Egypt and Israel 227 not mean to say, however, that attempts were not made to assert that influence. About twenty-five years or so after She- shonk's victory we read in 2 Chron. xiv. 9-15 (8-14 in Hebr.) that in the reign of Asa, king of Judah, Zerah1 the Ethiopian invaded the land; a battle is fought cin the valley of Zephathah at Mareshah', at which the Ethiopians were defeated, *and Asa and the people that were with him pursued them unto Gerar .. /. Doubts have been cast, not without some reason, on the identification of Kush with Ethiopia (in southern Egypt), as it is held (though this is not certain) that there was a Kush in Arabia; it must, however, be noted that the flight of these Ethiopians south-westwards to Gerar points to the shortest route into Egypt; moreover, in 2 Chron. xvi. 8, where this battle is referred to, the Lubim (Libyans) are mentioned together with the Ethiopians; and further, there are a number of passages in which Kush is quite clearly to be identified with Ethiopia (e.g. 2 Kings xiz. 9; Isa. xi. 11, xliii. 3; dv. 14; Zeph. iii. 10, and others). So that the passage referred to (2 Chron. adv. 9-15) certainly seems to point to an invasion from Egypt which was repulsed. The date of this would be a little before 900 B.C. Soon after this the reinvigorated power of Assyria began to assert itself, with momentous consequences for Syria-Palestine. The movement westwards was begun by Ashurnasirpal II (889- 859 B.C.), who invaded Syria and subdued various north-Syrian States; he also received tribute from important Phoenician coastal towns, such as Byblus, Tyre, and Sidon. His successor, Shalmaneser III,2 similarly came westwards with the intention of reducing the whole of the Mediterranean coast-land of Syria-Palestine. In the sixth year of his reign there was fought the important, but indecisive battle of Qarkar on the Orontes (853 B.C.), where he was opposed by a coalition of western 1 His identification with Osorkon I is very doubtful. 2 According to Winckler, Shalmaneser II, Ksilinscbrifdicbes Textbucb mm Alien Testament, L 18 (1909).