226 Egypt and Israel some rather suspicious action on the part of Sheshonk. In i Kings xi. 18-21, 25 there is the account of Hadad, of the seed royal of Edom, taking refuge in Egypt after David's conquest of this land (2 Sam. viii. 14). When Solomon comes to the throne Hadad leaves Egypt for Palestine where, as it is briefly narrated, he does 'mischief; the account, it is true, is laconic, but, in any case, the Egyptian king, Sheshonk, does not prevent him from his undertaking; indeed, one may well ask, where did Hadad get his troops from for doing 'mischief', if not from Egypt ? Similarly, somewhat later, under Solomon's successor, Rehoboam, Sheshonk harbours another fugitive, Jeroboam, who likewise, when the opportunity occurs, returns to Palestine, with grievous results for Judah (i Kings si. 40; zii. 20). This all suggests a settled purpose on the part of Sheshonk of creating trouble in Palestine, and thus preparing for direct action. And very soon this takes place. In I Kings xiv. 25 fL we read: 'And it came to pass in the fifth year [c. 930 B.C.] of king Rehoboam, that Shishak [= Sheshonk], king of Egypt, came up against Jerusalem; and he took away the treasures . . .'; this is also referred to in 2 Chron. zii. 2-9, where there is a certain amount of overstatement, characteristic of the Chronicler. The details of this campaign are recorded by Sheshonk on the walls of the Karnak temple at Thebes;1 from these it is clear that his objective was not confined to the southern part of Palestine; among the cities plundered are several which lay in the Northern Kingdom. The Biblical account does not mention these because it is concerned here only with the Southern Kingdom. From what has been said it is evident that Sheshonk intended that Syria-Palestine should, after a lapse of nearly three cen- turies, become once more part of the Egyptian Empire. But internal troubles in Egypt prevented this, and Egyptian in- fluence over Syria-Palestine did not again play any decisive role until the rise of the Ptolemaic dynasty in 323 B.C. This does 1 Breasted, Ancient Records ..., iv. 709-24.