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Egypt and Israel                         233
all that pertained to the king of Egypt.' Syria-Pales tine was thus
incorporated in the Babylonian Empire.
We reach now the last occasion in pre-exilic times on which
there was a contact between Egypt and Judah. Jehoiakim, the
king of Judah (608-597 B.C.), was, of course, forced to acknow-
ledge Nebuchadnezzar as his suzerain, and 'became his servant
three years; then he turned and rebelled against him' (2 Kings
xxiv. i). It is impossible to doubt, in view of subsequent events,
that Jehoiakim's rebellion was prompted by Egypt. Before
Nebuchadnezzar could take action Jehoiakini died, and his son
Jehoiachin succeeded him (2 Kings xsiv. 6). In 2 Chron. xrsri. 6
we read that Nebuchadnezzar bound Jehoiakini in. fetters 'to
carry him to Babylon'; but nothing of this is said in 2 Kings.
Scarcely was Jehoiachin seated on the throne than. Nebucha-
dnezzar appeared with his army before Jerusalem; Jehoiachin
immediately surrendered and was carried oft to Babylon. In his
place Nebuchadnezzar appointed Zedekiah (597 B.C.).
The events during Zedekiah's reign are passed over in
silence in 2 Kings xxiv. 18-20; but from what we read else-
where it is evident that there was a strong pro-Egyptian party
in the State; and it was doubtless owing to Egyptian influence
that, as it is said in 2 Kings xxiv. 20, 'Zedekiah rebelled against
the king of Babylon5; and in Ezek. xvii. 15 it is recorded of
Zedekiah that he ^rebelled against him in sending his ambassa-
dors into Egypt5. The king of Egypt was now Apries, who
came to the throne in 588 B.C.; in Jer. xliv. 30 lie is called
Hophra. Nebuchadnezzar quickly marched westwards; he made
his head-quarters at Riblah, on the Orontes, and sent a detach-
ment against Jerusalem. But the Babylonians were forced to
retreat owing to the advance of the Egyptian army: 'And
Pharaoh's army was come forth out of Egypt; and when the
Chaldeans that besieged Jerusalem heard tidings of them they
brake up from Jerusalem' (Jer. xxxvii. 5, see also v. 11). This was
but a respite, and the prophet's words (Jer. xssviii. 3) came