190 Medicine the heart as the centre of the vascular system, and the other is the belief that the Vessels' were not exclusively concerned with blood, but were the vehicles also of air, water, mucus, semen, and other secretions. This erroneous conclusion doubtless arose out of the condition of the vessels observed during the post- mortem manipulations of the embalmers, and could not have been derived from the functional vessels of a living body. It was believed also that the ears, besides being the organs of hear- ing, were part of the pulmonary system, for it is stated that the breaths of life and death enter them, on the right and left sides respectively.1 Beneath all this jumble of statement that fills several pages of the papyrus, much of which is erroneous, there remains a nucleus of correctly observed truth which suggests that in very early times a serious attempt was being made to understand the structure and functions of the body and its organs, and the effects of injury upon them. It was observed, for instance (as we learn from the Edwin Smith Papyrus), that the brain is enclosed in a membrane and that its hemispheres are patterned with convolutions; that injury to the brain causes a loss of control over various parts of the body, the tension of the facial muscles and other manifestations; that injury to the spinal column may cause priapism and involuntary emission; that such an injury also may cause meteorism; that certain injuries can be confidently cured, whilst others are only doubt- fully curable, and others again are definitely hopeless. A passage in the Ebers Papyrus dealing with affections of the stomach, and another in the Kahun Papyrus dealing with uterine and other female disorders, introduce a novel feature in that they describe symptoms and give a diagnosis. In nearly all the other medical texts the diagnosis is assumed and only treat- ment is provided. These passages, together with the concluding part of the Ebers Papyrus, are evidently drawn from quite a 1 Compare the association of the left side with death and the right side life in Apollodorus, in. s. 3.