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35 8                   The Contribution to Islam
most celebrated of all Muslim historians. He is unfortunately
not free from the charge of plagiarism—a sin committed by
many Muslim authors—and his well-known topography and
history of Egypt, al-Mawaiz wcfl-i^titdr fi dhikr al-kMtat
wcfl-aihar^ has been proved to be based upon, and even in large
part copied from, the work of a predecessor, al-Awhadi. Never-
theless, it is a primary source for our knowledge of Egyptian
affairs, and has been edited and utilized by a number of scholars.
Al-Maqrizi also wrote a history of the Fatimids (IttVdz, al-
Hunafa?\ of which a unique autograph copy has been preserved,
and another of the Ayyubids and Mamluks (al-Suluk li-marifat
al-muluk), now being edited by the Egyptian scholar Mustafa
Ziada from an autograph copy. He planned an encyclopaedic
biographical work in eighty volumes to contain notices of all
famous Egyptians (al-Muqajfa), but only completed sixteen
volumes; another biographical work is his Durar al-'uqud, on
famous contemporaries, never completed, of which a small
autograph fragment has survived. Several other works of al-
Maqrizi are also extant, including a tract on numismatics
(ShudMr al-*uqiid), and contributions to geography, dogmatics,
and the science of Traditions (hadtib). He died at Cairo in 1442.
Almost equal in fame, and no less important as a primary
source, is al-Maqrizi's pupil, the historian Ibn Taghribirdi
(1411-69), author of seven historical works, of which the most
celebrated is the al-Nujum al-zdhira, a history of Egypt from
the Arab conquest to the year 1453. Another celebrated author
is Ibn Duqmaq (1350-1406), whose history of Egypt (Nuzhat
al-anam), completed in 1382, has survived partly in autograph.
Among other works of his are a history of the rulers of Egypt
to the year 1402 (al-Jawhar al-thamm), written at the instance
of the Sultan Barquq (d. 1398), and descriptions of the ten great
cities of Islam (al-Durrat al-mud?a), of which the volumes deal-
ing with Cairo and Alexandria survive and have been published.
Ibn al-Furat, born at Cairo in 1334, is the author of a chronicle