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The Calendars and Chronology                13
1893 to IS94;1 thus dating the reign of Hammurabi as 1791-
1749. He then showed that, on the evidence obtained from
recent researches in Syria, a domination of Syria by Hammurabi
followed immediately upon a period of Egyptian influence,
which must be ascribed to the great kings of the Twelfth
Dynasty. The importance of this synchronism can hardly be
over-estimated; one immediate result is that it offers the best
proof yet adduced of the validity of Meyer's hypothesis of the
continuity of the 365-days calendar; and thus establishes the
limitation of the second intermediate period to about two
Subsequent to the close of the Nineteenth Dynasty Egypt
entered the period of her decline. The chronology is reasonably
assured. In any case from that date the chronological detail
of the Near East can be followed more closely in the records of
Assyria and Babylon; synchronisms are plentiful. In the domain
of science, the legacy of Egypt must be regarded as having
passed then to her heirs in the domination of the Near East.
A discussion of the chronology of Egypt cannot be complete
without reference to the history written by Manetho. The
recapitulation of the chronology given in that history by
Africanus undoubtedly involves some manipulation of Manetho's
Assuming that the book summaries were quoted correctly by
Africanus, it may be inferred that Book III began with the
reign of Rameses I and carried the history down to Manetho's
own epoch, about 270 B.C. In that case the fundamental
1 Students of Hebrew chronology may be interested in this new date for
the foundation of the First Dynasty of Babylon. The shortest of the Hebrew
chronologies dates the migration of Abraham as occurring 910 years before
year 4 Solomon. The accession of Solomon is placed by Cambridge Ancient
History as having occurred in 970 B.C. It will then be observed that Mr. Sidney
Smith's chronology confirms the chronology of Babylon, -which may be derived
from the tradition preserved in the Talmud that Abraham was a contem-
porary of the founder of the Babylonian dynasty.