194 Medicine the treatment of the two cases differed in its nature accordingly. The medical and the magical marched side by side and the same age produced both the Edwin Smith and the Ebers Papyri with their widely differing contents. Indeed, in the Edwin Smith Papyrus there is an incantation in the body of the surgical text itself, and on the back of it there is written a collection of charms and prescriptions similar to those that fill page after page of the other so-called medical papyri. The ancient owner of the Edwin Smith Papyrus saw no incongruity in copying into the same note-book elements that appear to us of to-day as abso- lutely antagonistic in nature and content. One might imagine, as a parallel, a modern medical student taking simultaneously and equally seriously the utterances of John Hunter and of Culpeper. § vii. Materia Medica The same difficulty confronts us when dealing with the drugs as has already been mentioned in connexion with the maladies, namely our inability to identify many of them. Some hundreds of ingredients are mentioned in the prescriptions, and they were derived from the animal, the vegetable, and the mineral kingdoms. Most of the animals can be determined: usually their fat or blood is employed, but if small enough, the whole animal is often used. Thus we find the fat of the ox, ass, lion, hippo- potamus, mouse, bat, lizard, snake, and others used, also the blood of these and other animals, as well as many birds and invertebrates. Hartshorn, tortoise-shell, and calcined horns, hides, bones, and hoofs are likewise employed. In the case of vegetables we are unable to identify with certainty more than a relatively small proportion of the very large number whose names abound in the prescriptions. We find the whole plant, or its leaves, fruit, seed, juice, pith, or root employed as drugs. The vehicles for liquid doses are usually water, mili, honey, wine, or beer. For emollients and ointments the basis is honey or fats of various kinds, goose-grease being specially frequent.