388 The Legacy to Modern Egypt haemorrhoids. In both cases a beetle is cooked in oil, the wings and head separately in fatty matter. It is the same remedy become more specialized in its application. This narrowing down of the purpose is also to be observed in tattooing. This world-wide custom is in origin part of a generalized rite for promoting life; in Modern Egypt it is used for specific dis- eases.1 Modern opinion is not as favourable to ancient charms as Abu Sahl, and a continuous attack is being made on them, but they show considerable tenacity. Even more tenacious is the belief in the evil eye. It seems once to have belonged to a cosmological system in which the sun and moon were the eyes of the world. Special virtue was attributed to the eye of Horus, by which the moon was generally meant. Models of it were therefore used as amulets. The good eye abounds in our museums of antiquities; but of the evil eye we hear little beyond the mention of 'a chapter on warding off the evil eye'. Now- a-days fear and jealousy, sentiments which seem to be the after- math of great civilizations, have given exclusive prominence to the evil eye, while the good one has disappeared. What remains has of course been attuned to Islam by the masses, who are usually equally loyal to the new and to the old. It is Allah who is now invoked against the evil eye which is supposed to be inspired by the devil. They assimilate it to temptation which can be set aside with the aid of God. That is another character- istic of the change that has come over Egyptian culture: its tone is strongly moral. The old religion was a quest of prosperity; it has yielded its place to a rule of good conduct. Light blue was much favoured by the ancients as a lucky colour, probably because it is the colour of the clear sky. Beads of that colour are still to be seen on the radiators of the latest 1 Hocart, 'Tattooing and Healing', Man, 1937, 196; H. Kees, Kulturge- scbichte des alten Orients, i, Aegypten (Miinchen, 1933), 89; K. Sethe, Dramatiscbe Textezu altaegyptiscben Mysterienspiden (Leipzig, 1928), 9, i. 9.