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Egypt and Israel                         225
(1090-1085) to Byblus, on the Syrian coast; from this it can be
seen that Egyptian influence over Syria-Palestine had entirely
ceased. 'During this period of Egypt's total eclipse', says
Breasted, 'the tribes of Israel gained the opportunity to con-
solidate their national organization, and under Saul and David
they gradually gained the upper hand against the Philistines.'1
Soon after this begins the time, about icoo B.C., when we are
able to obtain a good deal of information from the Old Testa-
ment about the relationship between Egypt and Israel. Here
it must be preinissed that it is sometimes difficult to be sure
about the exact sequence of events; the Old Testament narra-
tives are not always strictly chronological, and authorities differ
with regard to Egyptian chronology.
It is recorded that Solomon (c. 976-936) 'made afrmity with
Pharaoh, king of Egypt, and took Pharaoh's daughter, and
brought her into the city of David' (i Kings iii. i); this Pharaoh
is held, with much probability, to have been Sheshonk I (945-
924); Egypt is thus seen to be entering once more into active
relationship with Palestine; and the sequel shows that Sheshonk
aimed at making Syria-Palestine part of the Egyptian Empire
again. His alliance with Solomon was a first step towards this,
and it was strengthened by the wedding-gift of the city of Gezer
to his daughter on her marriage with Solomon. It is said that
Tharaoh, king of Egypt, had gone up and taken Gezer, and
burnt it with fire, and slain the Canaanites that dwelt in the
city, and given it for a present to his daughter, Solomon's wife'
(i Kings ix. 16). This points to a regular campaign which
Sheshonk must have undertaken, for to capture Gezer meant
that the Philistine coast-land had been subdued, as Gezer lay
right to the north of Philistia. It is possible that Sheshonk's
alliance with Solomon was in reality only a means to lull, for
the time being, any misgivings that Solomon may have had
regarding this conquest of Philistia; for we read presently of
1 A History of Egypt} p, 526.
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