206 Law procedure developing, a procedure which may be described as a deterioration and which was later abolished. A god was made the judge in the action and his will was ascertained by cere- monies which it is difficult for us to understand, and which possibly consisted of rhythmical dances. Take, for instance, the case of a man whose garments have been stolen. He would appeal to King Amenophis I, who had been long dead and who was worshipped as a god. A list of all the inhabitants of the village was read aloud before a statue of the deified king. Upon the reading of one name the god would make a sign to indicate that this was the thief. The person indicated would deny the accusation and appeal to another god, who might also decide against him. He would then continue to deny every- thing, but might be condemned again by Amenophis. There- upon he would be beaten until he confessed and swore never to repudiate his confession. Judgements rendered by a god have existed in many nations at various times; but it would appear that the Egyptians of the Nineteenth and following dynasties made the most consistent attempt to build up a whole law of procedure upon the omniscience of the deity. Criminal law and criminal procedure were inhuman. In con* trast to the Jewish law which limited corporal punishment to forty strokes, one hundred strokes was the ordinary punishment in Egypt. Torture was often used, not only upon the accused but also upon independent witnesses. Strange forms of capital punishment seem to have been practised, such as leaving the prisoner to be eaten by crocodiles. It was a special favour to allow a convicted criminal to commit suicide. Numbers of criminals, with their ears and noses cut ofi, were condemned to forced labour in concentration colonies on the frontiers of the country. A thief furthermore had to pay a multiple of the value of the stolen chattel—a penalty which also can be paralleled in the Code of Hammurabi and in the oldest Roman law. We further possess treaties dealing with international law.