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Mechanical and Technical Processes. Materials    123
decorated with fine ripples (Fig. I, e-g), makes its appearance
beside rougher types used for cooking and other household
purposes. Copper was known, and used as a precious material
for beads. But the fact that hard stone beads, perforated by
what was probably a metal tool, are also found, seems to show
that the use of copper as a tool was already known. Glazed
beads are also found, but whether this craft was known to the
Badarians or whether these beads were imported is still uncer-
tain. Basketry, mat-making and weaving of small pieces of
linen are first observed in this period, and although vases of hard
stone have not been found, palettes of schist for the grinding
of copper carbonate eye paint show that the schist out-crop in
the Wady el-Hammammat was known, while the copper car-
bonate shows that the Badarians had connexions with the
peninsula of Sinai, and also with the Red Sea. Flint and bone
still remained the material par excellence for implements.
The predynastic cultures which followed the Badarian have
left traces all over Upper Egypt. The chief advance in the
crafts was that which resulted from using copper, perhaps still
imported, for carpentry and cutting the hardest rocb. In the
middle prehistoric period, pottery is found on which are some-
what crude drawings of boats of considerable size, with cabins
and apparently propelled by paddles (Fig. 2, ad). Similar types
of pottery are found in far-removed districts along the Nile, show-
ing that there was trade between different tribes, and objects such
as malachite and turquoise from Sinai, schists and porphyritic
rocks from the Wady el-Hamrnamat, and shells from the Red
Sea increased in number as time passed. Metal adzes, ases and
borers were freely used; faience was made and glazed, and the
technique of the stone vases reached a standard of excellence
unsurpassed in later times. Linen increase^ in fineness and size
of pieces, and pottery, still made without the wheel, showed a
great diversity of types, the earlier being the shiny red ware
with a black rim round the neck, and the red vases with white