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The Calendars and Chronology                 n
Amenhotep I, the second king of the Eighteenth Dynasty, as
1540. Further, the proof adduced by Sethe following Struwe [6]
that Year I of Seti I coincided with the first year of a Sothic
cycle fixes the date of the accession of Seti I as 1313. In conse-
quence the Nineteenth Dynasty began in 1314.*
For the period of the first eleven dynasties the Turin papyrus
determines a limit. Damaged as it is, two chronological sum-
maries remain: the skilful piecing together of the fragments
leaves it beyond reasonable doubt that these two summaries
added together cover the whole period of the eleven dynasties.
The first indicates a period of 949 years 'from Menes5 followed
by an interregnum of 6 years. From the position of the fragment
in the King list, this appears to summarize the period of the
first eight dynasties. The second summary (on fragment 64)
appears to summarize the duration of 24 reigns after the Eighth
Dynasty, and ends at the death of the last king of the Eleventh
Dynasty. It states a period of 243 years [7].
The date of the accession of Menes is thus determined as
3188, which assigns him a reign of 47 years, as compared with
the 62 years propounded by Africanus. A series of key dates
has now been given, upon which the chronology may be hung.
To fill in the detail is a task of more complexity, involving
the careful comparison and piecing together of evidence derived
from many sources. If, however, the key dates are accepted,
dynastic periods at least can be fitted in with a reasonable
assurance that the dates proposed cannot be materially in error.
The result is given in the following table:
Menes..........    3188-3141
End of Dynasty II........            2815
Dynasty III (Bebti-Snofru)......    2815-2690
Dynasties IV and V........    2690-2420
Dynasty VI.........    2420-2294
1 This results in the identification of Theon's Menophres with either Seti I
or Rameses I, who reigned 16 months according to Manetho, and died in 1313.