220 . Egypt and Israel or tombs, or perhaps for the cult of ancestors within the house'.1 There are other early indications among Egyptian 'finds' of this contact; but those mentioned will suffice. A time of deep humiliation for Egypt began soon before the end of the Thirteenth Dynasty, somewhere about the year 1800 B.C. This was when the Asiatic Hyksos, or 'Shepherd' kings (cf. Gen. xlvi. 34: cfor every shepherd is an abomination unto the Egyptians') invaded the Delta region, where, according to Manetho,2 they established themselves and founded their capital, Avaris. Their victory may have been due, as has been suggested, to their use of bronze weapons. There are some grounds for the contention that the Hyksos came originally from Asia Minor, their conquest of Syria-Palestine being but the first step towards their real objective. In their invasion of Egypt they were then joined by the Semitic peoples of Syria-Palestine. In support of this view as to the original home of the Hyksos is the existence of many non-Semitic proper names which are met with during the succeeding centuries in Syria-Palestine; for these may well have been the names of the Hyksos invaders. On the other hand, Manetho speaks of them as Phoenicians and Arabians. The name of Jacob-el, which occurs on the scarabs of a Pharaoh of the Hyksos period, suggests the possibility that the head of one of the Jacob-tribes among the ancestors of the Israelites occupied a position of leadership at one time during this period. It is often contended that the Hyksos invasion of Egypt, and their expulsion from there, is reflected in the traditions of Abram going down into Egypt (Gen. xii. 10-18), followed by his return to Palestine (Gen. xii. 19, 20, xiii); and also in the traditions of Jacob, who likewise went there (Gen. xlvi. 2-7), and came back to his native land with a large following (Gen. xlis. 28, 1. 9-24). It is impossible either to prove or disprove 1 Palestine Exploration Fund, Quarterly Statement, April 1906, pp. 121 f. 2 The Egyptian priest-historian who wrote in 280 B.C.; he is quoted by Josephus, Contra Ap. i. 73 ff.