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Medicine                               183
ized formulae employed in them (Group I). The rest is made
up of medico-magical recipes and incantations brought together
because of their subject-matter (Group II).
(?) Ihe London Medical Papyrus (Brit. Mus., No. 10059) is a
badly written palimpsest assignable on palaeographical grounds
to the latter part of the Eighteenth Dynasty. It is entirely
medico-magical in its contents and contains nothing assignable
to Group I.
(8)  Other documents. The Chester Beatty Papyri Nos. io? 15,
and 18 (Brit. Mus., Nos. 10690, 10695, 10698) contain medico-
magical prescriptions and spells belonging to Group II, No. 10
being wholly concerned with aphrodisiacs.   The museums of
Paris, Leiden, Turin, Berlin, Budapest, Rome (Vatican), and
elsewhere contain  considerable  numbers  of magical papyri,
which, although not generally therapeutic in character, are
medical in so far as their object is the treatment and cure of
disease and personal injury. The papyri in the Chester Beatty
collection (other than those mentioned above) also include
several documents of the same nature.
(9)  Later documents.   The papyri enumerated above are all
of the Pharaonic period, that is to say, of the Middle and New
Kingdoms, but in addition to these we have some documents
of later date.   An important magical papyrus (The London-
Leiden Demotic Papyrus) written in the demotic script and of
the third century A.D., contains a good deal of medical matter,
but all of it belongs to Group II. Of Coptic material, the great
medical papyrus of Mashaykh (gth or loth cent. A.D.) is, in the
main, similar to the documents of Pharaonic times, but Greek
and Arabic elements have to some extent obtruded themselves.
Other Coptic medical fragments of much smaller extent exist
in the British Museum, the John Rylands Library, the Vatican,
and in the museums of Berlin and Michigan. From various sites
in Egypt has come to light a series of medical fragments wholly
Egyptian in character though written in Greek. These are now