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246                         Egypt and Israel
known as the Trisse Papyrus' (after the name of the French
Egyptologist); Ike leaching of Amen-emhet, about 1300 B.C.,
but it is the copy of an older form; The Teaching for King Meri~
Ka-Re, about the middle of the fifteenth century B.C.; The
Teaching of Duauf, about 1300 B.C. in its present form, but the
original is earlier; The Wisdom of Ann, about 1000 B.C.; and,
most important of all from the present point of view, The
Teaching of Amen-em-ope, about the middle of the eighth century
B.C., but the extant copy is a couple of centuries later (Griffith).1
A comparison with these and many passages in the Old Testa-
ment Scriptures shows at times a remarkable community of
thought, and suggests the presence of Egyptian influence; but
this becomes a matter of absolute certainty when we find in the
book of Proverbs literally dozens of sayings to which there are
parallels, sometimes almost verbal, in the Teaching of Amen-em-
ope, as well as, though to a less extent, in other Egyptian Wisdom
writings. Among these Psalms, too, i.e. those which partake of
a Wisdom character, there are also parallels; to a less extent,
but also noticeably, in the book of Deuteronomy. To illustrate
this fully would take up many pages; we shall, therefore, restrict
ourselves to some of the most interesting parallels between the
book GŁ Proverbs and The Teaching of Amen-em-ope. Among the
various collections of wise sayings gathered together in the former
is a short one comprised in xxii. ly-xxiii. 14; it is to this that
we now draw attention; the most profitable way of illustrating
the parallels will be to place the relative passages side by side
(we omit the verse-numbering in each case):
Proverbs.                               The Teaching of Amen-em-ope?
Incline thine ear, and hear my words,     Give thine ear, and hear what I say,
And apply thine heart to apprehend;     And apply thine heart to apprehend;
1 For translations and further details see Griffith, The World's Best Litera-
ture (1897); Erman, Die Literatur der A'gypter, and Gressmann, op. cit. 38 ff.
3 For our rendering of the passages from Amen-em-ope we are indebted to