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Mechanical and Technical Processes. Materials   159
grinding followed the kneading of the dough. In tile nobles'
houses the dough was placed in a basket and kneaded with the
hands; the water was pressed out into a pot placed underneath
the basket and the dough was then shaped into the form re-
quired and placed on a conical stove, and apparently not in an
oven, although what is believed to be an oven has been found
at Tell el-'Amarna. For very large kitchens the dough was
kneaded with the feet. On the subject of leaven we are
almost without information.
In conclusion, I would point out that the title of the present
chapter, 'Mechanical and Technical Processes', can be made to
cover an even larger range of subjects than those enumerated
in the previous pages; this particularly applies to the materials
known to the ancient Egyptians. A multitude of organic sub-
stances such as cosmetics, perfumes, resins, incenses, oils, fats
and waxes were known and many of them have been definitely
identified. Most of these, with one exception, can hardly be
considered to be definitely connected with mechanical or
technical processes except as regards their manufacture, and
here we are mostly very short of information. The exception
is the process of mummification. After considerable hesitation
I have decided to omit this entirely, since the technique varies
from period to period, sometimes from dynasty to dynasty, and
a discussion of the materials employed would occupy a space
far beyond the range of the chapter; furthermore, some points
in connexion with mummification are still in dispute, and
anything short of a complete expose of the subject would
mislead rather than instruct.                         R. ENGELBACH