The Contribution to Islam 349 cessors the 'Abbasids. Wave after wave of migration converted the country into an Arab province, in the full sense of the term. For a long time Jews and Christians were employed as officials, but in the course of the centuries, as their technical knowledge be- came no longer indispensable to the administration, the whole conduct of affairs passed into the hands of Muslims. Chris- tians and Jews lived as 'protected' minorities, subject to the dis- abilities and liable to the taxes imposed by their Muslim rulers. In 868, Ahmad ibn Tulun, a Turk by birth, being appointed governor of Egypt, declared his independence of the 'Abbasid rulers, and set up a local dynasty (Tulunids) which lasted until 905. Thereafter for thirty years the central government was again supreme, but in 935 Muhammad ibn Tughj, designated ikhshid by the Caliph al-Radi, founded the short-lived Ikshidid dynasty (935-69). The rise of the Fatimid Caliphate of the West led to the reabsorption of Egypt as a province of a Shi fite empire (969-1171) of which Cairo was the capital, and two centuries passed before the country came under the independent rule of the Ayyubid dynasty (1171-1250), of which the illustrious Salah al-Din (Saladin) was the chief glory. The Bahri (Turkish) Mamluks, founded by Shajarat al-Durr, widow of the Ayyubid al-Salih, were followed in 1390 by the Burji (Circassian) Mam- luks, whose rule was terminated by the Ottoman occupation of Salim in 1517. So Egypt once more sank to the status of a province. Napoleon's expedition of 1798 marks the beginning of the modern history of Egypt. Under the rule of the Khedivial house of Muhammad cAli (d. 1849), the country still acknow- ledged the titular suzerainty of the Turkish Sultan, until its official termination in 1914 following the declaration of the British Protectorate. In 1922 Egypt's independence was pro- claimed, subject to certain reservations, which were finally liqui- dated by the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936. The late King Fu'ad assumed the title ofmalik (king); and his son King Faruq now rules, the constitutional head of a fuEy independent State.