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BERKELEY-HILL, O.: A Short Study of the Life and 

Character of Mohammed 31 

BERKELEY-HILL, O.: The Anal-Erotic Factor in the 

Religion, Philosophy and Character of the Hindus 306 
CORIAT, ISADOR H.: Anal-Erotic Character Traits in 

Shylock 354 

EISLER, MICHAEL JOSEPH: A Man's Unconscious 
Phantasy of Pregiiancy in the Guise of Traumatic 

Hysteria 255 

FERENCZI, S.: Psycho- Analytical Observations on Tic . 1 
HUG-HELLMUTH, H. VON: On the Technique of Child- 
Analysis 287 

MOXON, CAVENDISH: A Psycho-Analytic Study of 

the Christian Creed 54 

r6HEIM, G; Primitive Man and Environment .... 157 
STARCKE, AUGUST: The Castration Complex . . ' . 179 
STARCKE, AUGUST: Psycho-Analysis and Psychiatry 361 
TESLAAR, JAMES S. VAN: The Significance of Psycho- 
analysis in the History of Science 339 


BERKELEY-HILL, O.: A Note on the Symbolic Use of 

Figures . . . 206 

BRYAN, DOUGLAS: Blindness and Castration ... 71 

BRYAN, DOUGLAS: Word-Play in Symptom-Formation 204 
COLE, ESTELLE M.: A New Point in the Symbolism 

of Flute Playing 202 

DALY, C. D.: Numbers in Dreams 68 

EISLER, M. J.: Womb and Birth Saving Phantasies in 

Dreams , 65 



HERMANN,].: Anxiety Dream and Oedipus Phanlasy . 72 
ISHAM, MARY K.: Example of Displacement of Original 

Affect upon Play 430 

JONES, ERNEST: Persons in Dreams Disguised as 

Themselves 420 

MACWATTERS, M. R. C: A Birth of the Hero iMyth 

from Kashmir 416 

MARCINOWSKI, ].: Two Confinement Dreams of a 

Pregnant Woman 432 

RICKMAN, JOHN: An Unanalysed Case: Anal Erotism, 

Occupation and Illness 424 

STERN, ADOLPH: Some Remarks on a Dream . . 427 


THE UNCONSCIOUS, by Thcodor Reik 73 

THE SCIENCE OF RELIGION, by Theodor Rcik . . 80 

by Hanns Sachs 94 

MYTHOLOGY, by Theodor Reik 101 

DREAM INTERPRETATION, by Otto Rank . . . .106 

NORMAL PSYCHOLOGY, by J. Hermann 207 

SEXUAL PERVERSIONS, by Felix Boehm . . .435 


ANTHONY, CATHERINE: Margaret Fuller . . . .245 
ARMSTRONG, C. W. : The Mystery of Existence and a 

Brief Study of the Sex Problem 458 

BANCELS, J. LARGUIER DES: Introduction h la 

Psychologie 244 

BARTE, ANDRE: Examen des Ali6n^s 467 

BOSE, GIRINDRASHEKLAR: Concept of Repression 453 
BRADBY, M. K.: The Logic of the Unconscious Mind . 123 

BROWN, HAYDN: Advanced Suggestion 247 

BROWN, WILLIAM: Psychology and Psychotherapy . 133 
CARPENTER, EDWARD: Pagan and Christian Creeds 141 
CLAPAREDE, ED.: Psychologie de I'Enfant .... 462 


CORIAT, I SAD OR H.: Abnormal Psychology . . . 232 
CORIAT, ISADOR H.: The Hysteria of Lady Macbeth 453 
CULPIN, MILLAIS: Psych oneu roses of War and Peace 132 
DEANE, W.: Fijian Society, or tlie Sociology and 

Psychology of the Fijians 246 

DREVER, JAMES: The Psychology of Everyday Life . 233 
DREVER, JAMES: The Psychology of Industry . . .463 

Frangaise Contemporaine 242 

FEHLINGER, HANS: Sexual Life of Primitive People 474 

FIELDING, WILLIAM J.: Sanity *in Sex 458 

GELEY, GUSTAVE: From the Unconscious to the 

Conscious 241 

GRANET: Fetes et Chansons de I'ancienne Chine . . 470 
HARTLEY, C. GASQUOINE: Sex Education and 

Maternal Health 458 

JANET, PIERRE: Les Medications Psychologiques . . 137 
KEMPF, EDWARD J.: The Autonomic Functions of the 

Personality 237 

KOLNAI, AUREL: Psychoanalyse und Soziologie . . .451 
LAWRENCE, EDWARD: Spiritualism among Civilised 

and Savage Races 473 

LAY, WILFRID: Man's Unconscious Passion .... 234 
LIPSCHtTZ, ALEXANDER: Die Pubertatsdriise und 

ihre Wirkungen 143 

LONG, CONSTANCE E.: Collected Papers on the 

■ Psychology of Phantasy 231 

MENZIES, K.: Autoerotic Phenomena in Adolescence 244 
NEESER, MAURICE: Les Principes de la Psychologie 

de la Religion et la Psychoanalyse 343 

RALPH, JOSEPH: The Psychology of Nervous Ailments 129 
RO SAN OFF, AARON J.: Manual of Psychiatry . . . 467 
RIXON, C H. L., and D. MATTHEW: Anxiety Hysteria 135 
SWISHER, W. S.: Religion and the New Psychology . 130 
TRIDON, ANDRE: Psychoanalysis and Behaviour . . 234 
WHITE, WILLIAM A.: Foundations of Psychiatry . 469 

ZELL, TH.: The Dictatorship of Love 454 

VARIOUS: Traits de pathologic m^dicale et de 

th^rapeutique appliqu^e 464 






PRESS ^^^ 












S. FERENCZI, Budapest. 


^Psycho- Analysis has done very little so far towards investigating 
that very common neurotic symptom which, following French nomen- 
clature, goes under the general term of "Tic" or "convulsive Tic".* 
In the notes appended to the account of "Technical Difficulties 
in the Analysis of Hysteria" * in a case I had for treatment, I gave 
a short digression on this subject, and expressed the opinion that 
many Tics may turn out to be stereotyped equivalents of Onanism, 
and that the remarkable connection of Tics with Copralalia when 
all motor expression is suppressed might be nothing else than 
the uttered expression of the same erotic emotion usually abreacted 
in symbolic movements. On the same occasion I drew attention 
to the close relation between stereotypies and symptomatic acts (in 
sickness and in health) on the one hand and the Tics, or rather Onanism, 
on the other. For instance, in the case cited above, these muscular 
actions and skin irritations carried out apparently without thought 
and believed to be without meaning were able to seize the whole 

» Translated by Sybil C. Porter. 

= See J. Sadger, "Ein Beitrag zum Verstandnis des Tic." Int. Zeitschrijt 
f. Psychoanalyse, 1914, B. II, S. 354. 

' Hysteric und Pathoneurosen, Internat. psa. Bibliothek, Nr. 2, S. 48. 

1 1 


of the genital libido; they were at times accompanied by regular 

When I incidentally discussed the meaning and significance 
of Tic with Prof. Freud he mentioned that apparently there was 
an organic factor in the question. In the course of this paper I 
may be able to show in what sense this view proved to be right 
This is about all the information I was able to gather from 
psycho-analytical sources about the Tics, nor can I say that since 
then I have been able to learn anything fresh cither from direct 
observation or from the analysis of "passing" Tics, in spite of the 
frequency of their appearance in neurotic cases. In the majority 
of cases one can carry the analysis to a close, and even heal a psycho- 
neurosis, widiout being obliged to pay much heed to this symptom. 
On occasions one was led to enquire which psychical situation 
favoured the appearance of such a tic (e. g. a grimace, a twitch 
of the shoulders or of the head, etc.). Here and there one can 
also touch upon the meaning, the sense, of the symptom. 
One patient of mine continually shook her head vigorously as 
though saying "No" when carrying out a purely conventional 
gesture such as taking leave of or greeting anyone. I noticed 
the movement occurred more frequently and more violcytly 
whenever the patient desired to show more feeling, as for instance 
friendliness, than she really felt and I was obliged to tell her 
that the shaking of her head was intended to give the lie to 
the friendly manner or gesture. 

I have never so far had a patient who came for analysis for the 
express purpose of curing a Tic; the minor tics I have had under ob- 
servation during my analytical practice were so little trouble to the 
patients that they never complained of them ; in each case I had to draw 
attention to the symptom myself Naturally under these circum- 
stances all motive was lacking for deeper research and, as stated 
above, the patients left the treatment with it unaltered. 

Now we know this never occurs in the usual analysis of 
hysteria or obsessional neurosis. The most insignificant symptom 
can be proved before the end of the analysis to be part of the 
complicated structure of the neurosis and even to be supported 
by more than one determining factor. This peculiarity of Tic 
in itself points to the suggestion that the disturbance in question 
is in some way differently orientated from other features of a trans- 
ference neurosis, so that the usual reciprocal action of symptoms 



does not apply to it. The circumstance of Tic being peculiar 
among neurotic phenoma gives strong support to the idea of 
Freud regarding the heterogeneous (organic) nature of this symptom. 

I was helped in the next step forward by a quite different 
set of data. A patient (an obstinate Onanist) practically never 
ceased to carry out certain stereotyped actions during analysis. 
He kept on smoothing his coat to his figure, frequently several 
times to the minute; in between he assured himself of the smoothness 
of his skin by stroking his chin or he gazed with satisfaction at 
his shoes which were always shining and polished. His entire 
mental attitude, his self-sufficiency, his affected speech couched in 
balanced phrases to which he was his own most delighted listener, 
marked him out as a narcissist contentedly in love with himself, 
who— impotent with women— found his most apposite method of 
gratification in Onanism. He came for treatment only at the request 
of a relative and fled from it in haste at the first difficulties. 

Although our acquaintanceship was so short it made a decided 
impression on me. I began to occupy myself with the question of 
whether the different orientation of the tics mentioned above origina- 
ted in their being in fact signs of narcissistic disorder that are at the 
most attached to the symptoms of transference neurosis, but are 
not capable of fusing with them. I am not taking into account 
the opinion expressed by many authors that there is a marked 
distinction between a stereotypy and a tic. In a tic I have seen 
and continue to see nothing but a stereotypy performed with 
lightening rapidity, in an abbreviated way, and often only symbolic- 
ally indicated. The following observations will reveal Tics as 
the derivatives of stereotypies. 

In any case I began to watch Tiqueurs that I met in everyday 
life, in consultation, or in treatment, with regard to their nar- 
cissism. I recalled several pronounced cases I had seen medically 
before I practised Psycho-Analysis and was quite astounded at 
the amount of confirmatory evidence that literally poured from 
these sources. One of the first cases I now encountered was a 
young man who had a repeated twitching of the face and neck 
muscles. I watched him from a neighbouring table in a restaurant 
and observed how he behaved. Every few moments he gave 
a little cough and fidgeted with his cuffs tUl they were absolutely 
in order with the links turned outwards. He corrected the sit of 
his stiff collar with his hand or by means of a movement of the 


head or else he made a series of those movements usual with 
Tiqueurs as though he would free his body from the irksomeness 
of his clothing. In fact he never ceased, although unconsciously, 
to devote the greater part of his attention to his own body or to 
his clothes, even while he was consciously occupied in quite other 
directions, such as eating, or reading the paper, I took him for 
a man possessed of pronounced hyper sensibility and unable to 
endure a physical stimulus without a dejence reaction. This con- 
iecture was confirmed when I saw to my surprise this young man, 
who in otlier respects was well brought up and accustomed to 
^rnove in good social circles, draw out a small hand-mirror imme- 
diately after the meal and in front ot those present proceed to 
clear the remains of food from his teeth with a toothpick and 
this all the time with the aid of the little glass; he never paused 
until he had cleaned all his well-kept teeth and he was then visibly 


Now we all know that remains ot food sticking between the 
teeth can at times be very disturbing, but such a thorough, un- 
postponable cleansing of all the thirty-two teeth demands a more 
precise explanation. I recalled to mind a similar view 1 expressed 
on a previous occasion^ on the conditions of genesis of Patho- 
neuroses, that is to say of "narcissistic disease". The three conditions 
there put forward under which the fixation of libido on single 
organs can occur are: (1) Danger to life or menace of a trauma; 
(2) Injury of a part of the body already heavily charged with libido 
(an erotogenic zone); (3) Constitutional narcissism when the smallest 
injury to a part of the body strikes the whole ego. This latter even- 
tuality fitted in very well with the idea that the over-sensitiveness 
of tic patients, their incapacity to endure an ordinary stimulus 
without defence, may also be the motive of their motor expressions, 
i.e. of the tics and the stereotypies themselves; while the hyperastliesia, 
which can be either local or general, might be only the expression 
of narcissism, the strong attachment of the libido to the subject 
himself, hisbody or to a part of his body, i.e. "the damming-up of organ 
libido". In this sense Freud's view of the "organic" nature of tic comes 
to its own, even if it must be left an open question whether the 
hbido is bound to the organ itself or to its psychical representative. 
After attention had been drawn to the narcissistic-organic 
nature of the tics I recalled several severe cases of tic that, follow- 
* Hysteric und Pathoneurosen, S. 9. 




ing the example of Gilles de la Tourette,^ one usually designates 
as "maladie des tics". 

These are progressive muscular convulsions affecting prac- 
tically the entire body which combine later with Echolalia and Co- 
prolalia and can result in dementia. The frequent complication^ of 
tics with a typically narcissistic psychosis certainly did not pro- 
nounce against the hypothesis that also the motor phenomena of less 
severecasesofillnessof convulsive movement that do not result in de- 
mentia owe their origin to narcissistic fixation. The last severe 
case of tic that I met with was that of a young man who 
was completely incapacitated in consequence of his psychic over- 
sensitiveness and shot himself as the result of an imagined 
injury to his honour. . • ■ 

In the majority of textbooks on Psychiatry Tic is scheduled 
as a "symptom of degeneration", as a sign — often the familiar first 
sign — of a psychopathic constitution. We are aware that, com- 
paritively speaking, a great number of paranoiacs and schizo- 
phrenics suffer from Tic. All this appeared to me to support the 
suggestion that these psychoses and Tic have the same root. The 
theory proved to stand on a yet firmer basis when I came 
to compare the principal symptoms of Tic with the knowledge 
gained of Catatonia from psychiatry and in particular from 

The tendency to Echolalia and Echopraxias, to stereotypies, 
grimacing movements, and mannerisms, is common to both 
conditions. Psycho-analytical experience with catatonic patients led 
me some time ago to suspect that the extraordinary behaviour 
and attitudes were adopted in defence against local (organic) 
damming-up of libido. A very intelligent catatonic patient who 
possessed insight to a remarkable degree even told me he was obliged 
to carry out a certain gymnastic movement continously in order 
to break down "the erection of the intestine"*. In the case of 
another catatonic patient I could also interpret the occasional 
rigidity of one or the other extremity, which was connected with 
a sensation of enormous extension, as a displaced erection i. e, as 

1 Gilles de la Tourette, "Etudes sur une affection nerveuse, caract^ris^c 
par rincoordination motrice, et accompagn6e d'^cholalie et coprolalie"i 
Arch, de Nsurologie, \^%^. 

' "Some clinical Observations on Paranoia and Paraphrenia", Contribu- 
tions to Psycho-Analysis, 1916, by the author. 


the expression of abnormal localised organic libido. Federn groups 
all catatonic symptoms collectively as "organic intoxication".' All 
this fits in with the hypothesis of a common constitutional basis 
of Tic and Catatonia and explains the broad similarity of their 
symptoms. At any rate one is tempted to draw an analogy between 
the principal symptoms of Catatonia — negativism and rigidity — with 
the immediate defence against all external stimuli by means 
of convulsive movement in Tic, and to presume that when in the 
"maladie de Gilles de la Tourette" tics are converted into Catatonia 
it is merely a question of perpetuating and generalising a partial 
defence-innervation appearing in Tic only paroxysmally. Tonic 
rigidity would prove to be a summation of numberless clonic 
defensive convulsions, in which case Catatonia would be merely 
the climax of Cataclonia (Tic). 

I must not leave the subject without reference in this connection 
to the well-known fact that tics very often appear as the result 
of physical illness or traumata in loco morbi^ i. e. twitching of the 
lids after a cure for Blepharitis or Conjunctivitis, tic of the nose 
after Catarrh, particular movements of the extremities after painful 
inflammation. I must bring this circumstance into connection with 
the theory that a pathoneurotic increase of libido tends to attach 
itself to the seat of a pathological somatic alteration (or to its 
psychic equivalent).* The Hyperaesthesia of Tic patients which is 
frequently only local, could in these cases be traced back to 
"traumatic" displacement of libido and, as stated above, the motor 
expression of Tic arises from defence reactions against tlic stimula- 
tion of such parts of the body. 

As a further support of the assumption that Tic has something 
to do with Narcissism I quote the therapeutic successes attained 
by a certain method of treating Tic. This treatment consists of 
systematic innervation exercises with enforced quiescence of the 
twitching part ; the success is still more marked if the patient 
controls himself by looking in a mirror meanwhile. The authors 
explain that the control by the sense of sight facilitates the 
graduation of the inhibition innervation necessary to the treatment ; 
it appeared to me, however, that beyond this (or perhaps the 
greater factor) the distortion of face and body observed in 

> Quoted from Nunberg's paper, "Ober den katatonischcn Anfall", 
Int. Zeitschrift f. Psychoanalyse, 1920, Bd. V. 
' Hysteric und Pathoneuroscn, S. 7. 


the mirror would have a deterrent effect on Narcissists 
and function as a powerful encouragement of the healing 


I am well aware of the weak points in the arguments I have 
advanced. The hypothesis, constructed rather speculatively, 
for my own use so to speak, on the basis of very meagre 
observations, would not have been made public but for the fact 
that its plausibility received essential support from a quite un- 
expected quarter. For this help I am indebted to the perusal of 
a book on the Tics, of particularly valuable and conclusive content, 
in which the whole of the literature on the subject is worked up: 
"Tic, its Nature andTreatment" by Dr.Henry Meige and Dr.E.Feindel.i 
I should like to connect my further remarks to the contents of 
this book. 

Owing to the particular nature of Psycho-Analysis, physicians who 
devote themselves to its practice get few opportunities of observing 
certain forms of nervous disorders such as "organic" neuroses 
(M. Basedowii) which require physical treatment in the first instance, 
as well as the psychoses the treatment of which is only possible 
in asylums, and the many varieties of "common nervousness" 
which on account of its insignificance is not made the subject of 
detailed psychotherapy. 

For such cases one has to rely on the observations of others 
and upon literary communications which, although not of the 
same value as one's own observation, at least has this advantage that 
one is spared the accusation of biased and prejudiced observation, 
that one has "suggested" to the patient or been "suggested" to. 
Meige and Feindel knew hardly anything of the Breuer-Freudian 
Catharsis; at any rate these names are missing from the index 
of authors in their book. It is true that "Studies on Hysteria" is 
referred to in one place, but this appears to be an interpolation 
of the translator who wished **to draw attention to several German 
writers whom the French authors had overlooked". Also the 
translation dates from the early days of psycho-analytical develop- 
ment (1903), so that the far-reaching concurrence of opinions in 

* German translation by O. Giese. 



the work with those of the latest discoveries of Psycho-Analysis 
is in itself a criterion of an objective argument. 

I will quote Trousseau's short but classic description of Tic: 
"Painless tic consists of momentary twitching of lightning rapidity 
confined as a rule to a small group of muscles, usually those of 
the face, though the muscles of the neck, the trunk, the limbs 

can also be affected With one patient there may occur 

blinking of the lids, a twitch of the cheeks, the nostrils, or the 
lips, that makes one think he is pulling faces; with another the 
head nods or there is a sudden and repeated twist of the neck, 
with a third a shrug of the shoulders, a spasmodic movement of 
the stomach muscles or of the diaphragm in short it is an unceasing 
series of bizarre movements that defy description. In some cases the tic 
is accompanied by a cry or by a more or less loud vocal sound. 
The tic may consist entirely of this very characteristic larynx- or 
diaphragm-chorea. There also occurs a very strange pr(j]>ensity to 
reiterate a cry or a word, the patient will even utter words in 
a loud voice which he would rather keep back".* 
' Grasset gives the following account of a patient, a characteristic 
picture of the manner in which tic can get displaced from one 
part of the body to another. "A young girl had tics of the mouth 
and eyes as a child, at fifteeti for several months she stuck her 
right leg out iri front, later this leg became lame, then for several 
months a whistle took the place of the motor disturbances, l-'or 
a ' year she would litter a loud cry from time to time : 'Ah'. At 
eighteen years appeared nodding movements, backward jerks of 
the head, shrugs of the right shoulder, etc."* 

These tic displacements often come about in the same manner 
as compulsive actions which displace the actual and original 
on to the most distant, only to return in the end to the repressed 
by a byway. A patient of Meige and Feindel* named these 
secondary tics "Paratics" and recognised clearly that they were 
in character defence-mechanisms against the primary tics, converted 
in their turn into tics. 

The starting point of a tic may be a hypochondrical self 
observation. "One day I felt ... a crack in the neck" recounted a 
patient of Meige and Feindel, "at first I thought something had 

' Quoted from Meige and Feindel, Op. cit., pp. 29 and 30. 
' Idem., Op. cit, p. 143. 
» Idem., Op. cit., p. 8. 


broken. To make sure I repeated the movement once, twice, 
three times without noticing the crack. I varied it in a thousand 
ways and repeated it more and more violently. At last I felt my 

crack again and this gave me real pleasure however the 

pleasure was soon disturbed by the fear that I had caused some 
injury." "Even today . : I cannot withstand the desire to re- 
produce the crack and I cannot overcome the feeling of unrest 
directly I have succeeded". ^ The nature of these sensations, now 
pleasurable, now anxious, allows us to tabulate them con- 
iidently as pathological expressions of the patient's sexuality and 
of hypochondriacal narcissism in particular. We have here the 
unusual case of the patient remaining aware of the sensory motive 
for his stereotyped movement. As we shall see, in the majority 
of cases the motive becomes an unconscious reminiscence of the 
real sensation. — Charcot, Brissaud, Meige and Feindel are 
among the few neurologists who did not disdain to listen 
if the- patient recounted the history of the origin of his 
trouble. Meige and Feindel say : "only the patient can answer the 
question of the genesis of his illness (tic) when he harks back to 
the experiences, often long past, which first gave rise to his motor 
reactions." With this view in sight, the authors encouraged their 
patients (although only with the help of the conscious mind) to 
reproduce those experiences which were to blame for the first 
appearances of their convulsive actions. We see that the path to 
the discovery of the unconscious and to its investigation by 
Psycho-Analysis would have been also possible from this point. 
They found physical traumata to be often a final explanation: an 
abscess in the gum was the cause of an inveterate grimace, an 
operation on the nose a motive for a later wrinkling up of the 
nose, etc. These authors come near to Charcot's view, according 
to whom tic is "only a physical illness in appearance and is actually 
in reality psychical" . . . "the direct product of Psychosis ... a form 
of hereditary Psychosis".^ 

Meige and Feindel have . also very much to tell us regarding 
the character traits of tic patients that we would call "narcissistic". 
For example, they quote the confession of one patient: "I must 
admit that I am full of self-love and am particularly sensitive to 

• Idem., Op. cit. 

» Some disadvantages of this conception lie in the fact that Charcot and 
his followers often class the tics and obsessions under one heading. 



praise or blame. I watch for any words of praise and suffer cruelly 
from indifference or derision . . . hardest to bear is the thought 
that I behave in a ridiculous manner and that everyone laughs 
at me."* "When I meet people on the street or in an omnibus 
I fancy they regard me with a peculiar look of scorn or pity 
which makes me feel either ashamed or angry." Or "Two persons 
live in me : one with tic and one without The first is the son 
of the second, a worthless child who gives his father much trouble. 
The father should punish his son but he is generally unable to 
do so; he therefore remains a slave to the whims of his own 

Such confessions show tic patients as of a mentally infantile 
character, narcissistically fixated, from which the healthily developed 
part of the personality can with difficulty free itself. The predo- 
minance of the pleasure-principle (corresponding to narcissism) 
can be seen from the following pronouncements : "1 only do well 
what pleases me, that which bores me I either do badly or not 
at all." "If he has an idea, he must give himself up to it absolutely. 
He listens to others unwillingly." Further remarks of Meige and 
Feindel on the infantilism of tic patients run as follows : "The 
mental condition of tic patients is at a lower age level than it 
should actually be". "Every tic patient has the mind of a 
child" (p. 88). "Tic is mental infantilism." "Tic patients are big, 
badly brought-up children accustomed to give way to their moods 
never having learned to discipline their wills" (p. 89). "A nineteen 
year old Tiqueur had to be put to bed by *Mama* and cared for 
like a baby."* He also showed physical signs of infantilism. The 
incapacity to keep back a thought is purely a psychic pendant to 
the incapacity to endure a sense stimulus without an immediate 
defence reaction. Speech is the motor reaction to abreact the 
preconscious (in thought) psychic tension. In this sense we are in 
agreement with Charcot's view of the existence of a purely 
psychic tic. The proofs continue to increase that go to show that it is 
the narcissistic over-sensitiveness in Tiqueurs that results in the in- 

» Idem., Op. cit., p. 20. 

« Idiots (who have not emerged from infancy nor therefore from nar- 
cissism) very often suffer from tics and stereotypes. Nolr compares the balanc- 
ing and rotating of the head in idiots with "a kind of rocking that quiets 
the patient and helps him to sleep, and which he much likes". . . "it has 
a similar action to the actual rocking of a little child". Jdem, Op. cit., p. 273. 



capacity for motor and psychic self-control. This view gives an 
explanation of the fact that in Tic the apparently heterogeneous 
symptoms of motor twitching and Coprolalia come to be fused 
in the same illness. Further character traits of tic patients, easily 
understood from this standpoint, and described by the authors, 
are: the ease with which they are excited or tired, Aprosexia, 
rambling and flight of ideas, the tendency to inordinate desire 
(Alcoholism), incapacity to endure physical pain or strain. All 
these traits can be explained in accordance with our views 
without being arbitrary if in the case of tic patients we think 
of the tendency to ab react as being heightened and the capacity 
for psychic retention lowered as the result of enhanced or 
fixated narcissism, corresponding to Breuer's bi-partition of 
psychical functioning activities into Abreaction and Retention. 
Abreaction is a more archaic method of relieving accrued 
stimulation, it approximates more closely to the physiological 
reflex than does the still primitive method of control e. g. 
repression. It is characteristic of animals and children. It is not 
by chance that the authors state, simply from communications 
from their patients and from their own conclusions, without any 
idea of the deeper meaning, that tic patients are often "like 
children", that they feel themselves young, are unable to govern 
their emotions, that traits of character seen frequently "in badly 
brought up children and eradicated in normal persons of adult 
age by reason and reflection, persist in tic patients in spite of 
increasing years and that to such a degree that in many characteristics 
they appear to be nothing but big children." ^ 

Their "need of contradiction and opposition" is worthy of 
special notice, not only on account of the psychical analogy to 
motor defence reactions in tic patients but because it is also 
calculated to throw light upon much of the negativism in Schizo- 
phrenia. We know through Psycho-Analysis that in Paraphrenia 
the patient withdraws his libido from the outside world to 
concentrate it on himself; every outside stimulus, whether it be 
physiological or psychical, disturbs his new state, he is therefore 
prepared to withdraw himself from such stimuli by active flight 
or to ward them off by motor reaction or negativism. But we will 
subject this question of motor expression to a more penetri.ting 

« Idem., Op. cit., p. IS. 


One cfin confidently assume that of a scries of tics or stereo- 
typies, the secondary if not the chief function is to direct attention 
and feeling from time to time towards particular parts of the 
body, as for instance the afore-mentioned stroking of the waist, 
pulling at or settling the clothing, stretching the neck, extending 
the breasts (in women), licking and biting the lips and also to 
some extent grimacing and distorting the face, sucking the teeth, 
etc. These may be cases in which tic is the outcome of con- 
stitutional narcissism, when the inevitable, common outer stimulus 
calls up the motor symptom. In contradistinction to this there 
exist cases which one could call patlioneurotic tics, arising from 
an organ pathologically and traumatically altered by an abnormal 
libido charge. Our authorities furnish several good examples: 

"A girl presses her head onto her shoulder to allay the pain 
from an abscess in a tooth, an action called forth by a genuine 
cause, a wholly intentional muscular reaction that has undoubtedly 
been actuated through the activity of the cerebral cortex. The 
patient desires to allay the pain by pressing and warming her 
cheek. The abscess continues, the gesture is repeated witli 
diminishing intention, then more from habit and at last automatically. 
Still there is reason and purpose in the act, up to the present 
nothing abnormal has occurred. Now, however, the abscess is 
healed and the pain ceases but the girl continues to rest her head 
on her shoulder every few moments. What is now the reason for 
the movement? What is the purpose? Both have disappeared. 
What is then this systematic process originally intentional and 
coordinated and now repeated automatically without reason or 
purpose? It is Tic."i Naturally some part of the authors' explanation 
remains to be criticised. As they know nothing of the unconscious 
mind, they hold that tics, in opposition to a conscious act of 
will, arise without any participation of the mind and as they are 
unaware of the possibility of a fixation of memory by a trauma 
and the tendency to reproduction from the unconscious they hold 
the actions of a Tiqueur to be senseless and without purpose. 

Obviously, to a psycho-analyst the analogy of the origin of 
tic and the origin of a hysterical conversion-symptom in the 
acceptation of Breuer and Freud is at once apparent. Common to 
both is the possibility of retrogression to a perhaps already forgotten 
trauma, the affect of which was incompletely abreacted at the 
» Idem.y Op. cit., p. 55. See also the designation of tic : "memory-spasms". 



traumatic moment : there are also, however, not unessential 
dififerences between the two. In hysteria the physical symptom is 
only the symbol of a mental shock with the emotion suppressed 
and the memory of it repressed. In actual Tic the organic injury 
is the only trauma, which is, it appears, no less qualified to leave 
behind pathogenic memories than the mental conflict of hysteria. 
(At any rate the relative independence of tic from actual patho- 
logical alteration and its dependence on memories would go to 
show that the "lasting change" that remains behind after trauma, 
lies not in the periphery, in the organ itself, but in the psychical 
representative of the organ.) Hysteria is a transference neurosis 
in which the libidinous relation to the object (person) is repressed 
and appears as a conversion-symptom, as it were an auto-erotic, 
symbolisation in the body of the patient himself.i In Tic on the 
contrary, it would seem that no relation to the object is hidden 
behind the symptom; in this case the memory of the organic 
trauma itself acts pathogenically. 

This differentiation obliges us to introduce a complication into 
the scheme put forward by Freud on the building up of the 
"psychical systems". The psychical systems consist of simple reflex 
arcs in the form of unconscious, preconscious and conscious 
memory-systems (M-systems) interpolated between the afferent 
(sensory) and the efferent (motor) apparatus. Now Freud himself 
already accepts a plurality of such M-systems that are orientated accor- 
ding to the different principles of temporal, formal, or affective asso- 
ciation, or association of content. What I should like to introduce 
here is the acceptance of a particular M-system, that one would have 
to call the "ego-memory-system", to which fell the task of con- 
tinually registering the subject's own physical or mental processes. 
It is self-evident that this system would have a stronger develop- 
ment in a constitutional narcissist than in persons of completely 
developed object-love, but an unexpectedly powerful trauma can 
have the result in Tic, as in traumatic neurosis, of an over-strong 
memory fixation on the attitude of the body at the moment of 
experiencing the trauma, and that to such a degree as to provoke 
a perpetual or paroxysmatic reproduction of the attitude. The 
increased tendency of tic patients to self-observation, to attention 
to their endosomatic and endopsychical sensations is also remarked 

* Compare "Hysterische Materialisationsphcinomene", in Hysterie and 
Pathoneurosen, by the author. 




on by Meige and Feindel.' The "ego-memory system", as well as 
the system of memory for things, belongs in part to the unconscious 
and in part extends into the preconscious or into consciousness. 
To explain the symptom formation in Tic one must suppose a 
conflict inside the ego (between the ego-nucleus and narcissism), 
and a process analagous to repression.* 

We must regard the symptoms of traumatic neurosis as a mixture 
of narcissistic phenomena and phenomena of conversion-hysteria, and 
we are in agreement with Freud that they consist in essence of in- 
completely mastered shock affect, repressed and carried over, 
abreacted little by little ; in addition they show a marked simi- 
larity to the "pathoneurotic" tics. I should Uke, however, also to 
call particular attention to a remarkable resemblance between the 
two. Practically all students of the war neuroses agree that neuroses 
occur almost only after shock ivithout severe physical injuries 
(wounds). Shock complicated by wounds is provided with a 
corresponding discharge for the shock affect and a favourable 
path for the distribution of the libido in the organism. This 
led Freud to form the hypothesis that the addition of severe 
physical wounds (e. g. a fracture) must expedite the cure of 
traumatic symptoms. Compare with this the following case-history.* 

"Young M , who suffered from tic of the face and head, 

fractured the lower part of the thigh ; during the time that his 
leg was set the tics ceased entirely." The authors consider 
that this is owing to the attention being diverted ; according to our 
opinion it is due to the diversion of the libido as well. Both views are 
compatible with the fact that tics can give way before "im- 

• Idem., Op. cit., pp. 5 and 6, Compare also Psycho-Anulysis and the War 
Neuroses, 1921, (International Psycho-Analytical Library, No. 2) sec also "Obcr 
zwei Typen der Kricgshysteriu" (Hysterie uad Pathoneuroscn). The mental 
difference between the manner in which an hysteric and a narcissist register 
the memory of the same experience reminds us of an anecdote of two sick 
nurses who were on duty with the same patient on alternate nights. The 
one reported early in the morning to the doctor, that the patient had slept 
badly, had been restless, had asked for water so and so many times, etc. 
The other received the doctor with the words: "Doctor 1 have had such a 
bad night!" — The tendency to auto-symbolism is also occasioned by n:ir- 
cissism (Silberer). 

» We have also met with cases of conflict between ego and libido, inside 
the ego and inside the libido. 

» M. and F., Op. cit., p. 111. 






portant business" and before "occupation with things of profound 
interest". * 

That tics cease entirely during sleep is intelligible from the 
absolute supremacy of the narcissistic sleep wish and the complete 
emptying of all other systems of the charge, but it is inessential 
for the resolution of the question of whether tics are psychogenic 
or somatogenic. The fact that concurrent illnesses, pregnancy and 
parturition, increase tics is evidently no argument against their 
narcissistic genesis. 


I should now like to subject the chief phenomena of tics — the 
motor symptom and the dyspraxias (echolalia, coprolalia, imitation 
mania) — to a somewhat more searching inquiry, relying on the few 
observations of my own and the wider information of Meige 
and Feindel. 

These authors desire to confine the designation "Tic" to those 
conditions which show two essentia! elements : the psychic and 
the motor (that is the psycho-motor). There is no objection to 
this restriction of the conception of "Tic", but we consider it 
would promote the better understanding of the matter if one did 
not restrict oneself solely to the typical conditions, but also 
reckoned the purely psychical and even sensory disturbances as 
of this illness when they correspond essentially to typical cases. 
We have already mentioned that sensory disturbances are of 
importance as motives for tic-like twitchings and actions. We must 
now provide ourselves with a clear understanding of the nature 
of this operation. I will here refer to an important work by Freud 
on "Repression" (Samml. kl. Schriften zur Neurosenlehre, Bd. IV., 
S. 28) where he states as follows : "When an external stimulus 
becomes internal, for instance, through harassing and destroying 
an organ, so that there results a fresh source of continuous 
excitement and increase of tension, ... it acquires .... a far- 
reaching similarity to an instinct. We know that this condition 
is experienced in pain." 

What is here mentioned of actual pain, must be extended in 
the case of Tic to the memory of pain. That is to say, in over- 
sensitive persons (of narcissistic constitution) on the injury of a 

' Mm., Op. cit., p. 12. 


part of the body heavily charged with Hhido (erotogenic zone) or 
by other still unknown situations, a d(ip6t of instinctive stimulus 
forms in the "ego-memory system" (or in a special urgan-memory 
system) from which unplcasurable excitation will flow to the 
internal perception even after the disappearance of all results of 
the external injuries. A particular method of relieving this ex- 
citation is by a direct outflow into motility. Which muscles are 
put into motion, and the particular actions that are carried out, 
is naturally not a matter of chance. If one takes the very instructive 
cases of pathoneurotic tic as prototypes of all other kinds, one 
may assume that the Tiqueur will invariably carry out such actions, 
(or their symbolic rudiments) which were for him the most suitable 
in warding off or easing the suffering at the time when the external 
disturbance was an actual fact. We see therefore in this form of 
tic a new instinct as it were in statu nascendi that furnishes us 
with a complete confirmation of all that which Freud teaches in 
general on the origin of instincts. According to Freud every instinct 
is an inherited organised adaptation-reaction to an external stimulus 
which later without external cause or upon an insignilicant ex- | 

ternal signal is set in motion from within. 

There is a variety of methods by whicli an individual can 
ward off suffering. The simplest is to withdraw oneself from the 
stimulus; this corresponds to a series ol tics -which merit the 
designation of flight-reflexes. One recognises the general negadvism 
of Catatonia as the climax of this form of reaction. A more 
complicated tic repeats an active defence against a disturbing 
exterior stimulus ; a third form is directed against the person ol 
the patient. As example of this latter form I mention the wide- 
spread scratching tic and the tic when the patient inflicts pain on 
himself which reaches its climax in the tendency to self-mutilation 
in Schizophrenia. 

A very instructive case is reported in the monograph by Meige 
and Feindel: "The patient could not keep a pencil or a wooden 
penholder longer than twenty-four hours without gnawing it from 
one end to the other. The same thing happened with the handles 
of sticks and umbrellas; he destroyed an extraordinary amount oi; 
them. To help him out of this predicament he was seized with 
the idea of having metal penholders and sticks with silver knobs. 
The result was most disastrous; he bit at them all the more and 
as he could not destroy the iron and silver he very soon broke 


all his teeth. A small abscess then started and the incentive 
produced by the pain became the source of a fresh mischief. He 
acquired the habit of loosening his teeth with his fingers, the pen- 
holders or the stick; he had to have all the incisors taken out 
one by one, then the eye-teeth and at last the front molars. Then 
he had a set of teeth made which proved a fresh pretext for tic! 
With his lips and tongue he continuously shifted the plate about, 
pushed it back and forth, to the right and left, turned it round 
in his mouth at the risk of swallowing it." 

His own account was : "At times I am seized with the desire 
to take the plate out ... I look for the smallest pretext to be 
alone for a moment only, then I take the plate out and push it 
in again at once ; my desire is satisfied." 

"He had also a tormenting scratching-tic. On every opportunity 
he felt his face with his hand, or scratched with his fingers at his 
nose, the corner of his eye, his ear, his cheek, etc. At one moment 
he would stroke his hair hastily with his hand and at the next 
he would twist, pull and tear his moustache that at times looked 
as if it had been cut with scissors." 

The following is a case of Dubois' : "A girl of twenty years 
would thrust at her breast with her elbow, the forearm bent back 
against her upper-arm; she thrust from 15 to 20 times a 
minute and continued until her elbow had struck the whalebone 
of her stays sharply. This violent thrust was accompanied by a 
little cry. The patient seemed only to derive satisfaction from her 
tic when she had carried out this last thrust." 

I will later refer to the connection of similar symptoms with 
Onanism. Here I will touch on the analogy of the third kind of 
tic, i. e. the motor discharge ("Turning against one's own person", 
Freud), with a method of reaction that occurs in certain lower 
animals, which possess the capacity for "Autotomia". If a part of 
their body is painfully stimulated they let the part concerned 
"fall" in the true sense of the word by severing it from the rest 
of their body by the help of certain specialised muscular actions; 
others (like certain worms) even fall into several small pieces (they 
"burst asunder", as it were, from fury). Even the biting off of a 
painful limb is said to occur. A similar tendency for freeing one- 
self from a part of the body which causes pain is demon- 
strated in the normal "scratch-reflex", where the desire to scratch 
away the stimulated part is clearly indicated, in the tendencies to 


self-mutilation in Catatonia and in the like tendencies symbolically 
represented in the automatic actions of many tic patients, only 
tiiat in the last mentioned the struggle is not in opposition to an 
actual disturbing stimulus, but against a detached instinctire 
stimulus in the "ego-M-system" (organ-M-system). As I have 
mentioned in my introduction and laid stress on in previous 
writings,^ I believe that at least a portion of this enhanced stimulus 
can be traced back to the local increase of libido accompanying 
the injury (or connected to the corresponding spheres of sensation). 
(The psycho-analyst will without hesitation connect the active 
defence reaction with Sadism and the self-injury with Masochism; 
in Autotomia we see an archaic prototype of the components ot 
the masochistic instinct.) As is well known, when the intensification 
of Libido increases beyond the power of the Ego-nucleus to 
control it, pain is produced; unbearable libido is converted into 
fear. Meige and Feindel describe as a cardinal symptom of tic-lJke 
convulsions that their active or passive suppression calls up reactions 
of fear and that after the cessation of any prevention or hindering 
the actions are spasmodically carried out with every sign of pleasure. 

The inclination to shake off a stimulus by means of a muscular 
convulsion or the incapacity to brook any hindering of a motor 
(or affective) discharge one can, for descriptive purposes, compare 
with a certain temperament that is known in scientific circles as 
the "motor type".* 

The tic patient reacts with over-emphasis for the reason that 
he is already burdened with an inner instinctive stimulus. It is 
not impossible that something similar is also the case in one sense 
or another with the above-mentioned "temperament". At any rate 
we must reckon the tics as belonging to those cases, whose 
motility and affectivity are governed, not as is normal by the 
preconscious, but by undesired and partly unconscious (and as 
we suggest "organ-erotic") instinctive forces, and that to a degree 
otherwise only known to occur in psychoses. We have thus one 
more factor making probable the common (narcissistic) basis of 
tics and the majority of the psychoses. 

' Hysteric und Pathoneurosen, S. 7. 

« The uncontrollable urge to dance at the sound of rhythmical music 
(Magic Flute!) presents an intuitive picture of the manner in which a sen- 
sory, in this case an acoustic, increase of stimulus is relieved by an imme- 
diate motor dischai^e. 


The tic malady attacks children as a rule in the sexual latency 
period, when the tendency for other psycho-motor disturbances 
{e. g. Chorea) also occurs. It can have various outcomes, apart 
from remissions, remaining stationary or degenerating into the 
symptom-complex described by Gilles de la Tourette. To judge 
by a case that I was able to investigate psycho-analytically, the 
motor over-sensitiveness can be compensated for in later years by 
an over-strong inhibition ; such as in neurotics who are conspicuous 
for their excessive caution, exactness and ponderous form of gait 
and movement.^ 

The authors state that there are also attitude-tics, that is 
no longer the lightning-like clonic convulsions but tonic rigidity 
in particular attitudes of the head or a limb. There is no doubt 
that these cases are transitional between cataclonic and catatonic 
innervation. Meige and Feindel themselves say explicitly : These 
phenomena (tonic or attitude tic) approximate nearer to the 
catatonic attitudes, the pathogenesis of which shows many points 
of contact with that of attitude-tic ! (Meige and Feindel, p. 136.) 
This is a characteristic example : S. had a "Torticollis" (attitude-tic) 
towards the left He set up a considerable muscular resistance to 
every effort one made to bend his head towards the right. But 
if one talked to him and occupied his attention during the 
experiment little by little his head would become quite free and 
one could turn it in any direction without using any force (Meige 
and Feindel, p. 136). 

Towards the end of the book it appears that one of the authors 
(H. Meige) even recognised the essential equality of Catatonia and 
Tic. He mentioned his idea in a paper read before the Inter- 
national Medical Congress at Madrid in 1903. ("L'aptitude catatonique 
et l'aptitude echopraxique des tiqueurs"). The translator refers to 
the contents of this paper as follows : "If one examines a number 
of tic patients the following conclusions are arrived at which are 
not without interest for the pathogenesis of the trouble . . . Many 
tic patients incline in the most extraordinary manner to retain 
positions that their limbs adopt or in which they are placed. It is 
therefore a question of Catatonia. At times this is so strong as 
to impede an examination of the tendon-reflexes and in several 
cases to simulate a failure of the knee-jerk. The question has in 

» On this "action-anxiety" see "On Obscene Words", Contributions 
to Psycho-Analysis. 


reality to do with an exaggerated muscular tension, an enhanced 
muscle tone. If one asks these patients suddenly to relax a muscle, 
they often only succeed in doing so after rather a long while. Further 
one often notices that tic patients have a tendency to repeat 
passive movements of their limbs in an exaggerated manner. For 
instance if one moves their arms several times in succession one 
can observe that the movement will be persisted in for a longer 
period. Besides the symptom of Catatonia these patients give 
evidence also of Echopraxia to a decidedly greater degree than 
normal persons." (Meige and Feinde!, p. 386.) 

We here have the opportunity to refer to the fourth kind of 
motor reaction which occurs in a similar way in Tic and Catatonia, 
namely, Flexibilitas cerea. "Waxen flexibility" consists in the patient 
passively allowing his limbs to be placed in every sort of position 
without the smallest muscular resistance and this position is retained 
for some time. This symptom, as is well-known, also occurs in 
deep hypnosis. 

In another paper^ in which I dealt with the explanation of 
psycho-analytical pliability in hypnosis, I traced the weak-willed 
pliability to the motives of anxiety and love. In "Father-hypnosis" 
the subject performs all that one asks him to do, as by that means 
he hopes to escape from the danger threatened by the dreaded 
hypnotist; in "Mother-hypnosis" he docs everything to ensure to 
himself the love of the hypnotist. If one looks to the animal 
world for analogies to these methods of adaptation, the pretence 
of death in certain animals on threatened danger strikes one at 
once and also that method of adaptation called Mimicry. The 
"waxen pliability", the catalepsy of catatonia (and the hint of this 
in tic patients) may be interpreted as bearing a similar meaning. 
To the man suffering from catatonia everything is of equal value ; 
his interest and libido are concentrated on his own ego; he only 
desires that the outside world shall leave him in peace. In spite 
of complete automatic subordination to every opposing will, in- 
wardly he is actually independent of his disturbers; it matters 
not to him whether his body adopts one position or another, 
therefore why should he not continue in the physical attitude he 
has passively accepted? Flight, opposition, and turning against 
oneself are methods of reaction which nevertheless bear witness of 
a fairly strong emotional relation to the exterior world. Only in 
• "Introjection and Transference", Contributions to Psycho-Analysis. 



catalepsy does the patient acquire that degree of fakir-like con- 
centration on the inner ego when even his own body appears as 
something foreign to his ego and is perceived as a part of the 
environment, whose fate leaves its owner absolutely cold. Catalepsy 
and Mimicry therefore would be regressions to a much earlier 
primitive method of adaptation of the organism, an auto-plastic 
adaptation (adaptation by means of alteration in the organism 
itself), while flight and defence aim at an alteration in the environ- 
ment (allo-plastic adaptation).^ 

According to the description in Kraepelin's Textbook on 
Psychiatry catatonia is often a remarkable mixture of symptoms 
of imperative automatism and negativism as well as of (tic-like) 
movements ; this would suggest that different methods of motor 
tension reactions can be present in one and the same case. (Of 
the stereotyped movements of catatonic patients, which we should 
describe as tic-like, Kraepelin mentions the following: "Pulling 
faces, twisting and dislocating the limbs, jumping up and down, 
turning somersaults, rolling about, clapping the hands, running 
about, climbing and skipping, uttering senseless sounds and noises." 
Kraepelin, 'Textbook on Psychiatry', 6th. Edition, Book I.) 

In an endeavour to explain Echopraxia and Echolalia in dements 
and tic patients one must take into consideration the more subtle 
processes of Ego-psychology to which Freud has drawn our 
attention.* "The development of the ego consists in a separation 
from primary narcissism and engenders an intensive struggle to 
regain this. The separation comes about by means of an enforced 
displacement of libido on to an ego-ideal, and satisfaction comes 
from fulfilment of the ideal." 

Now the fact that the dement and the liqueur both possess 
such a strong tendency to imitate everyone in word and action, 
taking them as it were for an object of identification and ideal, 
seems to be in opposition to the assertion that they have regressed 
to the stage of primary narcissism or have never advanced beyond 
it. This opposition is, however, only apparent. Like other blatant 
symptoms of Schizophrenia, these exaggerated expressions of the 
identification-tendency serve the purpose of concealing the lack 
of real interests ; they act, as Freud would express it, in the 

1 See "Hysterische Materialisationsphanomene" in Hysterie und Patho- 
neurosen, S. 24. 

= Freud: Samml. kl. Schr., 4<'- Folge, S. 109. 


struggle for healing, the struggle to regain the lost ego-ideal. But 
the indifference with which every action, every form of speecli. 
is simply imitated, stamps these identification-displacements as a 
caricature of the normal search for an ideal ; they often operate 
in an ironical sense.' 

Meige and Feindel describe cases where even complicated tic 
ceremonials have been assumed en bloc. They emphasise in particuhir 
that many Tiquers possess the nature of actors and display th<? 
inclination to copy every acquaintance. One of their patients 
assumed as a child the eye-winking of a policeman, who appeared 
to him as especially imposing. These people are as a matter of 
fact always on the watch to see how an imposing person "clears 
his throat and spits". As is generally known, with children tics 
tend to be contagious. 

The antitheses that have been proved in the motor behaviour 
of patients suffering from Catatonia and Cataclonia are known 
not to be confined to muscular actions, they have a complete 
parallel in the speech of tliese patients. In schizophrenic Catatonia 
absolute mutism alternates with uncontrollable compulsion to talk 
and with Echolalia ; the first is the pendant to tonic muscular rigidity, 
the second to an uncontrollable motor tic, and the third to Echo- 
kinesis. So-called Coprolalia gives a particularly clear demon- 
stration of the close connection of disturbances of speech and 
movement Patients who suffer from it feel compelled to utter aloud 
without adequate reason words and sentences of erotic, principally 
anal-erotic, content (curses, obscene words, etc.). This symptom is 
particularly pronounced when the patient tries to suppress a motor tic* 
The "detached instinctive energy" mentioned above, finds an outlet 
to the "ideational motor", the action of speecli, when the 
discharge by mobility is denied it. I should like to connect the 
fact that it is just speech of an erotic, and above all "organ-erotic" 
(perverse), nature that finds expression with the so-called "organ- 
speech" (Freud) of narcissistic psychotics. (In the content of the ex- 
pressions of schizophrenics references to bodily organs and bodily 
innervations are often very prominent). 

» It is well known that imitation is a favourite method of irony; the Iccl- 
ing of annoyance at being copied shows that the action tlocs not fail in its 

» On the method of converting repressed actions into thou^jht and 
speech stimuli sec "Technischc Schwierigkcitcn cincr Hystericanalysc" in 
Hysteric und Pathoneurosen, S. 49. 




Although the observations of the authors are of such value 
to us, the theoretical conclusions that they deduct from them 
profit us but little. For the most part their explanations are con- 
fined to tracing the symptoms to certain near causes (occasions) 
or to predisposition or degeneration. Where the patient can offer 
no explanation for the tic, they regard it as "senseless and without 
purpose". They forsake the psychological path too soon and lose 
themselves in physiological speculations. At last they get so far 
as to accept Brissaud's theory of "hypertrophy of the functioning 
centre in the brain" (inborn or acquired by constant use), and this 
they regard as the "central organ of the tic function" in tic 
patients. Their therapy also is based upon "causing this hyper- 
trophy to recede by a treatment of quiescence". Meige and 
Feindel speak of "congenital anomaly" of "deficient and faulty 
development of the cortical association paths and subcortical 
anastomoses"; of "molecular teratological misconceptions, which 
our anatomical knowledge unfortunately does not permit of our 
recognising". Grasset ^ differentiates between the bulbar-spinal 
"polygonal" and mental tics, in the proper sense of the word. 
The former Meige and Feindel exclude, with right, from the series 
of tics and assign it a place among the "cramps" ; "mental" tics 
are those which owe their origin to conscious psychic motor force; 
Grasset terms "polygonal" tics all those to which we should 
ascribe unconscious psychic motives. On the basis of a cortical 
mechanism constructed after the well-known Aphasia scheme, which 
he calls "Cortex Polygon", he attributes all unconscious and 
automatic functioning to the functioning of the Polygon. "One 
dreams with the Polygon", "People in a state of abstraction act 
with the Polygon", etc. Finally Meige and Feindel come to a decision 
on the following definition of Tic : "It is not sufficient that a gesture is 
inappropriate at the moment it occurs, on the contrary it must 
be certain that at the moment of its being performed it is not 
in connection with any idea to which it could owe its origin .... 
If beyond this the action is characterised by too frequent repetition, 
by constant lack of purpose, by violent urge, difficulty in sup- 
pression, and resulting satisfaction, then "it is Tic." In one place 
only they say : "We here find ourselves on the dangerous territory 
• Anatomic clinique des centres nerveux, Paris 1900. 


of the subconscious" and are on their guard against entering this 
much feared domain. 

We cannot, however, reproach them for this, as at that time the 
doctrine of unconscious mental functions was yet in its infancy. 
Besides, even to-day after nearly three decades of psycho-analytical 
work, the scientists of their country lack the courage to tread the 
path which makes discovery in this "dangerous territory" possible. 
Meige and Feindel have the merit which is not to be undervalued, 
of being the first to attempt a psycho-genetic theory of traumatic 
tic, even if it be incomplete. 

As these authors relied upon the conscious expressions and 
accounts of their patients and had no method at their disposal 
to arrive at the meaning of what the patients said, sexuality finds 
no place in their explanations. What a wealth of erotic material 
— concealed it is true — the histories of the patients contained 
extracts from the detailed anamnesia of a tic patient of Meige 
and Feindel will illustrate. 

The same tic patient who was mentioned before as having 
nearly all his teeth removed, also suffered from an "attitude tic": 
he was obliged to hold his chin high. The idea occurred to him 
to press his chin on to the head of his walking stick; he then 
varied it so that he "stuck the stick between his suit and his 
buttoned-up overcoat, in such a way that the head of the stick 
appeared in the opening of his collar, and on this his chin found 
its support. Later, without the stick, his head always needed 
a support or else it oscillated to and fro without it. At last he 
was obliged to rest his nose on the back of the chair if he wished 
to read quietly. His own account will illustrate the further cere- 
monials he was obliged to carry out. 

"To start with I wore a collar of medium height but too tight 
to get my chin into it. Then I unbuttoned my shirt and let my | 

chin slide into the open collar, strongly bending my head at the 1^ 

same time. For several days the effect of this was satisfying, but I 

the unbuttoned collar did not offer enough resistance. So I bought | 

much higher collars, real cravats into which I forced my chin till * 

I could turn it neither to the right nor to the left. This was ? 

perfect, — but only for a short time. However stiff the collars might ; 

be they always gave way at last and after a few hours presented ^ 

a miserable appearance. i 

"I had to discover something else and the following absurd 


idea occurred to me: I fastened a thread to the buttons of my 
braces, carried it under my waistcoat and finished off the upper 
end with a small ivory stud which I took between my teeth. The 
length of the thread was so arranged that I had to bow my head 
to reach the stud. A splendid trick! — but only for a short time 
for not only was this position as uncomfortable as it was ridiculous, 
but also by the contmuous pulling my trousers took on a really 
grotesque and very embarrassing shape. I had to give up this 
beautiful idea. However I have always preserved a prediliction for 
this device and even to-day it often happens on the street that I take 
the collar of my coat or overcoat between my teeth and so walk 
along. I have bitten up the border of more than one lapel in 
that way. At home I do differently : I quickly remove the cravat, 
unbutton the collar of my shirt and bite into that." In consequence 
of the raised chin he could no longer see his feet when 
walking. "So I have to be careful when walking, as I cannot see 
where I step. I know quite well that in order to remove this 
discomfort I have only to bend down my eyes or my head, but 
that is just what I cannot do." 

The patient still has: "a certain aversion to looking down," and is 
also inconvenienced by a "shoulder-crack", "analogous to the sub- 
luxation of the thumb at will, or the peculiar noises that many 
people can produce to amuse others". He also produced it as a 
"small society talent". So long as he was in the society of others, 
he suppressed his abnormalities, because they made him feel 
awkward, but "as soon as he was alone he let himself go to 
his heart's content." "All his tics were let loose, it was an 
absolute wallow in absurd antics, a motor debauch which 
eased the patient. He then returned and resumed the interrupted 

His sleeping ceremonials were still more grotesque. "The rubbing 
of his head on the pillow drove him desperate, he turned himself 
in every direction to avoid this, at last he selected a re- 
markable attitude which seemed the most efficacious in obviating 
his tic : he lay on his side quite at the edge of the bed and let 
his head hang over." 

Before we go into the psycho-analytical meaning of the patient's 
history we must unfortunately express a doubt whether in this 
case we are dealing with an actual tic or with a severe obsessional 
neurosis. The distinction between the ceremonial of an obsessional 



neurotic, the pedantry and peculiarities of less severe forms of 
catatonia and the means for defence against a tormenting tic is 
difficult to determine in many cases and this can often only be done 
after analysis of several weeks or even longer. ' Also for a long while 
"Tic" was used in France as a dumping ground for heterogeneous 
neurotic conditions, like the "vapeurs" at the beginning of last 
century or "Psychasthenia" to-day. This doubt prohibits us from 
making use of the abundant symbolisation of the penis, of onanism, J 

and of castration which appear in the history of this patient, for 
the purpose of generalising as to the pathogenesis of tics (head, 
nose, relaxation of the neck muscles, stiff collars, cravat, walking- ^ 

stick, the stick put between the trousers and the mouth, the knob : 

of the stick in the mouth, the symbolism of irritating teeth, tooth i 

extractions, letting the head hang, etc.). Fortunately in this respect ;| 

we are not dependent upon a single example. A case that I have ;| 

closely investigated by analysis* showed me quite clearly, that i 

onanistic activities, and genital ones altogether, and erotic excitation | 

of the genitals can be transferred to parts of the body or skin, .^| 

otherwise not especially erotogenic, in the form of stereotyped 
movements. The connection with repressed onanism ofOnychohyper- 
aesthesia, Onychophagia, sensitiveness of the hair, and the tic-like 
tugging and tearing of the hair is generally known. Not lung ago 
I was able to break a young man of the worrying habit of biting ^ 

his nails by a single discussion of his onanistic tendencies. » The . ^ 

greater amount of the tics concerns the head and the parts of the 
face which are particularly favourite spots for symbolical re- 
presentations of the genital processes. 

Meige and Feindel allude to the relationship of the "Occupations 
cramps" to the tics. These cramps as well as the "occupations 
delirium" of alcoholism, are in reality substitutes for onanism, as 
Tausk has pointed out. The peculiar g/ne that urges Tiqururs to 
hide or mask their distortions reminds one forcibly of the way in 
which children are wont to conceal their "Sucking or Pleasure- 
sucking", described by the pediatrist Lindner of Budapest in 1879. 

> On this difilculty of differentiating sec further note. 

» Hysteric und Pathoncuroscn, "Tcchnischc Schwicrigkcitcn", etc. 

' A keen-sighted Hungarian surgeon, Prof. Kovdcs, used to draw the 
attention of his audiences to the symptom of biting the nails and 
said these were people who were unable to let prominent parti of the 
body alone. 



"Monasterism" also, the tendency to work oflf ones feelings in 
seclusion, may originate in onanism. ^ 

In this connection we return to the observations of Gowers and 
Bernhardt that tics often increase in power at the time of early 
puberty, pregnancy and childbed, at the time therefore of increased 
stimulation of the genital regions. Finally if we take into con- 
sideration the coprolalia, streaming into anal-erotic obscenities, 
paraded by many tic patients * and their tendency to Enuresis 
(noctuma and diuma) to which Oppenheim draws attention, we 
cannot avoid the impression that the significant "displacement from 
below upwards" so strongly emphasised in neurotics as well as in 
normal sex development plays no inessential part in the formation 
of tic. 

One can link up this fact with the possibility of tracing 
back the origin of Tic to an increase of narcissism (which has been 
a prominent feature of our considerations so far) in the following 
manner : In the case of "pathoneurotic tic" the injured or stimu- 
lated part of the body (or its psychic representative) is charged 
with excessive interest and libido. The quantity of energy required 
for this is drawn from the greatest libido reservoir, the genital 
sexuality, and this must of necessity be accompanied by a decrease 
of potency in the normal genital sensations. This results in a dis- 
placement of not only a certain quantity of energy from below 
upwards but also a displacement of quality (innervation-character), 
hence the "genitalisation" of tlie parts attacked by tic, (excit- 
ability, tendency to rhythmical rubbing, in many cases definite 
orgasm). In cases of tic of "constitutional narcissists" the primacy 
of the genital zone generally appears to be not quite firmly esta- 
blished, so that even ordinary stimuli or unavoidable disturbances 
result in a similar displacement. Onanism would thus still be a half 

' The word "tic" is according to Meige and Feindel an "onoraato- 
poetikon". It is like a short sound. Zucken, Tieken, Tic in German ; tic, Hguer 
tiqui in French; tug, tick in Enfi[lish; ticckio in Italian; tico in Spanish, all 
have the same root and the same onomatopoetical origin (M. and F., Op. cit., 
p, 29). We must remember io this connection that in consequence of a pecu- 
liar and general acoustic synaesthesia the palpitation of the erection of the 
clitoris is described by the majority of women as "klopfen" (knocking). 

' There are also otherwise healthy people who are impelled to speak 
their thoughts at once, e. g. murmur when reading or talk to themselves. 
According to Strieker every thought is accompanied by a slight innervation 
of the motor organ of speech. 




narcissistic sexual activity from which the transition to normal satis- 
faction in a foreign object would be just as possible as also the 
regression to auto-erotism. 

I will here touch upon some reflections tliat I shall refer to 
later in another connection. To mr genital sexuality appears as 
the sum of auto-erotism displaced upon the genitalia, which in this 
"displacement downwards" carries witli it not only its qualities but 
the "innervation-characters" in addition ("Amphimyxis of Auto- 
erotism"). The chief quantity of genitality is furnished by urethral- 
and anal-erotism. In pathological "displacement upwards" geni- 
tality appears to some extent to divide itself up into its component 
parts, which must lead to the strengthening of certain urethral- or 
anal-erotic features. The strengthening concerns not only the organ- 
erotism itself, but also its derivatives, the so-called anal- or urethral- 
character traits. As urethral characteristics I mention (in Tic and 
Catatonia) the incapacity to endure strain, the urge to discharge 
at once every increased stimulus, every affect, by a motor-reaction 
and uncontrollable speech impulses. The following are probably 
anal characteristics ; the tendency to rigidity, negativism, and 
muteness, viz. the "phonator" tics. 

I also draw attention to what Sadger terms "muscle-erotism" 
and the constitutional reinforcement of the pleasure of movement 
(which Abraham has pointed out), which can fundamentally 
encourage the appearance of motor phenomena in Tic and in 

It cannot but occur to me that the "genitalisation of auto- 
erotism", to the consequences of which 1 attribute the motor ex- 
pressions of Tic and Catatonia, I have already described in earlier 
works as the origin of the hysterical "materialisation phenomena' 
(in conversion hysteria). I cannot shirk this knotty problem any 
longer, but must endeavour to substantiate the differences that in 
spite of many similarities divide these conditions from each other. I 
have already mentioned the essential difference between an hysterical 
conversion symptom and the localised physical symptom of a narcis- 
sistic neurosis (Tic, Catatonia). In hysteria, which is a transference 
neurosis, the repressed pathogenic material belongs to the 


memory-traces in the unconscious for things, that refer to the 
libido objects (persons). In consequence of the incessant reciprocal 
associative linking-up of the memory-systems of "the thing" and 
of "the ego" (body), the pathogenic psychic material of the hysteric 
can use the associated physical memory material as a means ot 
expression. That is the explanation of the so-called "physical 
approach" which Breuer and Freud remarked on in reference to 
the very first analysed cases of hysteria. In the celebrated case 
of the patient "Anna" the hysterical paralysis of the arm was 
traced back to the fact that in a most critical moment when contend- 
ing tendencies came into conflict, her arm was inadvertently 
left hanging over the back of the chair and had "gone to sleep". 
In similar manner a tear that obscured her sight was the cause ol 
Macropsia which developed later. The accidental catarrh of a 
patient of Freud's (Doi;a) was the finely graduated means of express- 
ing the most complicated love emotions under the mask of a 
"nervous cough". Thus in conversion-hysteria the object memories 
repressed by psychic energy are used to reinforce and finally to 
'materialise'' the ego (body) memories associated with them This 
is the mechanism of the "leap from the mental to the physical" 
in the formation of hysterical symptoms. 

In Tic on the contrary, traumatic ego (body) memory forces 
itself spontaneously to the fore on every occasion that offers. One 
could say that Tic and Catatonia are in reality ego-hysterias. 
Or expressed in the terminology of the libido theory : the hysterical 
conversion-symptoms are expressions of (genital) object love, clothed 
in the form of auto-erotism, while the tics and catatonias are auto- 
erotism which has to some extent adopted genital qualities.^ 

Finally we must also compare the motor expressions of obsess- 
ive actions. We know through Freud, that these actions are 
psychic protective measures with the object of guarding against 

> See in this connection the following passage from the important work 
of Nunberg on the catatonic attack (Internationale Zeitsckrift fur Psycho- 
analyse, 1920, Bd. V, S. 49). "In conclusion I should like to refer to the many 
singularly striking similarities between catatonic and hysteric attacks, as, for 
instance, the 'dramatisation' and Angst. There is, however, this difiference 
between them, namely, that while in Hysteria we are concerned with a 
Libido-charge of an object, in Catatonia a Libido-charge of an organ takes 

Also, the perversions of adults are of course "genitalised" auto-erotism 
(Perversion is indeed the "Positive of Hysteria"). 



the return of certain painful thoughts; they are actually physical 
"displacement substitutes" for compulsive thoughts. 

Obsessive actions are chiefly differentiated from the ucs and 
stereotypies by their greater complexity ; they are real actions 
that aim at the alteration of the external world (chiefly in an 
ambivalent sense) and in which narcissism plays no part or else a 
subordinate one. 

A differential diagnosis of these motor symptoms is often only 
possible after prolonged psycho-analysis. 





The psychology of Freud, which has for its leading motif 
the insistence on a rigid determinism in all psychic processes has 
led not only Freud himself,^ but many others, who have found 
themselves irresistibly drawn to accept at least this principle of 
his doctriqe, to submit to a psycho-analytical dissection a variety 
of historical personalities. 

To undertake a psycho-analysis of the prophet Mohammed may 
appear at first sight to be a rather fantastic enterprise but 
m view of tlie fact that Abraham ^ has subjected the Egyptian 
Pharaoh, Amenhotep IV, who lived nearly 2,000 years before 
Christ, to a most fruitful analysis, I have been tempted to under- 
take a review of the character of Mohammed along somewhat 
similar lines, for there is nothing shadowy or mysterious in tlie 
records of the life of the Great Arabian Prophet. We know as 
much of Mohammed as we do even of Luther and Milton. 

As in the case of Amenhotep, there exists in the life-history 
of Mohammed an abundance of evidence which points unmistakably 
to the existence of a prodigious "parental complex". Therefore it 
is by no means unlikely that a psycho-analytic survey of the 
material at our disposal wiU enable us to recognise at least some 
of the psychogenic factors which impelled Mohammed to devote 
his life to the formulation and propagation of a religious and 
social system that is still, after thirteen centuries, accepted almost 
without question by a quarter of the population of tlie world. 

After reading Abraham's fascinating analysis of the character- 
traits of Amenhotep IV, one cannot fail to be struck by tlie 

« See his "Leonardo da Vinci" in "Schriften zur angewandten Seelen- 
kunde", 1910. 

» See Imago 1912, Bd. I. 




numerous points of resemblance between the yoiiUR Pharaoh and 

the aristocratic Arab. . . 

The character and activities of both men had the.r roots m 
an intense "father-complex" involving a strong infantile fixaUon .n 
regard to the mother. For Amenhotep the roots of his venge- 
fulnessi lay in tlie beautiful and gifted A.siatic princess, Teje , ^^me 
the incestuous love of Mohammed was directed towards the genUe 
Amina, daughter of Khuweilid, whose very name •'Amma , "m 
Faithful", is daily in the moutli of every Muslim throughout the 

world. - «.K«>r 

In the case of Mohammed the "Father-complex" was of a rather 
pecuHar kind since, being born a posthumous cliild, he never Imew 
his father. The place of the father was taken by his grandfattier, 
. Another most significant feature in the determination >f »»»^ ^"^ 
fulness of Amenhotep and Mohammed, was the absence of male oflspnag 

to both of them. ... _i_pe, of 

Since modern psychology began to throw light on the '^a'k Placc» o 

thcnconscious life of :nankind. few more -»-»> ^^^'^^^j" '",\',fbe. 
n,ade than those dealing with the ebb and flow of the «t<^-;' ;\™«f 
tween father and son, the fall and rise of <^ver-succeedmK Kcnerat ons^ 

It has been shown that the desire for children, but "'''^^'I^^^^^^^^i. 
children, which is a characteristic of all races the world over is no mot 
vatcd solely by the instinct of reproduction but also by th^j'"';* JJ 
the parent.'and' that generally the male parent. '« P^^" ^^.^ "^^ T, 
obvious means to avenge himself of the wrongs done to h m by n 
ow father. This intense desire to beget sons has doubtless Pl^V^^/J^^^ 
part in the ins.itution of polygamy, and. conceivably, a ^"^l «;";•,; ^J^,^ 
regard- polyandry, especially polyandry of the type f^^**^ ''«'=' ^^ woman so 
of India where L brothers of a fa,nily unite as husbands o. o^^^^^^^J^ 
that among the Todas, in asking a man if he is marncd, one says. Is there 

' "slsides the desire to have a son to enable a man to overcome^h« 
father, it seems not improbable there exists along w,th this '»"'"•« J"°^^;; 
a sort of corrollary to it, namely, to have a son '°J^''°"^'^^X1^ fo^. 
for the peace of hi. soul, in short, someone who w.U pray »hc go-i' to 
give the father for what the father did to his own lather, and ^'-[^^^'^^^^ 
the guilt-complex in which the generations arc co-partners In ti,e a _ 
worship of the Chinese and in the Hindu ceremony of Sraddha wc meet 
with the apotheosis of the expression of this unconscious wish. 

When however the individual man is deprived by '='';'="";^.'f "*^" °' "^^^ 
offspring, we may occasionally observe him to turn el"--!^'^**";" '^^^^, 
of L means to gratify his venuefulness, and as such seekers both Amen 
hotep and Mohammed are examples. u;„.^if cm his 

When Amenhotep began to express his desire to ^^'^f'' ^'^^'flZu^ 
father by initiating the religious crusade which was to lead to the *^««- 


hence for Mohammed there was strictly speaking a "grandfather-", 
rather than a "father-complex". 

As with Amenhotep, so with Mohammed; in neither did the 
aggressire impulses find expression in any active hostility against 
the objects of their jealous dislike. In both men the impulses 
underwent immensities of sublimation, so that both sought and 
found a solution to their respective conflicts in waging a life-long 
war on the traditions, religious, political and social, of their 
people. . 

Doubtless the aggressive impulses (against the father) of Amen- 
hotep underwent a far greater degree of sublimation than those 
of Mohammed, so that his character became in the end more essenti- 
ally to resemble that of Jesus of Nazareth than that of the founder 

versement of Egypt and to the ruin of his dynasty, he was only twenty-four 
years of age bat already the father of four daughters. Although he could not 
have known at that age that time would not bring him the sacrifice in the 
shape of a son, he acted nevertheless as if his future in this respect hr.d 
been vouchsafed to him. In the case of Mohammed it was slightly other- 
wise. Khadijah bore him two sons and four daughters. The first-born, a son 
wa.s named Casim, but he only lived two years. Last of all was born the second 
son and he died in infancy. It must have been at the death of this second 
son, his last-born child, when the beloved Khadijah was at the advanced a-ie 
of iifty-seven and the idea of making another marriage had not yet corne 
to him, that Mohammed probably felt that all hope of obtaining his desire 
was now past, for from this moment forth there began that second period of 
intense brooding which led to the furious outburst recorded in the ninety- 
sixth Surah of the Koran which may be takeii as marking the starting point 
of Islam. 

That Mohammed married again after the death of Khadijah, and, in addi- 
tion, permitted himself many more wives than the number he prescribed for 
his followers, was doubtless due in part to a return of the desire to obtain 
male offspring, and twcnty-five years after the birth of his last child we find 
him once more the father of a son, the child of the Coptic concubine Mary. 
That this child can have been named Ibrahim (Abraham) seems to point 
to the fact that the mind of Mohammed still retained memories of the 
terrible father who would have sacrificed his son, (Isaac). But the little Ibra- 
him was doomed, like his brothers, to a short life, and at the ajje of fifteen 

months we find him lying in a palm-grove near the house of his nurse 

dying. We see too the aged Prophet struggling to prevent his tremendous 
sorrow from bursting into expression, for had he not himself forbade his 
followers from wailing aloud? "Ibrahim! O Ibrahim!" he sobbed, "if it were 
not that this promise is faithful, and the hope of resurrection sure, if it 
were not that this is the way to be trodden by all, and the last of us 
shall join the first, I would grieve for thee with a grief deeper even 
than this!" 


of Islam, for the hatred of Amenhotep for his father found its 
final expression in a consuming love for all created things. 

The intensity of the unconscious feeling of both tliese men 
can only be measured by the stupendous revolution brought about 
by them. This tendency to attack tlie autliority of tlie father 
in the realm of religion and politics, as exemplified in the 
lives of Amenhotep and Mohammed, is not confined to individuals 
who show no other manifestation of mental derangement, but is » 

now recognised to be a notable symptom of certain varieties of i 

psychoneurosis. As Amenhotep cast out Amon, tlie god of his : 

father, and transferred his reverence to Aton on whom he con- . i 

ferred a might and majesty hitherto unknown to the gods of | 

Egypt, so Mohammed cast out the gods of his fatlier, Al-lat, Al- | 

Uzza and Manah, who were worshipped as angels under female | 

names, and preached tlie worship of the Jevohah of the Hebrews, | 

modified to fit the demands of his phantasy. Thus: 

"They do not call besides Him on any thing but inanimate 
objects, and they do not call on any thing but a devil devoid of | 

all good," (Koran, Chapter IV, v. 117) and again, i| 

"Have you then considered the Lat and tlie Uzza, 
And Manat, tlie tliird, the last? 

What! for you the males and for Him tlie females! 
This indeed is an unjust division! 

They are naught but names which you have named, you and 

your fathers; Allah has not sent for them any autliority. They | 

follow naught but conjecture and the low desires which (their) 

souls incline to; and certainly the guidance has come to them ^r 

from their Lord. jf" 

"Or shall man have what he wishes?" (Koran, Chapter LIII, v. | ^ 

19-24). |; 

But in spite of the strengtli of the revolutionary tendencies of ^ 

Amenhotep and Mohammed, we can observe in both a willingness 
to compromise on certain points, an attitude of mind tliat* is fre- 
quently a feature of the behaviour of psychoneurotics. This willing- 
ness to compromise may be taken as an indication tliat the desire % 
for paternal control is never entirely lost, even when the antag- 
onism to it reaches its highest point of development. 

Although Amenhotep broke witli tlie ancient worship of Amon, , 

« As Abraham has pointed out, tf/. dt. S. 342. 


the god of his father^ and turned to the cult of Aton, he never- 
theless resuscitated the worship of the Sun, which had been pecu- 
liar to Lower Egypt from time immemorial. 

Similarly, Mohammed attempted on two notable occasions com- 
promises with the past. The first compromise concerned itself 
with the worship of the ancient idols, Al-lat, Al-Uzza, and Manah, 
to which reference has already been made, for, although Mohammed 
ended by casting them all out, he was impelled originally to 
except them from expulsion from the new regime. 

The story goes that one day at a gathering of the chief men 
of Mecca, Mohammed appeared and seating himself by them in 
a friendly manner began to recite in their hearing Chapter LIII 
of the Koran. The chapter opens with a description of the first 
visit of Gabriel to Mohammed and then unfolds a second vision of 
that angel, at which certain heavenly mysteries were revealed. The 
passage is as follows: 

" 'He also saw him (Gabriel) at another descent. 
By the Lote-tree at the furthest boundary. 
Near to which is the Paradise of rest. 

When the Lote-tree covered that which it covered, 
His sight turned not aside, neither did it wander. 
And verily he beheld some of the greatest Signs of his Lord 
And see ye not Lat and Ozza, 
And Manat the third besides?' 

"When he had reached this verse, the devil suggested to Ma- 
liomet an expression of thoughts which had long possessed his 
soul; and put into his mouth words of reconcihation and com- 
promise such as he had been yearning that God might send unto 
his people, namely: 

'These are exalted Females, 

And verily their intercession is to be hoped for.' 

"The Coreish were astonished and delighted with this aclaiow- 
ledgment of their deities; and as Mahomet wound up the Sura 
with these closing words, 

'Wherefore bow down before God, and serve Him,' 

the whole assembly prostrated themselves with one accord on 
the ground and worshipped.. Walid alone, unable from the infir- 




mittes of age to bow down, took a handful of earth and wor- 
shipped, pressing it to his forehead. 

"Thus all the people were pleased at that which Maliomet had 
spoken, and they began to say : 'Now we know that it is the Lord 
alone that giveth life and taketh it away, that createth and sup- 
porteth. And as for these our goddesses, they make intercession 
with Him for us; wherefore, as thou hast conceded unto them a 
portion, we are content to follow thee.* But their words disquieted 
Mahomet, and he retired to his house. In the evening Gabriel 
visited him; and the Prophet (as was his wont) recited the Sura 
unto him. And Gabriel said: 'What is this that tliou hast done.? 
thou hast repeated before the people words that I never gave 
unto thee.' So Mahomet grieved sore, and feared the Lord greatly; 
and he said, I have spoken of God that which He hatli not said. 
But the Lord comforted his Prophet, and restored his confidence, 
and cancelled the verse and revealed the true reading thereof (as 
it now stands), namely : 

'And see ye not Lat and Ozza, 

And Manat the third beside? 
What! shall there be male progeny unto you, and female unto 

That were indeed an unjust partition! 
They are naught but names, which ye and your fatliers have 

invented,' etc. 

"Now when the Coreish heard this, they spoke among them- 
selves, saying: 'Mahomet hath repented his favourable mention of 
the rank of our goddesses with the Lord. He hath changed the 
same, and brought other words intstead.' So the two Satanic 
verses were in the mouth of every one of the unbelievers, and they 
increased their malice, and stirred them up to persecute tlie faidi- 
ful with still greater severity. 

"Pious Mussulmans of after days, scandalized at the lapse of 
their Prophet into so flagrant a concession, would reject the wliole 
story. But the authorities are too strong to be impugned. It is 
hardly possible to conceive how the tale, if not in some shape or 
other founded in truth, could ever have been invented. The stub- 
born fact remains, and is by all admitted, that the first refugees 
did return about this time from Aby.ssinia; and tliat they returned 
in consequence of a rumour that Mecca was converted. To this 


fact the narratives of Wackidi and Tabari afford the only intellig- 
ible clue. At the same time it is by no means necessary that 
we should literally adopt the exculpatory version of Mahometan 
tradition; or seek, in a supernatural interposition, the explanation 
of actions to be equally accounted for by the natural workings 
of the Prophet's mind."^ 

The second compromise was a more important one, since it 
involved the retention of that most ancient and strange edifice 
tlie Kaaba — as the ifAcpoXdj y'^S of Islam. In this case the 
rationalisations wherewith to justify the sanctity of the Kaaba were 
more successful than those required to retain as sacred the three 
"exalted females". Although Jerusalem had been the first "Kebleh", 
Mohammed, shortly after his flight to Medina, exchanged it for 
Mecca, thus linking Islam with the ancient pagan cult of his 
fathers instead of with Judaism. 

It was not difficult to justify the retention of a building which 
was after all a divine institution. Was it not a temple built by 
Adam at the command of God in the likeness of a house he had 
seen in paradise before the Fall? Had it not been rebuilt after 
the Flood by the patriarchs Abraham and Ishmael and re-con- 
secrated to the service of the true God from which high state it 
had fallen in the course of time tlirough ignorance? Did not the 
appointed compassing of it symbolise the circling course of the 
heavenly bodies and the obedience of all creation to the Deity? 
VV^as not pious devotion nurtured by kissing the sacred corner 
stone? The slaying of sacrifices in commemoration of Abraham's 
readiness to offer up his son, signified a like submission. 

Thus it came about that this strange cube of masonry, forty 
feet square, has remained to the present day, so that, in spite of 
a total lack of beauty or majesty, it continues to inspire many 
Muslims with such awe that on the day of the Hag many fear to 
look upwards near the Kaaba, so literally do they interpret the 
expression "house of God". Later on we shall have occasion to 
refer to one more striking instance of this "compromise-formation", 
as Abraham calls it, in the attitude adopted by Mohammed towards 
the "authority" of rulers and parents. 

In spite, therefore, of the intense desire experienced by both 
Amenhotep and Mohammed to replace the father and grandfather 
respectively, by himself, it was impossible to dispense with a power 

• Muir: Life of Mahomet, p. 87. 



whose authority would be greater than his own (i. e. as the 
father's authority had been), with the result that each created for 
himself, according to his own peculiar phantasy, a religion which 
had for its central point a Divine Fatlier. Kach gave to his Divine 
creation unlimited power, such power in fact as the child supposes 
his father to possess. Thus the creation by Amenhotep and Mo- 
hammed of a One and Only God, typifies the feeling shared by lioth 
alike as regards the "oneness" of the father. As Mohammed may be 
regarded as having revived the manotheism of Moses, so Amen- 
hotep may be said to have anticipated it! Thus: 

"In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful 

1. Say: He, Allah, is one. 

2. Allah is He on whom all depend. 

3. He begets not, nor is He begotten. 

4. And none is like Him" (Koran, Chaiiter CXIl). 
Mohammed reasserts that which had been the life of the old Hebrew 

nation, and the burden of the song of every Hebrew prophet, that 
God not only lives but that he is a righteou.s and merciful ruler; 
and that to his will it is tlie duty and privilege of all living men 
to bow.i But the God of Islam was to be a more compelling and 
authoritative God than Jehovah. As the Jew surrendered his birth- 
right if he imparted his faith to other peoples, so the Muslim was 
to surrender his if he did not spread his faith wherever and 
however he might. Thus: 

"And it does not beseem the believers that they should 

go forth all together; why should not then a company from every 

party from among them go forth that they may apply themselves 

• to obtain understanding in religion, and that they may warn their 

people when they come back to them that they may be cautious?" 

, (Koran, Chapter IX, v. 122.) 

But it was not only with the creation of a One and Only tiod 
that Mohammed was concerned; he was also deeply involved in the 
question of the relationship that he himself should bear to this 
creation. As Abraham points out,* the father is for the child the 
personification of power and greatness, so that, if at any 
time a child experiences feelings of hostility against his father, 
the son tends in phantasy to raise the paternal authority to the 
level of sovereignty so that in the end he himself becomes as it 

• Bosworth Smith; Mohammed and Mohammedanism. 

» op. cil. 


were the son of an imaginary king, and the real father recedes 
into the position of a sort of foster-father. Thus springs into being 
that very common phantasy of youth in which the boy fancies^ 
himself to be a prince. 

Among the insane we frequently meet with delusions of noble 
birth which take their origin in ideas of hostility against the 
father. The same thing is to be found in myths and fairy tales; 
wherein the hero is brought up by lowly parents, but later comes 
into those princely rights to which he was from the first entitled 
by the nobility of his birth. In fairy stories of this sort the age- 
long conflict between father and son finds expression under all 
sorts of disguises. Both Amenhotep and Mohammed were so placed 
by the circumstances of their birth that, for each to rise to a 
higher degree of sovereignty than his father, it was necessary to 
appeal to the super-human. Although Mohammed was not, like Amen- 
hotep, the son of a king, there was nothing, humanly speaking, greater 
for him than his tribe, the Coreish, at the pinnacle of whose aristocratic 
eminence reigned the venerable patriarch, his grandfather, Abd-ul- 
Muttalib. What better replacement figure of his grandfather could be 
foiuid than the god of the Hebrews, of the patriarchs Abraham, Isaac 
and Moses? Did not the god of the Patriarchs bear the very 
features of the patriarchs themselves? As a product therefore of 
the same type of unconscious ideas that gave rise to the adoption 
of Aton by Amenhotep as the god of Egypt, and of Jehovah by 
Moses as the god of Israel,, there sprang into being that Allah, 
the Creator of All, the Originator, the Sustainer, the Destroyer, 
the Lord, the Master, the Just, the Merciful. Among the almost 
endless list of appellations wherewith Allah may be addressed it 
is significant to find not only that the name of "Father" finds no 
place, but it is forbidden to address Allah by this name. We are 
therefore at liberty to conclude that this omission is yet another 
expression of the workings of Mohammed's mind under the influence 
of the "Father-complex". 

Furthermore, as in Aton and Jehovah were reflected the per- 
sonality of Amenhotep and Moses respectively, so Allah became 
the reflection, magnified perhaps, of the personality of Mohammed, 
and from these divine prototypes which were the outcome of 
their creative phantasies, each was able to draw that fiery zeal 
and wield that tremendous power which made their careers so 
remarkable in the history of mankind. 



-.sAootlier notable point of similarity between these two great ;| 

refornvers is that both of them suffered from periodical attacks of ;;| 

a ipajroxysixial kind, tilths indicating an indubitable neuropathic ll 

temperament, <»: 

,; Strange and graphic accounts of these attacks liave been pre- '| 

setved to us by Ayesha, the giil-w ife of Mohammed, in which she t 

describes the physical phenomena attending tliese seizures, Ayesha J 

records of tlie prophet that, "he heard as it were the ringing of 
a bell; he fell down as one dead; he sobbed like a camel; 
he felt as though he were being rent in pieces, and when 
he came to himself he felt as though words Iiad Ijcen written t| 

on his heart". 

Sprenger, the author of "Das Leben und die Lehre dcs Mo- 
hammed", ^ has described these fits most minutely and with a 
great deal of curious learning. He thinks that Mohammed, "suffered 
from hysteria, followed by catalepsy rather th;in epilepsy". 

In regard to their married life both Amenhotep and Mohammed 
were exceptional. The young Tharaoh, contrary to established 
custom, clung passionately to a single wife throughout his short 
reign; while Mohammed lived for twenty-five years a life of 
punctilious fidelity to the elderly Khadijah, although the customs 
and traditions of his race permitted the grossest license as regards 
sexual intercourse. 

Now Mohammed was the only and posthumous child of Abd- 
ullah, the son of Abd-ul-Muttalib. Abd-ullah was one of the most 
beavitiful arid refined youths of his time, and his name, Abd- 
ulldi "Servant of God", was not an uncommon one among ante- 
Mohammedan Arabs. His family belonged to tlie most ancient 
and illustrious tribe of the Coreish, whose strength and influence 
had been established by his ancestor, at the fourth remove, the 
famous Cossai. Abd-ullah 's father, Abd-ul-Mutlalib, held the coveted 
office of entertaining all pilgrims to Mecca, a position which car- 
ried with it great power and influence. 

When Abd-ullah was twenty-four years of age his father married 
him to Amina, the niece of Wuheib, who was a descendant of the 
famous Cossai, founder of the fortunes of the Coreish. At the same 
dme Abd-ullah's father, Abd-ul-Muttalib, in spite of his advanced 
age, married llalah the cousin of Amina and daughter of Wuheib. 

Shortly after his marriage with Amina,\ set out on 

' (juoted by IJoswoith Smith, op, cit. 


a mercantile expedition to Syria, from which he never returned, 
being overtaken with a fatal illness and dying at Medina. 

Mohammed was born shortly after his father's death and this 
concatenation was probably one of the most important events in 
the career of the prophet, since it must have influenced the lines 
along which his CEdipus-complex developed. 

Either as the result of the ill-health of his mother, Amina,i 
or because it was customary among the better class Arab families 
of those times, 2 Mohammed was put out to nurse, and he was 
first suckled by a slave-woman of his uncle Lahab, his father's 
brother. This woman had recently suckled Lahab's youngest brother, 
Ilamza, so Mohammed thus became foster-brother to his OMm uncle 
— an event which in all probability contributed later to the deve- 
lopment of his chief phantasy. 

Later Mohammed was given another wet-nurse, Halima, and 
she took him away with her to her tribe, the Bani Sad, so that for 
two y^ars, until she weaned him, Mohammed did not see his 
mother. Halima then brought Mohammed to this motlier, and 
the sight of so sturdy a child delighted Amina so much that she 
begged Halima to take the child back again with her to the 
desert, which, accordingly, Halima did, and for another two years 
the young Mohammed remained among the Bani Sad. 

When about four years of age Mohammed suffered, for the first 
time, from one of those paroxysmal attacks to which allusion 
has already been made. In. spite of a good deal of uneasy 
apprehension which the onset of these seizures aroused in the 
mind of Halima, she continued, at the earnest entreaty of Amina, 
to keep Mohammed with her for yet one more year, after which 
she restored tlie child to his piother. 

In the sixth year of his life Mohammed was taken by his 
mother to visit her relatives in Medina and she alighted from her 
camel at tlie house where her husband had died and was buried. 
This visit to Medina was vividly recalled by Mohammed in after 
years, when, at tlie age of fifty-three he once more gazed upon 
tlie house. "Here", he said, "it was my mother lodged with me; in 
this place is the tomb of my father." 

On the return journey to Mecca, Amina fell ill and died. The 
little orplian was carried back to Mecca by 0mm Ayman, his 

• Bosworth Smith, o/. cit. 
' Muir, y/. «7. . . > : , ■ ' i 


Ethiopian nurse, and committed to the care of his grandfather Sv; 

Abd-ul-Muttalib. » :; 

It is recorded of tlie old man that he became greatly attached 
to his grandchild, and permitted him to take liberties that aroused 
the jealousy of liis sons, who would attempt to drive the child 
away. "Let my little son alone", the old man would say, making 
room for him on the rug on which he sat. Mohammed soon began 
to feel and appreciate the bereavement he had suffered in the loss | 

of both his parents and became, it is recorded, a pensive and j^ ' 

meditative child. It is obvious that the tenderness shewn to him by his 
grandfather, as well as the nobility of the patriarch to whom such great 
deference was always paid, must have greatly impressed the imagination ^ 

of the child, more particularly when he began to weave what Freud |- 

terms his "Family Romance",* wherein the replacement of the g 

father by a more agreeable substitute is the most prominent ^ 


In the case of Mohammed there must have been a departure 
from the line which this phantasy-formation usually follows, since 
as we have already observed, Mohammed was the posUiumous 
chUd of this father and, in addition, he did not live for more ^^ 

than a few months in contact with his motlier, during the whole p 

course of his life. Hence that feeling of hostility usually reser\'cd . p 

for the father, was in the case of Mohammed reserved for his f- 

grandfather, who came to play in every respect tlie rdle of fatlier. 
Furthermore, the peculiar circumstances of Mohammccrs life must 
have given rise to the idea that for him his father and mother _ 

had never existed, an illusion which must have received consider- p 

able support by his constant association with his young step- |c 

grandmother, who was of the same generation as his own mother, . 

being her first cousin, as well as with his young uncle Hamza, 
who was also his foster-brother. At least one result of this con- -^ 

' In a footnote to his sketch of the life history of Amcnhotcp, Abraham p 

calls attention to the important r61c the wct-nursc may play in the life of 4<.^ 

the child and how with the neurotic "Renicfit schr hauftg die Ammc cinen be- 
sonderen Vorzug". In this respect also both Amcnhotcp and Mohammed 
displayed similar tendencies. It is recorded that the wct-nuric of Amcnhotcp ^" 

was permitted by him to take up a prominent place at his court, while ; 

Mohammed never omitted to pay affectionate compliment* to Halima, and ;, 

for the devoted 0mm Ayman he found a husband in no lew a peraon than J 

his own beloved adopted son, Zeid bin Haritha. 

' See Rank: Der Mythus von der Gcburt dc» Hcldcn. 




dition of Mohammed's early life may have been to evoke that 
desire, which is very common in children, namely to become the 
parents of their own parents. This curious construction of the 
imagination is closely connected with incestuous wishes, since it 
is an exaggerated form of the commoner desire to be one's own 
•father. » 

In this connection we may note that Mohammed was always very 
particular in his numerous references to Mary the mother of Jesus, 
and the doctrine of the immaculate conception was strongly upheld 
by him. The conception of Mary and the birth of Jesus are de- 
scribed in detail in the Koran and the calumny of the Jews that 
Mary was guilty of fornication is denounced in Chapter IV, v. 156. 

Finally Mary is placed by Mohammed among the four perfect 
women of the world — the other three being Miriam (Mary) 
the sister of Moses, Khadijah his wife, and Fatima his eldest 
daughter by Khadijah. 

The guardianship of Abd-ul-Muttalib lasted only two years. 
At his death the charge of the orphan Mohammed was taken 
over by his uncle Abu Talib, elder brother of Mohammed's father. 
Abu Talib was no less zealous in his devotion to the child than 
his father had been. He made him sleep by his bed, eat by his 
side and go with him whenever he walked abroad. 

About this time Mohammed began to employ himself in tend- 
ing the flocks of sheep and goats on the neighbouring hills, and 
it was while thus occupied that his love of brooding in retirement 
began to develop into a passion. In adopting this attitude towards 
the world in which he Uved, that is to say towards the world of 
reality, we can discern a further manifestation of Mohammed's 
neuropathic disposition, as well as the lines along which his 
phantasy formation was beginning to urge him. 

In the words of Rank: "Der Neurotiker lebt dann nicht mehr 
in der Welt der wirklichen Geschehnisse, sondem in einer anderen, 
von seiner Phantasie geschaffenen". 

Among the many subjects that occupied his attention at this 
time, there was one above all' on which it appears that he dwelt 
in wrapt contemplation, and that was the life and character ol 

With the story of the great Hebrew law-giver the Arabs had 

1 See Ernest Jones: Papers on Psycho-Analysis pp. 653 and 234, and 
Rank: op. cU. 


been acquainted long before the utterance of Chapter VII | 

of the Koran, which is entitled tlie "History of Mosc>". In his | 

later days Mohammed was wont to remark tliat "(iod has never J 

chosen any one to be a prophet who had not, like Moses, like ; 

David, or like himself, tended sheep in the wilderness". There is 
little doubt that as Mohammed grew older he identificcl himself 
more and more with Moses, partly l>ecause he felt himself to be 
like him and wanted to be more like him, and partly l>ecause he 
found in the Jehovah of Moses the prototype of the Allah of his 
own creative phantasy. 

That Mohammed was now becoming the subject of intense 
repression in certain aspects of his mental development, nothing 
affords a better measure than tlie phenomenal chastity of the 
young Arab at this period of his life, who, although he belonged , 

to a race which, according to Wavell, * has absorbed nine-tenths || 

of the entire amount of the erotic passion destined for tlie whole r 

of mankind, the correctness of his deportment and the purity of 
his life were so exceptional that some of his biographers have 
been led to ascribe the preservation of his chastity to tlie special ^ 

intervention of Providence. - g 

Certainly Mohammed's life had been u[) to Uiis time free from |^ 

any sexual experience, a fact to which he bore witness in later . ^^ 

life. For example, he relates how one night he had entered the |^ 

town to divert himself; "even as youtlis are wont by night to f 

divert themselves," when he was arrested by heavenly strains of |-, 

music and, sitting down, slept till morning. Thus he escaped temp- f 

tation. "And after this", said Mohammed, "I no more sought after 
vice; even until 1 had attained unto tlie prophetic ofTice."' ^ 

If Mecca, in the days of the youthful Mohammed, was anydiing | 

like the Mecca of tlie twentieth century as so vividly described by ■: 

Wavell, « who maintains that the inhabitants of the holy cities, 
(Mecca and Medina), are given to all the vices of the cities of 
the Plain and a few more besides of modern introduction, we are * 

left witli only two possible alternatives to explain the purity of y 

Mohammed's life, viz. either he was endowed with the most ex- i 

ceptional powers of repression or his sexual desire was extremely |, . 

exiguous. ^ 

« A Modern Pilgrim in Mecca. 
= Muir: Life of Mahomet p. 19. 
•' ci/i. cit., p. 137. 





A study of the married life of Mohammed certainly reveals a 
number of data which support this former hypothesis i. e. that the 
repression of every impulse towards sexual experience was due 
to the immensity of certain incestuous fixations. We may there- 
fore presume that to this and to no other cause may be attribu- 
ted the scrupulous chastity of Mohammed for the first twenty-five 
years of his life and later the selection a^ his first wife the elderly 
matron Khadijah, who at the time of her marriage with him was 
fifteen years older than he, and already twice a widow. 

On these two accounts,, i. e. her age and her widowhood, 
Khadijah must have afforded Mohammed a very perfect replace- 
ment-figure for his own mother, for it was only as a widow that 
he had ever known his mother. 

The degree of gratification which this marriage afforded his 
incestuous fixation can be best measured by the punctilious fide- 
lity Mohammed displayed to his wife for the twenty-five years of 
their married life and by the reverence he paid to her memory 
until the day of his death, so that "the pride or tenderness of the 
venerable matron was never insulted by the society of a rival", i 

Khadijah bore Mohammed two sons and four daughters. Both 
sons died in infancy but the "daughters survived. 

Many tpaditions are recorded of the sympathetic attachment 
of Mohammed and Khadijah, the one for the other, and all point 
to the deference Mohammed always paid to her and how he in- 
variably sought her advice and encouragement. At that great crisis 
of his life when he believed that he had received his first message 
from God by the mouth of the angel Gabriel, trembling and 
agitated, he tottered to Khadijah and told her of his vision and 
agony of mind. "Fear not", exclaimed Khadijah, "for joyful tidings 
dost thou bring. I will henceforth regard thee as the prophet of 
our nation. Rejoice, Allah will not suffer thee to fall to shame. 
Hast thou not been loving to thy kindfolk, kind to the neigh- 
bours, charitable to the poor, faithful to thy word, and ever a 
defender of the truth?" 

"So Khadijah believed" (runs the simple tradition), "and attested 
the trudi of that which came to him from God. Thus was the 
Lord minded to lighten the burden of his prophet, for he heard 
nothing that grieved him touching his rejection by the people, 

• Gibbon: Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Chandos Library, 
Vol. Ill, p, 164. 


but he had recourse unto her, and she comforted, reassured and 
supported him." 

Thus did the good Khadijah comfort and soothe the distracted 
prophet not speaking as a wife but as a motlier. At last when 
Khadijah died in her sixty-fifth year no word save to express his deep 
and mournful reverence for her ever escaped the Ups of Moham- J 

med, not even to Ayesha, whose ready wit and arch vivacity came | 

to enthral completely the heart of the propliet. Thus, in answer to I 

Ayesha, who was jealous of the old and dead Khadijah and asked f 

the prophet: "Am I not so good as she ?", Mohammed replied: "No, by | 

Allah, you are not so good; for she believed in me when no one 
else did, she was my first disciple, she honoured and protected 
me when I was poor and forsaken." 

At the death of Khadijah Mohammed was desolated, but the 
"mother-complex" persisted so that anotlier marriage followed with 
another replacement-figure in the person of the elderly widow, 

The incestuous love for the mother now began to give rise to 
that other complex which is so often observed to go witli it, 
namely, a "daughter-complex", with the result that Mohammed at 
the age of fifty became betrothed to a child aged six, named 
Ayesha. Three years afterwards the marriage was consummated. 
From this time forth to the end of his life, Mohammed constantly 
displayed in the choice of his wives evidence of the operation of 
his incestuous impulses in their search for gratification. 

For example, in his marriage with Zeinab bint Khozcima and 
Zeinab bint Jahsh, we sec the selection of two women who bore 
the same name as Mohammed's own daughter by Khadijah 
("daughter-complex"), who had both lieen married already ("mother- 
complex"). Also the first husband of Zohiab bint Khozcima had 
borne the same name as Mohammed's father— Abdnlla, so it is not 
impossible to imagine that in his marriage with Zeinab bint Kho- 
zeima, Mohammed found gratification for yet another complex, 
namely, a "sister-complex". Again, AbduUa, the husband of Zeinab 
bint Khozeima, was tlie brother of Zeinali bint Jahsli, thus making 
the two Zeinab's sisters-in-law. Lastly, tlic husband of Zeinab bint 
Jahsh was Zeid, the adopted son of Mohammed, and to enable 
him to marry the wife of his adopted son, Moliammed expressly 
ordered the woman to be divorced. Thus in the case of Zeinab 
bint Jahsh, the incestuous "daughter-complex" was doubly repre- 


seated, for she not only bore the same name as one of Moham- 
med's own daughters, but was the wife of his adopted son to 
whom he was so attached that he regarded him as his own son 
and had bidden him to call himself, Zeid bin Mohammed, that 
is, Zeid the son of Mohammed. 

It is now well known that unconscious incestuous impulses 
often seek gratification through marriage with persons bearing the 
same name as the object of the incestuous affection. Recently, in 
a monograph published in the first number of this Journal, J. C. 
Fliigel has illustrated this point in reference to the marriages of 
King Henry VIII of England. 

Another notable point is that this same Zeid had been per- 
suaded years before to marry Mohammed's aged nurse, 0mm 
Ayman, who was so many years senior to Zeid that Mohammed 
promised paradise to his adopted son as a reward for performing 
so meritorious an act! 

It is significant in this connection to bear in mind that the 
notices in the Koran of the voluptuous Paradise as described with 
an abundance of detail in Chapter LV, are almost entirely con- 
fined to a time when Mohammed was living a chaste and tem- 
perate life with a wife three score years of age: "But to him that 
dreadeth the appearing of his Lord, there shall be two gardens, 
Planted with shady trees, 

Through each of them shall two fountains flow. 

And in each shall there be of every fruit two kinds. 

They shall repose on brocaded carpets, the fruits of the two 
gardens hanging close by. 

In them shall be modest damsels, refraining their looks, whom 
before them no man shall have deflowered, neither any 

Like as if they were rubies or pearls." ^ 

In the later chapters, uttered in Medina, when he was surround- 
ed by a numerous harem, women are only twice referred to 
as one of the rewards of Paradise, and on both occasions in these 
simple words: "and to them" (believers) "there shall be therein 
pure wives".* 

It was not the husband of Khadijah but the husband of Ayesha, 
the delectable enchantress, who spoke of wives in such terms as 

» Muir: op. ciU Ch. IV, p. 81. 
' Idem: op. cit. 



we read in Chapter II of tlie Koran: "Your wives are a tilth for 
you, so go into them when you like"; again, "Men are the 
maintainers of women, because Allah made some to excel others 
and because they spend out of their property; tine good women 
are tlierefore obedient, guarding the unseen as Allah has guarded, 
and those on whose part you fear desertion, admonish them and 
leave them alone in the sleeping places and heat them, tlien if 
they obey you do not seek a way against them; surely Allah is 
High, Great" (Koran, Chapter IV. v. 34); again, "O true be- 
lievers, verily of your wives and your children ye have an enemy: 
wherefore beware of them" (Koran, Chapter LXIV, v. 14). 

These utterances, we may take it, were determined for Mo- 
hammed by the "daughter-complex"; it is the father who speaks | 
of "obedience", "admonishing", and "beating". 

There is nothing of particular significance in the precepts of 
the Koran, nor in the "tladith", as regards consanguinity in its 
bearing on marriage. In formulating his precepts in this respect 
Mohammed seems to have followed more or less the code of 
Moses, with the notable exception that the prohibition against a 
man marrying his grandmother, such a remarkable feature of the 
Mosaic ordinance, iinds no place in the list of relations witli whom 
marriage is forbidden. 

However, when we come to examine the pronouncements of 
Mohammed in regard to X^idows, Divorce, Orphans, and the re- 
lations between parents and offspring, we find evidence indicating 
the operation of strong subjective feeling. 

Before the days of Mohammed, the Arabs had entertained tJie 
world-wide prejudice against the re-marriage of widows, so that, , 
according to Burckhardt S the Arabs regarded every thing connec- 
ted with the nuptials of a widow as ill-omened, and unworthy of 
the participation of generous and lionourable men. 

We may be sure therefore that the very specific and precise legis- 
lation formulated by Mohammed in regard to the re-marriage of 
widows and to the provision that should be made for women on 
becoming widows, are the outcome of his own personal predeliction 
for widows due to his fixation on his mother. Indeed, the most 
notable reform instituted by Mohammed in this connection was 
the abolition of the Arab custom of permitting tlie inheritance by 
the son of his father's wives, a procedure that was so closely akin 
> Quoted by Wcstermarck: The History of Humun Marriage p. 127. 


to incest, that the mere idea of it so stirred the repressed incest- 
complex in his own mind that this had to be stamped out at all 

Thus is the frenzy of reform fed by feelings of the very type 
which the reformer seeks to destroy! It is tlie sublimation with 
reversion of the Sadistic impulse that produces the Humanitarian! 

In his rules regarding Divorce, in spite of the provision insisted 
on for divorced women, Mohammed has always been regarded by 
most of his Christian biographers as a monster of licence: "Ye 
may divorce your wives twice; and then eitlier retain them with 
humanity or dismiss them with kindness." "But if a husband divorce 
her a third time, she shall not be lawful for him again, until she marry 
another husband" (Koran, Chapter II). This injunction gave rise 
to the institution of the "Mostahil" or hired husband, wliose func- 
tions were to legalise re-marriage with a thrice-divorced wife, an 
abuse which may not have been contemplated to the full extent 
by Mohammed when promulgating this canon. 

His attitude in general towards Divorce shews how different 
were his feelings when actuated by the "daughter-complex" from 
those determined by the "mother-complex". For example, the 
impulses which directed his decrees on Divorce belonged to the 
same group as those which led to the divorce "by order" of Zeinab 
bint Jahsh, the wife of Zeid, the beloved-adopted son. Again, the 
subjective feeling of Mohammed becomes very clear when we 
come to study his commands in regard to the treatment and care 
of orphans, for was he not himself an orphan from the age 
of six? 

He says of himself, "Did he (the Lord) not find thee an orphan, 
and hath he not taken care of thee }" (Koran, Chapter XCIV). And 
again, "And let those fear to abuse orphans . . . Surely they who 
devour the possessions of orphans unjustly, shall swallow down 
nothing but fire into their bellies, and shall broil in raging flames" 
(Koran, Chapter IV). 

But it is in his pronouncements on the subject of the relations 
between children and parents that the operations of the uncon- 
scious mind of Mohammed became most manifest, and it is here 
that we may expect to find the key which unlocks the riddle of 
his hfe. 

One of the most remarkable features of Mohammed's doctrine 
which established equality of rights, was the inculcation of an 


intense reverence for authority. According to a saying of the i 

prophet, even if a negro slave is placed in authority he must | 

be obeyed. Among the varieties of authority enumerated, that | 

vested in parents is given a foremost place. "And your Lord has I 

commanded that you shall not serve (any) but I lim and goodness ^ 

to your parents. If either or both of them reach old age with f 

you, say not to them (so much as) 'Ugh' nor chide them, and J 

speak to them a generous word". "And make yourself submissi- | 

vely gentle to them with compassion, and say: () my Lord! have | 

compassion on them, as they brought ine up (when 1 was) little." | 

(Koran, Chapter XVII, v. 23-24). 'The injunction to obey parents I 

implicitly is however qualified by the proviso that parents are | 

only entitled to obedience from their children as long as they do 1 

not compel their cliiidren to serve others tlian God [Koran, s 

Chapter XXIX, v, 8), •| 

It is in this connection that we meet what appears at first 
sight to be a strange paradox in the belief and practice of Islam, 
the explanation of which lies in the full recognition of the enor- 
mous subjective feeling for authority entertained l)y Mohammed. 
Thus, in spite of the repeated insistence on reverence for all in 
authority made by him, Mohammed cannot escape from the 
charge that he taught his followers, directly or implicitly, to be- 
lieve that they should fight for their faith, that they should assert 
themselves as the favoured people, and that it is wrong for them 
to endure if they can help it, a direct and visible assertion ol 
infidel superiority. Hence the adherents of no religious system are 
so prone as the Mohammedans to sudden outbur.sts of frenzy against 
the very authority they are adjured to revere and obey. The ex- 
planation lies in the fact that we are dealing once more with a 
case of ambivalent "compromise" on the part of Mohammed. 

We have already cited two instances of this manifestation of 
the working of the unconscious mind of Molvamn>ed, one in re- 
gard to the perpetuation of that ancient temple of idolatry, the 
Kaaba, which succeeded, and the other relating to the worship 
of the three "exalted Females", which failed. Again we find this 
same tendency manifested in the attitude adopted by Mohammed 
towards authority. While on the one hand the authority of [varcnts 
and rulers was to be respected according to the objective feeling 
of Mohammed, on the other hand, in pursuance of his subjective 
feeling on the subject of parental authority, it must be opposed 



and destroyed, so that, in certain circumstances, defiance of autho- 
rity was not only justifiable but to be encouraged. 

In this aspect of Islam doubtless lies the secret of its tremen- 
dous power, for although it appears to make its appeal to man's 
conscious feeling for religion, in reality Islam stirs up tlie deeply- 
buried and unconscious complex against the father, which is an 
attribute that pervades the minds of all men. From hardly any 
other source could there spring those wild torrents of emotion 
that enable men, "utterly lost to every call of honour, or patrio- 
tism, or family affection, whose only occupation is eating, and 
whose only recreation is woman, to thrill with excitement at the 
summons of the faith, and meet death with a contempt the Red 
Indian could only envy". ^ 

It is beyond the scope of this article to consider the social 
and political consequences that might follow upon a fuller appre- 
ciation of this distinctive characteristic of Mohammedan doctrine, 
but it is evident that were such facts realised there must result 
the adoption of a more rational and scientific attitude towards all 
Muslim which would again result in saving those responsible for 
the maintenance of law and order in countries inhabited by Mo- 
hammedans from that condition of petrified embarrassment into 
which such persons invariably fall whenever they are called upon 
to face any widespread expression of Mohammedan feeling in 
regard to some religious or social dogma. 

We have now seen how the case of Mohammed illustrates that 
the most intense desire to transcend the paternal authority cannot 
escape from the feeling that all authority whatsoever can be dispen- 
sed with. On the contrary, the phantasy that desires the abrogation 
of the father's omnipotence conceives simultaneously the existence 
of a still more tremendous power, and creates a fresh "father", 
either human or superhuman, in whom to repose these gigantic 
attributes. In the case of Mohammed this phantasy created a replace- 
ment-figure whose attributes were: "He is Allah, besides whom 
there is no God; the King, the Holy, the Author of peace, the 
Granter of Security, Guardian over All, the Mighty, the Supreme, 
the Possessor of every greatness; Glory be to Allah from what 
they set up (with Him)". 

But the matter does not end with the creation of the replace- 
ment-figure. The phantasy is further concerned with the relation 

' Townsend: 'The Great Arabian' in Asia and Europe, p. 182. 




of the creator to his creation. What then may we take to be ^ 

Mohammed's conception as to his relation to tlic Allah of lus 
creation? From the very precise nature of his utterances against 
the divine origin of Jesus Christ, i. e. that he was literally the 
son of God, it may be presumed that Mohammed never enter- 
tained any conscious idea of a possible kinship with Allah. Never- 
tlieless this does not exclude the possibility of his jjaving entertained 
the idea tliat he was miraculously bom, especially because of the very 
meagre r61e played by his parents in his life. The most notable 
feature of Mohammed's character during the Mcccan period was 
the increasing strength of his conviction that he was tlic Messenger 
of God, with the result that any strong conviction, even any 
strong wish, that he entertained, appeared to him to be borne in | 

upon him by a force external to himself. I^ter on, after tlie flight ^ 

to Medina, the character of Mohammed changed still more. Accor- ^ 

ding to Muir, ^ "the acquisition of temporal power, aggrandisement, |; 

and self-glorification mingled rapidly with the grand object of the 
Prophet's life; and they were sought after and attained by precisely 
the same instrumentality. Messages from heaven were frequently 
and freely brought down to justify political conduct, in precisely 
the same manner as to inculcate religious precept. Battles were 
fought, executions inflicted, and territories annexed, under pretext 
of the Almighty's sanction. Even grosser actions were not only 
excused but encouraged by the divine approval or command. 
A special licence was produced, allowing Mohammed a double 
number of wives; the discreditable affair with Mary tlie Coptic 
slave was justified in a separate Sura; and the passion for the f 

wife of his own adopted son and bosom friend was tlie subject 
of an inspired message in which the Prophet's scrujiles were re- 
buked by God, a divorce permitted, and marriage with tlie object 
of his unhallowed desires enjoined." Hence we find little to wonder 
at when Omar, the Simon Peter of Islam, in an agony of grief at 
the death of Mohammed, draws his sword and swears to strike off 
the head of anyone who dares to say that the Prophet is dead. 
"Is it then Mohammed", cries the venerable Abu Bakr, in his 
attempt to pacify Omar, "or the God of Mohammed that we have 
learned to worship?" 

"Slay the UnbeUevers wheresoever ye find them", was hence- 
fortll tlie watchword of Islam; "Fight in the way of Ciod until 

• of. cit., p. 633. 




opposition be crushed and the religion becometh the Lord's 

Thus did the child cry through the mouth of the man, seeking 
vengeance upon the father; and because of the intensity of the 
passion and because of the conditions under which it developed 
and because of the nature of the buried complexes to which the 
cry made such a profound appeal, one fourth of the human race, 
and that the unchangeable one, has not been merely influenced 
but utterly remoulded. So it comes about that after thirteen cen- 
turies we may observe an Asiatic, apathetic to a degree no ordinary 
European can comprehend, start up a hero, if appealed to in the 
name of Mohammed, fling away life with a glad laugh of exul- 
tation or risk a throne to defend a guest! 

That these emotional outbursts are not confined to individuals 
but may affect whole communities is a phenomenon men of every 
creed and generation will at least be wise to consider. It is due 
to its appeal to these hidden sources of feeling that' Islam is still, 
when its stateliest empires have passed away, and its greatest 
achievements have been forgotten, the only force able to hurl 
Asia upon the iron civilisation of Europe. Perhaps after all the 
findings of modern psychology were anticipated by Renan when 
he charged Mohammed with inventing a new religion to revenge 
himself upon his brethren! 

Received November 1, 1920. 


by ■ 

CAVENDISH MOXON, Los Alto», Cal., U. S. A. V 

The Christian Creeds are rich in symbols of primitive un- t 

conscious desires. The Creeds therefore make a direct appeal to J^ 

the unsatisfied and repressed persons who desire a refuge from > 

the world as it is. They offer a comforting metaphysic for the mind and a 
strong support for the will, in other words, revelation and salvation. The 
revelation is not to be denied, but it is a revelation of the men who made 
the Creeds, not of the God who made the world. Likewise the ,. 

salvation promised is a psychological fact, at least for a certain 
type of mind that has been well named "the sick soul". The 
healthy minded have no need of the creedal medicine. The vigorous 
man finds a new incitement to thought and action in the very %t 

difficulties that overwhelm the weak. The Creeds concern the 
sinner who feels incapable by his own efforts of making moral ^ 4, 

and mental progress, and wishes once again to assume the in- » 

fantile attitude to life. The unsatisfied and hungry soul is called |? 

to a "revival", a "re-birth". A child-like acceptance is demanded |^ 

as a condition of entrance into the kingdom of psycholofjical rest | 

in Mother Church supported by the Father's everlasting arms. 'L, 

Infantile dependence on the parent's mind and will excludes the |" 

desire for self-determination and independent speculation, and makes V 

the will to believe in the mysteries and miracles of the Creed. | ._ 

In the paragraphs that follow we propose to show in detail some I 

of the sources of unconscious satisfaction provided by the Nicene 

"I believe in one God the Father" j! 

At the stage of narcissistic love, the "one God" symbolises 
the beloved ego-ideal with which one desires to have ecstatic 

"The Father" exactly meets the need of those whose object- *; 

love is fixed in the family circle, and of ihosc who, unable to 




find a parent substitute for their libido, have regressed to the 
infantile level. The paternal symbolism satisfies the desire of both 
sexes for a supreme father imag-o and at the same time forms a 
defence against the boyish tendency to rebellious hatred of the 
earthly father. 

When infantile self-love is overlaid by the higher stage of 
object-love, the child identifies itself with the beloved parent who 
is loved like a god. By this introjection of the parent into the 
self, the child can offer a willing obedience. To obey the parent 
is to obey oneself. This psychical stage in religion is represented 
by the joy and freedom felt by the child of God in a slavish 
service of his will. In the boy there soon arise the iconoclastic 
forces of jealousy in regard to the mother and rebellious hatred 
of paternal authority. Consequently the father is now felt to be 
an inadequate ideal and the boy may take as father substitute 
some real or imaginary hero who for a time can satisfy the 
emotional needs. With adolescence however comes the increased 
critical power to see that even heroes have feet of clay. If the 
CEdipus complex is still dominant, new sublimations are now 
required, such as patriotic love of the Fatherland or religious love 
of the Father God. 

In the case of Jesus there are traces of an attempt to throw 
off a strong attachment to his mother ; and this may be one cause 
of his conscious preoccupation with the Father. The story of the 
child Jesus in the Temple marks the change from entire parental 
obedience to a self-conscious spirit of revolt. Jesus is no longer - 
satisfied to make Joseph his ideal (a hard task for a boy with 
a strong Mother-fixation of love) and henceforth calls no man 
his father but substitutes the heavenly image. We may conjecture 
that Jesus, in spite of his conscious revolt against his family, never 
wholly outgrew his identification with his mother. This would 
account for his strongly marked feminine traits, his desire for self- 
abasement in order to enjoy parental lifting up, and his deliberate 
choice of death on the cross as a means to a new life. Jesus' 
identification with his mother would act as a barrier against 
his love of any other woman and account for his failure to 


In the case of the girl, faith in God is easier, because more 
in line with the infantile libido trend, than in the case of the boy. 
The girl who has sufficiendy outgrown her Electra complex seeks 


at puberty a satisfying fatlicr substitute. In many cases she fails 
to find one, and therefore she is inclined to be religious. If hex 
hold on reality is weak she turns back to her first love in the 
sublimated form of the Father in heaven. 

The impulses to the creation of a father God are not only 
the conscious feelings of inferiority, incapacity, and the fear cau.sed 
by hard times and lack of earthly love, but cliicfly the uncon.scioiis 
feeling that one's actual father is all loo human, the desire for 
ii(L ideal lover on to whom one may project one's will to power, 
and the need of a refuge in the transcendental family of God. 
The ultimate causes of the Father symbol are the repressed 
parental complexes that are satisfied by this belief. By turning as 
a child to God, the repressed psyche gains self-esteem, salvation 
from guilt, and peace in place of restless uncertainty. 


God the Father in the Christian Creed is omnipotent and, as 
such, gives a substitutionary satisfaction to a universal desire of 
childhood. From the psycho-analytical point of view the life of 
man has been well defined by Ferenczi as a struj^gle to retain 
some part of his original feeling of omnipotence. Only the infant 
in the womb is completely omnipotent. The baby at birth struggles 
hard to regain complete satisfaction of all its desires. Gradually 
its dawning sense of reality forbids it to maintain the illusion of 
almightiness. It has to make elTorts to fulfil its desires and to 
adapt itself to external compulsion. Magic gestures and cries (as 
Ferenczi puts it) are used at first to retain its power. But with 
the growth of a social sense, the charming illusion of omnipotence 
must be consciously renounced. This renunciation is not shared 
by the unconscious, which proceeds to finti some symbolic satis- 
faction for its infantile belief in free and almighty will. When the 
libido is progressive the self is identified with a powerful social 
or intellectual movement; wTien the libido is regressive the ego is 
identified with a projected image of its unconscious desires, namely, 
an omnipotent God. The soul that seems impotent in a heartless 
world of law takes the path of religious regression in order to 
regain a pleasant sense of power reflected from on high. Like 
Paul, such a soul feels able to do all things through the divine 
power within. 

"Incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary" 

Belief in the Virgin Mother has its roots in the CEdipus Com- 
plex. The Virgin Mary is an especially attractive object of worship 
because she satisfies an unconscious longing of the infant boy to 
supplant the father or to think him away. Since to the child's 
mind absence means death, the way is then open to take the 
father's place in relation to the beloved mother. 

In almost every religion there are traces of man's tendency to 
transfer to his deities some part of the emotion normally felt 
towards the mother, the lover, and the wife. The belief in the 
goddess called Mother Earth is a spontaneous symbolic production 
of the human mind at one stage of its development. Some of 
the most striking examples have been gathered together by Prof. 
A. Dieterich. In his book entitled "Mutter Erde" he explains the 
grief and horror felt by believers in the earth goddess when the 
dead were deprived of burial; for this meant their inability to 
return to the Mother who could give them re-birth. A happy life 
after death seemed to depend on their entering into the womb 
of the earth in order that they might be born again. The aim of 
the mystery religions becomes clear in the light of this belief in 
a mother-goddess. In order to be sure of immortality, the initiates 
were symbolically re-born in the sacrament in order that death 
might have no further power over them. This is well illustrated 
by the religion best known to ourselves. Christianity had to become 
a mystery religion in order to satisfy this keen desire for sacramental 
regeneration, and thereby conquer the Mithraic and other rival 

The first Christians inherited from Judaism the prophetic horror 
of admitting a feminine element into the conception of God. But 
as soon as Christianity spread among Greeks and Romans, the 
desire for a Mother Goddess had to be satisfied in creed and 
rite. The Church itself was regarded as the Bride of Christ and 
the Mother of the faithful. The Fathers speak of "Domina Mater 
Ecclesia". Some even said that Earth was the first Adam's mother 
just as Mary was the second Adam's mother. And the "Blessed 
Virgin" proved to be the most popular Christian Mother imago. 
Though Mary was already betrothed to Joseph, tlie Holy Ghost 
did not hesitate to overshadow her in order to beget Jesus. This 
divine action shows a disregard for human and legal scruples that 


is not unprecedented in the Old Testament stories of Yahweli and 
indeed is the mark of every product of the infantile unconscious 
fancy. Nevertheless Joseph is recorded to have felt an excusable 
impulse to cast off his lover for unfaithfulness when he knows 
tliat she is with child. And it is only by means of assurances and 
promises in dreams, that God is abit; to induce Joseph to become 
the foster-father of his Son and to marry Mary the Mother. 

It may well be that the Virgin birth stories in the (iospel are 
in harmony with the phantasy of Jesus himself From the strong 
heroic consciousness of divine Sonship it is only a step to the 
denial of the actual father. In an age when unconscious desires 
had free play in myths, the evangelist of Jesus the Son of God 
would almost inevitably express his Master's own phantasy in the 
form of a miraculous conception by a divine Father. The myth- 
maker would unconsciously identify himself with Jesus in the heroic 
revolt against the father implied by a virgin birth. 

The legend of the virginal conception of Mary by the power 
of the Holy Ghost is, however, perhaps not the first attempt to 
symbolise faith in the divine origin of Jesus, but rather a secondary ; - 

element due to Greek influence. The earliest Gospel (St. Mark) j| 

ignores the story and dates the divinity of Jesus from the day of |^ 

His baptism. The Holy Ghost which descended into Jesus was 
regarded by some Jewish Christians as his Mother, For the Spirit 
in Hebrew is feminine, and the rAle played by the Spirit in the 
creation myth in Genesis is that of the Earth Mother. The Spirit 
"brooded" on the waters of chaos or the world egg like a mother 
bird, in order to call forth the creative activity of the male God 
Yahweh. Indeed, as Hannay has pointed out, the very words of 
the story imply a feminine aspect of the divinity. "God created 
man in his own image, male and female created he them". In the 
Aramaic gospel used by the Iibionites Jesus even speaks of "My 
Mother the Holy Ghost". For some the Spirit symbolised Yahweh's 
wife; for others it was the creative power which impregnated the 
mother goddess of chaos. The Jewish followers of Jesus could 
therefore naturally picture the Messiah as born when he issued 
forth from the waters of baptism and received breath from the 
Spirit of God. The non-Jewish Christians unconsciously saw in 
the Holy Spirit at the Baptism the Phallus of the Mysteries. 
Dieterich reminds us of the early baptismal rite in which tlie 
candle is thrice dipped into the wat6r of the font in order to 


fecundate this symbol of the womb from which the candidate for 
baptism was to be reborn like the Christ. 

"One Lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God" 

A long Step towards the deification of Jesus was taken by the 
first person who dated the divine Sonship of Jesus from his birth 
and applied to Jesus the prophecy of Isaiah about a young woman 
as if it implied conception without a human father. The birth 
legends inserted in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke contain 
a further satisfaction of unconscious desires by assimilating the 
Christ myth to the widespread myth of the hero's birth. There 
is the double parentage, the humble carpenter foster-father and 
the almighty God Father. The Messianic hero is cradled as an out- 
cast in a food box (ju^t as Mo'ses was in a basket) and is perse- 
cuted by an evil King. Herod represents the Father on to whom 
the unconscious projects its childish feeling of filial hate. Otto 
Rank reminds us in his book on "The Myth of the Birth of the 
Hero" (p. 51) that "the birth history of Christ is said to have the 
greatest resemblance to the royal Egyptian myth, over five thou- 
sand years old, which relates the birth of Amenophis III. Here 
again recurs the divine prophecy of the birth of a son to the 
waiting queen; her fertilization by the breath of heavenly fire; 
the divine cows, which nurse the new born child; the homage of 
the kings, and so forth." 

Jesus was henceforth no mere man adopted to be the Messiah. 
But the Virgin Birth story does not satisfy the mystical author 
of the fourth Gospel. He exhalts Jesus still further from time into 
eternity. He pictures Jesus as God from the beginning and as 
man at an appropriate moment in history. Both the Virgin Birth 
and the Baptism stories are therefore omitted from the fourth 
Gospel. In their place we find a metaphysical theory of the Word 
who set up a temporary tent of flesh amongst men and then 
returned to His eternal glory with an added glamour. By this 
symbolism the mystic tendency to regression from the world of 
time and space is finally satisfied. 

"Very God" and "Was made Man" 

Many of the later Christian controversies arise from the attempt 
to express in one symbol the conflicting emotions towards the 


father felt by the child, i. c. dependence, inferiority in age and 
power as a son and at the same time equality as a rival. If the 
sonship of the second person of the Trinity was emphasised, 
his Godhead was lost; when his equality was recognised the divine 
unity was split by the rival son-God. By the victory of the Logos 
doctrine over Arianism, God the Son finally won the central place 
in orthodox Christian faith and practice. The Father sank into 
the background and the Son — the rtpresentative of man's in- 
ordinate ambition — became the centre of the cult 

The hero is ever unconsciously identified with his worshipper. 
Hence Christocentric religion is in harmony with typical unconscious 
needs. The believer feels at home as a member of the holy 
family of God. The Holy Trinity is ever in the mental background 
and God himself is felt to be a society of three perfect lovers. 
The Father unobtrusively protects and guides his children from 
heaven; the motherly love of the Holy Spirit is ever vnthin their 
soul; and the example of the heroic Son is ever before their eyes 
as an example for imitation. If the i)elievcr finds this family symbolism 
too difficult and abstract, he can worship the more concrete 
Trinity of Joseph, Jesus, and Mary. Only the infantile type of 
Christian desires to think chiefly of dependence on the parental 
will; the more virile type wants to be at one with the heroic 
Saviour Son. Hence the normal Christian experience has ever been 
a communion with Christ. And the greatest sense of power aod 
joy has been secured by the mystical feeling of being one with 
him, copying his deeds, becoming sons of God, sitting on thrones 
and judging ordinary mortals and being judged of none. This 
mystic union with Christ is the conscious symbolism of the 
Eucharist which is regarded as the supreme act of worship. The 
unconscious satisfaction gained in this rite is primitive and sexual. 
In this mystery rite Jesus is the I'hallic Saviour, The Lord must 
enter into the soul as his bride in order that the communicant 
may have the incorruptible seed of immortality within. At times 
the sexual meaning of the rite even comes to expression in the 
New Testament. The believer who is born of God, the Epistle 
of St. John declared, cannot sin because (iod's seed is in him. 
The full joy of Iloly Communion thus depends on a belief in the 
real presence of Christ in the Sacrament — and so the Church 
naturally fought against any who denied the coming of this precious 
medicine of immortality from the very body of Christ in his Mass. 


The grace received in the Holy Communion is a symbolic satis- 
faction of repressed love energy: and the symbolism of bread 
and wine serves to hide from consciousness the real nature of 
the rite. 

"He suffered" 

As a rule the person who gets pleasure from suffering is able 
to enjoy it in others as well as In himself In other words, strong 
masochism and sadism occur at different levels of the same soul. 
This co-existence of opposed emotions in the dissociated parts 
of one self is clearly seen in Jesus. Jesus has a strong tendency 
to enjoy suffering. Self-sacrifice was for him part of the good 
news! It was indeed only a means to the desired end — death 
as a way to life— but for Jesus it is the only way. Martyrdom is 
therefore to be sought by all who will to follow the Christ The 
weary, heavy-laden sufferers ever call forth the sympathetic com- 
passion of Jesus and receive his blessing as an encouragement to 
continue with patience to the end. The sadism of Jesus appears 
in his belief about the suffering of sinners. In order to hide the 
inconsistency from his consciousness Jesus projects upon the Father 
his unconscious impulse to enjoy the torture of his enemies. 

"Was cruciiied also for us" 
"One Baptism for the remission of Sins" 

In the ambivalent attitude of the son to his father we gain 
a new insight into the feeling of guilt and the desire for atone- 
ment with an offended God. We are also prepared to find both 
love and hate for the heavenly Father. If we venture to follow 
Freud in his fascinating parallel (see Totem and Taboo) between 
racial and individual development, we may suppose that in primi- 
tive society sons, like the modern infant, took little pains to 
conceal the jealous hate felt towards the tyrannical and repressive 
father. It is even possible that the young males actually agreed 
to kill the father when he too rigidly excluded his sons from the 
women of the clan. But in that case, a feeling of guilt would 
arise from their love and respect thus set at naught. In more 
civilised times parricide is impossible and even thoughts of hate 
must be sternly repressed after infancy. But the desire for atone- 
ment is still strong. God is offended by man's sin. Only by a 
sacrifice can the children of wrath wipe away their guilty stains, 



and only by a magical rite such as Baptism can the fancied stains 
be removed by identification with Christ. For tlie Christian, atone- 
ment no longer implies the killing of the Totem father. It 
rather requires the death of the sacrificial son. Jesus' masochistic 
feeling found an easy outlet here. He would be the suffering Son 
who would gain forgiveness for his brother men by offering him- 
self as a sacrifice to the Father. When Jesus felt this desire clearly 
he seems to have deliberately provoked his enemies to kill him 
by his entry into Jerusalem and by his rough handling of the 
vested interests in the Temple. 

The apologists are right in claiming the universal appeal of 
the cross to the child-like mind. The passion and Crucifixion of Jesus 
satisfy equally the sadistic and masochistic trends. Those who love 
to dwell in devotion upon the tortures of Christ can regard them 
either subjectively as being suffered by Jesus with whom they 
identify themselves, or objectively as seen to be inflicted on the 
victim. In either case the meditations of Holy Week must ever 
appeal to the unconscious which thus indulges its desires because 
it has failed to find a socially useful sublimation of primitive libido. 

"On the third day He tone again" 

Jesus himself expected his sacrifice to be a mere means to his 
exaltation. For him the martyr's death was no tragic end to his 
being. And his expectation has been in a manner fulfilled. Jesus 
has risen far above all heavens, even above the F&ther himself, 
as the very centre of the new cult. Paul voices the normal Christian 
feeling when he declares that for him "to live is Christ, and to 
die is gain" because death means closer fellowship with Christ. 
Jesus, not the Father, is eaten in the Mass: at the name of Jesus 
only do the faithful bow and cross themselves. The religion is 
Christianity and the liberals have tried in vain to substitute for 
the orthodox faith in Christ as God their own faith in the Father 
of Christ as the essence of the Creed. 

"He shall come again to judge both the quick and the dead " 

Jesus was obsessed by the idea of suffering. He welcomes it 
for himself and his friends as an expression of love, for his enemies 
as an expression of his hatred for all who oppose him and his 
good news. God shall not let the Pharisees escape the suffering 


which Jesus and his disciples undergo, but in Hell it shall be of 
no avail. The sinner shall be judged by the help of Jesus and 
his apostles and shall be condemned to a final exclusion from 
heaven. No doubt Jesus was quite unconscious of the hate which 
crept into his teaching and counterbalanced his strong insistence 
on non-resisting love. 

"The Resurrection of the dead and the life of the world to come" 

Jesus' conscious will to die was probably strengthened by an 
unconscious impulse to suicide. Yet even this abnormal form of 
self-sacrifice is not a wish for final extinction, and is therefore 
only in apparent opposition to the desire embodied in the above 
clauses in the Creed. Death is a way of escape from insuperable 
external obstacles and internal conflicts. Under the rationalisation 
and moralisation about the need for a ransom and a sacrifice lies 
the unconscious desire to return to oblivion in the mother in order 
to be re-born from the maternal womb. A mere regression to child- 
hood or adolescence would not produce the desired state of un- 
impeded passivity and the immediate satisfaction of all impulses, 
associated only with the intra-uterine condition. 

It was only the conscious reason of Nicodemus that supposed 
his re-birth an impossibility. The mystical author of the fourth 
Gospel shared St. Paul's belief that he could die with Christ in 
order to be born again. The resurrection becomes a mystical 
regeneration for all who will to reverse their affective and intellec- 
tual life in the direction of childhood. The regression implied in 
the Christian Creed stops short of the desire for the lap of luxury 
in Nirvana. The Christian feels the same desire to be swallowed 
in the maternal waters of death, but expects in addition a new 
and more satisfying bodily life. 

Dr. Ernest Jones remarks that the thoughts of birth and death 
lie inseparably close together in the unconscious. Hence the idea 
of immortality is an ever recurring palliative offered by religion 
to sorrowing humanity under the domination of its infantile com- 
plexes. "Neither the child's mind nor the adult unconscious can 
apprehend the idea of personal annihilation" (Papers on Psycho- 
Analysis, p. 661). The conscious horror of incest has driven the 
mother goddess from the Christian Creed, but she is implied in 
the belief in immortality. Since the infantile unconscious by no 



means shares the moral dread of incef5t and death, the desire to 
think the father away persists in the OEdipus complex. And, with 
the exception of atheism, as Rank remarks, the belief in death 
as the (maternal) entrance to life is the most satisfying unconscious 
denial of the father. 

The Christian Creeds, we conclude, are compromise formations. 
By their appeal to unconscious needs they have long escaped the 
moral and rational criticism of progressive intelligence. The result 
of the insight given by psycho-analytic study of the Creeds will 
hasten what Dr. Ernest Jones terms the "unmasking" of their 
symbols and the substitution of more adequate embodiments ot 
human ideals. 

Received November 20, 1920, 




M. J. EISLER, Budapest. 

The solving of dreams which have M^omb or birth saving phan- 
tasies as their basis (both phantasies often appear inseparably inter- 
viroven) as a rule presents no difficulties to the analyst once he is 
alive to them. The associations of the dreamer are here of only 
trifling service. It is only when the dreamer has experienced the 
sense of the dream as a whole that the material is produced of 
which the details are composed. The analysis then advances from 
this point. , ^ 

The examples I give are remarkable in the finish of their form; 
and how I obtained them is worth mentioning. My younger brother 
had prepared a typed copy of a small contribution to dream inter- 
pretation which I published under the title "Das Labyrinth",^ — 
a saving dream awakened through incestuous phantasies at puberty. 
Its content made a deep impression on him with which was ming- 
led a little doubt as to the credibility of the matter. At first 
it seemed to me he had identified himself with the dreamer, a 
thought which had reinforced the impression. During one of the 
subsequent nights he dreamed as follows in the form of a waking 
stimulus dream. (He dreamed the first part of the dream when 
called by a comrade trying to wake him; he went to sleep again 
and finished the dream.) 

"I found myself in an empty room massively built of cement 
It had only one exit, the double door of which was missing. The 
next moment I heard the voices outside of an older and younger 
man (professor and assistant). I did not want them to see me, so 
swung myself by two or three swimming movements into the air 
and remained hovering horizontally in a somewhat darker comer 
of the room with my head turned upwards. I spoke to them, 

' Internationale Zeitschrift fur Psychoanalyse, B. IV, S. 297. 

5 65 

66 . M. J. EISLER 

and after a short time was given difficult problems which I easily 
solved, and finally the calculation and plan of a large steamer. 
Soon afterwards a beautiful young girl was sent into the room. 
I flew down and noticed that now there was a sofa in the room. 
The girl sat down on it of her own accord. I was going to sit 
down beside her, when I awoke". Second part of the dream. 
"I opened a door that was mounted with iron, went in, and saw 
a long passage out of which a number of other passages led. 
I wandered about in them and then noticed that someone was 
seeking me in the long passage. I saw an old man, a professor, 
to whom probably these passages belonged, for he immediately 
noticed that a stranger had entered. He held an umbrella under 
his left arm and wore a large pair of spectacles. I was invisible 
and so stepped up quite near to him. I wished to snatch off his 
spectacles, but he pressed them so strongly on to the bridge of 
his nose that it was impossible for me to take diem off. The next 
moment he put his right hand into his pocket and pulled out a 
revolver which he fired off in the direction he believed me to be 
in. I lay flat on the ground. I saw the smoke from the revolver, 
and the bullet flew quickly in the direction where I iiad just been 
standing; then I awoke." 

Only the details need be interpreted in this transparent dream. 
The first part contains the representation of intra-uterine life. The 
striking conduct of the dreamer who imagines himself as an 
embryo I interpret — following a remark of Ferenczi — as a 
paradox: "It is surely not possible for an unborn child to have 
any sensations whatever". Absurdity is concealed in the dream 
as super-wisdom.^ By professor and assistant he signifies his father 
and myself. In the second part of the dream spying on parental 
intercourse is represented, as in Freud's example -' and at the same 
time a strong ambivalent attitude towards his father (reversed threat 
of castration) is indicated. 

The deeper motive from which this dream originates I dis- 
covered a few weeks later when he brought me a similar dream ol 
a womb phantasy. 

"I felt as though I were dead. I crossed tlie square to — • 
Street and had the feeling that somebody was following me. In 
this street I entered the second house on the right and ascended 

' The dreamer is an official in a shipping company. 
» Traumdeutung, 6. Aufl., S. 272. 



to the second floor. I opened a door and entered a room which had 
no other exit. All aroirnd I saw stands on which were coffins. My 
brother L. stood in the middle of the room and received me 
with the words: "You have come at last, we have been expecting 
you." I had the feeling that in one of the coffins lay my sister, 
although I did not see her. At that moment a stranger who had 
been following me appeared. He opened the door wishing to enter, 
but remained standing in the doorway. I called to him in ^harp but 
calm tones; 'What are you looking for here? This is the resting 
place of all my brothers and sisters.' He immediately drew back 
and closed the door. I turned to my brother and awoke." 

A serious and lasting sorrow over a youthful friend who had 
died constituted the background of the dream. The dream begins 
with a pronounced longing for death. Freud has with great del- 
icacy and psychological insight described the condition in which 
the sorrowing person finds himself engaged on the "work of 
sorrow", to whom the command is issued to withdraw from 
the lost one all his libidinous object charges.* In a moment of 
egoistic joy at being still alive the unconscious touches on the 
situation of birth and the place of abode before birth. The dream 
originated from such a narcissistic self-reflection, yet in it the 
gloomy fundamental frame of mind also comes to expression. 
I will pass over the interpretation of the details and only mention 
in a general way the similarities between this and the preceding 
dream. The proof of the correctness of this idea I obtained when 
my brother recounted a third dream. This he had dreamt before 
he knew of my contributon on the "Labyrinth'', and was now- 
able to recall. 

"I found myself with a friend (not the one sorrowed for, but 
another who is also dead) on the water in a boat. The boat over- 
turned on account of the stormy weather, and we both fell into 
the water. My friend was sinking and he called out beckoning 
me with his hand. But I saved myself and after a severe struggle 
got to the shore." 

The saving out of the water is, as we know, the primary form 
of representation of the birth dream. 

1 The equating of grave and womb is found in the unconscious thoughts 
of all peoples. 




CD. DALY, Pcshawur, India. 

■ On the 14tli. of the month tlie analyst was able to make tire 
patient aware of certain feelings towards his wife and child that 
he had previously been unaware of. 

That night the patient had the following interesting dream in 
which he took ample revenge on the analyst for breaking down 
his resistance as well as fulfilling a multitude of other wishes. 

TJiere zvas a pigeon-hole afrangement full of letters, tn what 
looked like an office. He ivanted something and knno exactly what 
he wanted and went straight to it. Drazver No. pj^. He kneiv exactly 
in which hole or drazver he would find it. lie felt very pleased with 
himself that his office was in such good ordfr. 


The first thing which occurs to the patient is that most of his 
daily work and correspondence in his office is with three Hospital 
units Nos. 95, 35 and 15. Me Ivad had dealings with all tliree on 
the day previous to tlie dream 

With No. 95 is a doctor whom he dislikes intensely and of 
whom he gives a vivid description. 

With No. 35 is a doctor whom he describes as a good chap. 

No. 15 lias no doctor. 

His wife seems to belong to No. 35 and his daughter to No. 15 
He carefully avoids associating 95 with anyone. To tlie number 9 
he gives the following associations. 

His wife's name is Nona = 9. She was named thus because 
she was the ninth in the family. 

He here recalls that on waking up in the morning and trying 
to remember the dream the figure pji; had first come to him; 
he felt that this number was wrong, and then remembered that pjj 
was the correct number of the drazver. 



To 3 he associates his family — wife, daughter and self 

To 5: his daughter was five when she went home. 

It might have been a roll of paper he was looking for in the 
dream, greyish bluish sort of paper, like an engineers plan. Al- 
though he seemed to remember the pigeon holes quite clearly as 
square holes, yet there was a drawer that had to be opened and 
a roll which had to be taken out. The patient, who has read some 
psychological works, is here struck with the idea that the roll of 
paper might be a phallic emblem. 

His mind clings to the colour of the roll; the pale bluish 
colour is very insistent, it reminds him of the pale bluish colour 
and the blue veins of his penis. He last saw the colour in the 
proposed plan for the rebuilding of his hospital. It also might have 
been a roll of legal documents, marriage documents particularly. 
He feh in the dream that it was his own drawer and that the 
opening of it was purely his own business. 

He feels that perhaps the dream meant that Psycho-Analysis 
was going to show him what he wanted, and that the well-arran- 
ged series of pigeon holes was his own mind. In the dream aU 
he had to do was to find something. 

Here he recalls that in the dream he hesitated for a moment, 
as he was not quite sure if he had the right hole. At this point he' 
went back to the figure five. Five fingers on a hand, five cards in a 

hand of Nap; the number of his wife's room in France was five 

no, he thinks it must have been six. He used to have five days 
leave when he went to stay with her. No, it was six. Why does 
he keep saying five when it is six? He had received a wire from 
his wife on the sixth from Port Said. Port Said is nine days from 
Bombay; the wire said she would arrive in Bombay on the fif- 
teenth. The total of the second group of figures is fifteen (915 = 15). 
It is two days journey from Bombay to where he is. The total 
of the first group of figures is seventeen (935 = 17), the date of 
his wife's arrival. 

95 = Unit which has an objectionable doctor = The analyst who 
the day before forced the patient to realise his unpleasant 
sub-conscious attitude towards his daughter. 
35 = Unit which has a doctor who is a good fellow ^ Patient 

himself Also represents his wife whose age is 35. 
15 = Unit which has no doctor = His daughter, who at the age 
of 15 will be away at boarding school. 


70 C. D. DALY 

la the after recollection there were two numbers, the second he 

rejects for reasons which became quite clear in the analysis. Nona ^ 

his wife is common to both scries of figures, his wife's name being f 

the only association he gave, to tlie figure 9. The figure 3 also 

only brought up the idea that it represented his family; both these 

associations were given without hesitation. 5 only led him to 6, 

from which we get the solution of the second group of figures - 

and their connection with the first grouj); rejected because they ^ 

only represented the history of his wife's journey, dates, distances, | 

etc., whereas the first group represents the date of hi-s wife's arri- ^ 

val. Also through it he obtains ample revenge on the analyst for the ^ 

bad time he went through in the Isattlc over his resistances the | 

day before, by associating him with tlie objectionable doctor 

(whom both in the dream and tlie analysis he omitted to state 

was a native). He also brought his wife and himselt togetlier and 

got rid of his daughter, against whom he has great repressed 

resentment owing to her having taken up so much of her motliers 

time. The sexual symbolisms of the roll of paper the drawer, etc. 

are all obvious from tlie latent content of the dream, liut the roll 

of paper stands for a good deal more tlian merely a phallic || 

emblem. The rebuilding of the hospital -- The putting straight of l| 

his own and his wife's and child's mental attitudes i. c. the family. 

The legal and marriage documents - Making it all legitimate, etc. 

This fragment of Hie analysis shows tlic meaning of the figures 
in the dream; the remainder of the analysis followed the usual 




A patient who knew nothing about the relation between blind- 
ing and castration had fpr many years extreme horror over the 
idea of vitriol throwing, both as regards himself and other people. 
He had also difficulty in saying the word vitriol. He had the following 
dream. He was sitting in a dimly lighted room and his sister was 
opposite him. She said to him, "You cannot say vitriol". He said, 
"Yes I can". She said, "Say it then". He then said the word and the 
dream ended. When he had told me the dream he added, "And 
my sister then smiled at me in a mincing and emasculate manner". 
His chief fear as regards vitriol throwing was injury to his eyes. 
The association between castration and vitriol throwing is here 
evident . 



J. HERMANN, Budapest. 

A boy, aged fifteen, had an anxiety dream during the night* 
He woke up and ran from his bedroom — where he slept with 
his grandfatlier — into tlie room where his fatlier and mother 
were sleeping. He kissed his mother in order to calm himself and 
then lay down in his father's bed. The father gave up his bed to 
the son, and went to sleep in his son's bed. The ne.xt day I asked 
tlie boy if he had begged his father to give him his place. He 
answered that he had not trained his father for notliing. When 
I mentioned this to the father he gave me the following expla- 
nation. He changed beds in order to show [the son that he (the 
father) was not afraid. 







1. Adler, Alfred: Die Roile des UnbewuGten in der Neurose. Zentralbl 

f. Psa. m, S. 169. 

2. Bjerre, Paul: Bewufitsein kontra UnbewuGtes. Imago. V, S. 687. 

3. Bleuler, Eugen : UnbewuCte Gemeinheiten. 1916. 

4. Idem: Zur Kritik des UnbewuCten. Zeitschr. f. d. ges. 

Neurol, u. Psych. 1919, Bd. 53. 

5. Block, E. : Uber das noch nicht bewuCte Wissen. Die WeiJSen 

Blatter. 1919, H, S. 355. 

6. Eitingon, M.: Uber das Unbewufite bei Jung. Int. Zeitschr. f Psa 

1914, n, S. 99. 

7. Federn, Paul: Lust-Unlustprinzip und Realitatsprinzip. Int. Zeitschr. 

f. Psa. n, S. 492. 

8. Fischer, Aloys: Untergriinde und Hintergriinde des BewuCtsems 

Deutsche Schule. XIX. 

9. Freud, Sigm.: Das Unbewufite. /«/. Zeitschr./. Psa. HI, S. 189, 257. 

10. Idem: Die Verdrangung. Int. Zeitschr. f. Psa. HI, S. 129. 

11. Idem: Vorlesungen zur Einfuhrung in die Psychoanalyse. 

I. Tail: Die Fehlhandlungen. 1916. 

12. Idem : Zur Psychopatiiologie des AUtagslebens. Funfte, verm. 

Aufl. 1917; sechste, verm. Aufl. 1919. 

13. Idem: Vorlesungen zur Einfiihrung in die Psychoanalyse. 

Drei Teile. 1918 (especially Vorlesg. 18. S. 309). 

14. Friedmann, Hugo: BewuCtsein und bewufitseinsverwandte Erschei- 

nungen. Zeitschr. f. Philos. u. philos. Kritik. Bd. 139, 
1910, S. 34. 

15. Ganz, Hans: Das Unbewufite bei Leibnitz in Beziehung zu raodernen 

Theorien. 1917. 

16. Hinrichsen, Otto : Zur Psychologic des UnbewuCten. Zentralbl. f. Psa. 

1914, IV, S. 606. 




17- yelgersma, G. : UnbewuCtes Geistcsleben. I. Beiheft z. /nt. Zeitschr. 
f. Psa. 1914. 

18. Jung, C. G. : Die Psychologie der unbewufiten Prozcsse. 1917. 

19. Kaplan, Leo: GrundzUge der Psychoanalyse, 1915. 

20. Idem: Psychounalytische Problems, 1916. 

21. Idem: Hypnotisnius, Animismus unci Psychoanalyse. 1917. 

22. Kassowitz, Max: UnbewuCte SedenlatiRkcit. (hterr. Rundsch. V, i;| 

Ht. 60/61. i 

23. Kohnstamm, Oskar: Medizinifichc und philosophischc Ergebnisse |^ 

aus der hypnotischen Sclbslbcsinnung, 1918. J"* 

24. Idem: Das Unterbewufltsein und die Methode der hypnoti- 

schen Selbstbesinnung. Journal f. Psychol, u. Neurol. 
1918, Bd. 23. 

25. Kretsckmer, Ernst: Zur Kritik des Unbewufiten. Zeitschr. f d. ges. || 

Neurol, u. Psych. 1919, Hd. 46. *-• 

26. Idem: Seele und Bcwufitscin. Ibid. 1919, Bd. 53. 

27. LSioenfeld, Leap.: BewuGtsein und psychisclies Geschehcn. 1913. 

28. Meijer, Adolph F.: Jungs Psychologic der unbewufiten Prozesse. 

Int. Zeitschr. f. Psa. IV, S. 302. 

29. Mailer, Dora: Automatischc Ilandlungen im Dienste bcwuCter, 

jedoch nicht durchfilhrbarer Strcbungen. Int. Zeitschr. 
f. Psa. m, S. 41. 

30. Sachs, Hanns: Unfalle und ZuniUe. Der Greif. Juli 1914. 

31. VoigtldHder, Else: Ubcr cinen bestimmten Sinn des Wortes "un- 

bewuQt". Deutsche Psychologie. 1916, I. 

32. Wanke, G.: Psychologie odcr Mctapsychologie. Ein Beitrag z. 

Psychol, d. Unbewufiten. Fortschr. d. Med. 1914. Nr. 4. 

33. Wiudelband, W. : Die Hypothese des Unbewufiten. 1914. 

Contributions to the Psychopathology of Everyday Life 

la. Bluher, Hans: Ein Beitrag zur Psychopathol. des Ailtagslebens. , ||. 

Int. Zeitschr. f. Psa. UI, S. 342. || 

2 a. Dukes, G.: Ein Fall von Krytomnesie. Int. Zeitchr. f. Psa. HI, ^ 

S. 40. |t 

3a. Eitingon, M: Ein Fall von Vcrlcscn. Int. Zeitschr. f Psa. Ill, m 

4a. Ferenczi, S.: Ober vermeintliche Fehlleistungen. Int. Zeitschr, f. |^ 

Psa. in, S. 338. 
5 a. Haimanu, Henrik: Eine Fehlhandlung im Felde. Int. Zeitschr. f 

Psa. IV, S. 269. 
6a. Jekels, Ludwig: Eine tendenziOse Genichshalluzination. Int. 

Zeitschr. f. Psa. HI, S. 37. |t 


7a. Idem: Ein vergessener Name. Int. Zeitschr. f. Psa. Ill, S. 160. 

8a. Marcus, Ernst: Diverse Mitteilungen. Zentralbl. f. Psa. 1914. IV, 

S. 170. 
9a. Rank, Otto: UnbewuGter Verrat durch Symptomhandlung. Int. 

Zeitsckr. f. Psa. HI, S. 159. 
10a. Idem : Fehlhandlung und Traum. Ibid. Ill, S. 158. 

11a. Idem: Ein determinierter Fall von Finden. Ibid. HI, S. 157, 

12a. Idem: "Der teure Dmckfehler." Ibid. HI, S. 44. 

13 a. Reik, Theodor: Fehlleistungen im AUtagsleben. Int. Zeitschr. f. 

Psa. in, S. 43. 
14a. Idem: Analyse zweier visueller Phanomene. Ibid. Ill, S. 38. 

15a. Idem: Das Versprechen. Berliner Morgenpost. 17. Mai 1914. 

16a. Idem: Ein bedeutsames Verzahlen. Int. Zeitsch. f. Psa. II, 

S. 173. 
17 a. Sachs, Hanns: Eine Fehlleistung zur Selbstbemhigung. Int. Zeitschr. 

f. Psa. m, S. 43. 
18a. Idem: Ein Fall von Verlesen. Int. Zeitschr. f. Psa. IV, S. 159. 

19a. Schulze, Hedwig: Analyse eines Erlebnisses. Zentralbl. f. Psa. IV, 

1914. S. 318. 
20 a. Spielrein, S. : Der vergessene Name. Int. Zeitschr. f. Psa. 11, S. 383. 
21a. Idem; Ein unbewuCter Richterspruch. Ibid. EI, S. 350. 

22a. Stdrcke, Johann: Aus dem AUtagsleben. Ibid. IV., S. 21, 98. 
23a. Storfer, A. J.: Zur Psychopathologie des AUtagslebens. Ibid. 11, 

S. 170. 
24a. Kausk, Victor: Zur Psychopathologie des AUtagslebens. Ibid. IV, 

S. 56. 

The period with which this review deals has to a considerable 
extent rendered clearer the concept of the unconscious through 
deepening and more sharply defining it. It is not chance that the 
role and function of the unconscious should be the subject of 
keen discussion in the psycho-analytical camp, for new problems 
emerge with the progressive investigation of the neuroses 
and psychoses, and the central problem here concerns the 
attributes of the method of functioning and the significance ol 
the unconscious. The subject, further, has been threatened witli 
a confusion in both terminology and content through tlie recent 
views advanced by Jung (18), Adler (1), and their followers, and 
therefore the need for clarity has been increased. In a series of 


works, which bring together what has hitherto been known regard- 
ing the unconscious and which also acid new points of view and 
knowledge concerning its principles, Freud lias given the necess- 
ary explanations. He has shown what facts compel us to assume 
unconscious mental processes, what facts were necessary in order 
to assign to the unconscious its special characteristics recognised 
by analysis, and which other facts prohibit the ascribing to it 
traits and characteristics of a purely speculative nature. Freud in 
his Lectures (11, 13) and also in his articles (9) constantly and 
emphatically states that tlie a.ssuniption of the unconscious is necessary 
and legitimate, and that wc possess numerous proofs of its existence. 
He certainly does not fail to recognise the different ways of regarding 
the unconscious, which includes acts that are unconscious only for the 
time being, and processes that arc repressed ; and he also shows how 
valuable the topographical point of view is for the distinction of the 
hierarchy of psychical acts. By means of psychical topography, 
which now supplements the dynamic conception of mental pro- 
cesses, it is possible to indicate in what systems or between what 
psychical systems the processes take place. The important question 
of the existence of unconscious feelings and formations of affect | 

receives its answer, in that the distinction is emphasised between 
unconscious ideas that are really memory traces and affects which 
are really discharging processes. Topography and dynamics of 
repression, which take place in regard to ideas on the boundary 
between the preconscious and unconscious systems, receive further 
illumination through Freud's description of this process as a with- 
drawal of the libido and through the a.ssuniption of a "counter- 
charge" {Gegenbesetzung) for the protection of the preconscious 
system against tlie pressing forward of unconscious ideas. Besides 
the dynamic and topographical points of view there is also a third, 
the economic, which deals with the fate of the tiuantities of exitat- 
ion. The description of a mental process according to its dynamic, 
topographical and economic relations Freud terms a metapsycho- 
logical presentation. The characteristics of the processes belonging 
to the unconscious system arc lack of contradiction, primary pro- 
cess (mobility of the charges), absence of time, and substitution 
of external by psychical reality. Freud gives a picture of the com- 
munication of the two systems which cannot be easily described, 
and the development of derivatives of the unconscious. Freud's 
article on repression (10) furnishes important supplements to tlie 


train of thought just described. He distinguishes a primitive 
repression as a primary phase from the real repression — the 
secondary stage; he describes the process of repulsion from con- 
sciousness and attraction by the primary repressed material; and 
he characterises repression as individual and mobfle. These points 
are extraordinarily fruitful as regards the knowledge and working 
of the unconscious. Professor Jelgersma (17) in his clear exposition, 
to which particular value is to be attached as coming from a 
distinguished and unbiassed psychiatrist, has called attention to the 
necessity of assuming unconscious processes and also the impor- 
tance of the analytic theories. Kaplan (19 — 21), who in most of 
his works draws a comparison between the concepts and results 
of non-analytic psychology and philosophy, deals with the under- 
standing of unconscious processes and their numerous relations to 
the symptomatology of the neuroses and psychoses, and also with 
conceptual diiiferentiation. In his articles, which have not been 
suiTiciently estimated, appear such important problems as repression 
and psychical polarity, reversal, the relations of the unconscious 
to the outer world, the fact of mental processes being entirely 
determined, and other points are elucidated from many aspects 
and advanced in a clear-sighted manner. In Bjerre's article (2) the 
relation of conscious and unconscious as an absolute contrast is 
treated schematically; as a result of this it leads to modifications 
in the theory and practice of psycho-analysis, in the direction of 
Jung's teaching. Bjerre's article has been subjected to such an 
excellent and technical criticism by Meyer (28) and Eitingon (6) 
concerning its reference to the definite character of the unconscious, 
that it need only be said that the distinction of a personal and 
super-personal, "absolute or collective" unconscious in Jung's sense 
is proved in theory to be just as misleading and arbitrary is it 
proved itself fateful for Jung in its practical results. The apparent 
justification that Jung's theories concerning the unconscious possess 
comes only from the fact that psycho-analysis up to the present 
has not yet sufficiently investigated the relations of individual 
psychical processes to the processes of the mass psyche. 
How cautiously Freud expresses himself concerning the content 
of the unconscious with reference to the collective mental 
possession is evident from his comparison with a psychical 
primitive people. "If there are inherited psychical formations in 
human beings, anything analogous to the instinct of animals, then 


this forms the kernel of the unconscious. There has to be added 

to this that which has been put aside as useless durinR the deve- 
lopment of childhood, and this need not be different in its nature 
from what is inherited A shaip and final separation of the content 
of the two systems is only as a rule established at tlie period of 
puberty" (9). When Jung deduces from the phenomenon of trans- 
ference the hypotliesis that definite attributes which are ascribed 
to the doctor by patients arc projections of tlie content of the 
super-personal or collective unconscious, denoting particular "pri- 
mitive" pictures as dominants of this unconscious, and also separ- 
ates from the rest the devil-dominants, "demons of sorcery", 
werwolf, etc. as contents of the collective unconscious, he shows 
a fundamental misunderstanding of the character of the uncon- 
scious. In this way it is explicable why psycho-analysis seems to 
him to be a struggle witli the figures of the unconscious as col- 
lective-unconscious determinants, hi many ways Silberer's anagogic 
theories, to which Voigtlandcr (31) refers, seem to be precursors 
of Jung's train of thought. Voigtl.lnder distinguishes a real, a con- 
structed and an ideally regulating unconscious witliout proving the 
justification — not to mention the necessity — for such a disdnc- 
tion. However, its purpose is quite clear when the auUvoress re- 
cognises for ploughing that its "real" motive is interest in food, 
that its purposiveness is an ideal regulating force, but can find 
nothing which — in spite of all known facts of folk-lore, religion 
and folk psychology - would admit of a sexual analogy. 

Bleuler (4) defends the existence of the unconscious against 
Kretschmer (25, 26), and emphatically states that behind it is no 
empty name, but an indispensable concept, "which is derived with 
somewhat the same probability as Nei>tune was from tlie distur- 
bances of the path of Uranus". The scientific conflict between 
Bleuler and Kretschmer serves as an indicaton that the concept 
of the unconscious in the sense of Freud has now been made 
the subject of special discussions outside psycho-analysis. We ^re 
obliged to refrain from referring to numerous publications by 
neurologists and psychiatrists in which Uiis discussion appears in 
a few places, and will only remark that it becomes more and 
more prominent in the spheres of non-analytic psychology and 
philosophy. Lowenfeld's (27) intelligent and calm estimation of the 
r61e of the unconscious in mental life forms a bridge between 
these investigations. Although he is by no means an adherent of 


analysis he calls attention to Freud's service in the new science 
of the unconscious mental life, and he makes an attempt to syn- 
thesise analytic and non-analytic psychology. Whereas Jelgersma 
in his address proved to be scientifically impartial and strictly to 
the point, a distinguished German Professor, Windelband shrank 
from the "uncanny idea" (33, S. 7), "that contents, impulses and 
strivings can belong to our mental life without our being aware 
of them in the clear course of our conscious activities". The tech- 
nical and intelligent investigation of Professor Aloys Fischer of 
Munich (8) comes as a pleasing contrast to a defence that is so 
rich in affects. Fischer rejects the equating of mental reahty and 
consciousness, and on the basis of theoretical investigations comes 
near to many views of psycho-analysis, recognising the existence, 
nature, and legitimacy of the unconscious as a subject of scientific 
psychology. Bloch (5), whom the reviewer unfortunately cannot 
always comprehend, goes along speculative paths, and passes from 
the physiological into the transcendental and absolute, into the 
realm of metaphysics. The study that Ganz (15) has furnished of 
Leibnitz's views on the unconscious and their relation to modem 
theories may be mentioned as a symptom of the increasing interest 
in the unconscious on the side of philosophy. This author also 
compares the hypotheses of Hartmann, Hering, Wundt, Sanon, etc. 
with those of Freud, so that his work forms a supplement to 
Kaplan's attempt (21) at a history of the science of the unconscious 
which leads from Mesmer through Charcot to Freud. 

In Freud's Vorlesungen (11) the psychopathology of everyday 
life, with its manifold and many sided relations to the Uncon- 
scious, received a presentation of especial value as an introduction; 
while the two new editions of the "Psychopathologie des AUtags- 
lebens" which were published during the period to which this 
review refers contain many supplementary examples (12). In the 
routine of the day one constantly notices fresh instances of little 
unconsciously determined mistakes. Almost all analysts and many 
non-analysts have made contributions to this subject which is the 
one where the phenomena of the Unconscious are most easily to 
be clearly observed in operation (la — 24a). 




1. Abraham, K. : 

2. Idem: 

3. Idem: 

tpop—ip • 

Traum und Mythus. 1914. 

Einige Hemerkungen Ubcr den Mutterkultus und seine 

Symbolik in der Individual- und Vttlkerpsychologie. 

Zentralbl. f. Psa. 1911, I. 

tJber einige EinschrLinkungen und Umwandlungen der 

Schaulust bei <icn Psychoneurotikern, ncbst Bemer- 

kungen iiber analoge Erschcinungcn in der VOlker- 

psyciiologie. Jahrb, 1914, VI. 

Amenhotep IV. Imago. 1912, I. 

DieTiicorie der Rciigionen und ihrcs Unterganges. 1912. 

Der Fisch als Sexualsymbol. huago. 1914, ID. 

Gott und Vatcr. Imago. 1914, III. 

Zwangsneuiose und Eriimmigkcit. Int. Zeitschr.f. Psa, 

1914, II. 

Die Parteilichkcil der Volks- und Rasscnabergliiubischen. 

,■ Bemerkungen ubcr eincn Fall von Zwang.sneurose. 

Jakrk 1909, 1. 

Psychoanalytische ncmcrknngen Ubcr einen auto- 

biographisch beschriubcncn Fall von Paranoia. Ibid, 

1911, 111. 

Nachtrag zu dem autobiographisch beschricbenen Fall 

von Paranoia. Ibid. 

Aus der Geschichtc einer infanlilcn Neurose. Samml. 

kl. Schr. IV. 1918. S. 589 IT., 64<5ff. 

Eine Kindheitscrinncrung dcs I.conardo da Vinci. 1910 

4. Idem: 

5. Blither, H. : 

6. Eisler, J.: 
1. Eitingon., M. . 

8. Ferenczi, S.: 

9. Frank: 

10. Freud, Sigm. 

11. Idem: 

12. Idem: 

13. Idem: 

14. Idem: 

« To complete the Bibliography of psycho-analytical literature on the 
subject of Religion reference should be made to two works that appeared 
before 1909, namely : Freud : Zwangshandlung und Rcli^;ions(lbung. Ztsckr.f. 
Religionspsych. 1907, I, and Muthmann: Psych iatrisch-thoologiichc Gren«- 
fragen. Halle 1907. 




15. Idem: Das Interesse an der Psychoanalyse. Scienzia. 1913, 

XIV, No. xxxn. 6. 

16. Idem: Totem und Tabu. 1913. 

17. Idem: Das Unheimliche. .^ia^<7. V. , ■ 

18. Heiler: Das Gebet. 2. Aufl. 1919. 

19. Hitschmann, Ed. : Religiose Ekstase und Sexualitat. Zentralbl. f. Psa. 

1912, in. 

20. Jones, Ernest :Yi&T Gottmensch-Komplex. Int, Zeitschr. f. Psa. 1913,1. 

21. Idem: Der Alptraum in Beziehung zu gewissen Formen mittel- 
alterlichen Aberglaubens. 1914. 

Die Empfangnis der Jungfrau Maria durch das Ohr. 
Jakri. 1914, VI. 

Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido. Jahrd. 1911, HI; 
1912, IV. 

Psychoanalytische Probleme. 1916. Abschn. I, IV, XII. 
Wandlungen der Psychoanalyse und ihre Bedeutung 
fur die Religionspsychologie. Archiv f. Religionspsy- 
chologie. 1914, II. 

"Psychoanalyse" in the encyclopaedia "Religion in Ge- 
schichte und Gegenwart". 1913. Bd, IV. 
Jakob Boehme. 1919. 

Die Sexualsymbolik derBibelund desTalmuds. Zeitschr. 
f. Sexualwiss. 1914, I. 

Die Sexualsymbolik desAckerbaues inBibel und Talmud 
Ibid. 1915, n. 

Sexualsymbolik in der Simsonsage. Ibid. 1916-17, III. 
Sexualsymbolik in der biblischen Paradiesesgeschichte. 
Imago. 1917. 

1st das Kainszeichen die Beschneidung ? Imago. 1919, V. 
Die -Schuhsymbolik im jiidischen Ritus. Monatssckr. f. 
Gesch. und Wissenschaft des Judentums. 62. Jahrg 
H. 7—12. 

Das Titanenmotiv in der allgemeinen Mythologie. 
Imago. 1913, H. 

Essai sur I'lntroversion mystique. 1918. 

Die Fruchtbarkeit der Psychoanalyse filr Ethik und 

Religion. Schweizerland 1916. H. 6. 

Einfiihrung in die Religionspsychologie und Religions- 

geschichte. 1917. 

Psychoanalytische Seelsorgeund experimentelleMethode- 

Protestantiscke Monatskefte. 1909. H. 1. 

Ein Fall von psychoanalytischer Seelsorge und Seelen- 

heilimg. Evangelische Freiheit. 1909, H. 3. 

22. Idem: 

23. Jung, C. G.: 

24. Kaplan, L. : 

25. Ke//er. A. : 

26. Idem: 

27. Kielkoh, A. 

28. Levy: 

29. Idem. 

30. Idem: 

31. Idem: 

32. Idem: 

33. Idem: 

34. Lorenz,E.: 

35. Morel: 

36. Nohl: 

37. Osterreich: 

38. Pfister, 0.: 

39. Idem: 



40. PJister, O.. 




Die Psychoanalyse als wisscnschafllichcs Printip und 

seelsorgerische Mcthode. Evangtliscke Freiheit. 1910. 

H. 2ff. 
Idem: Zur Psychologie des hysterischen Madonnenkultus. 

Zentralbl. f. Psa. 1910, I. 
Idem: Hysteric und Mystik bei Margarcta Ebncr. Zentralbl. 

f. Psa. 1910, L 
Idem: Die Frttmmigkeit dcs Grafen Ludwig von Zinzendorf. 

Idem: Hat Zinzendorf die Frflmmipkeit scxualisicrt ? Zeitsckr. 

f. Religionspsych. 1911, Bd. V. 
Idem: Zinzendorfs FrOmmigkeit iin Lichte (ierhard Reichels 

und der Psychoanalyse. Sckweit. Theol, Zeitsckr. 1911, 

H. 5 und 6. 

46. Idem: Anwendungen der Psychoanalyse in der PSdagogik und 

Seelsorgc. Imago, 1912, \. 

47, Idem: Die psychologische Entratseiung der rcligi5sen Glosso- 

lalie und der automatischcn Kryptographic. Jakrb. 

1911, m. 
Idem: Die psychoanalytische Methode. PSdagogium. 1913, L 

Idem: Psychoanalyse und Theologie. Tkeologiscke Literature 

zeitung. 5. Juni 1914. 
Idem: Ein neuer Zugang zum alten Evangclium. 1918. 

Rank, Otto: Der Mythus von der Gcburt des Hcldcn. 1909. 
Idem: Das Inzcstmotiv in Dichlung und Sage. 1912. (Kap. DC, 

X und XDC). 
Rank, O. und Sacks, //. .• Die Bedcutung der Psychoanalyse fiir die 

Geisteswissenschaftcn. (Kap. III.) 1913. 
Rank, Otto: Der Ktinstler. 1918. 2. Aufl. S. 56 ff. 
Idem : Psychoanalytische Beitrage zur My Ihcnforschung. Intern. 

Psychoanalyt. Bibl. Rd. IV. 1919. (Kap. VI und XIU.) 
Rappaport, M.: Sozialismus, Revolution und Judcnfrage. 1919. 









Reik, Th. : Flaubert und seine "Versuchung des heiligen Antonius". 

Idem: Die kindliche Gottesvorstellung. Imago. 1914, IIL 

Idem: Das Kainszeichen. Imago. 1917, V. 

Idem: Psychoanalytische Studien zur liibclexcgese. Imago. 

1919, V. 

61. Idem: Probleme der Religionspsychologie. L TcJl. Das Ritual. 

Intern. Psychoanalyt. Bibl. Bd. V. 1919. 

62. Riklin, F, : Betrachtungen zur christlichen Passionsgeschichte. 

Wissen und Leben. 1913. 

63. Idem: Franz von Assisi. Ibid. 1914, H. 7. 





1 1 





64-. Andreas- SalomS, L.: Vom friihen Gottesdienst. Imago. 1913, II. 

65. Schrffder, 2k. : Der sexuelle Anteil an der Theologie der Mormonen. 

Imago. 1914, HI. 

66. Idem: Der gekreuzigte Heilige von Wildisbrach. ZentralbL 

f. Psa. 1914, IV. 

67. Idem: Zum Thema Religion und Sinnlichkeit Sex. Probl, 

Marz 1914. 

68. Silberer, H.: Probleme der Mystik und ihrer Symbolik. 1914. 

69. Idem: Vom Tod zum Leben. 1915. 

70. Sombart: Die Juden und das Wirtschaftsleben. 1918. S. 280. 

71 . Smith : Luther's early development in the light of Psychoanalysis. 

Amer. jfourn. of Psychology. 1913, Vol. XXIV. 

72. Stekel, W.\ Dichtung und Neurose. 1909. Abschn. VH. 

73. Idem: Religion und Medizin. ZentralbL f. Psa. 1912, H. 

74. Idem: Die Masken der Religiositat. ZentralbL f. Psa. 

1913, m. 

75. Idem: Die Traume der Dichter. 1912. Abschn. XVIII. 

76. Idem: Onanie und Homosexualitat. 1917. V. Abschn. 

77. Storfer, A. J. : Marias jungfrauliche Mutterschaft 1914. 

78. Trebitsch: Geist und Judentum. 1910. 

79. Winterstein: Psychoanalytische Anmerkungen zur Geschichte der 

Philosophie. Imago. 1913, H. 

80. ^ * * Der Moses des Michelangelo. Imago. 1914, HI. 

A series of articles which appeared in the Berlin journal Jesckurun 
dealing with Freud's Totem und Tabu were unfortunately not accessible to 
the present writer. 

It is our intention in this review to deal with the analytical 
work that has been done in the province of the science of religion 
during the past ten years. At the beginning of this century research 
into the science of religion took two directions as is evident from 
the writings of the two exponents on either side, Wilham Jatnes 
andWilhelm Wundt, The divergence is the outcome of the difference 
in their views on the essential nature of religion. If there is under- 
stood thereby the sum-total of certain rites, rules and laws which 
may command credit and adherence within a community, then it 
appears to be a social institution. On the other hand religion may 
be defined as a behaviour or a definite attitude on the part of 
individuals towards a divine being, and in that connection their 
devotion, piety and religious experience may be described. It 
religion is then made the object of psychological study, there 


results from the differentiation between tliesc two views the oppo- 
sition of the two methods, whether that of social or that of indi- 
vidual psychology, of which the representatives were unquestionably 
recognised to be Wundt and James. 

One of the non-medical representatives of psycho-analysis, 
O. Pfister, took a definitely religious personality, the Count von 
Zinzendorf, as the subject of an analysis (43, 44,45) and endeavoured 
to explain the special features of the piety of this enthusiast on 
the basis of the peculiar trend of his erotic nature : similar mono- 
graphs are occupied with the analysis of ecstatic devotees (41, 42). 
The same author collected instances of religious glossolalia and 
brought considered opinions to bear on their unriddling, derived 
from psycho-analytic practice and from the theory of the instincts 
which is based on it (47). (Osterreich |37] rates highly the impor- 
tance of Pfister's research into glossolalia, while Ileilcr in his mono- 
graph on prayer [18], which up to now is at once the most com- 
prehensive and the most scientific of any published, only recog- 
nises the erotic conditioning of ecstasy in my.sticism without paying 
any attention to the other results of analysis which relate to the 
stages preceding actual worship and to the development of ritual.) 
In these and other articles psycho-analysis .showed itself capable of 
making intelligible the religious phenomena of individual personalities 
and the processes of religion most nearly approaching pathological 
symptoms by applying the elucidation which it achieved in its original 
field of enterprise. 

At a quite early stage the relations between dream and myth, 
to which attention was first directed in an arresting manner by 
Freud, opened up the possibility of obtaining through psycho- 
analysis a grasp of the creations of the collective mind in respect 
to its psychic material, mechanism, and forms of manifestation. 
Rank, Abraham, Rikhn, Jones, Silberer and others steadily Avidened 
the scope of the psycho-analytic investigation of myth. The religious 
myth proved to be equally open to interpretation with the myth 
which had not been previously recognised as having any religious y 

significance : particularly symbolism and wish-fuliilmcnt in short as p 

revealed by dream-analysis proved to be the principal instruments |f 

in the technique of interpretation. By comparison and interpretation jf 

of the rich sexual symbolism of the material A.J. Storfer succeeded || 

in making a most valuable contribution to the understanding of || 

the Madonna legend (77). One special piece of symbolism in this 



religious group has been dealt with by Ernest Jones who has made 
the story of the Virgin's conception through the ear the subject of 
analysis, and has been able to show the meaning of this curious 
tradition in the light of infantile theories and ideas (22). ' Thus 
analysis had explored the realm of subjective religion by means 
of the psycho-pathological investigation of myths long before a 
theoretical exposition had been put forth as to the subjective and 
objective factors in the development of religion. 

Although the first analytic researches, namely Pfister's (41 — 45), 
in the religious emotional life of selected personahties laid special 
stress on the pathology of the cases and rendered it more intelli- 
gible in the light of sexual impulses and the mechanism of the un- 
conscious psychic life, thus obviously showing traces of the effects 
of the views of James, nevertheless this influence later on fell 
more and more into the background. Pfister's later psychological 
work, while still investigating the religious phenomena of an indi- 
vidual hfe, takes into consideration the religious institutions within 
the Hmits of which that individual life works itself out: the tradi- 
tion on the basis of which or in opposition to which a personality 
displays its activity i. Abraham's analysis of the figure of Amenho- 
tep IV and his endeavours for the establishment of monotheism Is a 
model of the investigation of the blending in religious life of trans- 
mitted influences with personal experience (4). Institutional reUgion 
must enter largely into the foreground of analytic interest, when 
the attention is diverted from the religious emotions of single 
personalities and concentrated on the community in its religious 
life. Among the actual facts which called for the notice of the 
analyst in this connection were particularly the details of rites, 
ceremonies and of religious worship which gave promise of elu- 
cidation by use of the analytic method. In place of individual and 
somewhat elusive phenomena which materiahsed as written con- 
fessions, prayers, lyrical outpourings and the like, of great interest 
especially to the Swiss analysts, there emerged objective material 
— dogmas, rites, cults — the psychological motivation and mechanism 
of which was. now the object of enquiry. Already in 1907 « Freud 
had made the first advance in this direction by bringing into com- 

« This is especially so in Pfister's article on Paul which has just appeared 
in Imago VI, thus falling outside the scope of this review. 

' In his "History of the Psycho-Analytic Movement" {Jahrb. VI, s. 233) 
Freud erroneously gives 1910 as the year in which this article appeared. 



parison religious and neurotic ceremonial. The appearance of this 
article ^'Obsessive behaviour and religious usages" was of immense 
importance in opening the way to the analytic understanding of 
social religious phenomena. 

In "Totem and Taboo" (16) Freud took as his starting point 
the objective facts of the social and religious life of savages and 
the early ancient peoples and was thereby enabled to present a 
sketch in main outline of the origin and development of religion 
as its deepest assumptions and ultimate aims. PVeud begins with 
the savage taboo prohibitions and injunctions, which in analysis 
reveal themselves as expressions of a psychic tension brought about 
by ambivalence. From the most ancient and strictly observed 
of the taboo-prcjhibitions of primitive races, viz. tliat of refraining 
from taking the life of the totem, Freud pursues totemism as the 
first stage in religion and communal organisation down to its be- 
ginnings. This is not the place to follow out the course of 
Freud's investigation, in which is compressed an account of many 
centuries of culture development : all we can say is that it brings 
out clearly that the origin of development of religion is the reaction 
against tlie crime of parricide which bulks so largely in primitive 
life, that it explains the animal sacrifice as arising from totemism 
and shows the wakings of conscience, tender feeling and remorse 
as directed towards the father to be factors in the building up of 
religion. This was for the first time achieved by the aid of psycho- 
analysis in the direction of the causes of tlie great social institutions, 
and a comprehension of their genesis, the changes and develop- 
ments they undergo in consecjucnce of the working of psychic forces. 
The significance of the Freudian conception for the science of 
reUgion— let us admit this openly — is not yet fully within our 
survey: the future only can and will show how deeply it penetrates 
the subject, and to the achievement of what results it may stimu- 
late the course of research. 

In this theory of the origin of development of religion Freud 
has. laid the foundations of a structure which can only be completed 
by the work of generations of investigators. Among the finst who 
equipped themselves for the task of execution and filling in of 
detail were Abraham and the writer of tliis review. Abraliam in 
his remarkable work which mainly sets out to provide the expla- 
nation of certain limitations and transformations of the desire to 
look, finds surprising analogies for the neurotic symptoms of his 


patients in prescription and prohibitions, and in the conce'^tions of 
antique and primitive religions. Of essential importance is his deri- 
vation of the phobia of the sun and of ghosts from infantile totemism» 
which at the same time tends to the establishment and confirmation 
of the Freudian totem-theory. The elimination of doubt in the 
sphere of religion, the prohibition of images of the divine being, 
the origin of the brooding and questioning of the Talmud and so 
on are for the first time though possibly not finally explained by 
this analytic method. The present writer's contributions to the 
psychology of religion are directed to making intelligible the psychic 
significance as well as the psychological origin and modification of 
certain rites and mydiical forms. In these Freud's method is closely 
followed, thus again bringing out the extraordinarily valuable com- 
parison between the present day usages of savage races with the 
rites known by us to have been practised among ancient peoples. 
Thus in the couvade and the puberty-rites of savages certain per- 
formances are observable, the prototypes of which have risen by 
a slow process of transformation to the level of outstanding and 
important social and religious institutions (61), while in their ana- 
lysis repressed and repressive tendencies which determine the form 
of these primitive ceremonies become recognisable. The fear of 
reprisals felt by the father in respect to the newly bom son which 
plays a significant part in the couvade is recognised as an im- 
portant factor in the doctrine of the transmigration of souls. The 
puberty rites of the savage tribes represent actions which are 
intended to aid the generation which has just reached manhood 
to overcome their unconscious desires for incest and murder. 
Simtiltaneously with the initiation into the totemistic religion the 
younger generation is in these rites introduced into the community 
and the male cults. The manifold and painful tests of the novices 
are likened to the sufferings of God in the ancient religions; the 
Way of the Cross of Christ seen in this light seems to be a kind 
of sublimated puberty rite. The archaic and conservative character 
of the Judaic religion reveals the likeness between certain ceremonies 
and the symptoms of obsessional neuroses on the one hand and 
with the rites of primitive peoples on the other as heuristically 
valuable. The present writer believes he has proved in the case 
of two significant examples taken from the Jewish liturgy, viz, 
the Kolnidre and the Schofar, that these apparently isolated usages 
admit of explanation as the effect of unconscious processes and of 


being ranged in due order along with other religious ceremonies. 
Here and in the analysis of the Mosaic law opportunity arises of 
using tlie results of analysis to throw sidelights on the psychic 
developments of Judaism, and an attempt has been nuide to explain 
its peculiarities and its aloofness on the ground of the reaction of 
certain psychic qualities to the peculiar destiny of this community. 
The analysis both of the usage of the Schufar and of the Sinaitic 
pericope led to views on the religious and cultural development 
of early Israel, widely divergent from those of prevailing tlieory: 
of these may be specially mentioned the influence of the totemistic 
period, and that of the tendencies towards revolt against Jehovah 
and the reaction tending to suppress such tendencies. In some con- 
tributions to Bible exegesis (59, 60) the present writer attempts 
to show tlie fertility of psycho-analysis when directed on this thorny 
and jealously guarded subject, pointing out that by making use 
of analytic methods a solution is approached for problems which 
have previously resisted every sort of effurt. Levy's valuable articles 
which so felicitously combine familiarity with sex-symbolism and 
philological knowledge provide tlie key to sex-symbolism in tJiose 
descriptions of Paradise known already to the early Church 
fathers (31). They further trace out the same syrnbulism in the 
Bible and tlie Talmud where it appears in very various and hardly 
recognisable forms (28, 29, SO, 33). In the analytical exegesis of 
the Cain legend Levy rightly though on insufiicicnt grounds ad- 
vises caution (32). Sex-symbolism has a central position also in 
the analytical explanation given by Ernest Jones in his .studies of 
the nightmare and its relation to mediaeval forms of super- 
stition (21). 

Jones's work on the Divine-man complex throws light on the 
psychic presuppositions and mental determinants of the belief in 
one's own divinity, finding expression in the many psychic peculiarities 
of the characters treated (20). 

The Fish Symbol as a sex representation is traced by Eisler 
in the religions and mythologies of all races (6). 

The mental experiences of Schreber as studied by Freud seem 
to point to the conviction of a similar mission, his phantasies and 
hallucinatory system affording valuable analogies to certain con- 
ceptions of loftier and more primitive religions (11, 12). Of less 
value are the religious poetical testifyings of Miss Miller, which 
Jung uses as the starting point of his interesting and far-fetched 


theories (23). Whenever a religious problem is involved the Jungian 
treatment approaches the psychological work of certain theological 
schools: in spite of the "liberal-mindedness" of their author they 
represent rather a religious and ethical dissertation on analysis than 
a real analysis of religion and ethics. The expansion of the libido 
concept and the immense significance ascribed by Jung to this 
force, which becomes with him mystical and vague, proves un- 
attainable in the psychology of religion and out of proportion to 
the phenomena. Like Freud, Jung aimed at bringing into relation 
witli each other neurotic, religious, and mythological phantasies, but 
this undoubtedly interesting and often fruitful attempt to elucidate 
individual experiences by folk-psychology fails in this instance. Just 
as in the practical analysis of the individual so in the analytic in- 
vestigations of religious problems Jung omits to probe the earliest 
processes of development and thus frequently runs the risk of con- 
sidering theproducts of culture as primary psychic elements. In tlie inter- 
pretation of re-birth phantasies which play so large a r6Ie in the puberty- 
rites thepresent writer claims to have shown that Jung who views them as 
the embodiment of highly sublimated ethical and religious strivings 
only reveals the conscious surface layers of the psychic dynamics 
or, to put it more simply, alters the significance of the deeper- 
lying and primarily active tendencies into what is thus ideally 
directed. The same thing holds good of Silberer, who sees "anagogic" 
symbols in the tribal initiation ceremonies relating to death and 
resurrection (69). Undoubtedly the revolting and egoistic side of the 
human sex-impulses becomes sublimated in tlie course of a long 
and eventful development, but they nevertheless show their origin 
and their peculiar nature in the very act of coming to light as 
the driving force in the highest moral and religious concepts. 
Psycho-analysis has an interest in proving the inheritance of animal 
impulse as operative in the cultural structure by which the social 
end is served: we have thus gradually exposed to our view the 
psychic forces from which this culture .has arisen and the psychic 
bases on which it ultimately rests. The belief of Jung and his school 
is that ethics and religion undeniably arise from these deeply buried 
roots, that there is however an innate tendency in these roots to 
strive upwards, that therefore — to drop metaphor — these egoistic 
and sexual complexes, one and all, possess a higher anagogical 
significance. That the anagogic theory admits of partial confirmation 
has never been doubted by psycho-analysis ; what of it is sound, 



is in its main thesis already recognised by and has been described 
under the thecjry of the sublimating processes. The resulting retro- 
grade tendency of the works of the Jungian school on the science 
of religion is evidenced by the central significance and use of the 
concept "introversion" in their analytical researches (Morel, Jung 
Riklin and Silberer). A comparison of Freud's theory of sacrifice 
with that of Jung shows that the conception of the latter, which 
incidentally overestimates in a curious way the heterosexual im- 
pulse in this connection, takes the uppermost psychic layer as the 
ultimate, and gives value to the primary tendencies only as a 
symbolic method of expression; the sacrifice would seem to be 
as though reprisals were exacted from the beast in man — thus too 
says theology, "although in somewhat other words". The tendency 
is observable to allow the religious-ethical element to penetrate 
the analysis instead of the reverse process. To what reactionary 
and pseudo-scientific results such a theologising outlook may lead 
may be seen in the explanation given by Riklin of the sin of 
Adam (62): to him this is "tlic backwards-striving principle repre- 
sented in the incest motif and its symbolism reversed. And if the 
punishment of the sin of Adam is work the motive for tlie sin is 
thereby clear: it was the horror of the deliberate undertaking of 
cultural performances". As we see, such an inteipretation has no 
longer anything analytic about it, but represents a modern recrudes- 
cence of scholasticism and its symbolic intcrjiretations with the 
aid of psychology called in. The processes of .sublimation and 
transformation of the sexual and grossly egoistic impulses nowhere 
shape themselves more clearly than in the world outlook of the 
mystics and the immense piety of the middle ages. The strong 
interest which has been taken in the mystics by individual Swiss 
analysts and those investigators who are influenced by tlieir views 
may find its explanation very largely in this fact; Morel, Riklin, 
Silberer, Pfister, Kielholz have for this reason brought personalities 
and phenomena belonging to the mythical province of religion 
into the central forces of their analysis (35, 63, 68, 43, 27). 

Among the spheres of historical culture to which analysis has 
been directed one of the most recent is religion. The analytical 
psychology of religion has thus, it may be noted, from the first 
effected a junction with the investigation of myths, where already 
the traces of folk-psychology have been examined by analytic 
methods. In the writings of Abraham (fl] Prometheussage) and 

; \ 


Rank ([51] Geburtsmythos) the two sciences have shown some 
interaction, but with Jones and Storfer more extensive "contacts" 
have made their appearance and in Freud's "Totem and Taboo" 
myth and religion at last found their proper allocation in the history 
of human mental development. There are instances enough available 
which go to elucidate the relation between these two manifestations 
of the mass-psyche. One might nevertheless say that this problem 
is still essentially awaiting solution. Meanwhile it is already clear 
that myth sprang from the soil of animism, and thus ante-dating 
religion had prematurely undergone a religious elaboration, further 
that reactions to the great crimes of the primitive herd, so impor- 
tant for the development of religion, are clearly recognisable in 
it also. 

It has been the aim of Freud to determine the place of religion 
within the history of culture (16): Rank and Sachs (53) as well 
as Kaplan (24) have put forth a short statement of their views on 
the significance of religion in the development of man. 

Religious art has been investigated analytically only in isola- 
tion: up to the present time Freud's analysis of Leonardo da 
Vinci's Madonnas (14) is the only important work in this direction. 
The article that appeared anonymously on the Moses of Michelangelo 
(80) displayed in the method and outlook so many analytical 
features that it may be reckoned as a paradigm of analytic ob- 
servation. The conclusions reached in it received additional verifi- 
cation and enhanced value from the analysis made by Reik of 
the Sinaitic pericope. Reik's article on the Schofar effects a junction 
with the analytic valuation of the role of dance and music in 
religious worship. In this the importance of totemism was also 
emphasized for the late stages of the development of religion (61). 
A romance in which a saintly character, that of St. Anthony, is 
the central figure is selected by Reik as object of analysis (57). 

In separate notes Rank (54) provides a short character-sketch 
of the founder of religion and of the artist in accordance with their 
diverse psychic conditions and the accompanying determinations. 

Kaplan's notes (on the Spinozan idea of God, on sins etc.) prove, 
tlie possibility of making use of the analytic point of view in the 
province of religion, a possibility which Winterstein has brought 
still more within range in a promising philosophical article (79). 

Due attentionhas unfortunately not yet been paid to the development 
of childish beliefs about God, and to the religious ideas of children. 


Freud has proved in his treatment of the recrudescence of infantile 
totemism the significance of cliildish ideas for comparative religion. 
Isolated features important for the later development of tlie indi- 
vidual are found also in Freud's article "Notes from Uie history ot 
an infantile neurosis" (13). In Pfister's ministerial works there appear 
scattered memoranda of great informatory value as to the religious 
life of children, lutingon and Reik have made smaller contributions 
to the comprehension of beliefs about Ciod (7, 58). The 
only larger work on tliis theme, fascinating both in conception and 
execution, is tliat by Lou Andreas-Salomi'^ (64) which treats ot 
"early religious observance" with great sublety and a com- 
bination of intuitive with analytic psyclvojogy. It is to be hoped 
that further work will before long fill up the gaps tliat now exist. 

Pfister has devoted him.self to the application of psycho-analysis 
to ministerial work and has tliereby acliieved very considerable 
results (38, 39, 40, 46, 48, 50). No doubt such an application re- 
presents a compromise between ministerial and analytic endeavours 
in which it remains undecided what part is being played by the 
priest and what by the analyst. Activity of this kind is undeniably 
productive and commendable, but in my opinion the religious ele- 
ment so far as it is apart from the analysis tends to mingle with 
the tlierapeutic interest of tlie analysis vvhicii refuses now and always 
to put itself at tlae service of a definite moral or religious point 
of view. According to my personal opinion — the only opinion that 
can here find expression — psycho-analysis is destined at some 
future date to take the place to a considerable extent of ministerial 

Stekel (74) follows out the manifold disguises of tlie religious 
sentiment which appear in modern life: tliis author maintains also 
that the religious complex usually plays a large part in neuroses: 
he notices also a special form of the "Christ neurosis". How far 
this view as well as similar propositions of Adler's can be referred 
to the effect of reactions of a homosexual feminine fixation on the 
father (-God) has been explained by Freud (13). Schroeder reports 
on tlie sexual factor in die theology of tlie Mormons (65). 

The theoretical exposition of the assumptions, metliods, and 
aims of the analytic psychology of religion has been successfully 
accomplished by Rank and Sachs in a comprehensive section ol 
their joint work which since its appearance in 1913 has been freely 
modified and enlarged by the work of the last few years. Freud 


discusses briefly among culture-historical interests the point of view 
of analysis directed on the science of religion (15). Keller's article 
in an encyclopaedia (26) and another paper of his (25) and one 
of Nohl (36) bear an informative character not wholly free from 
prejudice. Reik estimates the significance of ritual for the ana- 
lytical understanding of reUgion in the introduction to his book (61). 
Current problems, in particular the Jewish question, are dealt 
with by occasional and not always scientific application of analysis 
by Sombart (70), Frank (9), Rappaport (56) and Trebitsch (78). 




5. Freud, S.: 

6. Idem: 

7. Idem: 

8. Idem: 

1. Andreas- Salome, L.\ Des Dichters Erieben. Neue Rundsckhn. 1919. 


2. Bardas,Willy\ Zur Problematik der Musik. Imago. V. 364. 

3. Bernfeld: Zur Psychologie der LektQre. Int. Zeitschr. f. Psa. 

m. 109. 

4. Coriat, I. H. : Psychoanalyse der Lady Macbeth. ZeHtralbl. f. Psa. 

IV. S. 384. 

Einc Kindheitserinnerung des Leonardo da Vinci. 2.Aufl. 

Einige Charaktertypen aus der psychoanalyt. Arbeit. 
Imago. rV, 317, and Sammlg. kl. Schr. z. Neur. 
IV. Folge. 521. 

Das Unheimliche. Imago. V. 297, 
Eine Kindheitserinnerung aus Dichtung und Wahrheit 
Imago. V. 49 and Sammlg. kl. Schr. z. Neur. W. Folge. 
9. Furtmuller, C. : Schnitzlers TragikomOdie "Das weitc 1-and". ZentralbL 
f. Psa. IV. 28. 

10. Heinitz: Eine psychoanalytische Betrachtung der Kunst und 

Natur. 1916. 

11. Hitschmann, E.\ Ein Dichter und sein Vater. Imago. FV. 337. 

12. Idem: Gottfried Keller. Intern. Psa. Bibl., Nr. 7. 1919. 

13. Idem : Franz Schuberts Schmerz und Liebe. Int. Zeitschr. f. Psa. 

m. 287. 

14. Hekels, L.\ Shakespeares Macbeth, Imago. V. 170. 

15. yuHusburger, 0.: Shakespeares Hamlet ein Sexualproblem. Dteneue 

Generation. IX. 1913. 

Der tragische Held und der Verbrecher. Imago. IV. 96. 

Zur Psychologic des Spafies. Joum. f. Psych, u. Neurol. 

XXI. H. 5—6. 

Die Psychoanalyse des Stils. Ut. Echo. 1919. 


16. Kaplan, L.: 

17. Kolarits: 

18. Kffrner, J.: 



19. Lorenz, E.: Die Geschichte des Bergmannes von Falun. Imago. 

m. 250. 

20. Idem: Odipus auf Kolonnos. Imago. IV. 22. 

21. Major, Erich : Die Quellen des kiinstlerischen Schaffens. 1913. 

22. Mac Curdy, J. T.: Die Allmacht der Gedanken und die Mutterleibs- 

phantasie. Imago. HI. 382. 

23. Malinckrodt, Frieda: Zur Psychoanalyse der Lady Macbeth. Int. 

Zeitschr. /. Psa. TV. 612. 

24. Protze : Der Baum als totemistisches Symbol in der Dichtung. 

Imago. V. 58. 

25. IdanA, Otto: Der Kiinstler. 2. Aufl. 1918. 

26. Idem: Der Doppelganger. Imago. HI. 97 (auch in "Psycho- 

analytische Beitr. z. Mythenforschung", Intern. Psa. Bibl. 
Nr. 4, 1919). 

27. Idem: Das Schauspiel im "Hamlet". Imago. IV. 41. 

28. Idem: Homer. Das Volksepos (II). Imago. V. 132, 372. 

29. Reik, Th.: Arthur Schnitzler als Psychologe. 1913. 

30. Idem: Das W^erk Richard Beer-Hoffmanns. 1919. 

31. Reitler: Eine anatomisch-kiinstlerische Fehlleistung Leonardo 

Da Vincis. Int. Zeitschr. /. Psa. IV. 205. 

32. Sachs, H. : Homers jiingster Enkel. Imago. III. 80. 

33. Idem: Schillers "Geisterseher". Imago. IV. 69, 145. 

34. Idem: Zum Thema "Tod". Imago, in. 456. 

35. Idem: Der "Sturm". Imago. V. 203. 

36. Sperber^ Alice: Von Dantes unbe\xruGtem Seelenleben. Imago. III. 205. 

37. Sperber, H. und Spitzer, L.\ Motiv und Wort. 1918. 

38. Striimcke, Heinr. : Sexualprobleme in der dramatischen Literatur. 1916. 

39. 7 cHer, Frieda: Musikgenufi und Phantasie. Imago. V. 8. . s 

40. Anonjm: Der Moses des Michelangelo. Imago. IE. 15. 

Starting from the phantasies of the individual, psycho-analytic 
research soon began to investigate tlie way to the phantasies of 

The first steps on this path were made by Rank, far ahead of 
all others, with his "Kiinstler". In this book, which recently appeared 
in a new edition, the turning to the general and historical is not 
anticipated merely in vague hints, but built up in methodical form 
a long time before the material of race psychology was used as 
a new basis. It is still on many points the best formulation of our 



Lou Andreas-Salomt^* (1) has produced a delicate and thorough 
essay on tlie conditions of artistic production. 

To deduce a piece of fundamental psychology of the artist 
from one single, though distinguished, example, is the problem Freud 
has solved witli his book on Leonardo da Vinci (5). The second 
edition is enriched by two findings which fully confirm Freud's 
hypotheses. One of thcni a "mistake", or indeed a number t)f diem, 
in Leonardo's attempt to represent the sexual act schematically, 
has been discovered and described by Dr. Reitler, the other a 
"cryptographic" presentation of the vulture on the picture of "Saint 
Anna" is from O. Pfistcr, 

In a short essay on the poet Dauthcndey (11) Hitschmann 
demonstrates his father-fixation not only as being important for 
his poetical production, but as the origin of a phenomenon regarded 
by the poet as "telepathic" and <»f his religious turning-point 
Hitschmann has dealt more fully with (iottfricd Keller (12) and 
drawn an excellent picture of his unconscious psychical activity by 
comparing the poet's typical motives with his behaviour towards 
mother and sister both in social life and in his work. The most 
important results are as follows: pleasure in looking directed mainly 
to the female breasts and its repression which allowed the great 
depicter of human character to paint only landscapes; the motive 
of "half family", son and mother, daughter and father, living to- 
gether as a reminiscence of his childhood-days after his father's 
early death, a period the boy longed to return to when a step- 
father arrived who lived unhappily with the mother; the inhibited 
aggression towards women and its inversion into masochistic 
phantasies; and finally the mother image in the poet's most inte- 
resting female figure, Judith. 

A valuable and interesting investigation into the poet's motives 
is given by Rcik's book on Schnitzlcr (29). The main stress is laid 
upon the delicate psychological understanding of the poet, which 
arose from his familiarity with his own unconscious, though a 
familiarity of a quite special kind. Of special interest are the ana- 
lyses of the dreams which Schnitzlcr uses in important passages 
of his works. Interpretation shows that the construction of these 
dreams is quite on a line with the rules laid down by Freud. 

That the connection between unconscious and poetical production 
is not an achievement of our generation is proved by Dr. Alice 
Sperber who deals with Dante's unconscious life (36). Of Special 



interest is the view, based on rich and well selected material, 
that Vergil and Beatrice represent the return of the parent's imagines. 

The present writer has pointed out that the childhood memories 
of Spitteler (32) show a striking agreement with the doctrines of 
Freud as regards the nature and importance of events in childhood. 

The investigation of E. Lorenz into the "Geschichte des Berg- 
manns von Falun" (19) shows in a very clear way how a simple 
anecdote, provided it contains the germ, keeps producing ever new 
phantasies. As the poetical modifications advance, the unconscious 
complex by which the phantasy was awakened reveals itself more 
and more distinctly till it appears in clear words (Hofmannsthal's 
"last modification") just as dreams of one night vary the same un- 
conscious thought with progressive clearness. 

In another essay (20) the same author shows that the CEdipus 
tragedy ends quite in accordance with the fulfilment of the un- 
conscious expectations — union with the mother earth. While the 
two above-mentioned essays only touched on the complex "the 
mother's womb", MacCurdy shows a novel by Lytton which is 
completely built on it, and throws light by analysis of that novel 
in the most interesting way on the connections between these 
phantasies and the "omnipotence of thought". 

The idea running through all those essays, namely the return 
to primitive thinking by apparently original imagination, cannot 
easily be proved by a better example than the one found by 
Dr. Protze (24) in which a tree exercises all the functions that 
*'sava<Jes" are wont to attribute to their totem. Rank's book (26) 
is based on the same idea, but carried out in a quite different, 
more complete and systematic way. Starting from a topic, still very 
attractive to modern literature, that of the "Doppelganger" (double) 
the author goes back to the superstitions relating to mirrors and 
shadows, from there to primitive beliefs in the soul connected with 
mirror images and shadows, and finds at last the psychological 
resolution of these phenomena in narcissism and in the repression 
conflict against its radiation leading to object-love. The book 
contains much material in literary history and ethnology and 
should become a model through its technical method, never satis- 
fied with mere aphorisms, but always trying to link up connections. 

A number of essays deal with two great tragic figures of 
Shakespeare's, Hamlet and Macbeth. The Hamlet essays (15, 27) 
naturally start from the points in Freud's "Interpretation of Dreams", 


and what Rank says about the "play" and its position in the drama 

might be considered as the fmishinj» toucli of Freud's conception. 

More interest still is paid to the figure of Lady Macbeth, previously 

only touched on in a footnote in the "lnter])retation of Dreams"; 

the publications 4, 14, 23 occupy themselves with her. The most 

extensive of these essays is the one by Jekcls (14); this yields several 

valuable results, of which only two will be mentioned: the conception 

of the distribution between twij persons of the originally unitary 

guilt feeling before and after the deed, and the discovery of 

"Shakespeare's self reproach", who left wife and children and lost 

his only son, as the quintessence of the ci>aracter of Macduflf. 

Freud (6) starts from this discovery and shows how the problem of 

childlessness runs below the surface through the wliole tragedy. In 

this complex the old nature myth personified in the tragedy, namely 

the victory of spring coming with green branches over the sterile 

winter, coincides with the actual event, the accession of James I as 

successor of the sterile Elizabeth who had beheaded his mother. 

Freud makes it probable also that the night-wandering of Lady 

Macbeth goes back directly to the last weeks spent in sleepless 

disquietude of the virgin queen, who once called herself in grief 

a fruitless stock. Another of Shakespeare's characters is investigated 

by Freud in the same essay: Richard 111 personality is 

developed from the first monologue with logical clearness. He ^ 

belongs to those who believe they have a special claim on the 

fulfilment of their wishes because they have been ill-treated by 

nature at their birth. Among the type of those who break down 

in success Freud classifies a tragic figure, studied already by Rank, 

namely Rebecca West from Ibsen's "Rosmersholm". He shows that 

Rebecca's actual position is the result of a tyj^ical phantasy in which 

the housekeeper sets herself in the place of the housewife. The 

unconscious root of this phantasy is of course to replace the motlier 

in her relation to the father. When Rebecca learns that this tabooed 

phantasy was reality for her, that is to .say, that she was the mistress 

of her own father, then she becomes unable to enjoy her success 

and chooses instead of marriage with Rosmer deatli witli him. 

The essay of FurtmUlIcr's (9) on Schnitzler's "Das weite I^nd" 
places the strife for power in the centre of action, following the 
author's prepossession for Adler's conception. A more unfortunate 
choice tlian one of Schnitzler's plays to prove such theses could 
not be made. Schnitzler's later works, especially "Casanova's 


Heimkehr" have reduced ad absurduvt the idea of replacing the ' 
erotic problem by an egoistic one. 

In the reviewer's essays (33, 35) the attempt is inade to trace 
back to the psychical situation of the author the production of 
two of the standard works in literature. In both cases the problem 
of inhibition in production is hinted at, a temporary one in Schiller's 
case and a final one in Shakespeare's. In the novel of Th. Mann (34) 
the agreement with dream symbolism between the understanding 
shown for the basis of homosexuality is pointed out. 

An essay on the Moses of Michelangelo (40) by an anonymous 
author takes quite a distinctive position. Neither the starting point 
nor the result belong to the domain of psycho-analysis, but the 
method of the investigation guessing the past from the present, 
important things from slight indications, and the psychical tendencies 
of the artist answers fully to the psycho-analytic method in its best 
and purest form. 

Among the aesthetic investigations directed to general problems 
most are based on Something or other pointed out by Freud 
e. g. 17, 38; their merit lies in the clear presentation and the working 
out of details. The parallel drawn by Kaplan between tragic hero 
and criminal (16) is well-proved psycho-analytically and shows this 
author's right feeling for the new tendency in defining our problems. 
Through Freud's "Totem and Taboo" we know that it is more than 
an analogy, that it is the recurrence of the same original crime in 
different shapes. 

A quite uncommon investigation, which in many passages comes 
very near psycho-analysis, is that by Sperber and Spitzer (37) on 
the connection between motives and words. Spitzer proves how in 
the writings of the grotesque poet Christian Morgenstern the word 
comes before the thing, indeed how the word stimulates the imagi- 
nation to creativeness. "To treat words like things" is according to 
Freud a typical quality of childhood, and Morgenstem's humour is 
based to a great extent on this quality. Still nearer psycho-analysis 
comes Sperber's shrewd and charming essay on Gustav Meyrink 
He show^s how certain complexes occur again in this poet's writings, 
sometimes as a colloquial turn, sometimes as an original com- 
parison. When Sperber speaks about the influence of certain com- 
plexes on style and language, the idea arises of completing his 
investigation in the opposite direction, i. e. instead of working from 
the complexes to language, from within to without, to feel our way 



from without to within, to the deep unconscious sources of affect. 
The "complex of bodily inhibitions" found by Sperber in Meyrink, 
especially paralysis, blindness and suffocation, arouses many thoughts 
in the analytical expert. The essay by Kiimer (18) is an appreciation 
of the two mentioned above. 

The two essays on music (2, 39) give us hope that even tliis 
difficult subject, lying farthest from psycho-analytic exploratioD, 
will perhaps be understood by our mctliod.s. The possibility of 
awakening certain affects by sounds might be explained by their 
effect on the unconscious. Hitschmann (13) deals, in connection with 
a dream, with the psychic life of the young Schubert and his family 

The investigation of "uncanniness" by Freud (7) explains in a 
more detailed way what had been said before in a footnote to the 
"Drei Abhandlungen". He points out that htimlich is one of 
the ambivalent words, which unite two opposite meanings, "homely" 
and "hidden, dangerous". Of special interest are the e.xplanations 
of the conditions under which the re-awakcning of the "omni- 
potence of thought" causes a disagreeable feeling, this being the 
reason why they are characterized as "uncanny". The complete 
revival of the childish omnipotence, as in fairy-tales, does not give 
us this impression, but if poetry places itself into reality, then a 
sudden going back to omnipotence has an uncanny effect, quite 
the same as in reality itself, when a chance makes us believe for 
a moment in tliis possibility. The other root of uncanniness lies in 
the return of the repressed; especially the castration complex plays 
here an important part. 




1. Freud, Sigm.: Mythologische Parallele zu einer plastischen Zwang-s- 

vorstellung. Int. Zeitschr. f. Psa. IV. S. 110. 

2. Groos, Karl: Zur Psychologic des Mythos. Intern. Monatsschr. f. 

Wiss., Kunst und Technik. Juli 1914. 

3. Kaplan, Leo: Grundziige der Psychoanalyse. 1914. 

4. Idem: Psychoanalytische Probleme. 1916. 

5. Lorenz, Emil: Odipus auf Kolonos. Imago, IV. 22. 

6. Mac Curdy, ^ohn I.. Die Allmacht der Gedanken und die Mutter- " 

leibsphantasie in den Mythen von Hephastos und einem 
Roman von Bulwer Lytton. Imago. III. 4. 

7. Rank, Otto : Psychoanalytische Beitrage zur Mythenforschung. Intern. 

Psychoanalytische Bibliothek. Ed. 4. 1919 (especially 
Kap. XI— Xin). 

8. Silberer, Herbert: Der Homunculus. Imago. IH, 37. 

9. Idem: Das Zerstiickelungsmotiv im Mythos.. /JjV/. S. 502. 
10, Spie_^, Karl: Das deutsche Volksmarchen. Natur und Geisteswelt. 

1917. Nr. 587. 

The recent advances in myth and legend investigation owe much 
to the work of Dr. Rank. In his collected essays on this subject (7), 
a definite point of view can be traced gaining cleaniess and promi- 
nence as the enquiry deepens and the more important questions 
emerge. Proof has already been forthcoming of the value of the 
comparison of literary creations, myth forms and the phenomena of 
folk-psychology, instituted in the earlier contributions, notably in 
the Doppelganger : it was this very comparison that made possible 
a disengaging of a motif from personal and individual aspects and 
by means of juxtaposition and through a study of likenesses and 



diflFerences disclosed the univeisal validity of certain motifs, rooted 
as they are in the psychic tendencies. Thus more clearly than ever 
is shown the close connection and profound relation of the love 
and death significance of the Doppelgdnger fifjure. Freud saw 
emerging behind the characters of Shakespeare's plays the primi- 
tive shapes of myth ("Das Motiv di^r Kastclienwahl", Imago, 1914, 
Bd. II), and forthwith penetrated both the latent meaning of tlie 
motif and the hidden significance of the myth: similarly the 
mysterious significance of the Narcissus legend and of the Doppel- 
ganger figures yields itself up to comparison guided by analysis. 

The analysis of the "Briidermarchcns" in tiie same collection 
carries analytic myth-investigation to a very high point succeeding 
as it does in setting out all the distortions, complications, sub.stitute 
and reaction-formations, condensations and displacements, and in 
using unconscious processes to e.K|)lain the varying degrees of 
clearness with which the vtotif is invested, its corre.spundences and 
its deviations from type. The substitution of the elder favoured 
brother for the father as the person towards whom jealous feeling 
is directed, as in the Egyptian brother-story or in tiie Osiris myth, 
is shown to be a primitive culture effect, and is grouped, with otl\er 
softenings and concealments brought about by generations of 
repression. Rank sets out the pedigree of the "Brddermarchens" 
and in doing so succeeds in recognizing the exi.sting forms in the 
motif ■A'f, reflections of definite stages of culture and in allotting the 
various levels of myth and fairy-tale to advances in social organi- 
sation. Me traces myth-making to its beginnings found in the 
partial renunciation of the actual accom]>lishment of sexual and 
egoistic desires. Both myth and fairy-lale tiius appear as the ob- 
verse of culture-development, as stonr houses of the wishes that 
can be taken no count of in reality and of unattainable satisfactions. 
Earlier in the analysis stress was chiefly laid on gaining a clear 
comprehension of myth and fairy-tale by an elucidation of the 
symbolism employed in them and by application of jisychic formulae; 
at this point however the first steps are taken tt>wards determining 
the psychological relation of fairy-tale to myth. 

On the basis of tlic results of these investigations, an attempt 
might be made to reconstruct some kind of history of the develop- 
ment of the fairy-tale. This is actually undertaken by Ranlc in the 
article entitled "Mytlms und Mihclien". It cannot be maintained 
that complete success has crowned iiis effort.s, but it must be borne 


in mind how great are the difficulties to be encountered, how circum- 
scribed and scanty are the nxeans available for the accomplish- 
ment of the task. Nothing but the psycho-analytic investigation of 
primitive relationships, opened up as it has been by Freud in "Totem 
and Taboo", joined with an understanding of the psychic peculiarities 
of the fairy-tale could make this bold attempt at all possible. 
According to Rank while the mytli reflects the measures of defence 
taken by the father against the rebellious sons, the hero-tales repre- 
sent the progressive stages of the development of the brother clan. 
This first synthetic attempt rests on tlie comparison of the motifs 
with the actual basic situations inferred as existing in primitive 
times. (We will not disguise the fact that the special accentuation 
of the respective fashioning of tlie tnotij in each case does not 
seem to us sufficient to warrant such a method of determination.) 

The author thus brings us face to face witli the ultimate and 
peculiar problems of myth-investigation; with nothing less than an 
exposition of the external, cultural, and the internal psychological 
situation out of which the forms of tlie fairy-tale necessarily arise 
Rank confines himself to carrying out this task in relation to one 
single though important motif namely, that of the conflict of the 
older with the younger generation (/wo/??/i of exposure, the imposition 
of a task, exile of the sons, etc.) The analysis of a number of myths 
shows that the myth is in general an attempt to find substitutes for 
the original objects (of hatred) and to subUmate the relations to 
them into culturally valuable acts (tlius the removal of the father 
is effected through the slaying of the destructive monster). On the 
other hand the special and characteristic form of the fairy-tale sets 
out to deny the tendencies which (in spite of substitutions) can still 
be recognised in the mj^: in fact in the fairy-tale the tendencies 
are often completely reversed. Many of the decisive differences 
between the two creations of phantasy are explained if we regard 
the myth as the outcome of the patriarchal time and the fairy-tale 
as having arisen out of the soil of tlie clan. In the myth the 
hero encounters external obstacles, in the fairy-tale the inhibitions 
are from within. Myth is polygamous, fairy-tale monogamous ; myth 
is patriarchal, fairy-tale social, it is ethical while myth is non-moral. 
Rank considers of special importance the stress laid in the fairy- 
tale on material considerations and their driving force, particularly 
on the material difficulties of family life; from tliese tlie hero myth 
is completely aloof. This feature is both an indication of the external 



circumstances in which the fairy-tale took its rise and also ao 
explanation of many of its characteristics: its naTve wish-fulfilment, 
its exaggerations of size, riches and so on. Particularly interesting 
is Rank's derivation of the fairy-tales of a later time from an 
original primitive tale which brought the solace of phantasy to the 
endurance of a first great famine. Disappointment and disillusion- 
ment came about from various causes such as the reappearance of 
the same difficulties in the clan as in primitive life. A feeling of 
shame and a fear of reprisals are both at work in the fairy-tale 
when it refuses to admit the existence of just that fragment of 
crude reality which appears and is justified in the myth. Undoubt- 
edly one of the motives for fairy-tale making is self-consolation 
but tlic main reason lies in the warning thereby given to tlic younger 
generation. While the myth is the story of tlic son, the fairy-tale 
is the story of the son of the second generation who has become 
a father and is possessed witli the fear of reprisals. The son's revolt 
is depicted in the mytli, but in the fairy-tale the parents have the 
upper hand again and arc concerned to put a stop to the tlireatcned 
resistance of the younger generation. The belief in the myth and 
the (proverbial) disbelief in the fairy-tale arise from the fact tliat 
the one creates a substitute for rcaUty while the other sets out to 
deter tliose who seek to realise the primitive wish. 

Wliile in Rank's work the analytic investigation of myth is 
carried to the limits of its special sphere and from tlicre attempts 
to form correspondences with related sciences, the adherents of 
Jung pursue the reverse Jhere is douiitless nothing to be 
said if occasionally the points of view of tlic frog and the bird 
are interchanged, but it scarcely seems possible to adopt botli at 
one and the same time. Silberer (8, 9) and Lorenz (5) have aspired 
to do this, and in part, with interesting results. So long as they 
remain on psycho-analytic ground their contributions are notewortliy 
and their results display insight; their deductions as to the loftier 
activities of the soul may also possess much value (analysis is not 
called upon to judge of tliat): but their attempt to interpret the 
primitive impulse-tendencies of the myths "by analogy" as the 
original morality, and as a matter of course directed towards high 
ideals, is an unfortunate one. Thus it comes about tlvat Silberer in 
his analy.sis of the homunculus-idea (8) only devotes about half his 
space to analytical matter— certainly of high value— so that apart 
from the interesting questions he raises it is fresh material only 


that he is able to contribute to the "dismemberment" my^-motif (9) 
analysed by Rank and none of tlie new views and results which 
had been confidently expected of him. Confining ourselves to what 
he does give us in his article, it amounts to this, that it cannot be 
asserted that psychological stratification, as shown in the disguised 
or weakened forms of the myths, always corresponds to liistorical 
alterations of the myths or proves an earlier or later origin. But 
the time-determination of myth-formation and of its psychological 
levels would seem a secondary affair and in no way to be solved 
by analysis. Further, analysis by no means leaves out of sight, 
though Silberer seems to think it may, that myth-contents may 
undergo coarsening as well as softening as time goes on: in fact 
full account is taken of this in the analytic attempt to explain the 
mechanism of the reappearance of repressed material. Silberer's 
admonition to caution would be more in place if not only were 
one obliged to banish the idea when reading his works but if also 
such discretion were counted by himself the better part of valour. 
Meanwhile the mystical bent of his .views is unmistakable. Less 
marked is the influence of Jung on Lorenz whose striking con- 
tribution on QEdipus in Colonus (5) calls special attention to the 
blessings which at the end of his troubles the grey-haired hero 
brings to the land that harbours him and to his mythical union 
with the earth. MacCurdy (6) investigates the Hephaestos myth and 
endeavours to prove the inner connection between the imagined 
"Omnipotence of thought" and the idea which he discovers in the 
myth, of life in an abode under the earth i. e. the body of the 


OTTO RANK. Vienna. 


1. Adler, Alfred: Traum unrl Traumtleutunjj. Zentralbl. f. Fsa. III. 


2. Aall, Anathon: Der Traum. Versuch cincr theorctischen Erklamng auf 

Gnmdlajre von psychol. Btlrachtunijcn. Zeitschr. /. 
Psychol. Bd. 7(). 1919, (DrOmmtm forklarel ut fra det 
sviktende sane prundlafj.Fsykc. Tidskrift f6r Psykologisk 
Forskninj^. IX. Upsala 1914.) 

3. Ahlfeld, F. : Traum und Trauniformcn. Kin Bcitrap zur Fragc nach 

dcr EntstchunR des Traumcs und seiner Hilder. 1916. 

4. Becker, //.: Voids Buch iiber den Traum und die modcme Traum- 

deutung. Psycbiatr.-Neitrol. Wochsckr. XV. Nr. 33. 
G. Birstein, %\ M. W. (iarschins Traum. Zentralbl. f. Psa. IV. S. 432. 

6. Coriat,y.H,\ Traume vom Kahlwerdcn. Int. Zeitschr. f. Psa. II. 

S. 460. 

7. Corray: Schtllertraume. Zeitschr, f.yugeHderziekuHj^u.Jugend- 

fiirsorge. IV. 

8. Davidson : Erklarunjj eines Alptraumes. Int. Zeitschr, f. Psa. IV. 

S. 207. 

9. Deutsch, E. : Schlaf und Traumlebcn der Kinder. (Congress premier 

internal, dc P^dolojjie Bruxellcs, aoftt 1911.) 1912. 

10. Eis/cr, y. M,: Bcitrage zur Traumdcutung. Int. Zeitschr. f. Psa. V. 

S. 295. 

11. Erfahrungen und Beispiele aus der analytischcn I'raxis. (by various 

authors). Int, Zeitschr. / Psa. U. S. 379. 

12. E, : Zur sexuellcn Dcutung des Prilfungstraumcs. Int. Zeitschr. 

f, Psa. V. S. 300. 

13. Federn, Paul: Ober zwei typische Traumsensationen. Jahrb. VI. 

S. 89. 

14. Ferenczi, S. : Das "Vergessen eines Symptoms und seine Aufkliirung 

im Traume". Int. Zeitschr. / Psa. II. -S. 384. 




21. Idetn: 

22. Idem: 

23. Idem: 


15. Idem: Der Traum vom Okklusivpessar. Int. Zeitschr. f. Psa. 

m. S. 29. 

16. Idem: Affektvertauschung im Tiaum. Int. Zeitschr. f. Psa. 

rV. S. 112. 

17. Idem: Traume von Ahnungslosen. Int. Zeitschr. f. Psa. IV. 

S. 208. 

18. Idem: Pollution ohne orgastischen Traum und Orgasmus im 

Traum ohne Pollution. Int. Zeitschr. f. Psa. IV. S. 187. 

19. Fischer-Defoy: Schlafen und Traumen. 1918. 

20. Freud, S.: Darstellung der "groCen Leistung" im Traume. Int. 

Zeitschr. f. Psa. H. S. 385. 

Vorlesungen zur Einfiihrung in die Psychoanalyse: 

U. Teil: Der Traum. 1916. 

Metapsychologische Erganzung zur Traumlehre. Int. 

Zeitschr. f. Psa. YS! . S. 277. 

Die Traumdeutung. Vierte, vermehrte Auflage. Mit Bei- 

tragen von Dr. Otto Rank. 1914. Fiinfte, vermehrte 

Auflage. Mit Beitragen von Dr. Otto Rank. 1919. 
GerhardtyF.: Unsere Traume und ihre Deutung, 1919. 
Galant, S. : Algolagnische Traume. Arch. f. Psych. Bd. 61. 
Gro/mann: Zur Deutung der Weckertraume. Int. Zeitschr./. Psa. 

V. S. 301. 

27. Griinlxtmii, A. : Zur Psychologic des Traumes. Psjchiatr. en Neurolog. 

Bladen 1915. 

28. Henning, Hans: Der Traum, ein assoziativer KurzschluC 1914. 

29. Hitschnmnn,Eduard: Ob er Traume Gottfried Kellers. Int. Zeitschr. 

/. Psa. n. S. 41. 

30. Idem: Weitere Mitteilung von Kindheitstraumen mit spezieller 

Bedeutung. Int. Zeitschr. f. Psa, II. S. 31. 

31. Idem: Uber eine im Traume angekiindigte Reminiszenz an 

ein sexuelles Jugenderlebnis. Int. Zeitschr. f. Psa. V. 
S. 205. 

32. Hoche: Mogliche Ziele der Traumforschung. Arch. f. Psych. 

Bd. 61. 

33. Hug-HeUnmth: Ein Traum, dec sich selber deutet. Int. Zeitschr. f. 

Psa. m. S. 33. 

34. Kafka, Giistav: Notiz iiber einen im Traum angestellten Versuch, 

den Traum selbst zu analysieren. Ztschr. f. angew. 
Psychol. VIII. 1914. 

35. Idem: Zweite Notiz etc. Ibid. IX. 

36. Kaplan, Leo: Grundziige der Psychoanalyse. 1914. 

37. Idem: Psychoanalytische Frobleme. 1916. 

38. Idem: Hypnotismus, Animismus und Psychoanalyse. 1917. 


39. Idem: Uber wiederkehrende TrauiTisyinbolc. /«/. Zeitschr. f. 

Psa. IV. 284. 

40. karpinska, L. : Ein Beitrag zur Analyse sinnloser Wortc im Traume. 

/«/. Zciisckr. / Fsa. II. S. 164. 

41. Kardos, M. : Zur Traumsymbolik. Int. Zeitschr. /. Psa. IV. S. 113. 

42. Idem: Aus einer Traumanalyse. Int. Zeitschr. f. Psa. IV. 

S. 267. 

43. Idem: Zwei Inzesttraumc. Int. Zeitschr. /. Psa. V. S. 299. 

44. Idem: Zur Stiegensymbolik im 'Iraumc. Int. Zeitschr. /. Psa. 

V. S. 30(). 

45. Klages, Ludwig: Vom Traumbewufitsein. Zt.ichr. f. Pathopsychologie. 

m. 1914. 

46. KShler,Paul: Ein Beitrag zur Traumpsycholopie. /Jr<rA. / d. ges. 

Psychol. 1913. S. 234. 

47. Koehler: Unser Denken im Wachcn und Triiumen. Psychiatr.- 

Neurol. Wochschr. 1914. Nr. 46. 

48. Koerber, Ileinrich: Die Traumanalyse alsHilfsniittcl im Strafverfahren. 

Deutsche Strafrechtsztg. 1917, 

49. Kolisch, Fritz: Ein boser Traum. Ztschr. f. Psychoiherapie. VI. 


50. Lewin, Robert: Traum und Kunst. "Mdrz", IH. April 1914. 

51. Lilienfein, Neittrich: llutet euch zu triiumen und zu dichten. Eine 

Auseinandersetzung init der Traumdcuterei der Wissen- 
schaft. Die Grenzboten. 1914, Nr. 7. 

52. Lomer, Georg: Zur Tcchnik des Traumes. Die Umschau. XX. 1916. 

Nr. 42. 

53. Idem: Der Traumspiegel. Kin Jraunibuch auf wisscnschaft- 

licher Grundlage. 

54. Idem: Die Well der W^ahrtraume. 1919. 

55. Maeder, Alfons: Uber das Traumproblcm. Jahrb. V. 1913. S. 453. 

56. Neue Erscheinungen iiber Schlaf, Traum und (ircnzgebiete. Ztschr. 

/. angew. Psychol. XV. 447. 

57. Neuere Literatur iiber .Schlaf und Traum. Ibid. IX. 1914. 

58. Niederviann, Julius: IJrei Triiumc, Berner Seminarbldtter. VHI. 

59. Page, %: Ein Wahrtrauni. Zentralbl. /. Psa. IV. S. 413. 

60. Petersen, Marg.: Ein telcpathischcr Traum. Z^w/rti/-*/./ IV. S. 84. 

61. Pb'tzl, Otto: ExpcrimentellerreplcTraumbilder in ihren llcziehungen 

zum indirektcn Sehen. Ztschr. f, d. ges. Neurol, und 
Psych. Bd. .^7. 1917. 

62. Rank, Otto: Fehlhandlung und Traum. Int. Zeitschr. /. Psa. lU. 

S. 158. 

63. Idem: Die Geburts-Reltungsi)hantasic in Traum und Dichtung. 

Int. Zeitschr. J. Psa. 11. 43. 


64. Idem: Ein gedichteter Traum. Int. Zeit^chr. f. Psa. M. 

S. 231. 

65. Ramnarayan. The Dream Problem. 

^. Reik, Tkeodor: Der Nacktheitstraum des Forschungsreisenden. Int. 
Zeitschr. f. Psa. II. S. 463. 

67. Idem: Traum und Kunst. "Marz", 9. Mai 1914. 

68. Idem : Gotthilf Schuberts "Symbolik des Traumes." /«/. Zeitschr. 

f. Psa. ni. S. 295. 

69. Sacks, Hanns: Das Zimmer als Traumdarstellung des Weibes. Int. 

Zeitschr. f. Psa. II. S. 35. 

70. Idem: Ein absurder Traum. Int. Zeitschr. f. Psa. III. S. 35. 

71. Sadger, J.: Uber Pollutionen und Pollutionstraume. Fortschr. d. 

Med. 36. Jahrg. 1918/19. Nr. 14/15. 

72. Sckilder, Paul und Hersckmanu, H. : Traume der Melancholiker etc, 

Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol, u. Psych. Bd. 53. 1919. 

73. Schulze, Hedwig: Ein Spermatozoentraum im Zusammenhang mit 

Todeswiinschen. Int. Zeitschr. f. Psa. n. S. 34. 

74. Silberer Herbert: Der Traum. Einfuhrung in die Traumpsychologie. 


75. Spielrein, S. : Zwei Mensestraume. Int. Zeitschr. f. Psa. 11. S. 32. 

76. Spitteler, Karl: Die Traume des Kindes. Siidd. Mon.-Hefte. 1914. 

77. Starcke, August: Traumbeispiele. Int. Zeitschr. f. Psa. S. 381 f. 

78. Stekel, Wilkelm : Eine Aufgabe fiir Traumdeuter. Zentralbl. f. Psa. 

IV. 107. 

79. Idem: Individuelle Traumsymbole. Ibid. 289. 

80. Idem: Fortschritte der Traumdeutung. Ibid. 520. 

81. Stutzer, Gustav: Geheimnisse des Traumes. 1917. 

82. Tausk, Viktor: Zwei homosexuelle Traume. Int. Zeitschr. f. Psa. II. 

S. 36. 

83. Idem: Ein Zahlentraum. Ibid. 39. 

84. Vermoru: Uber den Traum. Handworterbuch d. Naturw. 

85. Weifi, Edoardo : Totemmaterial im Traume. Int. Zeitschr. f. Psa. II. 

S. 159. 

86. Wexberg, Erwiu : Zur Verwertung der Traumdeutung in der Psycho- 

therapie. Ztschr. f. Individual fsjc hoi. I/l. 1914. 

Dreams in Literature, etc. 

87. Daphnis und Chloe. Int. Zeitschr. f. Psa. V. S. 307. 

87 a. Dostojewski uber den Traum. Int. Zeitschr. /. Psa. V. S. 307. 

87b. Der Fiirst von Ligne imd die Traume (by Max Hochdorf). Int. 

Zeitschr. /• Psa. TR. S. 249. 
87c. jokai Maurus iiber den Traum. Int. Zeitschr. f. Psa. V. S. 307. 


87d. Petronius Satyrikon. Zentralhl. f. Psa. IV. 1914. S. 515. 
87 e. Traum Benvenuto Cellinis (by W. Slekel). Zentralbl. /. Psa. IV. 
1914. S. 322. 

87 f. Ein Traum Goethes. /did. 512. 


88. Ferenczi, S. : Sinnreiche Variante <les Schuhsyinbols der Vagina. /«/. 

Zt'itschr. f, Psa, IV. S. 112. 
88a. Fischer, A.: Die Quitte als Vorzciclien bci Perscrn und Aiabern 

und das Traumbuch des Abdal Rani an Nabulusie. 

Zischr. d. dentsch. inorgl. Ges. 1914. 
88b. Jones, Ernest: Die Theoric der .Symbolik. Ittt. Zeitschr, f. Psa. 

V. S. 244. 

88 c. Traumdeuterei, Astronomic und Aslrnlogic in China, /limmt'l und 

Erde. 1913. 

Small ContribuHoHS 

Int. Zeitschr. /.Psa. 1. S. 159, 161, 378/79, 492-94, 495, 556, 569. /ttf. 
Zeitsckr. f. Psa. 11. S. 50-59, 379 82. 

Since the last collective review (yahrb, tier Fsa., VI, S. 272) two 
new editions of the "Traumdeutung" (4. AiiH. 1914 and 5. Aiifl. 1919i) 
have appeared as well as Freud's "Vork'sun<jen zur ICinfiihrung in 
die", of which the second part is devoted to the 
exposition of the dream. Since these works contain important ex- 
tensions of the theory of dream interpretation, and ;iIso all the 
recognised advances in the literature of the subject, it seems appro- 
priate to use the clue supplied by Kreud's expositicjns for following 
out the furtlier development of tiic; theory of dreams. 

We will preface our remarks by a pronouncement of Freud's, 
taken from the last edition of the "Traumdeutung" (23, S. 409) a pro- 
nouncement which states nothing essentially new, but nevertheless 
throws a characteristic light on the deepening understanding of tlie 
dream through psycho-analysis, as well as on the significance of 
this for the history of man and civilisation. "Dreaming is generally 

• With two appendices by the present reviewer: 1. Traum und Oichtung. 
2, Traum und Mythus. 



speaking a fragmentary regression to the earliest relationships of 
the dreamer, a revival of his childhood, of the impulses then 
dominant, and of the means of expression then available. Behind 
the childhood of the individual there is vouchsafed to us a glimpse 
into the phylogenetic childliood, into the development of the human 
species, of which that of the individual is an abbreviated repetition 
influenced by tlie chance circumstances of this life. We realise the 
force of Friedrich Nietzsche's remark that in the dream is operative 
a very ancient fragment of human life to which there is no longer 
a direct approach', and we are prepared to expect to arrive by 
dream analysis at tlie knowledge of the archaic inheritance of the 
race, and to recognise the soul which is innate in it. It would seem 
that dream and neurosis has preserved for us more of the actual 
detail of early life than we could have supposed possible, and thus 
psycho-analysis may claim a high place among the sciences that 
concern themselves with reconstructing the most primitive and most 
obscure phases of human origins." 

The question that thereupon presses for attention, viz. : "whether 
it will be eventually possible to distinguish which part of the latent 
psychic processes arises out of the early history of the individual 
and which out of that of the race" (21, S. 222) is one that Freud 
does not care to answer finally in the negative. Moreover he con- 
siders that the formation of symbols outside the experience of the 
individual justifies the conclusion that these symbols are to be 
regarded as a race inheritance. 

This brings us to tliat part of dream interpretation most 
engaging our attention at the present time, viz. symbolism, the 
significance of which goes far beyond the scope of dream inter- 
pretation, and with which are closely connected numerous still un- 
solved problems. Those not infrequent cases where the common 
element in the symbol and the thing symbolised is not obviously 
recognisable go to prove that the symbolic relation is of a genetic 
nature. "What is to-day symbolically connected was probably in 
primaeval times united in conceptional and linguistic identity" 
(23, S. 240). It is noticeable that where the same language is in 
use the same symbols occur. Severals examples of dream symbols 
verified by further analytic n work are adduced by Freud 
(23, S. 241-5) with additional matter on S. 249-50, 253-60) not 
without a caution against indiscriminate confounding of sym- 
bolic representation with the other kinds of indirect representation, 


of which he gives a series of hiphly entertniniiifj examples 
(23, S. 278-80). 

In regard to the use of symbolic interpretations in dream ana- 
lysis Freud warns us against overvaluing their practical significance 
and neglecting on tliat account the [netliod of "free association" 
to which the priority belongs botli in theory and practice, while 
the translation" of symbols only enters as an auxiliary. Thus a 
combined technique is forced on us, "on the one hand relying on 
the associations made by the dreamer, and on tlie other, supple- 
menting from the analyst's knowledge of symbolism what is 
wanting" (23, S. 240). 

Closely related to symbolism is the theme of typical dreams 
with the interpretation of which the dreamer's ideas are generally 
directly at variance. Among these Freud now sharply distinguishes 
two classes (23, S. 262): those that actually have the same meaning 
each time, and those which in spite of an identical or .similar 
content nevertheless will be subject to very various interpretations, 
because the same (typical) thoughts and imaginings, represent in 
dream-making greatly differing uncon.scious wishes. 

Insufficient attention to this important distinction between the 
latent dream thoughts and the unconscious dream-images seems 
to represent the second and existing phase of the understanding 
of the dream on the part of the scientific world, now that the 
first phase of confusion of tlic manifest and latent dream-content 
may be considered as partially disposed of. 

"After so long identifying the dream witlt its manifest content, 
the danger to be avoided now is that of conl'u.sing the dream with 
the latent dream thoughts" (23, S. 430 Note). 

"'Dream' is tlie name to be reserved for tlie result of the 
dream-making, that is to say then the fonti in which the latent 
thoughts are transmitted in the process of dream-making" 
(21, S. 201). 

Like most misunderstandings of psycho-analytic views this con- 
fusion of the latent thought with the dream has been adopted as an un- 
conscious resistance by superficial analy.sts. After Adlcr's(l) pronoun- 
cement on the premonitory function of the dream, Macder (55) set up a 
"fonction ludique" of the dream without noticing that all these "prospec- 
tive tendencies" are functions of the preconscious waking thought » 

' As is set out in a particularly instructive article of Dr. Varcndonck of 
Ghent, shortly to be published. 


the result of which may become plain to us by analysis of 
dreams or other phenomena (23, S. 430 Note). 

This assertion is thus "not a novel one, as to the characteristics 
of the unconscious activity to which the latent dream thoughts 
belong, nor yet an exhaustive statement, for the unconscious activity 
concerns itself with much else besides preparedness for the future" 
(21, S. 267). 

The distortion of Freud's wish-tlieory lately put forward by 
Silberer (74) seems to rest on the consideration of this comprehen- 
sive content of the latent dream thought. He states that he is 
unable to identify himself with a theory that is exclusively a wish- 
theory (S. 50). It may indeed be "that the phantasy-existence of 
men enters into all emotions (and emotion is the unconditional 
prerequisite of the dream). But tlie question is whether the persistent 
concentration of the observer on this aspect permits the emergence 
of the most characteristic, the most important, the leading motif. 
While fully agreeing widi the theory of the concealed wishes and 
their appearance in unrecognisable forms, I nevertheless feel that I 
must subscribe to a more general formula — and say: the stimulus 
giving rise to the dream is ^n emotional factor of kigk coefficient^ 
which with its pleasure and painful colouring stirs our interest to 
wakefuhiess, and takes us through joyful expectation, admiring self- 
complacency, anxious fears, uneasy reflections, bitter accusations, 
or into some other inward state animated by the emotional 
affect Usually several factors i at once take part in the dream" 
(S. 63). 

We find here the same entire misconception of the dream-theory 
that Silberer — in spite of many valuable contributions to the science 
of dreams — shares with most readers of the "Traumdeutung". The 
dream may be a warning, a scheme, a preparation and so on, in 
so far as attention is paid only to the ideas appearing in it: "it 
is also always the fulfilment of an unconscious wish, and it is that 
and that alone, considered as the result of the dream-making 
elaboration. A dream is thus never simply a plan, a warning, but 
always a plan or the like translated with tlie help of an unconscious 
wish into the archaic method of expression and transformed in tlie 
direction of the fulfilment of these wishes. The one character, that 
of wish- fulfilment, is the constant: the other is capable of variation, 
it may be on its own part a wish, so that the dream represents a 

» The italics are the author's. 



latent wish of the preceding day as fulfilled by the help of an 
unconscious wish" (21, S. 251). 

The failure, frequent even in analytic circles, to recognise this 
state of affairs lies in this, that it may very generally be neglected 
in practice. Not only in the interpretation of the dreams of the 
healthy, but in any analytic activity we are liable to be interested 
as a general rule only in the preconscious idca.s, which are capable 
equally of making use of the dream-form as at other times of 
expressing themselves in the free flow of thought w in some slip 
of behaviour. "Effort is usually only directed towards breaking up 
the dream form, and replacing it by the latent thought.s, out o' 
which the dream has come, in their proper connections" (21, S.250). 
In view of the prevalent ignorance of the essence of the Freudian 
wish theory, it would be ri matter of congratulation that Freud has 
lately again (22) undertaken a more penetrating exploration of this 
region, if it were not for the feeling that these new elucidations 
will not materially assist those who where not capable of accepting 
the earlier ones. This "Metap.sychologische Erg.'lnzung zur Traum- 
lehre" aims at shaping out and inten.sifying the lines of di.scussion 
laid down in Section VII of the "Traumdeutung" on the structure 
and function of the mental apparatus. Freud takes a.s a starting 
point the concept of regression fundamental for any understanding 
of dream-formation, and di.stingui.shes three kind^ o( it: {a) a toxica} 
regression in the sense of tlie developed scheme of the W system, 
(b) a temporal regression, in .so far as it is concerned with a harking 
back to older psychic forms, and (c) a formal regression, ifprimi- ' 
tive methods of expression and representation replace the usual 
methods. All three kinds of regression are however at one, 
and in cases coincide, for the temporally «jlder is equally the 
more primitive formally, and a more immediate object of perception 
in the psychic topical system" (23, S. 409). Of the temporal re- 
gressions there arc again two to be distingui.shed: "that of the ego- 
development and that of the libido-development. The latter achieves 
dunng sleep the restoration oi ihc primitive narcissism'^, the former 
the stage of halluncinatory wish-gratification" (22). 

The popular "wish-fulfilment" is properly .speaking to be under- 
stood psychologically as this hallucinatory The 
primitive narcissism is disturbed by certain system charges which 
arrest its vitality also during sleep. It endeavours to defend itsell 
' Italics are the author's. 


against these charges through a diversion of the day-remnants into 
regressive paths and so to obtain gratification. This is achieved by 
means of a dream-wish that represents an unconscious instinctive 
impulse. Consequently the dreams would be "agents for removal 
of sleep-disturbing (psychic) stimuli by the method of hallucinatory 
satisfaction" (21, S. 145). 

This formula while it in no way contributes anything new, but 
merely supplies the logical working out of the wish-theory already 
developed in the "Traumdeutung", allows in its general scope for 
psychic stimuli of widely differing kind (originating from the ego 
as well a from the sexual impulses) without tying itself to a deter- 
minant remaining invariably sexual, as superficial and antagonistic 
opinion has represented it. If in dream-interpretations, especially ot 
neurotics, but also of normal adults, sexual -material ^repondevatos 
such material has nothing directly to do with the real dream- 
forming unconscious wish of the theory, but is merely a method 
of expression and serves as a proof to us that the sexual takes a 
very large place in the psychical, and naturally particularly in the 
repressed states of the human being. But the statement that all 
dreams demand a sexual interpretation, a statement which is the 
object of unceasing polemic, is entirely foreign to Freud's "Traum- 
deutung". It is not to be found in the five editions of this book, 
and stands in palpable contradiction to its other contents (23, S. 270). 
The present reviewer might feel himself to blame for the obstinate 
repetition of the statement as due to his own extension and modi- 
fication of the Freudian basic formula, but the reproach was already 
levelled quite unjustifiably at Freud and his theory of the neurosis 
before the reviewer's contribution was included in the "Traum- 
deutung" (3. Aufl., 1919, S. 117 Anmkg.). How unscrupulously 
writers who are closely associated with psycho-analysis proceed in 
this respect is shown by the fact that Silberer (74, S. 63) after 
an inaccurate reproduction of the Freudian formula quotes that of 
the present reviewer without giving any name and in such a way 
that the impression is inevitably gained that it is a more exact 
formulation of Freud's own. The whole extremely characteristic 
passage runs as follows "one may certainly take up a standpoint 
from which the dream excitant is always seen as the 'wish' " (Freud). 
The formula most exactly expressing this point of view, the full 
comprehension of which can only be achieved of course by a much 
more exhaustive study of the Freudian system, runs as follows: 


"on the basis and with the help of repressed Infantile-sexual 
material, the dream regularly represents the fuirilincnt of current 
and usually also erotic wishes which are veiled and clothed in 
symbolic form". 

This formula which in tlie first place is concerned only with 
the material of the dreain, and leaves out the theory altogether, 
in the second place permits one freely to subsume under it the 
so-called comfort-dreams (dreams of hunger, thirst, and desire to 
urinate), and while it designates the current wishes as "usually" 
also erotic, it admits the possibility of exceptions. As a matter of 
fact the most so-called comfort-dreams of adults prove not to be 
exceptions from tlic rule, disjilaying as they do a very considerable 
erotic "lining" if tlie dreamer submits tliem to analysis, instead 
of simply acknowledging their apparent comfort-character by a 
"comfort-interpretation". The erotic stimulus is for example often 
represented in the dream under the infantile guise of a desire to 
urinate, indeed the urinatitni dream which sul)servcs the comfort 
tendency is frequently caused by a sexual stimulus. On the other 
hand the pollution dreams betray in their result with more or less 
experimental clearness the sexual meaning of the seemingly harm- 
less dream images. Sadger(71) has recently emphasised the relation 
of the pollution dreams to urethral erotism as well as to ejaculatio 
praecox and p.sychic impotence. In all these problems the stratifi- 
cation of meanings of a dream must never be lost sight of; to 
attach proper value to this may j)reserve one from premature 
commitments on the nature of the dreain. 

As regards Silberer's positive c(»nlribution to tlie interjiretation 
of dreams appraised in the last collective review {Jahrbuch d. 
Psa., Jahrg. VI, S. 277) viz. the so-called "functional" phenomenon 
(erroneously described by some as functional "symbolism"), Freud 
recognises this as a second factor in dnvim formation originating 
from the side of waking thought, less constant but next in 
importance to the far more significant "secondary elaboration": 
The tlieory of the functional plienonienon is, however, open to 
abuse in that it leads back to the tend<'ncy to abstract symbolic 
interpretation of dreams. In particular the "threshold" symbolism 
perpetually emphasised by Silbcrer is one that Freud is far from 
being able to discover as often as might be expected from 
Silberer's examples (23, S. 344). These describe the behaviour of 
a psychic moment merely registrativo in function which establishes 


the fact that in certain circumstances a kind of self-observation 
takes place with the censorship, supplying a quota to the dream- 
content, without contributing anything further to the comprehension 
of the dream as a psychic product. 

One assertion of Silberer's cannot be too energetically contra- 
dicted, since though it is up to now entirely without proof yet it 
is eagerly repeated by all who would like to disguise the funda- 
mental relations existing in dream-making and to draw away 
attention from its roots in instinct. It is a question of a proof for 
which we are still waiting and which is vainly sought in Silberer's 
last work, that besides the psycho-analytic interpretation the dream 
demands further the so-called "anagogic" one for its full com- 
prehension, an interpretation which aims at the exposition of the 
loftier activities of the soul. Silberer does not bring forward in 
proof of this assertion any series of dreams analysed along both 
lines. According to our own analytic experience such a state of 
things has no existence : most dreams do not even require a further 
interpretation, much less are they capable of an anagogic one. In 
cases where such a meaning can be given, it is usually independently 
supphed by the dreamer, while the correct "interpretation" of tlie 
material submitted has to be sought by aid of the well-known 
technique (23, S. 391). If it be thought desirable to publish as 
"anagogic" interpretations the trainso f thought of the patients under 
analysis as to the meaning of the dreams, relating as they do to 
sublimation (as well as to transference and resistance), the warning 
must be repeated as to the danger of confusing the dream with 
the dream-material: a warning which Freud has lodged against 
those who would make use of the "dirigibility" of the dreams by 
the analyst as an argument against the objectivity of dream research. 
"In testing these influences on his patient the analyst only plays 
the part of the experimenter who arranges the limbs of his subject 
in certain positions. It is frequently possible to influence the dreamer 
as to what he shall dream ahout, but never to influence him in addition 
as to what he will dream. The mechanism of dream elaboration 
and the unconscious dream-wish are withdrawn from any foreign 
influence" (21, S. 269). 

We have seen that there is an obstinately recurring tendency 
to confuse the dream with the latent thoughts, which are then 
employed as objections to the wish-fulfilment theory. In the course 
of our refutation of this line of thought, we are repeatedly brought 


face to face with a problem lately again raised by Freud". Since 
the preconscious thoughts can .su])ply the dreanu^r with material 
which throughout is opp«jscd to a uisli-fullihucnt, such as well- 
founded cares, painful considerations, ciifficult decisions, it would 
seem not unjustifiable to ask how tlie dream behaves in sucli a 
case. Now this question lias Ix-cn answered by Freud himself, and 
that in the first edition of the "TraumdeutunK" (19(X)), where he 
showed how the painful and anxiety dreams were also just as 
much wish-fuifihnents in the sense of the theory of dreams — even 
if the wishes were repressed, not acceptable to the ego, or of 
another psychic system — as the straightforward gratification dreams, 
in which the unconscious wish coincides with the conscious. The 
mechanism of the dream-making is, of course, more obvious, if we 
substitute the opposition between the "ego" and the "repressed" for 
that between conscious and unconscious (23, S. 415). On the basis 
of this differentiation a .special group of "punishment dreams" can 
be recognised, fulfilling .simultaneously an unconscious wish and 
a wish for punishment of the dreamer on account of a repressed 
impermi.ssible impulse. We must, however, attribute the active un- 
conscious wish of the punishment dreams to the "ego", not to the 
repres.sed element. The punishment dreams thus point to the ego 
taking a still further share in the dream-formation. The simplest 
supposition as to their origin is that the thoughts of the previous 
day are of a satisfying kind — not as one might think painful — but 
give expression to unpermitted gratifications: of thoughts then 
Qotliing wins its way through into the manifest dream but tlieir 
direct opposite. Thus we find in Freud tlie somewhat more com- 
plete formula "Wish-fulfilment, anxiety fulfilment, |iunishment fulfil- 
ment" (Wunscherfilllung, An^sterfuUung, StraferfullungU where it 
must be remembered that anxiety is the direct in the unconscious, 
coincident — antithesis of the wish, while the punishment also 
<2presents a wish-fulfilment — that of the other censoring personality 
(21, S. 246).. 

Finally, still another group of dreams present difficult problems 
or dream interpretation, namely, the dreams of tftf beloved dead. 
n these dreams there commonly appears a siiifting from death to 
"e and back again which according to Freud (23, S. 291 A) re- 

' See his address at the Hafi|ue Contfress (Sept. 1920) of which a short 
^bstract is given in this Journal, Vol. I, p. 364, also his treatise: jenseits des 
^"stprinzips (1920). . 


presents the ambivalence of feeling on the part of the dreamer, 
and should go some way towards showing that such ambivalence 
is not mere indifference. Otlier dreams in which it is only remem- 
bered that the dream figure is already long ago dead, have to do 
with thoughts of one's own death and the dismissal of such thoughts 
from tlie mind; but the meaning of these dreams has not been fully 
worked out yet in analysis. An attempt has recently been made 
by Galant (25), to explain this homogeneous group of dreams, in 
opposition to these views, as sexual wish-fuliilments of algolagnic 

Potzl's article (61) is an important contribution, substituting as is 
does a highly subtilized experimental method for the rough tech- 
nique of introducing disturbing stimuli into the dream-state. Potzl 
got a number of subjects to draw what they had consciously grasped 
of a picture exposed by a flashlight. He then got them to make 
drawings in the same waj' of suitable portions of their dreams of 
the following night. It was thus proved unmistakably that the details 
of the picture not grasped by the subjects had been elaborated in 
the well-known autocratic way in the service of the dream-building 
tendency, while the consciously observed parts reproduced in the 
first drawing did not re-appear in the manifest dream-content. This 
may be looked on as a valuable experimental proof of the role 
of recent impressions in dream-formation. 

Rudolf Weber (Geneva) has thrown out the question "Why do 
we think in words in waking life, but in dream in images?" 
Koehler (47) attempts on the basis of the Freudian theory to answer 
"that our psychic life receives the greater number of pleasing im- 
pressions through the eye". 

Out of the remaining literature of dreams, remarkable rather 
for its quantity than its quality, we will single out three characteristic 
types: first the a priori opponents who still refuse to declare them- 
selves, next those who feel they can no longer ignore the Freudian 
theory, and tack it on to their own previous views on the dream 
(19, 81, etc.) and finally, those who accept it, but immediately think 
they must develop it further in their own way. As example of the 
first group of absolute opponents we may mention Henning(28), because 
he deserves to be rescued from oblivion as the gauge of scientific 
disputation. Against the wish-fulfilment theory Henning fulminates 
with \\iQ whole weight of the statistical statement that 75 per cent of 
all dreams are unpleasant. In the next place he does not approve of 



symbolism and to show his superiority on this point he identifies 
Silberer's opinion with the standpoint of tJ\e Freudian school, and 
makes this would-be witty remark: "If the principal condition of 
symbol-formation lies in an inadequacy of the power of compre- 
hension, the Freudian scliool does not exactly pay itself a compli- 
ment and their opponents will rejoice that they themselves encounter 
no symbols in their dreams". How uninformed the author is in 
the theory of symbolism is revealed unambi{»uously behind this 
ambiguous conception of symbol-formation, He is peculiarly drastic 
of course in his treatment of sex-symbolism; in rejecting this he 
knows no limits — not even those of experience. "We shall see in 
the case of examination dreams as in pollution dreams'^ that the 
matter in hand is actually quite different', diat moreover no dis- 
cussion of a sexual component need arise" ^ (p. 11). 

That Kenning deliberately — deliberately is the only word 
possible — selects the pollution dreams for the refutation of sex- 
symbolism is proof of an undaunted distrust of tlie deception 
of the senses that one would iiave credited to no one but 
a Copernicus. The conviction however is soon forced on one that 
even he was more ^inclined to concessions tlian this pig-headed 
person. "The result is that this (pollution-dream) is directly 
concerned with the sexual act, and clearly without any sym- 
bolising whatever: of course the details are not of an aesthetic 
character. Therefore', I should prefer not to print tht actual words^ ^ 

but, without concealing anything essential, to omit the all too ^ 

drastic illustrations" (S. 43). 

In this way Henning at least is spared the reproach which he 
levels at Freud, because the latter "does not examine the dream 
and its component at all, but only the dream-reproduction formulated 
m words" (S. 8). It is amazing to see the subtlety witli which I lenning 
knows how to avoid this error. When it is impossible for him to 
evade altogether the necessity of committing tlie manifest dream 
content to words, he glides over it at least with supreme contempt 
thus: "Three men have a talc to tell of their sister (in a pollution 
dream), although none of them have the disposition towards incest, 
but on the contrary have a strong physical repugnance for her. One 
of them was conmiended by the sister on the day of the dream for 

' Italics are the reviewer's. 
. • 'As SteJcel declares. 



his (missing) affair, whereupon he replied in vexation 'Look to your 
own dirty ways and I will look to mine' " (S.45). With this reaction 
the dreamer seems to have prophetically anticipated the only correct 
reply to Henning's dabbling in the problem of dreams. 

Even more annoying than such a dull ignoramus is the case of 
those who having discoverd psycho-analysis, which they would like 
to brand for the common good, feel themselves bound to elaborate 
the theory. Such a one is Lomer, who with disgraceful coolness 
puts the fundamental conceptions of tlie Freudian theory on one 
side as self-evident, and then bases on them his old wives' fable 
of a dream-book (53) which in lack of critical insight yields nothing 
to Ms prototype Stekel ("tlie cautious Stekel" he calls him, S. 31). 
He is merely transcribing Freud (word for word, e. g. S. 36) when 
he introduces the interpretation of the dreams of flight with the 
words "There is a general consensus of opinion tliat the material 
of this dream is a harking back to a memory of the well-known 
childish 'flying' on the arms of grown-up people." On the other 
hand (S. 37) he wrongfully suspects Freud of assigning to all 
dreams a sexual (!) wish meaning, and two decades after the 
appearance of tlie "Traumdeutung" has the audacity to inform Freud 
that there are also egoistic dreams. 

The author's true originality, apart from his lotto -interpretations, 
lies in his complete absence of critical feeling. He waxes very vehe- 
ment over the recognition of the telepathic possibilities of dreams, 
and here at least acknowledges his debt to a number of other 
authors who have preceded him on this subject by quoting them. 
But this is all the evidence that he has to bring forward; for the 
rest he gives — as he usually does — instances chosen obviously only 
in reference to their manifest content, and suddenly we find that 
in view of the mere possibility of a sign of telepathy his whole 
grasp of dream and symbol has completely forsaken him. This 
case illustrates very clearly how certain sympathies and tendencies, 
in short affective attitudes of mind, disturb the judgement and>ring 
about an adherence to tlie manifest dream content tliat develops 
into an insuperable obstacle to the understanding of any dream 
problem. Apart from the fact that the coincidence in time of a 
manifest dream image with an occurrence has no bearing on its 
intelligibility, it does not prove the existence of telepathic influences. 
If the dreams were analysed, purely psychic sources for the dream 
image would at once appear, and perhaps in many cases the whole 



assumption ot telepathy would thus fall through'. On the other hand 
one might well come to closer qrips with the problem of why 
many tolepatliic and prophetic dreams concern themselves with 
death.* The adherence to the view tliat dreams have a prophetic 
character shows how deeply anchored are superstition and folk- 
belief in the unconscious, and Jiow strong the tendencies are to regard 
the consciously intelligible dream content as the only one bringing 
happiness or wish-fulfilment. 

' In one example erroneously described as a "veridical dream" (59) there 
was clearly present an unconscious knawhdi^e. 

' Sec the case of clairvoyance analysed by llitschmann, "Zur Kritik dcs 
Hellsehens", Wr. klin. Rundscliau, 1910, Nr. 6. 


The Logic of the Unconscious Mind. By M. K. Bradby. (Oxford 
Medical Publications. Henry Frowde, Hodder and Stoughton, 1920. 
XrV+316. Price 16s.) 

Is has now for some considerable time been apparent that psycho- 
analytic research has rendered necessary a psychological amplification of 
logical theory in at least two respects : first, the manner in which the 
(intellectual) apprehension of reality is liable to be influenced by conation 
and affection; secondly, the manner in which the characteristics of un- 
conscious thought (lack of contact with reality', absence of sense of con- 
tradiction, disregard of time, liability to condensation, displacement, etc.) 
contrast and interact with the processes of conscious thought, with which 
alone the science of logic has been concerned in the past. The problems 
belonging to this second .class have been to some slight extent touched 
upon by Freud in his fourth series of collected papers, while the more 
general psychological problems of the first class have been occasionally 
treated by writers on social psychology and (from the philosophical 
point of view) by the pragmatists. But anything in the nature of a 
systematic or comprehensive treatment of the bearing of modern psycho- 
logy (including Psycho-Analysis) on logic is still lacking; so that the 
reader will turn with all the greater interest to a book on the Logic 
of the Unconscious Mind by an author who has already in previous 
volumes devoted herself to a general exposition of the scope and signi-. 
ficance of Psycho-Analysis. 

Miss Bradby is herself apparently well aware of the importance and 
magnitude of the task she has undertaken. "The student of logic to-day", 
she says in her Introduction, "is called upon to give the subject a fresh 
start, and this he is enabled to do by the discoveries of Psycho-Analysts 
concerning the Unconscious Mind. Equipped with a new understanding 
of human motives, he has to look at people's reasoning, his own and 
others', and see what connecting principles may be observed, what 
general laws are actually in operation". She is also fully cognizant, 
apparently, of the vast significance of the unconscious mental forces in 
shaping human life and human destiny, as when she says, "to a large 
extent the conscious aims of mankind would seem to be defeated rather 
than fulfilled, and we may surmise that his reasoning is at fault. At no 
time was the contrast between the purpose and achievement of human 



society more striking than at the present ... It is strikinply plain that 

reason has not yet had its day, and that mankind . ... far from having 

outgrown logic, has not yet arrived at the stage of general explicit 

reasoning, but still acts largely as did its primitive forefathers, on pur- '• 

blind intuition or stone-blind instinct." ! 

As we progress further into the book, however, we learn to our 
disappointment that in spite of her apparent realisation ol the importance 
of unconscious factors in moulding thought and conduct, Miss Bradby 
has contented herself with a study of human motives at a relatively ; 

superficial level: she has appeared unable c)r unwilling to apjily the 
results of her psycho-analytic studies to her present problem, with the 
result that she has written a book which might have been jiroduced by 
almost any student of social psychology with but little more than a 
smattering of psycho-analytic knowledge. 

She confines herself almost entirely to the first of the two above 
mentioned ways in which Psycho-Analysis appears to demand an ex- 
tension of existing logical doctrine. This is much to be regretted, both 
because of the immense theoretical importance of the second class of 
problems and because it would have been of great interest to see how 
Miss Bradby would have applied in detail her principle that "the rules 
lof logic are not, as so often said, contradicted in the unconscious or 
turned topsy-turvy, but merely appliccj to less developed material. The 
unconscious mind ... has no peculiar logic of its own. All logic is one, 
that of rational mind continually developing" (p. 47). The workings of 
the Unconscious appear at first sight to depart so widely from the rules 
of logical thought that the tracing of a process of continuous develop- 
ment from the one to tlie other presents a far from easy task, any con- 
tribution to which would have been extremely welcome, I 

Even within the narrower field of the influence of conation and 
affection on cognition we find, however, scarcely anywhere a reference 
to psycho-analytic discoveries in the places where they would be 
appropriate. Thus in dealing with the fear of the dead there is no 
mention of the mechanism of projected hatred which is so largely 
responsible for this fear; in treating the motives which impel men to 
seek wealth there is no mention of the coprophilic origin of many of 
thtfse motives ; the psychological aspects of Totemism find no place in 
discussions relating to vegetarianism, man's attitude toward animals and 
the Lord's Supper; while no considcnition is given to the parent- t 
regarding or narcissistic tendencies in the treatment of the ideas con- 
cerning God and Devil. In dius omitting all reference to the psycho- 
analytic aspects of so much of her subject. Miss Bradby has doubtless 
made her book eassier to read, but) has at the same time lost a 
useful opportunity of making a valuable contribution to knowledge — a loss 
which scientific .students of psychology, logic and social problems, in so 


far as they are aware of the nature of the omission, will most assuredly 

To psycho-analysts it will probably be a matter of interest to endea- 
vour to trace the causes which have led Miss Bradby to throw away her 
psycho-analytic knowledge in the time of need and to revert so largely 
to pre-analytic modes of thought; for intellectual backsliding of this sort 
is unfortunately no uncommon occurrence in the history of Psycho- 
Analysis, and it is evident tliat even earnest students must constantly 
be on their guard against the operation in themselves of the tendencies 
which lead to this backsliding. Apart from the more obvious shirking 
of the unpleasant and apparently grotesque issues necessarily involved 
in a full consideration of unconscious motive forces (a shirking which 
appears to manifest itself — negatively — in a somewhat impassioned 
optimism and confidence in human progress), there are perhaps two 
intellectual confusions which are largely responsible for the result in the 
present case: (1) the failure to grasp the nature and significance of 
Freud's distinction between tlie Preconscious and the Unconscious proper 
(in the systematic sense), Miss Bradby's treatment of the "Unconscious" 
being concerned largely with the former and only to a comparatively 
small extent with the latter, (2) a strong tendency to overemphasise the 
importance of "functional" symbolism and to neglect the usually more 
significant "material" aspect of symbols. Following certain of the more 
extreme exponents of Jung's school, Miss Bradby seems inclined to 
believe that all symbols express mental states or processes and have 
but little direct relation to objects of interest or desire in the outer 
world. This tendency frequently causes her to overlook the ultimate 
nature of the (unconscious) objects of human endeavour, and sometimes 
even leads her to almost ludicrously inadequate accounts of motivation ; 
as when she attributes a mal-observation (reported by Darwin in 1876) 
on the part of farmers and gardeners to the effect that the field beans 
of that year were all growing on the wrong side of the pod, to the 
farmer's "uneasy dread of having his ideas upset"— the particular form 
of the mal-observation being, it is suggested, due to the fact that "Darwin's 
own discoveries were threatening the supposed symmetry of unconscious 
thought" (p. 102). 

Although we have been compelled to emphasise the very serious 
incompleteness of the book from the psycho-analytic point of view, we 
do not wish in any way to convey the impression that the volume is 
devoid of merit. Failing a more penetrating and exhaustive treatise on 
the subject, it virill doubtless be of considerable value both to the student 
of logic and to the student of psychology, and is more especially likely 
to be of interest to the economist, the moralist or the politician who is 
beginning the study of psychology. Psychologists have as yet produced 
little that is calculated to appeal to workers in these fields, and Miss 


Bradby's exposition of the illogicalities of human behaviour and her in- 
sistence upon the operation of unconscious or semi-conscious motives 
as important determinants of this behaviour should provide a valuable 
lesson to all who have to deal with social phenomena. 

The book is divided into a short introductory section devoted to 
an exposition of formal logic- and three "Parts", the first dealing with 
"the unconscious background of conscious reasoning", the second with 
"unconscious motives the source of fallacy", the third with "lojjic applied 
to life". In the first of these three parts are chapters on instinct, in- 
tuition, dreams, language etc.; in the second there is attempted an i 
analysis and classification of f;illacies, while the third deals with education, ; 
"the logic of compromise" (concerned with the inU-raction of grouj^s ot ! 
opposed motives), social problems, religion, s]>iritualism, etc. To the f 
present writer it would seem that the middle portion of the book is tlie I 
most helpful, interesting and original, as it suggests many valuable lines 
of thought which — especially when deepened by j)sycho-analylic insight 
— should be of service to the sociologist and social psychologist. 

We may perhaps bo permitted to repn>duce here, with a few illustrations . 

and comments, Miss Bradby's admittedly provisional classification ot j 


1. The Fallacy of Authority— "A tendency to accept 'authority' instead 

of forming independent judgments", as illustrated, for instance, in the s 

savage's proncness to rely on tribal custom or upon the word of medicine- 
man, priest or king or by the tendency among civilised men to base 
arguments upon the authority of religious creeds or the dogmas ol 
scientific textbooks; this fallacy (like all the subsecjuent ones) appearing 
in its most insidious form when the real basis of tin* argument is un- 
recognised, e. g. when a man thinks he is arguing from ])urcly scientific | 
premises but is all the time being unconsciously influenced by a religious ' 
bias. It is obvious that a more penetrating analysis of liie psycho- 
logical mechanism of this form of fallacy would deal with the nature 
of our attitude towards authority itself and with its foundations in our 
early attitude towards parents and parent-substitutes. 

2. The Fallacy of Self-Centredness "a tendency to primitive egotism 
or imaginative self-centrcdness" ; as illustrated by Lord Salisbury's argu- 
ment that an increased number of j)ub!ic houses does not imi»ly increased 
drunkenness (any more than a great number of chairs would lead his 
housemaids to sit down the oftener). The fallacy here arises from Lord 
Salisbury regarding drunkards as being "people like himself who have 
no craving for alcohol that cannot be kept in check". The same fallacy 
is responsible, according to our author, for mistakes which arise from 
reading our own nature into animals (anthropomorphism) or into persons 
of different race or class. In its more subtle forms it is undoubtedly a 
form of fallacy of which it behoves psychologists more especially to be 


on their guard. In one of its varieties— called by Miss Bradby the fallacy 
of Subjective Symbolism — in virtue of which events or things are regarded 
as expressing human tendencies or feelings, it constitutes a source of 
error from which the Zurich school of psychologists in particular have, 
in the opinion of the present writer, not been altogether free. A full treat- 
ment of the roots of this fallacy would probably have to take into con- 
sideration the whole mechanism of Projection and the psychological 
tendencies underlying Animism. 

3. The Fallacy of Will— "a tendency to think that one can gain 
one's object by the mere imposition of one's will"; as illustrated by 
Gordon's unsuccessful attempt to save Khartoum, the Children's Crusade 
in 1212 and the Society of Friendly Workers inaugurated in 1894 with 
the idea that it would "speedily solve the problem of the poor in London 
in detail and as a whole", but which in three years time had ceased 
altogether to exist. In ttiis fallacy psycho-analysts will have no hesitation 
in seeing the continued operation of the primitive "omnipotence of 

4. The Fallacy of the Wish and the Fear — "a tendency to believe 
in the existence of that which one desires, to which may be added the 
complementary tendency to believe in the existence of that which one 
fears or dreads" ; as illustrated by the investment of savings in highly 
speculative companies, in the Russian Troops Myth of 1914, or the seeing 
of hostile aeroplanes when none were present. The psychological roots 
of this fallacy are obviously much the same as in the preceding case, 
the fallacies tljemselves differing little except as regards the intimacy of 
their relationship to action, which is greater in the case of (3) than in the 
case of (4). 

5. The Fallacy of the Simple and Striking— "a tendency to accept 
a thing as true because it is simple and striking"; as exemplified in 
unreal simplifications in theology, history or science (In one of her 
examples the author erroneously states that Psycho-Analysis "tries to 
make its sexual theory do all duties by regarding every impulse as 
sexual, much as certain Indians regarded men and horses as kinds of 
pig" — though it is interesting to note that a reference to one of Jung's 
works is given in this connection.). A full explanation of the psycho- 
logical roots of this fallacy would doubtless involve a thorough investi- 
gation into the nature of what might be called the Principle of Least 
Effort (in this case intellectual effort) — a principle which is emerging 
into a position of great importance in connection with Freud's later work. 
The mechanisms of symbolism (particularly those to which Ernest Jones 
has drawn attention in his recent work on the subject) and the general 
tendency to use concrete images rather than abstract thought are also 
obviously of great importance here. 

6. The Fallacy of Limited Experience— "a tendency to draw con- 



elusions from too limited an experience"; as illustrated by the North 
American Indians' belief that the early French missionaries were bent 
on doing them harm by the exercise of magic, since in their ignorance 
of Christian ways and traditions they could conceive of no other motive 
that could satisfactorily account for the behaviour of the Europeans. 

7. The Scientific Fallacy— "the tendency to overlook certain factors in 
the scientific pursuit of other factors" ; as illustrated by the behaviour 
of "the surgeon who performs an operation without considering the 
condition of the patient's spirits or digestion". It is admitted that mistakes 
of this class have "a family likeness" to those 'of Limited Experience. 
The Scientific Fallacy is, we are told, "especially the pitfall of educated 
youth, of experts and of specialists and it makes a little knowledge such 
a dangerous thing when combined with only a little imagination, that 
we are apt to forget the still greater <langer arising from complete 
ignorance". It is obvious that this and the preceding class of fallacies 
differ from the other classes in that they are to some extent necessarily 
involved in the finite nature off all human knowledge; even here, however, 
the danger of ill-adjusted thought and action very frequently arises 
from the co-operation of conative and affective factors, as is recognised 
by Miss Bradby when she says for instance that "the expert in hot 
pursuit of some factors, overlooks others which would delay him, or 
bent on applying a theory, neglects data which do not tally with it." 

8. The Fallacy of the Marvellous "a tendency to believe in a thing 
because it is mai-vcllous"; as illustrated by our readiness "to make a 
nine days' wonder out of anything which offers possibilities (such as 
the case of Helen Keller) or our alacrity in spreading or believing 
reports of supernatural phenomena. A full treatment of the psychological 
causes of this fallacy would have to deal with, among other things, 
(1) the intellectual basis of the fallacy in limitation or dissociation of 
experience (an aspect already treated by McDougall and other psycho- 
logists), (2) the belief in magic and the supernatural generally as arising 
from a projection of the primitive "omnipotence of thought", (3) the 
narcissistic roots of the motives leading to cxag}i[eration as a means of 
increasing the power and interest attaching to the individual (a matter 
upon which psycho-analytic research has still probably much enlighten- 
ment to give us). 

9. The Fallacy of Suggestibility, individual or gregarious — an aspect 
of the subject to which considerable attention has of course already 
been paid by medical and social psychologists, on which Psycho-Analysis 
has been able to throw some further light by c.Khibiting tlie infantile 
roots of suggestibility in their various displacements, and as regards 
which the forthcoming pronouncements of Professor Freud on Collective 
Psychology will be eagerly awaited by psycho-analysts. 

10. The Fallacy of Magic Influence ~"a tendency to believe that 





things influence each other by secret sympathy" ; a fallacy which (chiefly 
through the works of Freud and Frazer) is now, in its general bearings, 
too well understood by psycho-analysts to need comment or illustration. 

It is to be regretted that in introducing the above classification of 
fallacies, due to other than strictly intellectual causes, Miss Bradby has 
made practically no reference to the work of her few predecessors in 
the same field. In a book of this kind we should at least expect some 
mention, for instance, of the name of Francis Bacon. 

Enough has been indicated here to show the vast importance and 
interest of the theme handled by Miss Bradby — a theme which we hope 
will be accorded fuller treatment in the not too distant future. We need 
only add in conclusion that the book is written in an easy and pleasant 
style and affords throughout striking evidence of the author's wide 
reading and extensive interests. 

J. C. FlCgel. 

The Psychology of Nervous Ailments. By Joseph Ralph. (Ralph, 
Chelston, Torquay, 1920. Pp. 62.) ;,' 

Since writing the brochure which was reviewed in the last number 
of the Journal (p, 487), Mr. Ralph has returned from America to England 
and has just published a second brochure. Like the former one, it is 
a clear, though brief and elementary, presentation of the aims of the 
psycho-analytic method, especially in regard to psychotherapy. As in 
the former case, we note an historical error regarding Dr. Breuer. This 
time, it is true, he becomes connected with Vienna and not Zurich, 
but it is said of him that in 1880, when "an old Viennese neurologist", 
he made certain discoveries, but was to appreciate their im- 
portance on account of his advanced age (pp. 13, 15). Dr. Breuer is 
a practising physician, and his speciality is physiology, not neurology; 
as he is, we believe, still in practice, he was presumably in the thir- 
ties in 1880, so that the reasons why he did not pursue his investi- 
gations are more likely to be connected with youth than with age. 

Two others slips may be commented on. Freud never found that 
the neurasthenias were "merely symptoms of underlying mental causes" 
(p. 16), but has always regarded them as of purely physical origin. Nor 
can we agree that "it is advisable that the patient relinquish the usual 
routine of life and place himself at the disposal of the analyst for daily 
treatment of about two hours' duration" (p. 61). It is, on the contrary, 
important that the patient's mode of life during the analysis should 
approximate as nearly as possible to his normal one, and every effort 
should be made to ensure this, since it is a far more favourable con- 
dition for the analysis; while the cases it is advisable to treat for two 
hours daily are exceptions rather than the rule. 


In his preface Mr. Ralph breaks a lance for the lay analyst, in which 
he has our full sympathy, but "methinks he doth protest too much" 
when he maintains that those who have succeeded in psycho-analytic 
work have done so not because of tiicir medical training, i>ut in spite 
of it (author's italics). There may, especially from Uic psychological 
point of view, be deficiencies in a medical education, but in the 
treatment of patients the advantages of it are greater than the disad- 
vantages. E_ j_ 

RELIGIo^. AND THE Nkw PSYCHOLOGY. A Psycho-Analytic Study ol 
Religion. By W. S. Swisher, B. I). (Geo. Routledgc and Sons, London, 
1920. Pp. 261. Price lOs. 6d.). 

From the publishers' announcement we learn that this is "the first 
attempt in book form to apply Psycho-Analytic or Freudian Psychology 
to the entire problem of Religion and the conduct of Human Life", but 
the reader will be disappointed if he expects from this to find a psycho- 
analysis of individual religious phenomena. There is in the book neither 
this nor any fundamental investigation of religious problems, so that the 
book would have to be pronounced unsuccessful if wc were to accept 
the author's statement (p. x) that it "aims to be a comprehensive treat- 
ment of the religious problem in its various phases, the varied pheno- 
mena of religion, and various normal and abnormal religious types 
together with certain suggestions for a new and different kind of edu- 
cation, from the viewpoint of the new psychology". 

We suspect, however, that the author's real aim was quite other 
than this, and that actually he has succeeded much better than might 
be thought if judged from the less modest standards indicated above. 
The desire evidently permeating the book is the altruistic wish to help 
other people who may find it hard to reconcile their religious tendencies 
with either the new psychology or the facts of life, and the spirit of 
goodwill and benevolence that breathes through the whole book quite 
disarms criticism. The author appears to be an American clergyman, 
presumably from Boston, who has come to realise that the old insistence 
of religious teachers on dogmatic beliefs and moral precepts as the sole 
guide to life urgently needs to be supplemented, if not indeed actually 
replaced, by a more comprehending altitude towards human nature 
and Its possibilities. This he has found in psycho-analysis, which is of 
course the new psychology referred to in the title, and he follows his 
homiletic impulse to place before others tlie more satisfactory point of 
view he has himself attained. 

The book is a kindly talk on such matters as the problem of evil. 
religious conversion, human motives, etc., as illuminated by psycho- 




analysis. Interspersed throughout the book is a very readable and 
the whole trustworthy account of the main psycho-analytic discoveries. 
He repeatedly insists on the wide-spread importance of sexuality in life 
in general, and religion in particular, and seems prepared to accept 
the exclusively phallic origin of the latter. He points out the enormous 
importance of the (Edipus complex, especially as a source of the sense 
of sin and guilt. Many illustrations are given of unconscious motivation, 
and there are two appendices on dreams and birth dreams respectively! 
The relation of mythology to religion is not overlooked, though if the 
author were acquainted with the literature in German he would have 
been able to extend this part in a valuable degree. 

Perhaps the most interesting and valuable part of the book is the 
indication it affords of the way in which religion as previously known 
will gradually become replaced by other forms of human activity and 
as the author points out, has in the past twenty years already been so 
replaced on an extensive scale in America. As with all great changes 
in human thought, this comes about not, as one might logically expect 
through the detailed refutation of preceding beliefs, but through a gradual 
loss of interest in them; one thinks of the various scholastic problems 
of the middle ages, the witchcraft epidemic, and so on. To the author 
as to many other religious people, it is rapidly becoming a matter of 
indifference what actual beliefs are held on the great religious topics of 
salvation, of the next life, of the nature of God or Christ, and the like. 
Bibliolatry, for instance, he positively inveighs against. Such things belong 
to the past, not to the future. Care about individual security, salvation 
and consolation is being replaced by interest in the relation of an indi- 
vidual to his group, essentially to his fellow man; the supernatural 
aspects are falling more and more into tlie background. On this phase 
of the evolution of religion there can be no doubt that psycho-analysis 
must have a far-reaching effect. This the author sees clearly enough, 
and he is in the vanguard of progress in laying before his fellows such 
considerations in this very stimulating, challenging, and at the same 
time helpful work. 

In the next edition, which we trust will be called for, we suggest to 
the author that he reconsider the following points. As a criticism of 
Freud's view that the sense of blood-guilt emanated originally from 
the crime of parricide (for which, by the way, the term of patricide 
has been coined in the American translation) he says (p. 13): "Again, 
it must be borne in mind that the primitive evinces no sense of blood- 
guilt To kilt an enemy is merely to rid oneself of his hated presence". 
He here seems to us to have for a moment forgotten, what he never 
forgets elsewhere in writing tlie book, that blood-guilt has nothing to 
do with enemies, but with one's near relations. The important discovery 
of a connection between relief of a symptom and the tracing of its for- 


gotten cause was not "made in 1881 by Freud and his associate Breuer", 
but by the latter alone (p. 25). Nor is It true that "J^^ict and Charcot 
made the same discovery through hypnotic methods". A bibliography 
of psycho-analytic works is given at the end, all of course in English. 
Of technical works those by Adlcr, Coriat, and Pfistcr are included, 
but not Brill, Fercnczi, Hitschmann, or the reviewer; of non-technical 
Lay, Mordell, and Prescott, but not Barbara Low, Putnam, or White. 

E. J. 

PsYCHONEU ROSES OK War ani> Peace. By Millais Culpin, M.D., F.R.C.S- 
(Cambridge University Press, 1920. Pp. 128. Price 10s.) 

This was a thesis successfully presented at London University for the 
degree of M.D. 

As Dr. Culpin has had the advantage of studying the war neuroses 
in his double capacity of operating surgeon and physician, the result 
is a valuable contribution to the literature on this subject. He is non- 
committal in his attitude towards the Freudian conception of the origin 
of the Psychoneuroses but appears to have an open mind on the subject, 
and is open to conviction. For instance he appears to be rather inclined 
to favour Janet's theory of Dissociation and classifies some of his cases 
under the term of "Psychasthenia". Under this heading he includes Phobias 
and Obsessions and in tliis respect separates them from Hysteria. He 
states, however, that the only theory of causation is tlie theory of the 
unconscious and here he seems to discard Janet's dissociation theory 
in favour of the more reasonable Freudian conception. 

With regard to predisposition, the author wit! not admit that every 
patient must necessarily have had a prcdisjiosition to a nervous break- 
down, though he adds that as his experience increased the percentage of 
cases showing no predisposing factors decreased. Ft is in this respect that 
he appears rather to neglect the ontogenetic factors: that the current 
conflict of modern warfare might in every case have something to do 
with hereditary influences and the repressions occurring in the first five 
years of life seems to have been overlokcd. Thus he only quotes one 
case in which it was considered necessary to analyse the early sexual 
repressions. That the current conflict bears a relationship to older ones 
in reviving buried memories is not seen. 

In his chapters on treatment, Dr. Culpin deals skilfully and at some 
length with the revival of war experiences by the method of abreaction. 
He lays stress on the necessity of the emotion being felt as a new ex- 
perience in association with the original cause. A hypnoidal state is 
aimed at in this abreaction and in this respect the author endeavours 
to steer a halfway course between the methods of free association and 


Much of the book is devoted to the description of cases; these 
appear to be well chosen and admirably adapted to illustrate the 
author's views. 

A description of the important mechanism of transference is omitted; 
it is however possible to read between the lines and see that 
Dr. Culpin recognises that his successful treatment depended on this 
mechanism. Dr. Culpin, while not accepting the Freudian conception of 
origins, admits the therapeutic value of this technique. 


Psychology AND Psychotherapy. By William Brown, M.A., M.D., 
D.Sc. With a Foreword by William Aldren Turner, C.B.,M.D. (Arnold, 
London, 1921. Pp. 196. Price 8s. 6d.) 

Dr. Brown has given us a very readable Httle volume, and what he 
has to say is attractively and clearly presented. It would be good if 
more of the books written on cognate topics were written with the 
same conciseness, neatness and clarity. 

The contents of the book, however, are of more unequal value, 
though the author has, with one important exception, successfully 
achieved his main purpose of expounding the psychological principles 
underlying the practice of psychotherapy. Of the five sections the first, 
"Introductory", gives a general account of mental dissociation, hypnot- 
ism, and of hysteria and other neuroses, with a thumb-nail sketch of Freud's 
and Jung's views of sex. The description of neurasthenia (p. 34) makes 
it plain that the author really has the condition of hypochondria in 
mind. He says that Freud's three objections to the method of hypnot- 
ism are: (1) Failure of the method in certain cases. (2) Its tendency 
to produce other symptoms in place of those of which the patient is 
cured. (3) Fear of the transference of sexual feeling to the person of 
the physician (p. 16). The last of these is, of course, a grotesque 
invention. In the second he ascribes to Freud the belief that hypnotism 
produces the other symptoms, whereas Freud naturally is speaking of 
the neurosis. Freud's real objection is not included m the list, though 
it is hinted at elsewhere in the book in a misleading statement 
One notes, by the way, that, whenever the subject of trans- 
ference and its relation to suggestion is touched on, signs of con- 
fusion of thought appear. Thus the author proclaims with the air of 
discovery, and insists in the face of imaginary opposition, that trans- 
ference occurs during psycho-analysis ! "I am not claiming that analysis 
involves suggestion . . . But I am contending that the method of psycho- 
analysis, even when carried out according to the strictest rules of the 
Freudian school, does involve suggestion in the form of transference. 


and, further, that unless positive transference occurs the metliod is 
powerless to effect a cure" (p. 110). And yet this passai^e immed- 
iately follows one quoted from Freud enunciating the same tiling as 
^ a truism of psycho-analysis. 

Part II, "Theoretical", comprises three chapters. The first is on 
Freud's theory of dreams. A concrete account is given and the author's 
only personal comment is to express the opinion that the interpretation 
of fear dieams as wish-fulJilmcnt dreams leaves him unconvinced. In 
fact, he stigmatises it as "this persistent and almost impertinent faith- 
fulness to one idea". The second chapter, "Freud's Theory of the 
Unconscious", is a condensation of the final chapter of the Traum- 
deutuiig, the last page or two being dovotc<I to McDougall's views 
on the psycho-physics of inhibition. The third chapter, "Theories of 
the Emotions", discusses JVIcDougaU's, Shand's and Ribot's views on 
this subject, besides which the author finds Freud's dichotomy into 
egoistic and sexual instincts "rather vague and incomplete". 

Part III is on Psychotherapy proper. There are said to be four 
fundamental factors at work: Psycho-Synthesis, Psycho-Catliarsis, Auto- 
gnosis, and the personal influence of the physician (suggestion). The 
first of these refers to the recovery of lost memories, chiefly in hyp- 
nosis. The second is, of course, Breuer's abreaction, to wliich the author 
attaches great value. The third term is coined to replace the more 
humble expression of self-knowledge. The metliod by which this is 
attained does not seem to differ from a combination of Dubois' per- 
suasion and Dejerinc's conversational talks. "In a certain class af cases 
it may give findings that correspond with tlie theories of psycho- 
analysis. In such cases it should, of course, be called psycho-analysis" 
(p. 1()4). Presumably in these cases the subject of sex has been men- 
tioned by the patient, but wc cannot sec what change this makes to 
the method. The reader may indeed ask why in this section there is 
no account given of the psycho-analytic method, for it would be very 
appropriate here, and nearly a half of the whole book is taken up with 
the subject of psycho-analysis. Furtlicr, the author tells us that he has 
performed numerous psycho-analyses in the past eight years with a 
view to testing the theory of it (p. vii). The answer is a simple one. 
In spite of his wide reading, the author seems to bo under the curious 
impression that the psycho-analytic method comprises nothing beyond 
letting the patient talk. He says, for instance, "Psycho-Analysis is 
simply the method of free association" (i>. 14), and it is implicit in his 
whole attitude towards the subject, notably in the account he gives 
of a "Freudian case" (p. 106, 107). Having no sort of familiarity with 
the psycho-analytic technique, it is comprehensible that his knowledge 
of the unconscious is purely second-hand and his views on it, there- 
fore, of no particular interest. 


A quarter of the book is taken up by Part IV, curiously entitled 
"Lessons of the War". We say "curiously", for, without intending to, 
the author makes it quite plain that there were no lessons learned 
from the war. Neither he nor any of the other numerous writers on 
the subject has yet produced a single idea or any method of treatment 
that was not well-known before the war. This is no* to say that the 
account he gives of his experiences in the field (in'>an advanced neur- 
ological station) do not make interesting reading, but that is quite 
another matter. We note that the author accepts Freud's view of 
repression as the cause of dissociation, also in the war cases, though 
not of course his view that the conflict in the psycho-neuroses (even 
of peace) is fundamentally a sexual one. As for ti-eatment: "In my view 
it (the process called by Breuer and Freud "abreaction") is the most 
helpful therapeutic process in dealing with the majority of war psycho- 
neuroses" (p. 125). 

The last Part, a rather superfluous one, is a conventional account 
of the various hypotheses concerning the relation of mind to brain. 

A list of books of reference is appended^ no works by any psycho- 
analytical writers except Freud being mentioned. 

We trust that in a future edition Dr. Brown will replace the word 
"push" by "advance" or "attack" (p. 134, 135), for it is not in harmony 
with the rest of his style. E. J. 

Anxiety Hystkria. By C. H. L. Rixon, M.D., M.R.C.S., and D. Mat- 
thew, M.C., M. B., Ch.B. (H. K. Lewis and Co., London. Pp. 124. Price 
4s. 6d.) 

This little book, says Col. Sir A. Lisle Webb in his forew^ord, 
aims at supplying a real need for a brief and straightforward account 
of the modern views of functional nervous disorders. This aim is only 
partly fulfilled, for no account is given of the knowledge of these 
disorders accruing from the psycho-analytic investigation of them. 
Further, one fails to find that anything other than what has been 
brought forward during the last two or three years in the more general 
literature on the subject, apart from the Freudian, has been discovered 
by the investigations of the two authors. 

If the intention of the authors was to expound the modern views, 
surely those of Professor Freud and his followers should have been 
included, even if the writers themselves were unable to accept them. 

This book in one direction is an advance on so many others of a 
like nature, in that the authors have eschewed the term "Psycho- 
Analysis" and use the term "Mental Exploration" for their investigations, 
in the psychical sphere. 

136 BOOK revie:ws 

The choice of the title, "Anxiety Hysteria", is unfortunate and 
misleading. Freud coined this term for a given purpose to describe a 
particular syndrome. The authors apply this term of Freud's to cover 
conditions for which it was never intended, and they also quote other 
terms which they state arc used for the same condition. It would 
amount to the same thing if someone wrote a book entitled, "I^iralysis 
Agitans", and stated that in using this term he included all forms of 
tremor, and such terms as psycho-neurosis, anxiety state, etc. were 
sometimes used for the same condition. Such methods do not tend to 
clarify the already chaotic state of thought with regard to the functional 
neuroses, but only lead further into the morass. 

It is to be noticed that the authors still adhere to the old term 
subconscious, and they state that there is no hard and fast line between 
it and the conscious. This is certainly opposed to the modem trend 
of thought among psychologists, who, since Freud built up his theory 
of mental functioning, arc tending more and more to adopt his nomen- 
clature of conscious and unconscious and the precise meanings he 
attaches to them. 

On page 13, the authors mention the "golfer's golf complex"; the 
term complex according to its present usage in psychology refers to a 
group of ideas dissociated from the personality and which are emot- 
ionally toned, so it cannot apply in this case to the above "complex" ; 
constellation would have been the correct term. 

The authors state on page 43, that the repression of the instinct of 
self-preservation is the commonest cause of all psycho-neuroses, both 
war and civil. There is no evidence at present that the instinct of 
self-preservation is ever in a state of repression, and until this is forth- 
coming the authors' statement is rendered useless. If it is to be sup- 
posed that what they really mean is self-love and not self-preservation, 
two very different things, then their statement would have a certain 
degree of truth in it. 

The authors' line of treatment of their so-called anxiety hysteria 
appears to be a resuscitation of forgotten memories, followed by 
explanations that these are the manifestations of the instinct of self- 
preservation. The authors claim satisfactory results from this method, 
but the permanence of cures of this nature is still an open question, 
for in this respect there is a great divergence of opinion. 

Exception must certainly be taken to the autliors' remarks on 
dreams, page 103, Firstly, Freud has never maintained, as is here 
falsely stated, that all dreams rest on a sexual basis. Secondly, Freud 
and his followers have always maintained that Ihe interpretation of 
dreams is only to be arrived at through the free associations of the 
dreamer. It is somewhat of a presumption on the part of the authors 
to take Freud's method of interpretation as though they had come to it 



by conviction, and assign to Freud and his followers the putting upon 
the dream the interpretation of the interpreter's mind, which latter 
method, it may be added, is frequently adopted by the unfortunately 
increasing number of pseudo-psycho-analysts. 

The authors' purposive omission from their bibliography of books 
directly dealing with their subject, such as Ernest Jones's Papers on 
Psycho-Analysis, etc., must certainly have some other motivation than 
the one given, namely, that they have not been mentioned because 
they are likely to arouse controversial points. Do the authors seriously 
consider that the books quoted by them contain nothing of contro- 
versial nature? If so the outlook for advance in an understanding of 
psychological problems is decidedly unfavourable. 

Douglas Bryan. 

Les medications psychologiques. Par Pierre Janet. (3 vol, 1144 p. 
Paris, Mean, 1919.) 

Dans cet ouvrage, Janet a rassemble une serie de conferences et 
d'articles qu'il a faits entre les annees 1906 et 1914. L analyse les 
diff^rentes psychoth^rapies qui ont et6 employees au cours de ces der- 
niferes decades. Janet etait particuliferement bien place pour faire ce 
travail. A c6t^ de sa connaissance tres approfondie des littdratures 
anglaises et allemandes, il est un des rares psychi&tres frangais, qui ait 
attribue k la psychologic, une importance de premiere ligne dans 
r^tude des maladies mentales. Ce qui donne un charme tout particuUer 
k cet ouvrage, c'est que I'auteur intercale toujours dans son expose, 
des exemples concrets. 


Tome premier: ^L' action morale et V utilisation de I'automatisme* . 


Janet etudie d'abord les guerisons miraculeuses. II reconnait qu'elles 

existent parfois, mais il considfere que cette therapeutique religieuse 

est la moins scientifique de toutes nos medications psychologiques. Elle 

est, en effet, appliquee de la meme fagon pour tons les malades, et, de 

plus, elle ne fait pas appel k une force psychique humaine, k une 

Anergic individuelle. Tout se passe entre Dieu et la maladie. Le grand 

progr^s que nous apportent les medications philosophiques et morales 

que Janet Etudie ensuite est qu'elles font appel Ji la volonte humaine. 

Ces psychotherapies ont cependant encore un gros inconvenient, celui 

de ne pas tenir compte des circonstances sp^ciales dans lesquelles 

s'est developpde la maladie. Janet passe alors k I'^tude de la suggestion 


et de I'hypnose. Aprfes un exposii historiquc de la question, il con- 
clut que «la suggestion n'est possible que chez dcs esprits qui pr^sentent 
momentan^ment une depression dc profondcur moyenne atteignant le 
niveau des tendances rdalistes et rendant la reflexion Icnte, difficile et 
courte», Pour Janet, la suggestion est la provocation d'une impulsion, 
k la place d'une volenti r^fl^chie; I'hypnotisme, la provocation d'un 
somnambulisme k la place d'un <itat de vcille. Avcc la suggestion, 
nous sortons des moralisations ind<5termindes pour cntrer dans une 
conception plus pr«5cise des lois psychologiques, Le fait mftme qu'elie 
n'est indiqu^e que dans des cas restreints, montre d^ji que nous sommes 
en face d'une thdrapeutiquc plus precise et plus scientifiquc. 

Tome deux: *Les Economies psjchologiques*. fjoy f>.) 
Aprfes avoir parld de ses travaux sur I'analysc psychologique, et de 
travaux de Morton Prince, Janet abordc Ic probifcmc dc la psychoanalyse. 
Au premier abord, il paratt assez scivfere k son sujet. II pn5tend qu'elie 
ne nous apporte rien d'orjgtnal. II lui reproche encore de faire des 
generalisations Ik oti il ne s'agit probablement que dc cas individuels. 
Tout en reconnaissant la grande part qu'il faut attribucr aux troubles 
sexuels dans I'^tiologie des ndvroses, il ne pcul admettrc le pan- 
sexualisnie de Freud. Voici ce qu'il dit: 

«Si la mdthode de la psychoanalyse consiste k trouver a tout prix, 
mfime en se permettant les interpretations les plus invraiseinblables 
et les plus saugrenues des iddes fixes sexuelles, il est Evident que je 
n'ai pas fait de psychoanalyse. Mais ai-je eu tort de n'cn Ipas faire? 
Cette m^thode d'interpretatlon sexuellc k outrance est justemcnt ce qui 
est en discussion; Avant d'exiger son application perpdtuelle, k tort 
ou k travers, il faudrait commencer par dtSmontrer sa Idgitimitd, par 
montrer sans interpretations la gdndralitd dcs traumatismes d'ordre 
sexuel dans les nevroses.* 

Janet critique aussi la notion de libido qu'il trouve trop vague, II 
voudrait aussi un critfere plus precis dans les interpretations des sym- 
pt6mes pathologiques: 

«L'analogie vague des sympt6mes avec des phenomfcnes sexuels 
n'est pas une raison suffisante jyour donner la preponderance k ces 
phenomfenes dans I'inteqjretation dc la maladic.* 

Si le ton general de cet article est assez sevfcre, il faut reconnaltre 
que sur bien des points Janet rend hommagc aux decouvertes de Freud. 
Voici quelques citations qui en font foi. (p. 219.) 


«La psychoanalyse a surtout observe les reves des malades. Mais il 
taut reconnaitre que cet examen des reves a ete fait d'une raaniere 
tres originale. Au lieu de se borner k recueillir les attitudes et les 
paroles du sujet pendant les reves ou imm^diatement aprfes le reveil, 
et de ne tenir compte que de ses paroles elles-m^mes, la psycho- 
analyse a tire de ces documents un parti infiniment plus avantageux, 
grace h la m^thode do I'interpretation.* 

(p. 224.) <La conception du refoulement est certainement I'une des 
plus interessantes de la psychologie de Freud. Ce ph^nomene doit 
^tre, a mon avis, entendu d'une autre maniere, mais il n'en a pas 
moins une grande importance.* 

Parlant de I'opinion g&erale des psychiStres fran^ais sur la psycho- 
analyse, Janet dit: «qu'elle est injuste et regrettable, car au-dessous 
des exagerations et des illusions qui d^parent la psychoanalyse et que 
i'ai et6 oblige de signaler, se trouvent un grand nombre d'^tudes 
pr<5cieuses sur les nevroses, sur revolution de la pensfee dans I'enfance, 
sur les diverses formes des sentiments sexuels. Ces etudes ont attire 
I'attention sur des faits peu connus, et que, par suite d'mie reserve 
traditionelle, on ^tait trop dispos6 k n^gliger. Plus tard on oubliera les 
generalisations outrees et les symbolismes aventureux qui aujourd'hui 
semblent caract^riser ces etudes et les separer des autres travaux 
scientifiques et on ne se souviendra que d'une seule chose, c'est que 
la psychoanalyse a rendu de grands services k I'analyse psychologique. » 

Tome trots: <Les acquisitions psychologiques.* f^p^p.) 
Dans ce troisifeme volume Janet s'attache a decrire les medications 
qui font acquerir au malade des tendances nouvelies, qui cherchent k 
augmenter ses forces ou k lui faire recup^rer celles qu'il a perdues. 
Janet aborde d'abord le problfeme de ['education et de la reeducation. 
11 ne s'arrete pas seulement a la reeducation "physique (gymnastique 
pour les contractures hysteriques, rhythmique pour les choreiques, exer- 
cices de prononciation centre le begayement, etc.) mais il etudie encore 
la reeducation de la perception, de la memoire, de I'attention et des 
autres facult^s psychiques. A cause de la grande difficulte qu'ont les 
nevroses k faire des acquisitions nouvelies, I'education, comme moyen 
therapeutique, n'a que des indications limitees. Elle est efficace surtout 
contre les troubles qui portent sur des fonctions psychologiques 
^lementaires et sur des troubles qui sont localises sur une fonction 
particulifere et non sur I'ensemble du psychisme. Janet insiste sur la 
necessite de preciser les symptomes et les malades auxquels I'education 


est applicable avec efficacite. La psychoth^rapie selon lui, n'est pas 
encore arrivde a ce r^sultat. 

L'auteur dtudie ensuite les aesthdsiog^nies et il comprend sous cc titre 
les medications qui cherchent k provoquei* une excitation par la sensibilite. 
A ce propos, il rappelle la metallotherapie et le magn^tisme. II pense 
que ces methodes pourraient avoir une grande importance si Ton 
etudiait mieux les phenomfenes si singuliers et encore peu cxplicables 
qu'elles ont mis en lumiere. A leur endroit, on ne peut dvidemment 
pas encore parler de regies th6rapeutiques mais il y a cependant des 
germes k developper. Janet ctudie ensuite les autres traitcments par I'exci- 
tation. Ceux-ci sont caracterises par leur tendance a provoqucr un 
effort personnel plutot que rautomatisme, une activite plutot que le 
repos, une vie sociale plut6t que I'isolement. II fait remarquer justement 
que certains actes qui, k premiere vue, paraissent deprimanls sont 
souvent au contraire des excitants; mais \h plus qu'ailleurs il nous faut 
tenir compte du facteur personnel. II faut proccider par tMonnements, 
car ce qui est excitation pour les qns est depression pour les autres: 
Ainsi sont les manages, les voyages, les dangers, les doulcurs, les 
emotions, les travaux professionnels ou les travaux intellectuels. Lorsque 
ces excitants psychologiques sont insuffisants pour rendrc au malade 
sa vie normale, Janet les appelle impulsions pathologiques. Mais la 
encore il recommande de ne pas les negliger mais au contraire d'utilisef 
ce qu'elles ont de favorable. Pour appliquer ces traitements par I'exci- 
tation avantageusement, il faut avant tout 6tre au clair sur le degr^ de 
depression du malade. Janet conclut ainsi son long chapitre sur les 
excitations : 

«I1 faut indiquer aux malades des actions qu'ils soient capables 
d'accomplir et qui leur laissent des benefices. II faut leur apprendre 
k les accomplir correctement et complfetement de la manifere qui peut 
tear etre excitante. L'homme ne s'enrichit pas seulement en faisant 
des Economies sur ses ddpenses, il peut aussi s'enrichir, peur-fetre 
mfeme plus rapidement, en apprenant a faire des recettes. » 

L'auteur etudie enluite les medications psycho-physiologiques. A 
ce propos, il analyse les travaux de Lewellys Barker, de Seguin, de 
Deschamps, de Chaslin, de Huchard, etc. II insiste sur {'importance des 
recherches faites au cours de ces derniferes ann^es sur les vaso-moteurs 
et les glandes k secretions internes. II fait bien remarquer rimportance 
de la physiologic dans I'^tude des maladies mentales et il ne saurait 
accepter Tattitude de certains psycho-therapeutes qui voudraient se 
passer des connaissances physiologiques et m^dicales. Janet etudie 
ensuite «la direction morale* qu'il differencie des medications morales 
dent il a parle dans son premier volume, en ce qu'il s'agit ici, non 
plus d'une morale vague appliqu^e ci tous les malades de la m6me fagon, 

fr tfk. 


mais d'une action morale precise, tenant compte des circonstances 
speciales du malade et de I'influence personelle du medecin. Etudiant 
ensuite cette influence, il rend hommage en passant k la th^orie 
de Freud sur le transfert. Cette methode de la direction morale demande 
Tin tact tr^s avise. On ne saurait aborder un aboulique en faisant appel 
tout de suite et a touts propos a sa volOnte. Comma les autres, cette 
medication ne pent s'appliquer a tous les cas, Elle n'est du reste pas 
sans produire certains troubles: resistance ou attachement exagere du 
malade au medecin. A ce propos encore, Janet discute les theories des' 

En conclusion, I'auteur nous propose la definition suivante de la 
psychotherapie : 

«La psychotherapie est un ensemble de precedes th^rapeutiques 
de toutes espfeces, aussi bien physiques que moraux, appHcables k des 
maladies aussi bien physiques que morales, proc6d^s determines par 
la consideration de faits psychologiques observes ant^rieurement et 
surtout par la consideration des lois qui rfeglent le developpement de ces 
faits psychologiques et leur association soit entre eux, soit avec des 
phenomenes physiologiques. En un mot, la psychotherapie est une 
application de la science psychologique au traitement des maladies. » 

Janet estime que nous ne possedons pas encore une psychotherapie 
telle qu'il vient de la definir. En effet, en therapeutique nous pouvons, 
suivant les maladies, ordonner avec precision un purgatif ou un astrin- 
gent, un calmant ou un narcotique, tandisqu'en psychothdrapie il ne 
nous est pas encore permis de dire avec la meme precision: Ici il faut 
faire de I'hypnose, la de la suggestion, ou encore, chez tel autre malade, 
une psychoanalyse. Certes nous tendons a arriver a ce r^sultat, c'est pour- 
quoi Janet, s'il est trfes pessimiste aujourd'hui reste plein d'espoir pour 
demain. Nous avons termine I'analyse de son grand ouvrage, nous avons 
craint d'etre trop bref sur bien des points et surtout, au cours de notre 
expose, nous n'avons pas eu la place de faire bien des remarques critiques 
qui nous sont venues k I'esprit, a la lecture de cet ouvrage si document^ 
et si attrayant. Nous renvoyons done notre lecteur a ce livre qui resume 
d'une faijon magistrale non seulement I'experience trfes riche de I'auteur, 
mais aussi toutes les experiences qui ont 6t6 faites au cours du sifecle 
dernier, dans le domaine si passionnant de la psychotherapie. 

Raymond de Saussure. 

Pagan and Christian Creeds: Their Origin and Meaning. By Edward 
Carpenter (George Allen and Unwin, Ltd., London. Pp. 318. Price 10s. 6d.). 


This is a book that would be useful to every psycho-analyst. It 
contains in a handy and readable form material that is not readily 
accessible otherwise. It has the superiority over the usual text-books of 
mythology in embracing a wider scope, taking into account the work 
done during the past century by anthropologists as well. The subjects 
dealt with include a comparative study of the solar myths, Christmas 
festivals, totem-sacraments, rites of expiation, initiation, and redemption, 
saviour-gods and virgin-mothers, the sex-taboo, magicians, kings and I 

gods, food and vegetation magic — in short, the whole evolution of i 

religion and allied phenomena. Two chapters deal with the genesis and ' 

exodus of Christianity respectively. 

Scholars might find a good deal to criticise in the details of the 
work, especially as the material is all gathered at second or third hand; 
and the author is not over-discriminating in his choice ol authorities, 
appearing to rely equally on men like Reinach and less trustworthy 
writers such as J. M. Robertson and Andrew Lang. But tlie broad 
outlines of what he has to present are sound enough, and, after all, 
he is avowedly acting as a transmitter between the expert and the 
uninformed. Not that he confines himself to playing this part. Much of 
what he has to say has been transmuted by his own general outlook 
on life, which is at once poetic and rationalistic. Of the three 
main naturalistic theories of myths and religions his view is that 
the phallic cults came first, the cult of magic and the propitiation of 
earth-divinities and spirits (including vegetation magic) came second, x 
and only last came the belief in definite God-figures residing in heaven 
(including the solar, lunar and stellar myths). He attempts further a ^ 

rough correlation between the developmental stages of the various 
phenomena and three stages of mental development, to which he gives 
the names of simple consciousness, self-consciousness, and universal con- 
sciousness respectively. They are not altogether unlike Freud's stages of 
animism, religion, and science. 

As is well-known, psycho-analysis has been extensively applied to 
many of the topics here dealt with, by Freud, Abraham, Rank, Retk, 
Roheim, and others. All this work is quite ignored by Carpenter, and 
it is very striking to note how his own suffers in consequence. Time 
and again he flounders over a particular problem — typical examples 
being the necessity for a virgin-mother and the meaning of totem meals, 
where a knowledge of psycho-analysis would at once have provided 
him with the key to the solution. The whole work will have to be re- 
written again some day in the light of these later investigations. Psycho- 
analytical work is of course accessible to analysts in our own literature, 
and no analyst can afford to ignore the problems in question, which 
have immediate bearings on our daily studies of unconscious mental 
life. But it is very useful to have, so to speak, the raw material gathered 


together for us in such a convenient shape, providing at least a review 
of the problems which can then serve as a starting-point for more inten- 
sive and special studies. 

E. J. 

Die Pubertatsdruse und ihre Wirkungen (The Puberty Glands and 
THEIR Effects.) By Alexander Lipschutz, Lecturer on Physiology at the 
University of Bern. (Bircher, Bern 1919. Pp. 456.) 

"Whoever feels the need to fill up this large gap in our knowledge 
(i. e. with reference to the essential factors of sexuality) with a tentative 
assumption may formulate the following conception based on the active 
substances found in the thyroid gland: A material which is distributed 
throughout the organism becomes disintegrated through the appropriate 
excitation of erotogenic zones, as well as through other conditions under 
which sexual excitement originates. The products of this disintegration 
supply a specific stimulus to the organs of reproduction or to the centres 
in the spinal cord connected with them. We are already familiar with 
such a disintegration of a toxic stimulus into a specific stimulus of an 
organ from other poisonous substances that are introduced into the body 
from without ... I certainly do not attach any value to this particular 
assumption and should be quite ready to give it up in favour of another 
provided its fundamental character, the emphasis laid on sexual chemism, 
is preserved. For this apparently arbitrary statement is supported by a 
fact which, though little heeded, is particularly worth considering. The 
neuroses, which can be traced to disturbances of tlie sexual life, show 
the greatest clinical resemblance to the phenomena of intoxication and 
abstinence which result through the habitual introduction of pleasure- 
producing poisonous substances (alkaloids)." 

This passage, which the writer- quotes trom Freud's "Drei Ab- 
handlungen zur Sexualtheorie" gives the views that have obtained in 
psycho-analysis from its commencement on the physiological basis of the 
libido. Freud in his first publications on the pathogenesis of the anxiety 
neurosis and neurasthenia presented the view that these "actual neuroses" 
are not accessible to psychological analysis, but only to a physiological 
one, and he emphasised the far-reaching similarity that exists between 
anxiety and neurasthenic symptoms and the phenomena of chronic 
poisoning and abstinence. The reviewer has also alluded to the analogy 
between the symptoms of alcoholism and certain purely endogenous 
neuroses. He stated, "that the neurotic who takes a glass of brandy 
really only wishes to stimulate his failing capacity to induce endogenous 
pleasure through the taking of alcohol, which suggests a certain analogy 
between the hypothetical endogenous substance of the libido and alcohol. 
The symptomatology of alcoholic intoxication with the subsequent 


crapulence shows a great similarity to the cyclical psychosis" {JM. 
der Psychoanalyse, Bd. ffl.. S. 855). Freud also considers that the 
symptoms of hypochondria, the "third actual neurosis' , which cannot 
be resolved any further psychically, are an accumulation of products 
of fermentation" of the organ libido, therefore also a sort of mtemal 

These and similar passages in the works of the Freudian school are 
so numerous and so familiar to those conversant with the literature that 
it may seem unnecessary to make further allusion to them. Still from 
time to time it is necessary to do this, because our opponents generally 
suppress these passages-either intentionally or from ignorance ot the 
facts-in order to bring the unjust reproach against psycho-analysis 
that it wishes to explain everything from a psychical pomt of view. and 
denies the biological basis of the neuroses an<l sexuality. 

The few passages that have been quoted, which could easily be 
multiplied tenfold, prove the opposite. A biochemical and biomechanical 
conception of the processes of life in general, and the sexual ones in 
particular, lies at the basis of psycho-analysis; but the working out of 
these problems psycho-analysis leaves for the most part to biologists, 
and physiologists, because it has no direct access to them itself. On the 
other hand, psycho-analysis asserts that it possesses a niethod ot in- 
vestigation and treatment which enables it to analyse into their elements 
the psychical phenomena accompanying the normal and neurotic sexual 
processes, to investigate their conflicts with other menta fo^^^^^'to re- 
construct the developmental history of the mental part of sexuality (the 
fate of the libido), and to influence psychothcrapeutically this fate. 
Psycho-analysis can proffer the most valuable conclusions where bio- 
logical methods have for a long time failed. These conclusions, however, 
have to bear the fate of all psycho-analytical explanations; they are 
exceedingly antipathetic to conscious thought, and for this reason there 
is a tendency-mostly unconscious-to their distortion and mis- 
interpretation; hence also the relief that is felt at every new physiological 
discovery, whether it is the Abderhalden specific reaction to organic 
extracts, or the opening of a new chapter in the theory of the internal 
secretions. Every time it is hoped that the troublesome thing psychical 
and its deep investigation— psycho-analysis— will finally be buried 

It is to be expected that the publication of the most recent biological 
investigations on the function of the "puberty glands", which Lipschutz 
has collected together and systematically presented in this extremely 
well and clearly written text-book, will leave a similar effect It now 
appears proved that certain sexual processes can be inhibited, or on 
the other hand, re-enforced, by physiological and especially by bio- 
chemical means. We certainly shall not fail to find people who with this 
somewhat too big physiological gun will assert that the whole ingenious 


edifice of psycho-analysis will be blown down, and that from now all 
neuroses will be treated only by chemical or operative means. We shall 
await these attacks with equanimity and not follow the bad examples 
of our opponents. On the contrary, we are quite willing to admit the 
great biological significance of the new discoveries; but we shall not 
give up the hope that ±e meritorious investigators of the new physio- 
logical territories will acquire so much psycho-analytical knowledge that 
they will recognise in time the real limits of their competence and not 
overstep them. 

We should like to state at the beginning, however, that this reproach 
of one-sidedness and tendenciousness cannot be brought against the 
author of this work. He expressly and repeatedly declares, "that the 
psychosexual conduct of man cannot be explained alone from the effects 
of the internal secretion of the sexual glands". But he takes into con- 
sideration only the effectiveness of factors other than those of internal 
secretion in as far as "external factors produce changes in the central 
nervous system on which the sexual glands act through their internal 
secretion". Lipschiitz does not seem to know that psychical factors can 
oppose the biochemical sexual activities as an independent force, that 
they can re-enforce, inhibit or even completely suppress them, and that 
the final and manifest sexuality of man proves to be the result of 
libidinous and other (especially egoistic) impulses, as psycho-analysis 
has taught for the last twenty years. And yet it was his master, Professor 
Steinach of Vienna, the discoverer of the puberty glands, who, stimulated 
by psycho-analysis, was able to produce proof from experiments on 
animals that purely psychical effects could inhibit or re-enforce the 
development of the puberty glands (in an anatomical and functional 
sense). The finer processes of these psychical inhibitions and re-enforce- 
ments of sexuality will not for a long time be the object of physiological 
experiments; the psycho-analytic path is still the only one to their 

This limitation, which corresponds with the facts, of the importance 
of the new discoveries certainly does not deny their great significance. 
On the contrary, we do not hesitate to assert that Steinach's discoveries 
may be regarded as the most important event in the sphere of human 
and animal physiology since the discovery of the functions of the thyroid 
gland, suprarenals and pituitary gland. The importance of the subject 
for psycho-analysts induces the writer to give the readers of the Journal 
a more detailed account of the content of this book. 

The most important result of the more recent investigations, which 
were carried out under Steinach's guidance in the biological experimental 
institute of the Academy of Science in Vienna, is the establishment of 
the fact that no internal secretory effect can be ascribed to the sperma- 
togenic part of the testicle and its small canals, and that it is the so- 


called "interstitial cells" of the testicle, i. e. the cells in the tissue 
between the small canals of the testicle, which represent that internal 
secretory organ "whose task it is to bring to maturity the physical and 
psychical sexual characteristics and to preserve them in a state of 
maturity". The totality of these cells forms an organ in itself, an internal 
secretory gland, to which Steinach gave the name of the male puberty 

The female puberty gland of mammals consists of connective tissue 
epitheloid cells in the Thela interna of the shrinking follicle and epithelial 
cells of the Granulosa, with in addition periodically after a definite age 
the corpora lutea of menstruation or pregnancy. (On the whole the 
histological and functional findings in the male sex are much clearer 
and more convincing. Reviewer.) 

An important fact that the author of this work, Dr. Lipschiitz, has 
established compels us to refer again to a result of the Freudian theory. 
We know that Freud on the basis of his analyses of the neuroses was 
impelled to assume two great thrusts of development of the libido, 
corresponding to the two efflorescences of infantile (perverse) and 
juvenile sexuality ; between these a period of relative sexual quiescence 
is interpolated, the so-called latency period, in which the entire instinctive 
force of the human being is placed in the service of asexual tendencies 
(in the psyche, of "sublimations"). It is sufficiently well known what 
indignation the Freudian assumption of an infantile sexuality provoked 
in our psychologists. All possible kinds ol unscientific polemics were 
mobilised against it, including scorn and derision, calumny, personal 
attacks, theological, moral, even psychological and biological pseudo- 
arguments, only so as to protect the amnesia prevailing in childhood 
regarding infantile sexual processes, to hang round it more closely a 
scientific veil and to save the ideal of a childhood "unsullied" by 
sexuality. But what does the unbiassed experimental biologist show us ? 
Nothing less than the "exact" confirmation of the Freudian assumptions. 

"The much discussed sexuality of the child" — it runs on page 127 
in reference to psycho-analysis — "and the sexual perversions of adults 
can be considered as infantile fragments of sexuality, to which normally 
new components are added during further development under the 
influence of the sex glands". This confirmation is carried further even 
into details. It could be established that in the male foetus the puberty 
gland is markedly hypertrophied, so that it occupies tlie greater part 
of the testicle ; a second significant increase of the interstitial cells takes 
place at puberty, so that really there are two acmes in the development 
of the puberty glands. Lipschiitz saw he was compelled to assume that 
changes take place in the organism in the early embryonic period, 
which qualitatively are similar to those that occur in the period of 
puberty. He then distinguishes two "great phases" of puberty or sexual 


maturity. "What has hitherto been generally denoted as the period of 
puberty is probably only a "second great phase of puberty, which sets 
in about the middle of the second decade". "The age of childhood, 
reckoned from birth to the beginning of the second great phase, can 
be denoted as the 'intermediate phase of puberty' " (p. 170). Apart from 
differences in nomenclature and certain relations in time, these passages 
contain the biological corroboration of the developmental history of 
sexual maturity (infantile sexuality, latency period, puberty) postulated 
by Freud. 

Sooner than one ventured to hope, tlie view expressed by the 
reviewer concerning Freud's "Theory of Sex" and its scientific and 
historical significance begins to be verified. He maintained that Freud's 
sexual biological discoveries have an originality of a peculiar order. 
While hitherto psychologists had to start from the experiential facts ot 
physiology, here for the first time it happens that conclusions were 
arrived at concerning unknown biological facts from pure psychological 
investigations, and these conclusions awaited the corroboration of biology. 
A second confirmation of this nature is that proclaimed by Steinach of 
the influence of sexual biological processes through the purely psychic 
influencing ol animals. 

In any case these gratifying agreements point to a future, though 
certainly distant, in which biologists and psycho-analysts will be asso- 
ciated in a common work. 

The new knowledge of the functions of the puberty glands we owe 
to a great number of experiments on animals carried out by biologists 
with much patience and care, for instance, observations on castrated 
and cryptorchidic animals and human beings, transplantation experiments 
of female and male sex glands, experiments of over-feeding and injection 
of gland substance, elective Rontgenisation of the germ glands while 
sparing the interstitial cells, artificial atrophy of the germ cells and 
hypertrophy of the interstitial cells by ligaturing the vas deferens, etc. 
From the mass of facts presented we will only call attention to a few 
that are of particular interest to us. Lipschiitz states (p. 23) that "the 
connections recognised by Tandler compel us to assume that during 
the ontogenetic development the soma passes at first through an asexual 
stage, that an asexual embryonic form exists, sexual differentiation being 
only brought about later through the formative action of the sex glands". 
He then says (p. 127) that some infantile components of sexuality re- 
present asexual impulses, which only later become attributes of the 
sexual whole. This assumption is built up chiefly on the experience 
that castration results in the approximation to a form of youth common 
to both sexes (the "asexual" form). Reference must first of all be made 
here to the double meaning of the word "sexual": a form ot youth 
which is asexual in the sense of the sexual dimorphism can very well 



be sexual in the erotic sense. Secondly it is to be noted — and this 
Lipschiitz admits in other places — that the puberty glands and the 
secondary sexual characteristics in part dependent on them may not be 
the sole sources and expressions of sexuality. Our psycho-analytical 
experiences compel us to assume that there are sexual components 
peculiar to the individual organs of the body themselves, even apart 
from their having been previously "erotised" by the secretion of the 
puberty glands; these components attain the fuller incorporation, so to 
speak the fuller initiation, through the cooperation of the genital and | 

secondary sexual characteristics (which of course are largely dependent Jr 

on the puberty glands). We have not the least doubt that further bio- 
logical experience will also corroborate this observation so conclusive 
to psycho-analysts. 

With a certain air of intent the author seems to evade the question 
of the general bisexuality (with the ultimate prevalence of the one sex) 
postulated by psycho-analysis. We expect that he does this because he 
has gained his psychological knowledge chiefly from the literature of 
the advocates of homosexuality (particularly Magnus Hirschfeld) who do 
not wish to recognise that homosexuals are rudimentary and incomplete 
sexual types who have remained fixed in a preliminary stage of develop- 
ment but would like to assign to them the r61e of a particular (perhaps 
especially privileged) intermediate stage. And yet the brilliant "mas- 
culinations" achieved by operation, by means of which Steinach has 
transformed male homosexuals of the feminine type in such a way that 
there developed in them normal male characteristics and a corresponding 
attitude of libido, change nothing in the conception we are led to by 
psycho-analysis. It would be a gross error to confound femininity of the 
man with homosexuality altogether. Psycho-analysis shows us many cases 
in which the homo-erotic tendency develops as a neurotic symptom 
without there being any femininity in the predisposition ; in such cases 
the "masculination" would only increase the psychical conflicts and 
aggravate the neurosis, perhaps also the homosexuality. Therefore great 
caution is necessary in recommending these operations. 

The reviewer had the opportunity of recommending to Professor 
Steinach a few themes which present themselves in this biological pro- 
vince; for instance, the biochemical influencing of the paranoiac homo- 
sexuals, biochemical-macrobiotic and therapeutic experiments (by means 
of transplantation of puberty glands or ligaturing the vas deferens). 
Fortunately he came too late with his proposals, since these works had 
already been started by Steinach and partly carried through already. 
We await with great interest the communication of these results. 

S. Ferenczi. 




In June appeared the first two volumes of The International 
Psycho-Analytical Library, namely, 'Addresses on Psycho-Analysis* 
by the late J. J. Putnam, and 'Psycho-Analysis and the War Neu- 
roses'. The former is a collection of Dr. Putnam's papers on Psycho- 
Analysis, together with a bibliography of his psychological wri- 
tings and an Obituary by Dr. Ernest Jones, a Preface by Professor 
Sigm. Freud, and a portrait of the author. The latter book con- 
tains three papers which were read at the Congress of 1918 by 
Drs. Ferenczi, Abraham and Simmel, a paper by Dr. Ernest Jones 
read before the Section of Psychiatry of the Royal Society of 
Medicine, and an Introduction by Professor Freud. 

The third volume of the Library, 'The Psycho-Analytic Study 
of the Family' by J. C. Flugel, will be ready by the time these 
lines are printed. 

A translation of Freud's 'Jenseits des Lustprinzips' (Beyond the 
Pleasure-Principle) is in the press and one of 'Massenpsychologie 
und Ich-Analyse' is in active preparation and will appear during 
the Autumn. 

The translation -rights of the 'Sarnmlung kleiner Schriften ztir 
Neurosenlehre' have been acquired by the Press, and these papers 
will be rearranged and published in six volumes. 

'Essays in Applied Psycho- Analysis' by Dr. Ernest Jones is now 
in preparation. This will contain, amongst other essays, 'A Psycho- 
Analytic Study of Hamlet', 'The Symbolic Significance of Salt in 
Folk-Lore and Superstition', 'The Virgin Mary's Conception through 
the Ear: A Contribution to the Relations between Aesthetics 
and Religion'. 

Other books in preparation include 'Australian Totemism' by 
Roheim, 'Studies in Dreams and Allied Topics' by Rank, a 
collection of papers on Psycho-Analysis by Ferenczi, and one by 


150 NOTES 


The Internationale psychoanalytische Bibliothek has reached its 
eleventh volume with a translation of Dr. Ernest Jones' 'Treatment 
of the Neuroses' under the title of 'Therapie der Neurosen'. Pre- 
vious volumes in this series published during the last twelve months 
are : 'Zum Kampf um die Psychoanalyse' by Oskar Pfister ; 'Psycho- 
analyse und Soziologie' by Aural Kolnai, and 'Klinische Beitrage 
zur Psychoanalyse' by Karl Abraham. 

A second edition of 'Jenseits des Lustprinzips' (which is, by tlie 
way, the second Beiheft to the Zeitschrift) was issued in June 
with certain revisions, and in July Freud's new work 'Massen- 
psychologic und Ich-Analyse' was published. 

One of the most important publications of the year is tlie 
'Bericht uber die Fortschritte der Psychoanalyse in den Jahren 1914 
bis 1919', the third Beiheft. The bulk of the material contained 
in this book is being published in English in the Journal under 
die heading of Collective Reviews, but those who wish for full 
bibliographies are again reminded that they should consult the 
original Bericht. 

The fourth Beiheft, which appeared within die last month, is 
August Starcke's 'Psychoanalyse und Psychiatrie', a paper read 
before the Congress at the Hague. 

Beyond that already mentioned, new editions of tlie following 
books have been called for : 'Zur Psychopathologie des AUtags- 
lebens' (7th. enlarged edition), 'Vorlesungen zur Einfiihrung in die 
Psychoanalyse' (3rd. edition), 'Totem und Tabu' (2nd. edition), and 
'Tagebuch eines halbwuchsigen Madchens' (2nd. edition). 



Meeting on October 22, ipso. Dr. Rudolph Katz of Amsterdam, 
Synthetic Analysis, being an exposition of the theories of Dr. C G.Jung 
of Zurich. 

Meeting on November jo, ip20. Spirit Mediums and Their Mani- 
festations. By Dr. H. W. Frink. 

Meeting on January 2£, ip2i. Some experiences at the Sixth 
International Psycho-Analytical Congress. New points of view in 
Psycho-Analysis as gleaned from the work with Prof Freud, and 
contact with the other European analysts. 

The main points dwelt upon were the great interest shown in 
the work of the Congress by all those present; the large number of 
members of good standing present at the Congress; the well marked 
progress of Psycho-Analysis that the members of the various 
countries could report; the activities of the Vienna group of analysts 
and the very pleasant time spent at their meetings in Vienna. 

As far as the technical points in analysis are concerned, the 
advantages of the reclining position to those of the sitting position 
heretofore used in America. Also the advantages of daily visits 
(excepting Sundays and holidays) instead of three times weekly, 
as formerly practised. Mention was made of the so-called "active 
therapy", which had been spoken of at the Congress. The aim of 
the speaker was in the main to emphasize the great advantages, 
and the great sense of satisfaction of going to the fountain source 
for information. 

It is worth mentioning that since the return of Dr. Stern from 
Vienna, two other analysts, Drs. Frink and Meyer, have gone to 
Vienna, and at the present writing are with Prof. Freud. In the 
Fall three other analysts are going to work with Prof. Freud. 

Several new members have been elected in the past six months. 

At this meeting a new President was elected, in the person of 
T. H. Ames, Dr. A. Stern was elected Vice President, and Dr. A. A. 




Brill, Secretary and Treasurer. Recommendations were made to 
Professor Freud concerning the appointment of associate editors 
to the Journal. 

Meeting on February i6, ip2o. Dr. Stern read an abstract of 
Freud's "Jenseits des Lustprinzips". 

After recapitulating the development of the theory of the 
pleasure-pain principle, Freud goes on to expound his conception 
of the mechanism of the traumatic and the war neuroses, and the 
dreams of patients suffering from them. Such dreams are to be 
explained, according to Freud, on some theory other than that of 
the wish-fulfilment. The absence of a mechanism for the discharge 
of affect is responsible for such dreams, and the repeated occurrence 
of such dreams is an attempt of the patient to elTect a discharge 
or release of affect. Patients are predisposed to traumatic or war 
neuroses when fright is not negatived by a pre-existing anxiety or 
fear; fright is an emotion resulting from an unexpected danger. 
A Wiederholungszwang (an impulse to repeat) Freud believes in 
certain instances to precede a wish, as a determinant for an act, 
as illustrated in the play of children, and in the phenomena of the 
transference during a psychoanalytic treatment; the Wiederholungs- 
zwang dominates the wish-fulfilment principle in such instances. 
Freud expounds this theory by means of further speculation con- 
cerning the function and development of consciousness, drawing 
an analogy from the functions of the outer layer of the protozoa. 
One function of the outer surface is to exclude the entrance of 
destructive stimuli; when destructive stimuli break through, as in 
shock, the pleasure-principle is abrogated, and the necessity 
arises for the disposal of the inrushing stimuli by means of the 
occupation energy (Besetsungsenergie) , which converts the inrushing 
energy into static energy (a process that may be likened to chemo- 
taxis). A traumatic neurosis is due to a rupture or break in the 
defensive mechanism, with inability of the system to convert the 
inrushing energy into static (ruhende) energy. Preservation of the 
ego is now tlie object to be attained, and that is primary to the 
wish-fulfilment principle. The dreams would then be an attempt 
on the part of the ego to convert the free floating (freibewegende) 
energy into static (ruhende) energy, by having the necessary dread 
or anxiety in the dream. The Wiederholungszwang attempts to 
bind the free floating energy, which threatens the existence of 
the ego. 


Freud sees in all living organisms an impulse to return to former 
states or conditions, given up because of disturbing external circum- 
stances ; this impulse is an expression of inertia of all living matter, 
and is apparently opposite to our wonted conception of an im- 
pulse as a striving towards change and development. Such organisms 
as have resisted these external influences are still on a low level 
of animal or plant life. The germ cells of the higher organisms 
reproduce life, and are in opposition to death of living substance. 
The destiny of these cells, after they have severed themselves from 
the primary organism, is guarded by the instincts. This contrast 
results in death (ego) impulses and life (sex) impulses. Freud com- 
pares this conception with Schopenhauer's philosophy of death as 
a final result or aim in life, and on the other hand, the sex impulse 
as "the will to live". 

The development of the libido theory showed us the broad 
meaning of the word love or sex; also the transferring of love of 
object to the ego (introversion), thus making part of the ego in- 
stincts libidinous (narcissism). Love as expressed in sadism is 
destruction of the love object, and in the form of masochism, 
destruction of the ego ; it is sadism in which the ego becomes the 
object. The sadistic component may be the primary death impulse. 
The proof of the existence of the death impulse may be found in 
the fact that the dominating tendency in the psyche and in the whole 
nervous system, is the striving towards decreasing, stabilizing or 
annihilating inner tensions as expressed in the libido theory. 

Freud emphasizes the speculative nature of his theories, and 
states that he himself does not know to what an extent he is ready 
to accept them as definite. 

In the discussion that followed, the prominence and importance 
of the ego instincts in the causation of the neuroses (war and 
traumatic) were dwelt upon. Emphasis was laid on the introduction 
of a new element in dream production. It was also pointed out 
that this divergence from the wish-fulfilment principle in dreams in 
no manner detracted from the value of the latter ; but that 
according to Freud the wish-fulfilment did not sufficiently explain 
the phenomena of the dreams of the war and traumatic neurotics. 

Meeting on April 26, 1Q21. Visual Imagery in relation to Libido. 
By Mary K. Isham. 

Dr. Isham said that she had chosen Visual Imagery as a title 
for her paper merely as a topic upon which to focus attention for 


some ideas more or less closely related to it. She was not attempt- 
ing to form any scientific conclusions. Visual images, or patterns 
of spatial outline and color, are woven into every function of 
human life. In considering any function of the mind, we come into 
relationship with every other process and product, and one some- 
times seems to wander from the announced subject. 

Taking visual images, first presentative and then representative 
in the order of their relationship to external reality in varying 
degrees down into the depths of unconscious life, we have direct 
visual perception of an external object, after-images, conscious 
memory images, revery, fantasy, hypnagogic images, dream pictures, 
hallucinations, imagery of the clairvoyant trance. 

In order to gain a clear idea of the relation of visual imagery 
to libido, the writer called attention to zonal components and 
various other topographical areas of interest. By means of the zonal 
components and organs of special sensation, as well as of those 
muscular, articular, and visceral, the partial instincts work out their 
urges. The partial instinct with which we are concerned in the 
formation of imagery is that of looking in its extreme receptive 
and passive functioning. If this sort of functioning becomes blocked 
by a heaping up of libido toward the sensory end, the sensory 
stimulus is not transmitted into motor activity, but is projected 
from within into an artificial objectiflcation. But a temporary 
blocking is not unwholesome, provided it continues only long 
enough to act as a signal for further and more effective activity. 
It can not be considered abnormal, unless it persists long enough 
to cause annoyance and inconvenience. 

Some of the causes for the heaping-up of libido in vision were 
discussed. In regard to wrong methods of training, the case of a 
child who developed habits of repression, from being under the 
supervision of two austere, silent and repressed parents, was de- 
scribed. Such a child is denied most of its motor outlets, and has 
little chance to express itself even in words of which it hears very 
few in the solemn, vacuous, and sordid atmosphere of the home. 
It is on the way to become idealistic beyond its capacity for 
sublimation, introverted, and hyperaesthesic. Under these conditions, 
it resorts to the most accessible, but chiefly passive occupation of 
looking at things, although its interest in everything is very 
active. But the passive attitude of receiving impressions gets 
an active motor outlet, when the child hunts through books^ 


or whatever else it can find for pictures. Impressions mostly 
take visual form. 

Then the writer discussed the relation of visual imagery, thinking, 
and word-forming. This led to an account of the mechanism of 
imagery in the thinker of pronounced visual type. 

The two extreme types of intellectuals who are continually ex- 
pressing their antagonism for the other's way of thinking easily 
fall into a sensory image-forming and concrete motor type. The 
intuitive thinker was selected as the former and the scientist as 
the latter. Both, the one working in pure intimations of immediate 
experience, the other in material which can be measured, meet in 
every person in varying proportions. 

When a forgotten visual memory laden with repressed impulse 
is hindered from transformation into intellectualization, or into motor 
activity, it is forced to artificial projection. Examples of this result 
were given: also examples of the unprojected and more passive 
forms which do not attain the representative situation, but are a 
direct and fixed looking at some object; and examples of the pro- 
jection of visual imagery into different forms of art. 

Art, sex and religion were three subjects that were assigned 
their share in the projection of visual imagery. Their common bond 
and distinctions were discussed upon the definition of religion as 
essentially a longing for an intimate bond between a superior per- 
sonality and one's self 

Art, although originating in a partial impulse and a direct urge 
is also in its process of production a form of sublimation, a deviation 
from the sex instinct, because it is love energy directed toward 
a non-human, instead of a human object love. 

Similarly visual imagery, not only as a component of artistic 
production, but of any achievement, condenses many meanings in 
relation to libido. It is a sign that the libido is blocked somewhere 
and hence is a signal for transformation of energy. It is also an 
agent of sublimation, for it effects a diversion of libido from tabooed 


Volume II, Part 1 
Issued August, 1921 







G. r6hEIM, Budapest. 

The problems that arise from the interaction ot primitive man 
and his environment are, speaking in general terms, the subject- 
matter of the science of anthropogeography. We do not intend 
to throw even a cursory glance at such a vast topic in this 
article; the question we are concerned with is, how these biolo- 
gical relations are reflected in the psychic life of the individual 
and society. 

At the very outset of our investigations our attention must be 
riveted on a very general, probably universalj aspect of primitive 
culture: we mean totemism.i Totemism is the belief in the exi- 
stence of a specific magico-religious connexion between a human 
group and a natural species. If we start from the assumption, as 
we are compelled to, that primitive beliefs, or indeed beliefs in 
general, although they may not represent a rendering of facts 

» The view of totemism advocated here is not completely new, as similar 
comments on this subject have been made by B. Anckermann: "Das Problem 
des Totemismus", KorresJ>ondensblatt fur Antkropologie, Ethnologic und Ur- 
gtschichte, 1910, S. 80; Id.: "Ausdrucks- und SpieltStigkeit als Grundlage des 
Totemismus", Anthropos, X/XI, S. 586; E. ReuterskiCId: Die Entstehung der 
Speisesacramente, 1912, S.'SO; Id.: Anthropos, 1914, S. 650; Grabner: An- 
tkropoi. 1915/16, S. 255; H. Werner: Die Ursprtlnge der Metapher, 1919, 
S. 216. This side ot totemism as well as other psychic attitudes which are 
condensed in this primitive phase of social and religious evolution will be 
discussed in my book on "Australian Totemism". 

157 "