356 27>£ Contribution to Islam held various public appointments at Cairo, until he fell from grace and retired to the islet of Rauda. Hardly a branch of the Muslim Sciences' is without some contribution from his facile pen, and Brockelmann's list of 333 treatises under his name is probably far from complete. It is doubtful whether any single author has so enriched the whole field of Arabic literature. In a summary of this kind, only the most famous names can be mentioned. Al-Damiri (1344-1405), author of the greatest zoological work in Arabic (Haydt al-hayawdn), was a native of Cairo, as was also the celebrated alchemist al-Jildaki (d. 1342). Of Egyptian birth were al-Isra'ili (d. 932) and Ibn Ridwan (d. 1068), physicians; al-Mundhiri (d. 1258) and al-Munawi (d. 1622), traditionists; al-Nawaji (d. 1455), the anthologist; Ibn Sayyid al-Nas (d. 1334), author of a well-known biography of Muhammad; al-Jundi (d. 1365) the Maliki, Taqi al-Din al-Subki (d. 1355) anc* his namesake Taj al-Din (d. 1370), both ShafTi, and Ibn Nujaym (d. 1563) and al-Timirtashi (d. 1595), Hanafi lawyers, as well as the Shafi'ites al-Bulqini (d. 1403), al-Aqfahsi (d. 1405), and Zakariyya al-Ansari (d. 1520); and al-Khafaji (d. 1659), the philologist and poet. Most noteworthy is the contribution made by Egyptian writers, mainly but not exclusively journalists, to the develop- ment of the 'new style' in Arabic, the vehicle of a vigorous modern prose. The subject is exhaustively treated in H. A. R. Gibb's Studies in Contemporary Arabic Literature, and here it will be sufficient to recall the names of Manfaluti, Mazini, Haykal, Taha Husayn, 'Aqqad, Ahmed Amin and Fikri Abaza, who have all assisted in adapting the archaic, stilted classical tongue to the requirements of the present day. It is necessary also to refer to the creation, by the late King Fu'ad, of the Royal Egyptian Academy, composed of distinguished European and oriental Arabic philologists, whose programme it is to purify the printed language of colloquialisms and neologisms, and to 'standardize' the Arabic of the future.