was in the last resort an experience 
which was mystical in nature (p. 163); (3) that his hatred of the 'Father' 
corresponding to the ordinary hate aspects of the Oedipus complex- 
was directed on to certain false ideas of the 'Father' it being these 
false -ideas that he requires his followers to abandon, when he says 
If any man come to me and hate not his father, and mother, and wife 
and children, and brethren, and sisters, yea and .his own life also he 
cannot be my disciple.' Interesting as this chapter is, the psycho-analytic 
reader will probably feel that the importance of the material as 
distinguished from the functional aspects, of Christ's symbolism is-here 
also-not infrequently underrated, and, in particular, that the ideas 
leading Christ to identify himself with the 'Father' have a more literal 
as well as an anagogic significance. To the present reviewer, at any rate, 
It seems a matter for regret that some of the relevant suggestions 


, I 


contained in Freud's 'Totem and Taboo' were not taken up and 
elaborated in this connection. 

The eighth chapter is devoted to ' The Death of Jesus '. Here, after 
dwelling on the mythical, mystical and ritual significance of death and 
re-birth, Dr. Berguer returns to the theme we have already discussed 
in dealing with the Preface— the importance of Christ's ' having translated 
into real life the secular dream of peoples ', of his having really died 
whereas his predecessors in other religions died in imagination only. 

The last chapter treats of the Resurrection, which event is regarded 
as due to a process of materialisation as time passed — this process 
depending itself on a tendency to projection: the spiritual meaning of 
fresh life being exteriorised and converted into the idea of a literal 
revival from death. 

An appendix on 'The Poetry of Jesus' and a useful bibliography 
extending to twenty-five pages bring the book to an end. 

One cannot close the book without a regret that more use has not 
been made of the comparative method, which the author shows occas- 
sionally that he is well able to handle. A comparison of Christ with 
the numerous array of 'Pagan Christs' would, we believe, have thrown 
light on many points that still remain obscure as regards the actual 
psychology of Christ himself and would certainly have been of great 
utility in understanding the general attitude of mankind to Christ's life 
and teaching. Dr. Berguer has, we are inclined to think, been so intent 
on giving prominence to what he regards as the essential difference 
between Christ and those who have resembled him as regards the 
mythical details of their lives, that he has omitted to give due consideration 
to the advantages to be gained from psycho-analytic inquiry into the 
points of similarity in question. 

Another matter which the reader will regret to find but slightly 
treated is the content (as distinguished from the form) of Christ's ethical 
and social teachings— his insistence on humility, love and mercy, his 
rejection of hostility between man and man and his substitution of a 
reign of clemency for the harsher patriarchal regime of Judaism. These 
matters are of immense importance as regards the psychological appeal 
of Christianity and to many, we suspect, they will seem far more 
significant than the historicity of Christ as an exceptionally sublimated 
individual to which Dr. Berguer attaches so much weight. They axe 
matters too on which it would seem that psycho-analysis might have 
thrown much light 

However, we are not justified in expecting a complete exploration 

of the whole field at a first endeavour to apply modem psychology to 

the understanding of Christ's personality pr. Berguer's book was, we 

. understand, written quite independently and without knowledge of 

Stanley Hall's recent work on the same subject), especially since 



Dr. Berguer explicitly disclaims any attempt at exhaustive treatment. 
As it is, our review has perhaps brought into undue prominence certain 
fundamental criticisms that might be aimed at Dr. Berguer's attitude 
-without giving adequate recognition to the numerous interesting' 
ingenious and suggestive ideas with which the book abounds. Any book 
on such a subject is bound to be exposed to criticism— from one point 
of view or another— in an exceptional degree. Whatever may be our 
personal tendencies as regards the questions at issue, it may be said 
widiout fear of contradiction that the book desen'es careful study by 
all students of religious psychology, and that it affords encouraging 
evidence of the way in which psychology (and paiticularly psycho- 
analysis) can infuse new life into a subject which— from the theological 
and historical points of view— appeared to have been well nigh ex- 
hausted. J C F 

Die Herkunft Jesu. Im Lichte freier Forschung. By Dr. Emil Jung, 
Innsbruck. (Ernst Eeinhardt, Munich, 1920. Pp. 246.) 

This exceedingly detailed and learned treatise' is an investigation 
of all the known historical sources relating to the birth of Jesus, con- 
taining also an inquiry into the Jewish laws and customs on the matter 
of adultery and divorce at that period. The author comes to the con- 
clusion that Jesus was an illegitimate son of Mary's, the father probably 
being a Roman soldier, and that Joseph knew of the state of affairs' 
Whether Ihis be true or not the book is certainly a valuable contri- 
bution to the httle knowledge we possess on this problem. 


MiTHRAiSM AND CHRiSTiANi-fv. A study in Comparative religion By 
L. Patterson, M.A., Vice-Principal of Chichester Theological College. 
(Cambridge University Press, 1921. Pp. 102. Price 6s) 

This iittle volume appears to have been written with the two aimii 
of providing a simple and popular account of Mithraism and of demon- 
strating its inferiority to Christianity, both theologically and etiiically 
It provides no new facts about Mithraism and is evidently based in 
the main on the epoch-making studies of Cumont 

There are two versions oJ the birth of Mithra, one that he pro- 
ceeded from an act of self-conception with the mother, the other that 
he was the product of incest between his fatiier and the latter's mother. 
The author comments that 'in neither case is this what we would call 
a virgin-birth ' and criticizes Jung's attempt to assimilate the myth to 



Christian beliei as being 'mere mythology, not true theology'; he does 
not explain, however, why the mother's virginity should be impaired 
more in the one case than in the other. He points out that there is no 
reason to believe that the Christian doctrine of the Virgin-birth was 
borrowed from MithraJsm and adds, rather surprisingly, 'nor are there 
any other pre-Christian myths from which the Christian doctrine can 
have been borrowed '. His reason for so thinking is that ' it is hardly 
conceivable that the Christians would have taken over these myths, 
which they regarded with unfeigned abhorrence, and then branded the 
originals as diabolic imitations', his view being 'that the mind of the 
savage or the more civilized pagan was groping blindly for a truth 
which was clearly revealed in Christianity'. 

The famous bull sacrifice which forms the central part of the Mith- 
raic cult is lightly dismissed as 'the symbolic representation of a 
nature-myth, intended to signify or to stimulate the renewal of plant- 
life'. He sees no resemblance between this rite and the central Christ- 
ian one, and we are asked to believe that the Mithraic worshippers 
obtained no spiritual benefit from their rite, as Christians do in the 
form of salvation. It is a pity that the author is unacquainted widi 
Ralik's studies on the significance of sacrifice and Freud's important 
parallelism between the alternative methods oi salvation offered by 
Mithra and Christ. 

Similarly for the other ritual of the two cults: 'There is only a 
superficial resemblance between the repeated lustrations of the Mithraic 
cult or the mystic banquet, and the two great Sacraments of the 
Christian Church. Whether the baptism of Mithra took the form of 
water or blood, whether the mystics partook of the Draona cakes, meat, 
and Haoma juice, or unleavened cakes and wine, the atmosphere and 
accompaniments of these rites are far different from the Christian 
Baptism and Eucharist'. 

The audior thinks that the integrity of Mithraism became impaired 
as die result of its syncretism, and in fact it is remarkable how Mithra 
became in different countries identified with other divine son-lovers, 
Shamash, Men, Sabazius, Helios, Attis, etc. This, he holds, is funda- 
mentally different from what other writers have considered to be the 
remarkable syncretlzing capacity of Christianity. 'The most that can 
reasonably be proved is that Christianity took over some popular 
customs of heathen religions, and purified them from unworthy and 
idolatrous associations '. 

Apart from the obvious prejudice indicated by these passages, the 
book can be recommended as being a trustworthy and adequate account 
oi the main features of Mithraism. E, J- 


THE GROUP MIND, By William McDougall M.B., F.R.S. (Cambridge 
University Press, 1921. Pp. 304. Price 2is.) tv^amonage 

The most remarkable thing about books that deal with the 'GrAnn 
Mind ■ is that they \re frequently difficult to distinguish from te le^Z 
articles of a daily paper. Mr. McDougall's book is^ot one " ^hele S 
err the most in this line, but still, from a purely scientific pit of view 
we must ask why the author finds it necessary to state that 'politically' 
n.y sympathies are w:th mdividualism and internationalism, although i 
have, I tiiink. fully recogn^ed the great and necessary part playel in 
human hfe by tiie "Group Spirit - and by that specialTorm of it whi h 
wenowcallnauonahsm' (p. xi Preface). What have 'sympathies' to 
do with the top,cs in quesbon, which concern a department of applied 
psychology, localised on the border-line between psychology and social 
anthropology or sociology? We do not generally 'sympathise' with 
totemism or animism: why should we not be able to adhere to this 
^^s.»^^ess.„.eni when discussing other questions of collective psycho- 

]T\^" fr ^\ 'T ^^" ^''''"■^ ^P^'^^^^' ^- ^™ "^ - book 
{the Study of Sociology) in which the authors of books on this subject 

might see, as m a mirror held before their eyes, how nation and party 

distort ^eir view of facts. But it has had remarkably litde eifect o^ 

hem and books are still written, calling themselves scientific, which try 
to show that one nabon was 'wrong' another 'right', that certain 
pohtcs are justified-, others 'condemned' by sciencl The superiorit^ 
of fte British type of social organisation over the German is one of the 
fading themes of W. Trotter's 'Instincts of the Herd in Peace ^d 
War . 1916, whilst the defeat of Prassian militarism has not cured the 
Gennans or their leading philosopher of thefr old ideals (cf. W. Wundf 
Voikerpsychologie. Vol. X. 1920; Kultur und Geschichte. S. 44^)' 
The learned author of the 'Group Mind' is of course fiali; aware of 
tins remarkable dependence of science on politics (cf. p 3) but he 
does not aiink it necessary to explain the fact Vet we Lk that this 

abnormal' character of books which touch these questions shou^ be 
explamed, and that the reason why authors cannot get rid T'bi^- 
IS simply that then they would be rid of the subject; for it is justISs 
bias , or rather the unconsaous impulse for which it is a substitute 
m consciousness that draws their attention to the problems of group ■ 
psychology, and perhaps contains the key to the problem of the 
group mind'. ^ 

Although this 'group mind- is. properly speaking, the subject of 
group or collective psychology, it is yet a matter of much S^u^ 
between authors whether, and m what sense, such a thing as a group 
mmd can be sa.d to exist at all. McDougall answers thi! questfon i^ 
ti.ealfirmative by saying that 'society when it enjoys a lon^ life and ' 
becomes highly orgamzed acquires a structure and qualities which are 


largely independent of the qualities of the individuals who enter into 
its composition and take part for a brief time in its life' (p. 9). Such 
a society, our author tells us, has the power of perpetuating itself as a 
self-identical system. He refers to the German naUon in connection 
with the Great War as a proof that society is not merely the sum-total 
of the individuals it is composed of. After the war Germany may have 
become organized on a completely different basis from pre-war Ger- 
many, so that the type of society and the attitude of the world towards 
the Germans as a nation may be completely changed, although the 
group called 'German nation' is made up of exactly the same indivi- 
duals as before. Or, we may add, generation after generation may come 
and go, without changing the psychical portrait of a group which is 
united by race and common tradition. 

After accepting the idea of a group mind but rejecting that of a 
'superindividual consciousness' McDougall tells us that the essential 
theme of his book is the 'resolution of a paradox'. 'Participation in 
group life degrades the individual, assimilating his mental processes to 
those of a crowd's, whose brutality, inconstancy and unreasoning im- 
pulsiveness have been the tiieme of many writers; yet only by parti- 
cipation in group life does man become fully man, only so does he 
rise above die level of the savage' (p. 20). Here again we must raise the 
same protest as before. We asked what have political ideas to do witii 
these questions and now we feel that caution is needed when the 
author, at the very outset, applies a standard of absolute ethics to 
human actions. We know very well that a successful general or popular 
leader is a hero, but that defeat inevitably (or frequently) stamps him 
as a criminal for whom a common jail is tiiought even too good by 
his one-time adulators. With a legion of these examples under our eyes 
it is better to take up a standpoint 'beyond good and evil" and then 
try and see whetiier we cannot rather deduce tiie moral categories 
from group life, instead of applying certain concepts to modes of behaviour 
which are probably far more archaic than die concepts in question. 

A homogeneous group without any organisation of any sort is what 
we usually call a crowd (Chapter II). In a crowd the individual sur- 
passes his own boundaries and is carried out of his own self, for all 
the emotions are intensified by the similar emotions of his fellows. 'The 
panic is the crudest and simplest example of collective mental life. 
Groups of gregarious animals are liable to panic; and die panic of a 
crowd of human beings seems to be generated by tiie same instinctive 
reactions as the panic of animals. The essence of the panic is the 
collective intensification of the instinctive excitement widi its emotion 
of fear and its instinct to flight' (pp. 24, 25). An important factor is 
the consciousness of being on die same side as tiie majority, which is 
always the 'right' side in any given question and hence frees the m- 



dividual from the control of those restraining forces which are the 
products of civilisation. The theory of a 'collective consciousness" de- 
rives some support if we consider tiie relation of the cell to tiie organ- 
ism as a whole. The divisibility of lower animals as well as the fact 
of multiplication by division points to the organic origin of what we 
call the group mind (pp. 32, 33). This is the basis of the Spencerian 
view of society. As an organism certain lower multicellular organisms 
are what are called compound or colonial animals; that is, tiiey form 
a single living mass with interdependent parts, each of which is an 
individual in itself (pp. 33, 35). The emotional life of a simple crowd 
is characterized by tiie primary emotions and lower and coarser sent- 
iments, which although hidden under a thin layer of cultural differen- 
tiation form the common property of mankind at large. Sublimation in 
the crowd is conditioned by full publicity which tends to suppress the 
more selfish current of feelings. One of the reasons why an individual 
is more apt to give free vent to his brutal tendencies when acting in 
a crowd is a sense of becoming depersonalised, a feeling of reduced 
responsibility (p. 40). 

McDougalt passes on to consider the differences and similarities ' 

between the crowd and the highly organised group such as an army or 
regiment We will not follow him into details here, but will rattier sum 
up the question from our point of view; in the crowd we have 
unrestrained impulse, in the organised group we have impulse plus 
inhibition. The former is represented by tiie common members, the 
latter by the officials and organisation of tiie group. The question of 
traditional group consciousness (p. 51) seems to be a special case of the 
principle of universal repetition ; once victorious a regiment will always 
be expected botii by friend and foe to repeat this victory, and tiie 
expectation will produce tiie expected result (p. 51). A weapon which 
has been wielded with success by a Maori is said to be imbued with 
magical essence, 'rnana', and will give tiie man who uses it the self- 
confidence which is an essential condition of success. Interaction and 
contact witii other groups is anotiier impoi-tant factor in tiie organi- 
sation of tiie group, but we must translate the remarks of our author 
from tiie language of consciousness to tiiat of tiie unconscious if we 
are to gain insight into the mechanism of the processes involved in 
this interaction. The most important of tiiese is that q{ projection-, tiie 
primitive impulses which have been repressed into tiie unconscious, or 
at least relegated by tiie second censorship to the preconscious, are 
projected into tiie alien group, which thus becomes an insbiiment of 
abreaction and national sublimation. McDougall distinguishes five levels 

of collective conation, from the purely impulsive to that in which an & 

organisation and the idea of the group as a super-individual entity "■« 

come into action. The various degrees of evolution explain the success ■ 


achieved by Boer armies against the British as well as by the Japanese 
against the Russians; it is the nation which has its back to the wall 
without a possibility of retreat that carries the day. It is from energies 
that have been drawn away from the instinct of self-preservation that 
the national idea gains additional force. 

Chapter IV deals with the group spirit which in the sense the 
author uses the word is a translation of the French 'esprit de corps'. 
'In considering the mental lile of a patriot army as the type of a highly 
organised group, we saw that group self-consciousness is a factor of 
very great importance — that it is a principal condition of the elevation 
of its collective mental life and behaviour above the level of the merely 
impulsive violence and impulsive fickleness of the mob' (p. 62). Here 
we seem to be getting near to the pith of the whole argument; we 
shall get an answer to the question which has been indicated by the 
author on the principal problem to be solved in his book; that the 
crowd (group) both elevates and debases the individual. The answer 
we get is that the 'group spirit plays an important part in raising the 
intellectual level of the group, for it leads each member deliberately 
to subordinate his own judgment and opinion to that of the whole, 
and in any properly organised group this collective opinion will be 
superior to that of the average individual because in its formation the 
best minds . . . will be of predominant influence ' (p. 63). We remember 
that the crowd was said to debase its members because the more archaic 
impulses which are common to all its members obtain the mastery over 
the sublimated and individualised products of civilisation, and we also 
know that the group self-consciousness can only be formed after the 
pattern of the consciousness of kind, which again goes back to organic 
sources. The spirit of the crowd and that of the group thus go back 
to a common origin, and if one of them is said to ' degrade ' the in- 
dividual while the other 'elevates' him, this answer is only arguing in 
a vicious circle and at the best serves to show how the introduction 
of an ' ethical ' point of view is apt to mar all scientific effort. There 
is a 'higher' and a 'lower' form of nearly all things, for instance, 
military discipline (p. 65) ; which fatally reminds us of the attitude of 
tfie Bakairi with whom the word kura means ' we ' and ' good ', while 
kura-pa means 'not we, they' and 'bad'. 

It is rather remarkable to hear that intolerance of the members of 
other groups is a sign of cultural advance ('to the uncultivated any 
society is better than none ' p. 6g), for in that case savages and ani- 
mals are in advance of even the most exclusive of Tories. The idea 
that the complex structure of Australian society is simply due to the 
satisfaction and pleasure derived from group consciousness, a sort of 
playful variation of the group ideal, is a view which is hardly hkely to 
commend itself to ethnologists (p. 68). McDougall is undoubtedly right 




in asserting the strong individualism of the savage (p 72) Its co 
existence with the prominence of the group can be understood if M-e 
explain these phenomena by the strong narcissism of savage man This 
IS what makes him observe an individual religion (secret name cult of 
guardian spirit, etc.; seeRoheim: 'Das Selbst", Imago, Bd VII)' and at 
the same time it is the projection of the narcissistic ego-ideal which 
forms the affective background of all his concepts concerning the srouD 
Ultimately we must say that the organism is continually wagint war 
against the stimuli of the outward world, so that everything ttiat is 
'not we- {kura-pd) is 'bad', i.e. unpleasant. The Group is that part of 
the World which has been introjected into the Ego; and this in slightlv 
different terms is also the conclusion arrived at by McDougall (pp ?q 80) 
'In this way, that is by extension to the group the egoistic impulses 
are transmuted, sublimated and deprived of their individualistic selfish 
character'. He justly criticises the erroneous ideas of collectivists of 
all ages, who to get additional energy for the State, desire to eJiminate 
the family in education, for, as we all know, the smaller group is the 
prototype and foundation of the larger one, and if these reformers 
could succeed in their efforts they would destroy the mental foun- 
dations of all possibility of collective life of the higher type (p. S3) 

The next chapter gives us a classification of human groups as 
natural and artificial, traditional and purposive, showing how occupational 
and purposive groups are slowly replacing those formed by common 
geographical circumstances. In dealing with the question 'What is a 
nation?' the author sides with those who regard nationhood as essen- 
tially a psychological problem. The problem of national deities would 
well deserve a more thorough discussion in this connection (p. 102), 
Chapter vn is concerned chiefly with the part played by racial factors 
in 'forming the mind of a nation'. Although the author professes to 
take a via media between the views of Gobineau and Houston Stewart 
Chamberlain on the one side and Mills and Buckle on the other, yet 
on the whole he seems to be following rather the lead of 'Racial' An- 
thropology' than of evolutionism. He regards racial qualities as being 
evolved in an immeasurably long period before the dawn of historj- 
and tending to repress certain other variations which are contrary to 
their general tendency, thus moulding the whole complex known as 
the culture of a given area. He even goes so far in this view of un- 
changed inherited faculties as to deny progress in a certain sense 
saying that we have only the advantage of accumulated tradition over 
our savage ancestors who were in other respects our equals- while the 
superiority of Europeans over negroes is not derived from civilisation 
but IS rather the reason why the European has reached a level beyond 
the limited faculties of the negro (p. 120). I do not think that biology 
has deiimtely settled the problem of the transmissibiUty of acquired 



qualities (p. 119) in the negative, and I refer to the investigation of 
Boas on the changes in the stature and cranial index of American im- 
migrants as a striking and well authenticated corroboration of Lamarckian 
ideas. But even the most extreme exponents of race theories must 
assume that races acquired the qualities they actually possess in some 
prehistoric phase of their development. We can perhaps help to bridge 
over difficulties by applying what we know of the evolution of the in- 
dividual to the evolution of the race. A man is formed by the im- 
pressions ol the child, and it has been reserved for psycho-analysis to 
show how .our infantile life determines our whole life-history. In the 
same manner we must also accept the idea that the plasticity of the 
race is greatest at the dawn of its history, though the possibility of 
adaptation to environment is never quite lost; if it is, the nation or 
race must perish. Thus the racial peculiarities and ideals would represent 
the unconscious survivals not so much of histoi-y in the usual sense of 
the word but of phylogenetic infancy. It is remarkable how the memory 
of the dawn of nations which must in reality have been a very humble 
one is transformed and glorified into an heroic age by secular repression 
and national narcissism, just as the defeats of the infantile sexual life 
aie transformed into so many glorious achievements in dream life {See 
Freud: Kleine Schriften zur Neurosenlehre, IV. 1918. 'Aus der Ge- 
schichte einer infantilen Neurose'). A case of this phenomenon in racial 
history has been demonstrated by the researches of the well-known 
Hungarian ethnologist J. Sebestyen. He shows that the Hungarian 
traditions which recount the victories of their ancestors (identified by 
tradition both with the Huns and Avars) over the 'Romans' do not 
refer to the really victorious inroads of the Huns on Western civili- 
sation, but recount the national catastrophe suffered by the Avars at 
the hands of Charlemagne and his successors. Only with this difference: 
the events are faithfully recorded, but with a reversal; victories are 
substituted for defeats, and the campaign goes from east to west instead 
of from west to east, 

McDougall goes on to discuss the part played by leading individuals 
in national life, but without arriving at a deterministic view of the 
relation between these individuals and the masses. Chapter X tells us 
that geographical contiguity and common origin alone do not make a 
nation in the modem sense unless we add to these tiia dominant idea 
of a common purpose. This psychical attitude is often attained in a 
national war. The danger which threatens the organism in disease 
results in what Ferenczi has called a pathoneurosis, a condensation of 
narcissistic libido in the imperilled part of the body, and a similar 
superabundance of national narcissism is also the usual reaction of a 
people in threatening danger (see pp. 142, 143). Hence perhaps we 
may by arguing from the present to the past conclude that the nation 


as such, that is, the distinction of a number of human bein^ from 
other members of the same species, was born in the crisis in which 
that distinction is still most marked, i.e. in war. It was after the re- 
pression of the natural aggressiveness of the parricidal brothers towards 
one another that the repressed aggressiveness could be projected beyond 
the limits of the horde into a national ideal, whilst the homoerotic im- 
pulse of the ' Mdnnerbund' became sublimated into patriotism. This 
projection and sublimation is still the most marked feature of the 
nationalistic attitude in peace and war. By the 'will of the nation' the 
autlior means something over and above tlie unconscious tendencies 
and strivings which dominate the collectivity; he accepts an active 
and combative nationalism and lays great stress on the conscious and 
self-conscious character of national volition (Ch, XI), Nations evolve 
from the unconscious to the conscious, from an organism to a 'social 
contract'. McDougall calls the nation a 'contractual organism', thus 
projecting the ideas of Rousseau into the future instead of the past 

Cp- i7S)- 

In our opinion and terminology 'the psychological justification of 
patriotism' which our author attempts to give as against the anti- 
nationalists (p. 180) consists in the fact that it affords a goal of subli- 
mation which stands midway between the family and humanity and is 
thus in a position to draw away parts of the Oedipus complex from 
its original point of fixation. On the other hand, the fundamental con- 
dition for the existence of a real national spirit is the existence of 
the foreigner, the enemy. All the ill-wili existing among the members 
of the same family (nation) become repressed and will be projected 
on to the foreigner, who is thus transformed into a veritable demon. 
National life is a perpetual war (psychic and real) against this extra- 
territorial objectivation of our own Unconscious, 

The question of the various ideals that dominate the psyche cA 
nations is one of high interest (p. 183), Perhaps we may hope for a 
differential psychology of nations built up on the study of their various 
ideals, or rather on the study of the unconscious complexes for which 
these ideals are the substitutes. The desire to conquer the whole world 
would be an ideal actuated by the unsatisfied part of the Oedipus 
complex, the Earth being one of the most frequent substitutes for the 
mother (cf: the oracle on the triumph of him who first kisses his 
mother, Brutus kissing the symbol instead of the original), whilst the 
caste-system of India is a reversion to endogamy which completely 
arrested the development of an originally active people. The desire 
of France with a stagnant population for territorial increase and colonies 
looks like an over-compensation of the fear of losing what she actually 
possesses : a dread which is probably connected with national infecundity 
in a specially deeply rooted castration-complex. (For McDougall's views 


on these subjects compare p. 184.) The French ideal of equality and 
the British of liberty are both specially powerful reaction-formations 
against the encroachments of a tyrannous aristocracy suffered in the 
past, and both correspond to the infantile wish to be equal with the 
adults and not hampered by their will. Hunian nature really finds its 
pleasure only in the repetition of the past; conservatism is the natural 
attitude of mankind (See Freud: Jenseits des Lustprinzips), so that we 
must class the ideal of progress as another reaction-formation — this time 
against the tendency to relapse into the past — as a libidinisation of tlie 
comparative readjustments dictated by the Reality Principle, The influence 
of the past is rightly insisted on throughout the book; public opinion, 
we are told, is not a mere sum of individual opinions upon any particular 
question, it is rather the expression of that tone or attitude of mind 
which prevails throughout the nation and owes its quality far more to 
the influence of the dead than of the living (p. 1S9). 

But it is the third part of the book (Chapters XIV— XX) which is 
concerned with the processes by which national mind and character 
are gradually built up and shaped in the long course of ages. For 'just 
as we cannot understand individual minds, their peculiarities and differ- 
ences, without studying their development, so we cannot hope to 
understand national mind and character and the peculiarities and differ- 
ences of nations without studying the slow processes tlirough which 
they have been built up in the course of centuries ' (p. 200J. Psycho- 
Analysis can with full right lay claim to the merit ot having made more 
headway in the genetic study of the individual mind than any other 
method, and can therefore expect to find the same or analogous mechan- 
isms at work in the formation of the group spirit. McDougall starts 
on his road with a remark which seems to be strikingly correct and 
of great importance for future investigation. 'The differentiation of 
racial types in the prehistoric period must have been in the main 
the work oJ differences of physical environment, operating directly by 
way of selection, by way of adaptation of each race to its environment 
through the extermination of the strains least suited to exist under 
those physical conditions. But this process, this direct moulding of 
racial types by physical environment must have been well-nigh arrested 
as soon as the nations began to form. For the formation of nations 
implies the beginning of civilisation; and civilisation very largely con- 
sists in the capacity of a people to subdue their physical environment 
to their needs to a degree that renders tliem far less the sport of it 
than was primitive man ; it consists in short, in replacing man's natural 
environment by an artificial environment largely of his own choice and 
creadon' (pp. 201, 202). If races must have been formed before the 
social and religious evolution of mankind began, the problem of psych- 
ical differences and psychical parallelism between nations belonging 



to various races of mankind presents a new aspect and demands new 
solutions. Leaving the question of historical contact aside, such agree- 
ments can only be due to the same psychical mechanisms operating 
on the same inherited and unconscious material, and identity of psychical 
functions such as is involved in the current theory of the ' Elementar- 
gedanke ' (Bastian) being insufficient to explain all the agreements. In 
other words the Unconscious, as we know it, with its central complex 
(die Oedipus conflict), is older than race, and the age from the pre- 
human Cyclopean family to the differentiation of races may be called 
the real prehistoric period of humanity. Thus we should distinguish 
two permanent and two variable factors the interaction of which gives 
what we call human progress. The two permanent quantities are the 
Oedipus complex and the various mechanisms of repression and distor- 
tion; the two variables are enviromnent and the Reality Principle, that 
is, the sum-total of readjustments to which the Pleasure Principle is 
compelled by a variable environment. McDougall classifies as follows: 
(l) Evolution of innate or racial qualities. (2) Development of civili- 
sation. (3) Social evolution or the development of social organisation 
(p. 20s). 

In the chapter on the 'Race-making period' (Ch. XV) the chief 
stumbling-block in our author's path is his rigid adherence to the Neo- 
Darwinian principle that acquired modifications are not transmitted. His 
theory is that the new qualities determined by spontaneous variation 
react on mental evolution by creating a social environment which mod- 
ifies physical environment and becomes a principal factor in the trend 
of racial evolution (p. 209). The original social organisation 'among 
that primitive human stock from which all races have been evolved 
was probably an organisation in small groups based on the family 
under the rule and leadership of a patriarch' (p. 208), which looks 
like a somewhat uncertain adherence to Atkinson's views. He discusses 
the effects of climate on nascent races, a subject on which many 
brilliant but uncertain theories have been propagated but hardly any- 
thing can be said to be established. 'The Arabs and the fiery Sikhs 
may be held to illustrate the effect of dry heat. The Englishman and 
the Dutchman seem to show the effects of a moist cool climate, a 
certain sluggishness embodied with great energy and perseverance' 
{p. 214). An interesting theory of M. Boutmy according to which a 
Southern landscape, offering more vivid objects for the eye to rest on, 
tends to promote an imitation of nature, an objective temperament, 
whilst the hazy outiines of the North compel man to direct his energy 
towards his own Self, is quoted with approval (p. 215). The inhabitants 
of the tropics can get the minimum necessary for life without any 
special effort or activity on their part, hence the indolent have not 
been weeded out in this struggle for life and they have not obtained 


that !ove of effort in itself which is so characteristic of'Northemers 
and especially of the English people (pp. 220, 221). Northern races 
have taken more time to subdue nature, but in the battle with en- 
vironment they have acquired qualities in which the representatives of 
Southern civilisation were lacking and which enabled them to outdo 
the Southerners in the race for power (p. 222). We might also add 
that the races of the North have had a prolonged puberty as compared 
with Southern people, which corresponds to what takes place with 
individual representatives of the race to this very day. 

The action of psychical environment is illustrated by the case of 
the French and English people. Demolins shows that the bulk of the 
population of Gaul belonged to tlie short dark round-headed race which 
started on its migration from the Eurasian steppe region. These tribes 
were pastoral nomads organised on what may be called patriarchal 
communistic principles. The clati represented by the patriarch was 
everything, the individual nothing. Tending the herds was an occupation 
which offered an easy subsistence, but no scope for individual effort. 
This is the prototype of the French system as we see it at present; 
a centralised government with sociable but not individualistic subjects. 
On the other hand the ancestors of the English were the Nordic tribes 
who settled in Scandinavia, where the indented coast and their seafaring 
occupation compelled them to adopt the small individual family as their 
unit of social organisation; hence for the Englishman to this very day 
his house is his castle and he relies on himself and not on the state 
to help him in emergency (p. 237). The theory really seems to account 
for the facts, but when we come to look into the matter with a critical 
eye we shall see that the relation between cause and effect is far from 
certain. We hear that pastoral nomads are necessarily communistic and 
lack individuality, and then we remember the data of an eye-witness 
like Vamb^ry who describes his Turkomans as 'an unruly folk with a 
superabundant quantity of individualism '. ' We are a folk without rulers ' 
is one of their proverbs. Well, if this is the prototype of the rule of 
the Roi Soieil, we must say that it is ' diablement chang4e en route'. 
And as for the small family, with seafaring or fishing as an occupation, 
we know many races who possess these forms of social and economic 
organisation without becoming the founders of the British Empire. 
McDougal! has much to say on the disadvantages of the crossing of 
races unless they are sub-races of the same stock, but he forgets to 
mention that some of these disadvantages such as the unreliable, un- 
stable character of the cross-breeds may be due to social rather than 
biological causes (p. 240). Following Sir H. Maine he thinks it possible 
that the chief difference between progressive and stationary people lies 
in the period of social evolution at which customs were codified in 
written law. An all too early fixation at a certain period of development 



■was the cause of the decay of Oriental people, while the Nordic race 
acquired sufficient plasticity in what we must again describe as its 
prolonged puberty to counteract the innate antipathy of mankind against 
all new readjustments (p. 271). The author concludes his book with the 
hope that a progress of knowledge, especially of the knowledge of 
social laws, will emancipate mankind from the thralMom of blind in- 
stinct and custom as well as from the intellectual errors into which 
rationaUsm is prone to fall. We think that this knowledge is still to be 
acquired, and the science which will be in the position to grapple with 
these problems has yet to be born. 


The Origin of Man and op his Superstitionb. By Carveth Read, M,A. 
(Cambridge University Press, 1920. Pp. xii-f 350.) 

Students of psychology and anthropology who are already in any way 
acquainted with Mr. Carveth Read's work during the years in which he was 
lecturer in Comparative Psychology at University Coilege, London (sub- 
sequent to his resignation of the Grote Chair of philosophy) will wel- 
come this volume, which contains in a convenient form many of the principal 
fruits of his scientific labours during these years. It is to be hoped 
however that the book will also make a strong appeal to the general 
reading public, and that its wide diffusion may help to make amends 
for the relatively small number of listeners who found their way to 
Mr. Read's somewhat remote and inaccessible lecture room, there to be 
rewarded by lectures which— in virtue of their combination of sound 
common sense with charm of expression and originality of exposition 
—undoubtedly deserved a larger audience and a wider recognition. To 
psycho-analysts in particular the book should be of interest as dealing 
with a variety of questions of the greatest importance in the development 
and history of the human mind and as suggesting a niunber of problems 
where psycho-analysis should be of service. 

The work falls mto two fairly distinct sections, the relative evaluation 
of which will no doubt differ according to the tastes and interests of 
the reader. In the first or smaller section (comprising the first 7g paMs) 
there is developed a theory as to the differentiation of man from the 
anthropoids, this theory being that all the differences between man and 
his nearest relatives may be traced to the influence of a single variation 
operatmg among the original 'anthropoid conditions, i.e. 'the adoption 
of a flesh diet and the habits of a hunter in order to obtain it'. The 
chief advantages which such a variation may have brought with it lie it is 
suggested, first in an increased supply of food (and therefore the 
possibility of a denser population), secondly in the ability to live in open 


country as well as in the forest [and therefore the possibility of inhabiting 
all portions of the earth's surface where animal food can be obtained). 
Among the numerous characteristics and changes held by Mr. Read to 
be indirectly consequent on the adoption of the hunting Hfe may be 
mentioned: on the physical side, the adoption of the upright gait, the 
specialisation and modification of hands, teeth, skull, jaw and skin; 
on the social and psychological side, a great increase of cooperation 
and gregariousness, the development of certain forms of sympathy, the 
loss of seasonal marriage, cannibalism, aggressivess, claim to property, 
strategy, persistence, generally increased intelligence, emulation, war, 
constructiveness {at first in the use of weapons), recognition of leaders 
and submission to their authority. Writing perhaps mider the influence 
of the War, Mr. Read takes a rather gloomy view of the number and 
strength of the undesirable tendencies fostered in men by their past 
life as hunters, even suggesting that we must explain ' the more amiable 
side of human nature, partly at least by derivation from the frugivorous 
Primates, extensively modified by our wolfish adaptation, but surviving 
as a latent character' (p. 6i). He admits however that a certain amount 
of friendliness, together with such virtues as generosity and mercy on 
the one hand and charity and long-suffering on the other, may have 
been fostered by the conditions of the hunting pack. A relatively 
small influence in specifically human development is attributed to the 
institution of the family, Mr. Read's view differing in this respect from 
that which Freud (following Darwin and Atkinson) has put forward in 
'Totem and Taboo'. The hunting hypothesis here developed fails indeed 
to throw light upon most of the problems with which Freud was there 
concerned, but this Mr. Read would probably regard as inevitable, for 
he says that in his opinion ' it is altogether vain to try to deduce from 
the primitive form of societj', which may have existed three or four 
million years ago, any of the known customs ot savages concerning 
marriage, such as avoidance, totemism, exogamy; which would be of 
comparatively recent date if we put back their origin 500,000 years. Many 
such rules can only have arisen when there was already a tradition and 
a language capable of expressing relationships' (p. 40). 

The second and larger portion of the book deals with the origin 
and development of human superstitions ; successive chapters dealing 
with: Belief and Superstition, Magic, Animism, The Relations between 
Magic and Animism, Omens, The Mind of the Wizard, Totemism, Magic 
and Science. It is impossible to deal even cursorily in a review of this 
kind with the very large number of interesting and important topics 
treated under each of these headings. Only a few outstanding features 
can be mentioned here. Mr. Read finds the ultimate distinction between 
true and false beliefs in that 'true beliefs seem to rest on perception 
or inferences verified by perception, and false beliefs seem to depend 



upon imagination that cannot be verified' (p. 72); the power of the 
non-evidential causes of belief being excessive in immature minds and 
in tlie lower stages of culture. 'The peculiarity of savage beliefs is due 
not to corrupt and clouded perception, but to the influence of desire 
and anxiety upon their imagination, unrestrained by self criticism and 
reinforced by popular consensus. The savage's imagination is excited 
by the pressing needs of his life in hunting, love, war, agriculture, and 
therefore by hunger and emulation, hate and grief, fear and suspicion. 
Imaginations spring up in his mind by analogy with experience ; but 
often by remote or absurd analogies; and there is no logic at hand 
and not enough common sense to distinguish the wildest imaginative 
analogies from trustworthy conclusions ' (p. 86). The two most widespread 
and important superstitions are Magic and Animism; Magic being prior 
to Animism, a view in which Mr. Read agrees with Freud and dissents 
from "Wundt. Not the least important difference bet^veen Magic and 
Animism is that, whereas Animism necessarily assumes that the universe 
is governed by caprice, and tends to develop into Religion, Magic 
postulates a rigid sequence of cause and effect, thus having some 
important elements in common with the scientific point of view. Magic 
and Science both start from Common Sense and ' expand at very unequal 
rates in opposite directions . . . Whilst Magic rapidly distorts, perverts 
and mystifies it out of recognition by innumerable imaginations, Science 
slowly connects its fragments together, corrects, defines and extends it, 
without ever altering its original positive character' (p. 327). 

The psychological and historical basis of both Magic and Animism 
(those twin errors with which the human mind is ' everywhere befogged ') 
are treated at length and afford most interesting, though often melancholy, 
reading. In view of the immense blunders, ineptitudes and misconceptions 
into which they have lead humanity, the question arises as to the nature 
of the biological factors which permitted their growth and vast develop- 
ment in human society. Mr, Read's answer to this question is that ' these 
superstitions were useful and (apparently) even necessary in giving to 
elders enough prestige to preserve tradition and custom when the leader 
of the hunt was no longer conspicuous in authority. A magic-working 
gerontocracy was the second form of society; and the third form was 
governed by a wizard-king or a priest-ldng, or by a king supported by 
wizards or priests ' (p. vi). In later stages of culture Animism (especially 
in its religious developments) has indirectly been of immense service 
to civilisation, since the development of art and science has been so 
largely connected with the priestly castes. Even here however humanity 
has had to pay dearly for the progress it has made, counterbalanced 
as this is by a weight of superstition, which has prevented the applic- 
ation of human powers to the understanding and control of nature. 
'It is the tragedy of the world that for thousands of years the specula- 


tive powers of man— of some men— expanded without any power- 
except in the classical age, of discriminating sense from nonsense. There- 
fore, looking back, we see everywhere superstition and the kingdom ol 
darkness' (p. 341). 

As an ex-professor of Philosophy Mr. Read is hard on many of his 
predecessors. ' Philosophy has derived from Animism most of her problems 
— free-will and predestination, final causes, creation and miracles, 
emanation and intuition, ideaHsm and materialism, immortality, the being 
and attributes of God, eternity, infinity — in some of which, indeed, magical 
ideas are deeply concerned; all of them the exercise of the most 
eminent minds, exercise so delightful and so disappointing. Considering 
their source, we cannot wonder that these problems remain problems, 
and that philosophical discussion has, of late years, turned from them to 
questions concerning the theory of knowledge ' (p. 342). 

Not only as regards the past but as regards the future Mr. Read 
is by no means optimistic. While some beliefs concerning supernatural 
things are being lost, others are being resuscitated, but whereas 'the 
lapsing beliefs arc noble and venerable and have exerted great public 
power and authority . , . those now eagerly propagated are the raw 
infatuation of quacks, on a level with the Animism of an Australian 
medicine-man and, indeed, much inferior to his, as having no moral 
influence or authority. What must come of this is so dubious as to dis- 
courage one about the future of the world' (p- 343)- Furthermore, while 
our evolution from the hunting pack has ensured us leaders of a certain 
level of abilitj' (since Natural Selection has operated in producing the 
necessary degree of variability) and while ' the leading nations have of 
late years made wonderful progress in science and in everything that 
can be done by machinery . . . there is no reason to suppose that anything 
has been done towards raising the average intelligence and character; 
and in default of that, in my judgement, nothing has been done to 
advance civilisation. The world is no safer against war, revolution, 
demagogy, despotism, degeneration' (p. 343). 'Anyone who anxiously 
desires to foresee the future of our race is in a position to sympathise 
with the ancients. Go, inquire at Delphi orDodona; or sleep in Stone- 
henge, or at the tomb of Merlin, or by the barrows at Upsala, 
and dream of things to come; or consult the stars, cast the 
nativity of Ly cop itli ecus, and read in heaven the fate of his 
posterity. If these methods are not very hopeful any one of them is 
as good as guessing. The only safe refiection is tliat he who lives longest 
will see most'. 

These brief excerpts and comments will perhaps suffice to show 
something of the outlook, style and nature of this interesting and 
important book— a book which (though in itself in no sense technically 
psycho-analytic) will certainly repay careful thought and study on the 


h^/r "E^ ''^ ?*"''''^ -n the contributions of psycho-analysis to 
human thought and human welfare i A ir 

Primitive Society, the Beginnings of the Family and the RECKONmr 
OF Descent By Edwin Sidney Hartland, LL.D., F.S.A., Hon F R S A 
(Ireland). (Methuen & Co., London, 1921. Pp. jgo. Price 6s.) 

This book is a vmdication of the priority "ot matrilineal descent in 
early forms of human society. As the author says, the work of Spencer 
and Gillen in Australia and of Morgan in America has of recent years 
somewhat shaken the belief in this priority, which up to the end of the 
nmeteenth century had been gradually gaining ground among anthropo- 
logists. 'The time therefore seems to have arrived for a brief restatement 
m popular form of the facts and arguments leading to the conclusion 
that the earliest ascertainable systematic method of deriving human 
kinship is through the woman only, and that patrilineal reckoning is a 
subsequent development ' 

After a brief consideration ol the most primitive forms of society, 
as exemplified by Bushmen, Fuegians, Andamanese, Eskimo and (the 
now extinct) Tasmanians, and an exposition of the principal characteristics 
of 'Mother-right', Dr. Hartland passes in review all the chief populations 
of the world (with special emphasis of course on those whose culture 
is still relatively primitive), showing in a few cases the actual existence 
of pure matrilineal descent, in a number of others a state of transition 
between matrilineal and patrilineal descent, in many more the remnants 
of matrilineal descent (such as matrilocal marriage and a preponderating 
influence on the part of the maternal uncle) persisting among patrilineal 
institutions. His general conclusion is that matrilineal descent has 
everywhere been the primitive method of reckoning kinship, but that 
for a variety of reasons (chief among which are economic factors and 
the effects of conquest and immigration, the mere knowledge of the 
nature of paternity being comparatively unimportant) this method tends 
nearly always to be supplanted in the course of evolution by the system 
of reckoning descent by the father which is now in use among all the 
more cultured races. - 

It is perhaps to be regretted (especially as the volume is intended 
as an exposition of the subject 'in popular form') that Dr. HarUand 
has not given a clearer and more detailed summary of his views as to 
the different mechanisms that are operative in producing this change 
as these views actually emerge from the facts he passes in re*iew The 
reader who is not an expert anthropologist is apt to be a Uttle 
bewildered by the mass of detail, and a few more words of guidance 

- ■*•*-- . . --.— '^^ 



from the author here and there would sometimes be of considerable 
assistance. Nevertheless the book is a mine of useful and conveniently 
arranged information for all students of social, family and sexual insti- 
tutions. As regards his main thesis also, Dr. Hartland would seem to 
have made out a strong case and, although he modestly bids us 
remember that 'scientific conclusions are never more than provisional" 
and 'are liable at any time to be revised and modified by a wider 
knowledge and a more accurate reasoning', we have little doubt that 
the work here presented is (so far as the limitation of its scope 
permits) destined to become a permanent landmark in the history of 
that branch of anthropology to which it belongs. J C. F. 

Dritam Psvchology. By Sigm. Freud. Authorized Translation by 
M. D. Eder. With a Preface by Andre Tridon. 0ames McCann & Co., 
New York. 1921.) 

We mention this book here only to warn our readers as to its 
nature. From the announcement it might be supposed that it is a nev/ 
book by Professor Freud, containing his latest views on the psycholog^- 
of dreams, that it was translated by Dr. Eder, that Professor Freud 
chose Mr. Tridon to introduce Mm to the American public, and that 
its publication is an authorized one. It has, in fact, been received ay 
such and been given reviews on these assumptions, e. g. in the Psycho- 
analytic Review. None of the assumptions, however, are in accord with 
the truth; they are merely suggestions fabricated by the publisher in 
order to sell a book under false pretences. 

The facts are these. Only two books on dreams by Professor Freud 
have so far been translated and published in English, the translators 
being Dr. Brill and Dr. Eder respectively. The present book is simply 
made up from a series of cuttings from the two authorized ones. These 
were re-arranged, given new chapter-headings, naturally without the 
knowledge of the author or either of the two previous translators or 
publishers, and offered to a publisher as a new book. We have reason 
to believe that the person guilty of this dishonourable act was Mr. Tridon. 
More surprising, however, is the circumstance Uiat the publisher appears 
to have made no inquiry as to Mr. Tridon's bona fides, as to the 
authenticity of the book, or as to any arrangement for acquiring the 
publication rights from the author or original publisher. In logical accord 
with this behaviour the publisher, on being acquainted with the true 
state of affairs, refused to make the only possible reparation— namely, 
of at once withdrawing the book from sale. 



It is not necessary for us to stigmatize conduct of this nature, about 
which no honest man can have two opinions. We have no doubt that 
It will meet with the opprobrium it deserves among publishing circles- 
publishers, though a much maUgned race-or perhaps just for that ver.^ 
reason, have their own strict code of honour and know how to iudee 
oiose of their members who transgress it. FT 





September 13, 1921 —January 24, 192^ 

September 13 and October 4, ip2i, Short Communications. 
October 11, Dr. K. MtUler: Review of Freud's ' Group Psychology 

and the Analysis of the Ego', and discussion. 
October 18, 

(a) Continuation of the discussion. 

(b) Short Communications. 

November i. Dr. Liebermann: Report of an Analysis. 

November 8, Short Communications. 

November 15, Frau Dr. Homey: Contribution on the Female Ca- 

December 6, Short Communications. 

December 13, Frau Dr. J. Miiller: Report of an Analysis. 

January 4., 1922, Dr. Nachraansohn (KOnigsberg) : On the effects 
of Onanism. 

January 10, General Meeting: 

(a) Chairman's Report (Dr. Abraham). 

(b) Statement of Accounts. 

(c) Report on the Polyclinic (Dr. Eitingon) which will be pub- 
lished shortly. 

(d) It was decided to levy a contribution of Mk. 200—400 
yearly on the members for the Polyclinic. 

(e) Dr. Abraham was re-elected President. 

(f ) Dr. Eitingon was elected Secretary in place of Dr. Lieber- 
mann who is temporarily prevented on grounds of health 
from carrying out the duties of Secretary. 

January 24, Short Communications: 

(a) Dr. Simmel: A Patient who didn't speak. 

(b) Dr. Alexander: Exhibitionism among women. 

(c) Dr. Boehm: An observation on a small child. 



(d) Frau Klein: An anecdote from Walter Scott's life j 

(e) Frau Dr. Benedek (Leipzig): On the Psycho-Analytical ' 
Society in Leipzig, * 

(f) Dr. Eitingon: Psycho-Analytical Material from France. ' 

M. Eitingon, Hon. Sec. '•' 

Berlin W, RauchstraCe 4. ■ 


Annua/ General Meeting 1 

The Annual General Meeting of the Members of the British 
Psycho-Analytical Society was held on October 13, 1921. 

The foUowing Officers of the Society were re-elected for the 
ensuing year: 

President: Dr. Ernest Jones. 
Han. Treasurer: Dr. W. H. B. Stoddart. 
Hon. Secretary: Dr. Douglas Bryan. 
Dr. Stoddart proposed and Dr. Read seconded the foUowing 
alteration in Rule 5 ('The management of the Society shall be in 
the hands «f a Council consisting of the President, Hon. Treasurer, 
Hon. Secretary and not fewer than two other Members who shall 
be elected annually m October'.) After the words 'Hon. Secretary' 
read *and one other Member' etc. instead of 'and not fewer than 
two other Members ' etc. 

Dr. Cole proposed and Miss Low seconded the following 
amendment ' That the Council should be increased by having more ^ 
than two Members in addition to the President, Hon. Treasurer, 
and Hon. Secretary'. 

After some discussion the amendment was put to the Meeting 
and was lost. The original proposal was then voted upon and 

Mr. J. C. Fliigel was re-elected a Member of the Council. 

The following Associate Members nominated by the CouncQ 
were re-elected: Dr. Mitchell, Dr. Hart, Dr. Rivers, Prof. Percy 
Nunn, Dr. Brend, Mrs. Porter, Dr. Davison, Dr. Jago, Major Ryan, 
Dr. Wright, Dr. Bowen, Dr. Culpin, Dr. Thacker, Dr. Rickman 
Dr. Chuckerbutty, Dr. Smith, Major McWatters, Rev P Gouffh 
Dr. Williams, Mrs. Walker, Dr. Glover, Dr. Thomas. , 


The following were elected Associate Members. Dr. C Bose. 
Mrs. Brierley, Dr. Herford, Miss Ella Sharp. 

The following alteration of Rule 8 ('All elections shall be made 
by ballot. Absent Members may communicate their vote to the 
Hon. Secretary. One adverse vote in six shall exclude'.) was 
proposed by the Council. After 'Hon. Secretary.' read 'One ad- 
verse vote in four shall exclude' instead of 'One adverse vote in 
six shall exclude'. This was carried. 

Dr. Estelle Cole who had sent in the following resolution 'That 
there should be a woman representative on the Council of the 
Society' withdrew it after the discussion and voting upon Dr. 
Stoddart's alteration of Rule 5. 

The two following resolutions (proposed by Dr. Cole): 

1. That there should be some rule regarding the continual 
non-attendance of Associate Members at the Meetings. 

2. That there should be some rule regarding the attendance 
of Members and Associate Members outside the London area. 

were withdrawn after some discussion. 

Miss Low moved that 'There should be a fixed date for the 
Annual General Meeting'. After a short discussion such a fixed 
date was considered impracticable. 

Miss Low moved the following resolution, 'That nominations 
for Ofhcers and Council be sent to the Secretary not later than 
one month before the Annual General Meeting*. After some dis- 
cussion it was decided to add the following rule to the present 
rules, 'That nominations for Officers and Council, proposed alteration 
of rules, resolutions, etc. be sent in to the Hon. Secretary not 
later than one month before the date of the Annual General 


It was decided to hold fortnightly meetil^s of Members and 

Associate Members. 

The Hon. Treasurer's report of the finances of tlie Society 
showed that the receipts amounted to £87 1 8s. gd., which included a 
balance from the previous year of &7 OS. od. The expenses were 
subscription to the Journal *3 8 os. od., subscription to the Association 
£15 l2s.6d., and Secretarial expenses £9 3s. jd-. leaving abalance in 
hand of S25 2S. gd. 

The Hon. Secretary reported that the Society now consisted 
of thirteen Members and twenty-seven Associate Members. One 
Member, Mr. HiUer, had resigned, having joined the Vienna 


Society. Fourteen new Associate Members had been elected during 
the year. Dr. Ferenczi and Dr. Otto Rank had been elected ^ 
Honorary Members. During the year there had been ten Meetings 
of Members and Associate Members, seven Meetings of Members 
and seven Council Meetings. ' 

Quarterly Report 

There have been five Meetings of Members and Associate 
Members since the last report. The attendance at the Meetings 
has been very good, and some interesting discussions have taken 

At a Meeting held on October 19, 1921 Dr. Bryan read a paper 
on 'The Psycho-Analyst'. He drew attention to certain character- 
istics usually found in medical men that would have to be renounced 
in those wlio contemplated taking up treatment by psycho-analysis. 
He discussed the various motives that led to the taking up of 
psycho-analysis, and then dealt more specifically with the quali- 
fications necessary for the work. He made a few remarks with 
special reference to lay analysts, and concluded by referring to 
the future training of psycho-analysts. 

In the discussion that followed Dr. Jones amplified some of 
the points mentioned in the paper and criticised others. Other 
Members expressed their views. 

On November 2, Dr. Stoddart read a paper on ' The Emotional 
Factor in Enteroptosis'. He pointed out that in anxiety states 
there is an outpouring of adrenalin which causes gastric dilatation 
by stimulating the sympathetic. This allows tlie transverse and 
ascending colon to fall, the latter dragging the right kidney from 
its fatty bed. Both stomach and colon sometimes reach the true 
pelvis. The question arises whether such extreme cases of enter- 
optosis could be cured by psycho-analysis alone. 
An interesting discussion followed. 

On November 16, Dr. Ernest Jones made some remarks on 
'Introjection and Projection'. After discussing the general topic 
of the two processes he quoted a question raised by Prof. Freud 
of wheUier many instances of apparent projection in paranoia were 
not really cases where the subject correctly divined the unconscious 
of the other person. A discussion followed. 



On December 7, Dr. Culpin read notes on a case of severe and 
long-standing asthma related to remorse from adolescent mastur- 
bation and to fears of child-birth; any situation suggesting these 
emotions produced an attack. The trouble almost completely 
disappeared after a superficial analysis. 

In another case attacks of respiratory disturbance apparently- 
dangerous to life and associated with complicated anxiety states 
were related to masturbation and conscious masochistic phantasies- 
Deeper analysis was followed by cessation of the physical symptoms 
and great relief of tlie anxiety. 

Many points arising out of these cases were discussed by the 

On December 21, Dr. Estelle Maude Cole read notes on 'The 
Abreaction of Fear in relation to Circumcision '. The notes referred 
to the case of a patient (medical man) who was undergoing 
psycho-analytic treatment, and who during this treatment had 
an endocrine investigation carried out on himself by another 
medical man, an ana:sdietic being administered for this purpose. On 
describing tliis to the analyst the patient developed violent agitation 
of the limbs and body, his skin became cold and clammy, the pulse 
fell to fifty-two, and he cried piteously in extreme distress. His 
condition appearing serious the analyst took his pulse; this act 
had the effect of controlling him. On his becoming quiet the 
memory immediately emerged of his terror when he was circum- 
cised at six years of age. This memory Dr. Cole pointed out 
was evidently related to a strong and prior castration complex. 
The interest in this case was the extremely severe abreaction. 

Dr. Jago read a paper on 'Tuberculosis and Neurosis'. He 
pointed out that many cases are to be found with combined 
symptoms of anxiety neurosis and neurasthenia, but in which a 
direct sexual cause cannot be discovered. The same symptoms 
are present in the 'closed' type of tuberculosis. The symptoms 
can often be traced to their appearance after a period of physical 
stress or a debilitating illness, conditions which cause auto-intoxic- 
ation in tuberculosis. Treatment on similar lines to tuberculosis 
causes improvement in the symptoms. 

Tubercle toxin has an excitant effect on the sexual centres, 
thereby leading to a physical (inner) increase of the libido. Social 
reasons may prevent the patient from gratifying the libido, and 
thus conflict results. The exhaustion following continued auto- 


intoxication leads to neurasthenic symptoms. He suggested that 
tuberculous auto-intoxication may give rise to an anxiety neurosis 
or a neurasthenia, and that it may precipitate a psycho-neurosis 
in a person psychically predisposed. 

Members joined in a discussion of this paper. 

Report of the Society for 1921 (Continued) 

A, Scientific Meetings^ 

October 3, ipsi. Dr. G^za Rbheim: Stone-shrine and Tomb. 
(Ethnological Remarks on Totemism and Cultural Stages in 

The totemism of the Northern and Central tribes of Australia 
differs from the similar forms of the Southern and Eastern groups 
chiefly with respect to these three distinguishing features ; the ideas 
concerning conception, the eating of the totem and the Intichiuma 
rites. In connection with this positive totemism (R6heim designates 
as negative the totemism of the Eastern tribes distinguished by 
the taboo of the totem-animal) appears a definite form of stone 
civilization (P.W.Schmidt); sacred stones occupy the chief place 
in the ritual, more especially in the magic of fruitfulness. The 
traditions of the Arunta indicate the northern origin of Uiese tribes, 
and it appears that a connection might well be estabHshed between 
the stone civilizations of Central Australia and that of Indonesia 
(J. W. Perry). In Indonesia as well as in Central Australia the estab- 
lishing of stone civilization is ascribed to divine powers. In Indo- 
nesia, as well, round stones having magical significance are to be 
found; they bear a definite relation to the tomb and are taken 
along on migrations in place of the corpse. If one could accept 
similar customs for the tribes considered to be the ancestors of 
the Arunta, the origin of Churinga would be easy to explain, The | 

migrating tribes could not drag the corpse with them, therefore 
the stone took the place of the body. Since there persisted among 
the Arunta a faint memory that these ancestors used to be buried 

' The minutes are made up from the written notes of the various 



in caves, they hid these Churinga stones in similar fashion in tlie 
Ertnatulunga caves. However, if these assumptions are correct, 
various conclusions of psychological importance may be drawn 
from them. According to them the Alcheringa-ancestors are the dead, 
the Nanja-stones memorial heaps erected by the hand of men 
above the grave. However, the legend tells us nothing about the 
part played by men in the death or the erection of memorial 
monuments to the Alcheringa-ancestors; probably it has been 
suppressed for some reason or other. The so-called 'tales of pun- 
ishment' seem to contain the solution of the riddle. For, in the 
tale ten variations report that the hero found death by drowning 
or being turned to stone because he ridiculed the animals, six 
versions report his deatli because he had committed incest. To 
ridicule something signifies as much as to disregard it, to take no 
notice of it; the subjects of ridicule in this instance, however, are 
not so much the animals as the penalties connected with them, 
that is the totemistic taboos. In this respect both infringements 
of the law are revealed as being identical, for the breaking of 
the totemistic command is, in fact, incest. Many traditions also 
show the methods of this transformation into stone; the hero was 
stoned by the crowd as a punishment for the incest committed 
by him. The throwing of stones in religious rites is a remnant 
of the primal battles of mankind, the flying stone being the right 
weapon in the hands of the crowd to overpower tlie stronger 
individual whom one feared to approach close by. The stone 
permitted the attack on the inviolable person of the father, in as 
much as the taboo was not broken by direct touch but only 
by the throwing of the projectile. The Alcheringa-ancestor and 
the hero of the tales of punishment is the father of the primal 
horde, who is stoned by his insurgent sons, and on whose corpse 
the stone heap which is to prevent him from returning to life is 
piled up. Now Freud has shown the existence of the unconscious 
feelings of remorse in the funeral rites of primitive men; the dead 
man becomes the evil spirit because he wants to revenge himself 
on the living for their evil wishes concerning him. Then the living 
look for the magician who has been guilty of his death and on 
whom they intend to push their own guilt. Every death is the 
result of a murder because the first death which left an ineradicable 
impression on the memory of the horde was in reality the violent 
death of the first father. The funeral rites of primitive man 



represent compromise formations. On the one hand the libido wants 
to cling to the lost object, on the other hand the inimical impulses 
want to destroy the dead utterly, and thirdly, the psychical re- 
pression which is to overcome the coming into consciousness of 
the feelings of remorse connected with the death is at work. The 
stone which holds the corpse to the ground stands for the primi- 
tive material form of the repression: but already it also represents 
the return of tlie repressed. For the stone fulfils its original 
purpose to drive the corpse from sight and from memory in such 
an inadequate fashion that soon it is changed into an image of 
the dead man; yet other shapes are given to it also, it assumes 
phallic form. Herewith the cause of the conflict becomes clear: the 
primal father had to die because he wished to keep the women 
of the horde for himself. In the cult of the phallic tombstone 
R6heim sees the formation oi a reaction against the wish for the 
castration of the father. If the ancestor makes all the women of 
the horde pregnant and brings fruitfulness to the fields, then he 
really receives back after death everything for which he should 
have suffered death; now he possesses and makes pregnant tlie 
women of the horde — to the dead everything is granted for 
which the living had to fight in bloody battles. 

Everywhere in Oceania a connection exists between the con- 
centric stone circles and human sacrifice on the one hand, and 
cannibalism and funeral rites on the other hand. This relation 
becomes intelligible as soon as one assumes that the first occasions 
for the erection of the stone heaps were the murder and the 
eating of the remains of the primal father. But Psycho-Analysis 
has recognised that the tomb is a symbol of the womb, death is 
therefore a return to the body of the mother, and the Churinga, 
therefore, signifies not only the corpse in the tomb but also tlie 
embryo (and the penis) in the mother's womb. Therefore children 
are born from rocks. In Central Australia this is the normal manner 
of coming into the world; in Indonesia this idea prevails only as 
regards the ancestors of the tribe, which facts permit us to con- 
ceive a time in which this belief of the Australians was also pre- 
dominant in Indonesia. The more prominent the member of the 
tribe, the more often the funeral ceremonies are repeated in his 
honour; yet no common mortal can compete in importance with 
those semi-animal heroes of earhest times. These impressions of 
the childhood days of humanity are the deepest, and therefore the 


mourning action is continued and the intichiuma ceremonies, the 
funeral rite of the primal father, are repeated year by year in the 
desert tracts of Central Australia. But if one conceives the most 
important totemistic ceremonies as a ritual which evolved from 
the funeral rite, the hypothesis assuming that totemism is a definite 
form (metempsychosis) of ancestor worship receives new support. 
In Lidonesia, the species of animal visiting the tomb is regarded 
as sacred; in Australia the tomb is watched so that the totem- 
animal of the murderer may be recognised. The days and hours 
after the murder are determinative as being the psychological 
moment for the projection into the world of the animals; tortured 
by the sense of his guilt, the murderer sees the images of his 
victim everywhere. Thus the animal at the tomb becomes a sym- 
bol of the father and also the representative of the fraternal horde. 
For the animals which come to the grave are attracted by the 
odour of decomposition, they are ghouls, in this respect comrades and 
helpmates of the brothers, who really also consume the dead 
father. The Arunta consider the scavenger eagle taboo, in the 
South-East and in Borneo this bird is the symbol of the highest 
spirit. If the customs of cannibalism as they prevail to-day are 
examined, two remarkable prohibitions may be found: among the 
Dieri the son may not eat of the flesh of tlie father; in the North, 
women only may not eat human flesh, for they might then become 
barren. The conclusion may be drawn from these facts that the 
prohibition represents the primitive condition. The son consumed 
the father's flesh and the women as well partook of the meal. For 
them this meal was as sexual intercourse with tlie father: after 
consuming this flesh (as in later times the meat of the totem) they 
became pregnant Gradually the suppression gained a foothold. 
First came the prohibition of conception by eating of the flesh of 
the primal father, later followed also tlie suppression of the totem 
meal. Everything, therefore, points to the fact that the intichiuma 
rites originated in a funeral rite which had also an orgiastic aspect. 
The attack of the young men on the leader of the horde could 
only occur in the rutting period, for then only the craving for the 
female, which was the cause of the struggle, existed. If they 
succeeded, after many vain attempts, a period of shock, a condition 
of immobility (sorrow) would follow, to be succeeded immediately 
by the heat of liberated youth, by sexual intercourse. In con- 
junction with the funeral rites and intichiuma, the initiation rites 


may be regarded as a third offshoot from the same root. The 
youths must obey the same commands as the mourners (absti- 
nence from food, silence and painting with white); the funeral 
ceremony of the primal father is thus repeated. No one is con- 
sidered a grown-up man who has not killed the father (mourned 
for him) and thereupon not consorted with the women of the 
horde (Intichiuma.). Urged by fear of reprisal (Reik) the brothers 
force the next generation to skip tlie murder stage and pass at 
once into the repentance period of the mourning rites; for that 
is the point of departure of the initiation. The farther the 
ancestors of the Central Australians were pushed from their primal 
home, the more difficult did it become for them to show the youths 
the real corpse and the grave of the fathers. A substitute arose 
for these in the sacred ceremonial ground and the boomerang. 
The spiral form of ornamentation of the Churinga comes from 
New Guinea where its origin may be traced to the human form. 
If all the links of the chain were at hand the evolution could be 
traced from the engraving of the human figure to its plastic repre- 
sentation and from this further on to the corpse itself. 

The speaker continued in this connection with ethnological 
observations on the origin and the succession of different stages 
of culture in Australia. From the psychological point of view, the 
difference, according to him, between the Central and the Eastern 
tribes is based on the repression and the return of the repressed 
material. For the social organisation of the Central tribes may also 
be traced back to a two-class society with patrilineal descent. 
This is based on the victory of the fraternal horde (insurgent 
group) for this organisation makes marriage between son and 
mother possible while father and daughter as members of the same 
phratry are taboo for one another. This assumption is confirmed by 
the fact that the Central tribes trace all their institutions to the 
fraternal horde (Alcheringa-ancestors) while tlie Eastern peoples 
hark back to the primal father (heavenly deity). 

Discussion: Dr. S, Pfeifer: As the report has shown, it is a most 
grateful task to dig out of ethnological material the traces of 
prehistoric periods in the evolution of mankind. Other psychic 
material also lends itself to this process, for instance the play of 
children, which, because of its regressive character, has retained 
the imprint of evolutionary stages long since past. For example, 
there are certain games which reveal the same content and the 



same tendencies as the tales of punishment cited by the previous 
speaker: the game of the great Mogul (French) in which the revolt 
of the children against someone in authority (father) is expressed 
by laughter, while their remorse is shown in a taboo of this 
character. The punishment is ambivalent, tlie laughing child be- 
comes the ridiculed and tabooed father (great Mogul) or, as in 
other versions, is attacked by the whole group of playmates, tickled 5 

and pinched, etc., all this being perhaps the refinement of the 
original murderous attack on the leader of the horde. The heap 
of stones mentioned by the speaker as the origin of the tomb and 
the tombstone occurs in the game, being represented by the 
children who throw themselves in a heap on the leader. The 
psychological relation of these games to the totemistic rites is 
proved by the existence of a totem, called 'laughing boy' {I'komme 
qui rit, Durkheim, Vie religieuse) the impersonator of which tries 
to persuade the participants in the rite to laugh by making funny 
gestures, just as the great Mogul does in tlie game. 

Dr. S. Ferenczi draws attention to the fact that the most t. 

valuable discoveries of ethnology (cf. totem -~ ancestor, father) | 

again and again corroborate the naive expressions of savages; this 
is also the case in the research concerning the meaning of the 
stone monuments of primitive peoples. The 'punishments' of the 
Indonesians — turning to stone and drowning — permit (according to 
talion law) a symbolic interpretation; possibly they also contain 
reminiscences of geological changes of the earth's surface. Finally 
he reminds his hearers of certain difficulties of mediod in the use 
of the heterogeneous materials supplied by ethnology, and expresses 
the opinion that, however valuable it may be for us to have psycho- 
analytically trained ethnologists make tlie investigations, the con- 
vincing force of facts gathered by unprejudiced observers should 
be estimated at its full value. The reconciliation of the doctrines 
of primitive thought and of social organization in tliis open-minded 
presentation by Rbheim is of great theoretical importance. 

Dr. S. Rado; The supposition of the speaker that tlie fraternal 
horde killed the fatlier by stoning him is an important contribution 
to the hypothesis of the primal struggle as Freud has developed 
it. The speaker has derived this conclusion from the examination 
of an abundance of ethnological material by excellent methods; 
however he has not adduced sufficient evidence when he represents 
as the unique motive for the choice of stoning as a method of 




murder the 'suitability' of the stones to serve the ambivalent 
crowd as a weapon in the battle against the sacred primal father. 
Perhaps it would be less superficial to interpret the choice of the 
stones as symbols of the lost virility; since other points of support 
for the theory do not exist, speculation may set in at this point. 
Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions which must have occurred 
frequently and over wide areas at this period may serve as a 
connecting link. The impression of such catastrophes on the sur- 
vivors was perhaps re-inforced by inherited premonitions which 
the tribal fathers of the human animal acquired in the days be- 
fore the prehistoric times of humanity. (Consider, for example, 
the drying up of the marine animals cited by Ferenczi.) Accord- 
ingly, taking everything into consideration, the horde might have 
been following the example of Nature in covering the father 
with stones, while later, oppressed by the sense of guilt, it might 
in its myths have projected back the deed on to Nature as it 
were. Then indeed the manifest content of these myths might have 
been right, in as much as the burying stones moved 'by tliem- 
selves'. The speaker compared, as Freud has already done, the 
repression with the burying under stones (Verschuttung^ In so 
far as the repression (in the sense of the withdrawal of cathexis 
and anti-cathexis) has developed in the mind as a result of this 
crime, the origin of the repression would become intelligible as 
the intrapsychic repetition of the hberating act dealing with its 
memory, or perhaps as tlie psychic imprint of a geophysical pro- 
cess, and behind the analogy drawn by Freud and R6heim a piece 
of evolutionary truth would be revealed. The latter consideration 
presupposes furthermore that the phylogenetic preparatory phase 
of the repression was the hasty withdrawal of the cathexis; the 
evolution towards (primal) repression was accomplished — correspond- 
ing with the increasing differentiation of mental life — by the develop- 
ment of the faculty of being able to turn the withdrawn quantity 
of cathexis (cf above lost virility) into an effective anti-cathexis. 

October 22, ip2i. Dr. Pfeifer: Problems of the Psychology of 
Music in the Light of Psych o-Analysis. ist part: The Psycho-physio- 
logy of Musical Sound. 

The speaker establishes the following theory concerning musical 
sound and its agreeable impression, basing his doctrine on biolog- 
ical and evolutionary fact as well as on psycho-analytical experience 
with the currents and the developmental stages of the Ubido; 



musical sound is found in species which have in the course of theur 
evolution just succeeded in establishing genital sexuality, in the 
moment just before copulation. The seasonal commencement of 
their libido created in the first place a narcissistic tension (also 
shown by various somatic extensions of their organism, swollen 
' body, pockets filled with blood or often with air, horns, ornamental 

plumage, etc.) which the animal is perhaps not able to get rid of 
through the outlet of its genital system because the libido has to 
pass through a period of ripening in which it probably repeats 
the phases of its evolution. At first it attempts to confine the 
superfluous quantity of libido to die erotogenic zones of its own 
body, thereby letting this libido retain its cadiexis and placing 
the muscles in a state of characteristic tonic stiffness. As the 
Ubidinal tension increases this limitation to the erotogenic zones 
is insufBcient and the animal in availing itself of a formerly used 
instrument attempts to liberate itself from this tension by now 
emitting a substitute— air{thus imitating the manner of division 
and separation of a part of the libido-bearing body). Because this 
air as the bearer of the narcissistic libido escapes through an ero- 
togenic zone charged with libido— a contracted sphincter— it acquires 
the characteristic quality of the sensuaUy agreeable impression and 
its meaning as a simple objectless expression of the internal pro- 
\ cesses of the ego. The speaker also designates this process as a 

"P normal hysteria which is founded on a primal repression and 

i mentions furthermore several other connections of this theme with 

I • individual psychology and with pathology. 

Discmsim: Dr. S. Rado has objections to the methods of this 
report as it dealt exclusively witli phylogenetical-biological specu- 
lations. Even though Freud has lately introduced die ethnological 
point of view mto analytical research by tlie side of metapsych- 
ological speculation, he has done this surely to complement 
rather than to displace the present ontogenetically orientated empiric 
method of approach. The analyst as investigator of the psychology 
of music could assemble observations in great numbers and ought 
to obtain from experience the points of attack for the theoretic 
treatment of die subject. Though the psycho-analytical fictions of 
the speaker concerning the psycho-physiology of the creation of 
sound by birds, frogs and the like, may be here and there ever 
so ingenious and plausible, they are dangerously hasty before such 
phenomena have been studied on the human being. 


Dr. I. Hermann believes that the libidioal cathexis of the larynx 
is just as inadequate to explain musical tone production as the 
genitalisation of the hand in the cases, here reported, of two 
draughtsmen could indicate why drawing and no other form of 
artistic expression performed by the hand was developed in their 
case; not to mention the fact that it would be impossible to estab- 
lish artistic canons of drawing from this piece of investigation. 
Musical tone production on the other hand is subject to many 
artistic canons. He condemns the uncritical generalisation of the 
libidinai cathexis of the sphincter and finally propounds the ques- 
tion whether the speaker's assumption according to which song 
production is found in the animal world where the period of 
rutting occurs seasonally may not be interpreted in another way, 
namely, that both manifestations are subject to the primary function 
of periodicity. 

Dr. S. Ferenczi points to the fact that this evolutionary con- 
ception of the genesis of musical sound (which is, moreover, an 
offshoot of the phylogeny of genital development in the animal- 
world already reported on in a cursory manner in the Hungarian 
Society and which he hopes to be able soon to examine at length) 
brings up many interesting and original ideas. The most valuable 
and plausible seems to be repetition of the narcissistic and object- 
phase in the producdon of musical sound. This is, however, equally 
true for the simple phonetic expressions and it would imply tliat 
a special explanation is required for that which produces the art- 
istic impres.sion. He thinks that the phylogenetic characterisation of 
the specifically artistic element cannot be arrived at before the 
erotic is not separated psychologically from other kinds of psy- 
chic emotions; and then he tells what historic, that is evolutionary, 
opinion he was forced to adopt. He considers the Aict\im ' i'ari 
pour I'arf as a 'functional' modification of an Art originally 
always filled with psychic content. He defends the speaker against 
the accusation of having erred in method and points to the fact 
that Freud, as well, was able to explain problems of individual 
psychology (suggestion and hypnosis) with the help of group psych- 
ology. On the otlier hand Pfeifer omits entirely the causation 
based on the individual psycho-analytical factors. Finally Ferenczi says 
that narcissism, the accumulation of organ libido in certain parts 
of the body, might be at work as an important factor not only 
in the formation of sound-producing organs, but also in every 




process of evolution and adaptation to the environment, just as it 
is in the pathological processes of adaptation (patho-neuroses, re- 
generation, etc.)- He hopes that by this accumulation we shall be 
able to explain the most delicate, processes of organic evolution 
which he considers thoroughly Lamarckian in character, agreeing 
in this respect with Professor Freud. 

Dr. B. von Felszeghy thinks that certain expressions of aiTect, 
as for example weeping and laughing, are in close genetic con- 
nection with singing and should not be omitted in tlie investigation 
of the latter mode of expression. The theory of the speaker goes 
too far in this respect, as it is also quite applicable to these ex- 
pressions of affect. As examples of the psychic bond between 
weeping and singing he cites certain mourning rites [Beweinen 
mid Besingen^ to chant and weep for the dead.). 

B. Business Meeting 

October 8, ip2i. The resolution is adopted that the minutes 
of the scientific meetings should be published henceforth under 
the heading of the work of the Society in the ' Korrespondenz- 


S. Raoo, 




Meeting on March /, 1^21. 

Present: Fiirst, Geiser, Lathy, Meier-MOller, Nachmansohn, 
E. Oberholzer, M. Oberholzer, Pfister, Wehrli. 
New Member: Dr. med. H. Christoffel, BSle. 
Dr. M. Nachmansohn: 'Analysis of a Case of Homosexuality'. 

Meeting on April 22, ip2i. 

Present : Brun, Etter, Fiirst, Geiser, Griininger, Hofmann, Meier- 
Mliller, Minkowski, E. Oberholzer, M. Oberholzer, Peter, Pfister, 
Tobler, and visitors. 

Dr. O. Pfister: 'Analysis of Capitalist Mentality'. 


Annual Meeting on May 7, 7^57. 

Present ; Behn-Eschenburg, Brun, Etter, Ffirst, Griininger Hof- 
mann, Liithy, Meier'-MuUer, Minkowski, E. Oberholzer, M. Ober- 
holzer, Peter, Pfister, Rorscliach, Tobler, Wehrii, and visitors. 

Resigned : Fri, Dr. med. S. Kempner. 

Transferred to the Berlin Society: Dr. M. Nachmansohn. - 

Dr. E. Oberholzer: 'An Infantile Screen Memory', 

It was resolved : 

1. Attlie instance of the Special Committee, and of a majority 
ot the Executive Committee of the Society, that both medical and 
non-medical members of the Society should be prohibited from 
giving publicity to the fact of their membership in circulars, 
newspaper advertisements, etc., where there is a risk of its appearing 
that this has been done on business grounds or for purposes of 

2. With regard to "visitors (a matter upon which there is much 
division of opinion), that one tliird of tlie meetings tn each year 
should be held without visitors, and that the choice of them 
should be left to the President and to the reader of the paper. 

< 3. In view of the superior number of the non-resident members 
that the meetings should be held on Fridays and Saturdays alternately. 

4. That the proposal to postpone the next Congress of the 
International Association to the autumn of 1922 should be supported. 

(The questionnaire from the Central Executive upon qualifi- 
cation for membership and the possibility of a diploma has' been 
circulated to members individually}. 

The Executive Committee, consisting of F. Morel, Geneva, 
E. Oberholzer, Zflrich (President), O. Pfister, Zurich, H. Rohrschach, 
Herisau (Vice President), and P. Sarasin, Rheinau, was re-elected. 

E. Liithy, Bale, has taken over the office of Treasurer ; Frh 
E. Furst (Zflrich) will undertake the distribution of jouinals. 

Meeting on yune 18, ipsi. 

Present : Brun, Etter, Furrer, Furst, Geiser, Griininger, Hofmann, 
Kielholz, Liithy, Meier-MiiUer, E. Oberholzer, M. Oberholzer, Peter, 
Pfister, Tobler, Wehrii, and visitors. 

H. Zulliger (Visitor): 'Psycho-Analytic Side-Lights from Ex- 
perience in Primary Schools '.^ 

' See H. Zulliger, Schriften zur Seelenkunde und Erziehun^kunst. 
Bd. v., E. Bircher, Bern, 1921. 


The question raised is as to the relations of psychology and 
psycho-analysis to schools and education, and as to whether in 
particular circumstances a teacher may be justified in making prac- 
tical use of psycho-analysis. 

Educational science is inconceivable without a knowledge of 
the pupil's mental processes. For this reason future teachers are 
instructed in psychology at 'the training-colleges. This instruction, 
and the text-books upon which it is based, give as a rule an 
outline of the physiology of the brain and nervous system together 
with a mixture of old-fashioned academic school-psychology and 
of psycho-physics. They deal chiefiy with the intellect, and give only 
the most summary and slight information upon the emotions and 
will. From the point of view of educational practice there is 
little to be gained from them. A teacher must obtain knowledge 
of individual psychology, in contradistinction to universal truths 
about the human mind. 

{By way of illustration a chapter was read out from a modern 
psychology text-book for use in training colleges.) 

Psycho-analysis, in virtue of being an individual psychology, 
is the most valuable psychology for educators. 
We must distinguish : 

I. Psycho-analysis as a scientific study of the mind. 
3. Psycho-analysis as a practice, based upon this study, and 
directed to certain aims. 

The future teacher ought to be acquainted with the conclusions 
of psycho-analysis regarded as a science. Not in order to 'go 
analyzing around', but in order to recognize as such his pupils' 
mental disturbances (e. g. dreaminess, laziness, absent-mindedness, 
insolence, refractoriness, gluttony, stealing, blushing, boastfulness, 
destructiveness, torturing animals, etc.), to give the children intel- 
ligent help, and at the first sign of a mal-development to draw 
the parents' attention to the possibility of consulting an analytical 

A new attitude towards children, the recognition and preven- 
tion of mental complications at their very beginning— such should 
be the gain to the teacher from a study of psycho-anaiysis, and 
such should be tlie task of 'ped-analysis'. 

Analytical quackery is not to be encouraged. The educator 
must not interfere with the neurologist For tlie practice of psycho- 
analysis, therefore, three conditions are essential : 


1. A many years' study of psycho-analytical literature, 

2. Analysis by a competent physician, 

3. Constant contact with a competent physician. 

A teacher who is a competent analyst and thus thoroughly pre- 
pared for his work will in certain cases feel it his moral duty 
to help where he knows he has the means to hand. But he should 
proceed with the greatest care ■ and tact, he should be contented 
as a rule with a symptom-analysis, and not start upon an analysis 
of the sexual complex unless he wishes to risk the loss of hjs 
position. In the case of less healthy children, whose mal-develop- 
ment requires a somewhat deeper analysis, he should begin by 
coming to an arrangement with their parents. 

Meeting on November 18, ipsi. 

Present : Furrer, Ftirst, Grilninger, Hofmann, Kielholz, Liithy, 
Minkowski, E. Oberholzer, M. Oberholzer, Pfister, Wehrii, and 

New Member : H. ZuUiger, Ittigen near Bern. 

Dir. Dr. A. Kielholz; 'Schizophrenic Inventors'. 

Changes of Address: 

Dr. H. Behn-Eschenburg, Kantonspital Herisau. 

Dr. M. Geiser, Dufoursfrasse 39, B^e. 

E. Ltithy, Birsigstrasse 76, Bale. 

Dr. H. Meier-MUIler, Fiisslisb-asse 4, Zurich. 

Dr. F. Morel, 8 Rue Beauregard, Genfeve. 

Dr. R. de Saussure, Asile de Cery, pres Lausanne. 



1. October 12, ipsi. Dr. Prinzhoro (Heidelberg) as visitor: On 
drawings by the mentally deranged and by primitive peoples. 

The lecturer presented a collection of spontaneously created 
pictures drawn by uninstructed mentally deranged patients of the 
psychiatric clinic at Heidelberg. These are attempts at representation 
of form uninfluenced by tradition or schooling; the draughtsmen, 
that is JS^U of them, are suffering from schizophrenia. The lecturer 


propounded the question of the relation of mental disease to artistic 
production. The main sources of the representations are eroticism 
and religion often viewed from the blasphemous side. In content 
there is a preference for symbolic and delusional analogies, in the 
matter of form there is shown an exuberance of the means of re- 
presentation. The general attitude to existence of the mentally 
deranged is characteristic as well of the artist: dehght in play, .re- 
version to the ego, arbitrariness, and self-assurance. The question 
arises whether the morbid condition creates new talents or merely 
awakens existing ones. In the progress of the psychotic condition, 
the creative factor must be taken into account. 

The lecturer pointed to those modern art forms which show a 
special relation to the pictures by the mentally deranged and sought 
to emphasize the difference existing between the latter and the 
work of creative artists. The mentally deranged labours under the 
estrangement from the real world as under a compulsion while this 
estrangement is consciously accomplished by the creative artist. 
The mentally deranged have been producing sufficient unto them- 
selves, responsible to no one but to themselves. The artistic ex- 
pression of the diseased is so akin to modern art because it lies 
along the line of the fulfillment of longing. The ability to express 
oneself in plastic form is given to every one to a greater or lesser 

The lecturer pointed to the interrelation of primitive art and 
that of mentally deranged patients particularly with reference to 
the hermaphroditic figures, the stiff posture, and the grotesque traits. 
Some of the pictures would cause one to hesitate in deciding 
whether they are made by savages or by mental patients. The 
speaker went on to explain the new direction given to racial psychol- 
ogy which has left behind the former rationalistic interpretation, 
and expressed the opinion that the close kinship between primitive 
art and that of the mentally diseased might be regarded as cor- 
roborating the existence of primal, elemental ideas. 

Discussion by Federn, Nunberg, Schilder, Poetzl, Rank, Reik 
and Freud. 

2. Oclober z(f,ip2T.Dr.Eem^eld: Some Remarks on Sublimation. 

The lecturer began with a review of the various formulations 
of the concept of sublimation found in psycho-analytical literature, 
more particularly in the works of Freud. Sublimation, in contrast 
to repression, is the resultant issue of instinct and may overcome 


the object-libido, as well as it may imply a redirection of the aim 
towards non-sexual, culturally valuable ends. Basing his remarks 
on observations made on the poetry and the club-life of adolescents, 
and on children's games, the lecturer attempted to formulate more 
precisely the concept of sublimation, laying stress at the same time 
on these two main points: (i) We must try to replace the evalution 
which we tacidy include in the idea of sublimation by a descrip- 
tive concept; as this, the lecturer proposes to take the consistency 
with the ego contained in the diversion from the aim, that is, he 
virould call 'sublimation* only those diversions from the aim, of 
the above-mentioned mechanism, which serve the ego aims (ego- 
instincts or ego-libido). (2) The capacity for sublimation is apparently 
directly related to the quantity of libidinal cathexis of the ego- 

Discussion by Fedem, Kohiai, Deutsch, Reik, Nunberg and 


3. November p, ipsi. Short communications: 

a. Dr. Helene Deutsch: 'An observation.' Two brothers quite 
unlike one another, of which the elder dies. Later the younger 
brother comes to ressemble both physically and mentally the dead 
brother in a quite remarkable manner: he wished to take the 
elder brother's place in his mother's estimation; this was the clear 
motive of his metamorphosis. 

b. Dr. Bemfeld: 'On the symbolism of neckties.' A five-year 
old little girl models a boy with a necktie in plasticine. 
The tie is placed low and has the shape of a penis. Just be- 
fore, she had seen a little boy undressed, apparently for the first 


c. Dr. Nunberg reports on two cases of particularly strong erotic 
relations between fathers and daughters. One father in his forty- 
second year had sexual leanings towards his fourteen-year old 
daughter. Another father had severe incestuous phantasies regarding 
his daughter. The first case went to the length of at committing incest; his 
relations with the daughter bore narcissistic traits. The patient indenti- 
fied himself with his father (on a homosexual basis) and with his 


In the second case there were phantasies of a marriage with 
the daughter, then only three years old: the patient sought in the 
little girl his own infantile ego-ideal. The defloration-phantasy is 
linked not only with sadism, but also with anal-eroticism. 




d. Dr. Schilder: 'Psychosis after an operation for glaucoma.' 
After an operation for glaucoma a woman patient asserts that they 
want to. cut off her nose, breasts, etc. as well as castrate her. In 
imagination she experienced attacks by animals and saw small ani- 
mals cut to pieces. The operation on the eyes is followed by 
castradon-phantasies. She also showed characteristics of transference. 
The operation calls forth the complex of the peril to life and to 
the genital organ. Birth-phantasies play an important part in the 
psychosis. The castration complex is the one to appear last. The 
later-appearing hypomanic phantasy closes the psychosis. The 
psychosis represents a kind of re-arrangement of the complexes. 
Coosequendy the appearance of the later hypomanic phase. The 
organic is expressed by mental means. 

e. Kolnai propounds several problems relating to the connection 
between the ego-instincts and the sexual instincts. Though the ego- 
instincts are also designated an egoistic, the sexual instincts are not 
altruistic. The attitude of ego-instincts and of sexual instincts to 
sublimation is quite different. Can one assume that ego-instincts 
function in the repression of the sex-instincts? What is the relation 
of the apparent parallelism of the ego-instincts and the sexual instincts 
to the preference shown for the ego-Instincts by consciousness? 
What factor holds the ego-instincts in check? Why is society 
grounded in ego-instincts and not in race-instincts? 

f. Dr. Hitschmami: 'On pedagogic method in Psycho-Analysis.' 
He showed charts for visualizing the concepts conscious, un- 
conscious, etc. 

Discussion by Schilder, Nunberg, Rank, Reik, Friedjung, Freud, 
Hitschmann and Deutsch. 

4. November 3j, ip2i. Dr. Bychowski tvisitor); A contribution 
to the psychology of schizophrenic delusion of persecution. Dis- 
cussion by Federn, Schilder, Fokschaner and Freud. 

5. November JO. ipzi. Professor Hans Kelsen (visitor): The 
conception of the State and Freud's group psychology. (This paper 
will appear in Imago) Discussion by Silberer, Reik, Fedem, Rank, 
Bemfeld and Freud. 

6. December i^, ipsi. Short communications : (a) Dr. Bychowski: 
A buddhistic womb-phantasy. (b) Dr. Reich: A contribution to the 
syndrome of conversion-hysteria, (c) Dr. Nunberg; A case of pro- 
jection, (d) Dr. Schilder: On the pathology of the ego-ideal, 
(e) Dr. Kauders (visitor): A contribution to the psychology of 

' REPORTS 137 

hypnosis, (f) Dr. Hitschmann: HirschlafTs statistics on cures by 
hypnosis. Wassermann on poetic day-dreaming. Discussion by Rank, 
Schilder, Fedem, Freud and Bernfeld. 

7. Decetaber 21, ipsi. Short communications: (a) Dr. Helene 
Deutsch : Drawing as an expression of the unconscious, (b) Dr. Federn : 
A motive of sea-sickness, (c) Dr. Bernfeld: A motive for the writing 
of comroemorative verse, (d) Dr. Jokl: On religious motives in neur- 
oses, (e) Dr. Hug-Hellmuth; The dream of a child, (f) Dr. Schilder: 
On the rebirth-phantasy in epileptic dream state. Discussion by 
Nunberg, Friedjung, Deutsch, Bernfeld, Blumgart, Meyer, Freud, 
Jekels, Jokl, Federn and Reich. 


New members: Dr. Felix Deutsch, Vienna, I., Wollzeile 33. 
Prof. M. Levi-Bianchini, Nocera Inferiore (Salerno). 

Chan('"e of address: Prof. Otto Poetzl, Psychiatric Clinic, Prague. 

8. January 4, ip22. Dr. Felix Deutsch: Psycho-Analysis and 
Organic Diseases. Discussion by Freud, Reich, Hitschmann, Federn, 
Rank, Poetzl, Reik and PoUak (visitor). 

9. Jammry 18. 1922. Dr. Hans Sperber (visitor): A linguistic 
observation as a contribution to Grillparzer's father-complex. Dis- 
cussion by Freud, Federn, Bernfeld, Reich, Jokl, Hitschmann, Winter- 
stein, Frau Kohscher and FrI. Sperber (visitors). 

10. Janwary 2^, ip22. Short communications: (a) Dr. H. Deutsch: 
Dream analyses. Observations on a child, (b) Dr. Meyer (New York) : The 
form of the dream as a representation of the content (c) Dr. Abraham 
(Berhn): The spider as a dream symbol, (d) Dr. Fedem: On 
sciendfic plagiarism. Discussion by Freud, Fedem, Nunberg, Reik 

and Reich. 

11. Feb^-uary 16. 1922. Dr. Bernfeld: On a typical form of mas- 
culine puberty. Dr.Oberndorf (NewYork): On a caseinferiority in 
the neurosis. Discussion by Freud, Federn, Hitschmann and Reik. 

12. March I, 1922. Short communications: (a) Dr. Hitschmann: 
Glands and Psychology, (b) Dr. Fennichel: Two Contributions. 
(c) Dr. F. Deutsch : A Contribution on the Formation of the Symptom 
of Conversion, (d) Dr. Reik: From the Neurosis of a Child. Dis- 
cussion by Freud, Federn, Hitschmann, Deutsch, Hug-Hellmuth and 

13. March 15, 1922. Dr. Fokschaner: On the game of chess. 
Discussion by Freud, Bernfeld, Fedem, Kolnai and Schmiedeberg. 

Volume in. Part i 
Issued April 1922