The Contribution to Islam 365 The Bahri Mamluks are represented by the rnosques of Baybars I (1269), al-Nasir Muhammad (1318-35), and al- Maridani (1340): during this period the large wooden dome covering the sanctuary was evolved, replacing the little dome hitherto featured. The great madrasa of Sultan Hasan (1356- 68) also stands to the credit of these rulers, of which K. A. Creswell writes:1 'When one stands at the entrance to the great sahn [courtyard], and observes its vast proportions, its rich yet restrained decoration, the grandeur and simplicity of its lines, the height and breadth of its great vaults, and the rich stalactite balconies of the minaret rising over the south corner, one feels bound to admit that this madrasa is one of the great things of the world.' Many noteworthy additions to the architectural glory of Cairo were made under the succeeding dynasty of the Burji Mamluks, notably the Barquq mosque situated in the Tombs of the Caliphs. Despite the economic difficulties which clouded the Turkish period—and the discovery of the Cape route to India is to be accounted an important contributory cause of this decline—there are yet evidences of the continuity of skill and craftsmanship, which did not receive the truly fatal blow until the advent of European influence at the end of the eighteenth century. Isolated buildings in the Saracen tradition have been constructed since that time, among which mention may be made of the Muhammad *Ali Mosque: but it is a melancholy fact that at the present day Western modes of architecture have com- pletely superseded the true native art—serious mention need not be made of the rare attempts to rear bastard imitations of ancient Egyptian monuments—and almost all the buildings constructed during this century, public and private alike, might equally well have been erected in any modern European city. The future will show whether Muslim architectural tradition 1 The Art of Egypt, p. 66.