Egypt and Israel 245 hymn of praise to the sun, offered by Amenhotep IV, and Ps. civ.1 To appreciate this fully it would be necessary to place the two side by side; unfortunately, want of space forbids this.2 Reference has been made above to the New Year festival, and to the belief in the divine kingship. In the latter of these the presence of Egyptian influence, though indirect, may be dis- cerned, so that the references to this in the Psalms come into consideration here; and these references are probably more in number than is often held to be the case. But to deal with this would take us too far afield, for it would involve giving quota- tions from Egyptian mythical texts as well as from the Psalms* It must, therefore, suffice merely to draw attention to the fact that we have here, in all probability, further evidence of Egyptian influence upon the literature of the Hebrews. We turn now to the Wisdom literature. That the wisdom of Egypt was proverbial among the Israelites may be gathered from the mention of it in I Kings iv. 30, where it is said that 'Solomon's wisdom excelled the wisdom of all the children of the east, and all the wisdom of Egypt'; and the prophet Isaiah, in prophesying the utter break-up of the kingdom of Egypt, is represented as saying (text slightly emended): ^Nought but fools are the princes of Zoan, the wisest counsellors of Pharaoh are an ignorant counsel; how say ye to Pharaoh, A son of the wise am I ? . . . Where, then, are thy wise men ? Let them make know, let them declare unto thee. . . .' Of the Wisdom litera- ture of Egypt some highly interesting specimens have come down to us: The Teaching of Ptab-boUp, not later than the middle of the third millennium B.C. ; The Teaching ofKa-Gemni^ of which only a fragment is extant; these belong to what is 1 On the subject in general see Blacfctnan's interesting essay in The Psalm- ists^ ed. D. C. Simpson, pp. 177 £f. (1926). 2 See the present writer's A Fresh Approach to the Psalms^ pp. 16-19 (*937)» where both are given in full. 3 The matter is dealt with in Myth and Ritual^ ed. S. H. Hooke (1933).