Syntax—The Traffic Rules of Language 131 First English gentleman (looking at the setting sun) Not so dusty* what? Second English gentleman No need to rave about it like a damned poet> old man Though it is quite true that the absence of a perceived situation makes it necessary to be more explicit in writing than in speech, there are no sufficient reasons for believing that addition of verbs would improve the proverbial. one man., one vote> more speed, less haste, or much cry, little wool Most of us use telegrams only on occasions when it is specially important to be rather thrifty with words. When we have to pay for the use of words, we get down to essentials Even those who can afford to dine habitually in costumes designed to inhibit excessive cerebration do not spend an extra cent for a verb in dinner seven-thirty black tie If a sentence is a word sequence with a "verb" and a "subject^5 any issue of a daily paper shows that a complete state- ment, request, direction, or question, sufficiently explicit for rapid reading, need not be a sentence The following examples from the headlines are in the lineage of the Chartist plea more pigs> less pat sons CONTROL THREAT TO EXPORT COTTON TRADE. BUSINESS AS USUAL IN SPUE OF WAR CITY CHOIR OF SIRENS ALL IN HARMONY NOW. CHINESE APPROVAL FOR U S CONGRESS MOTION VIOLENT DEMAND FOR VICE PURGE IN VALE- DICTORY SERMON WHITES IN CONGO WITHOUT MORAL SENSE NO NEW OFFER FROM NAZI NAPOLEON MOKE PROSPERITY LESS PETTING PLEA FROM LOCAL PULPIT' SHOP WINDOW SILK UNDIES PROTEST FROM PRELATE, PERUVIAN WOOLS TRANSFER TO WHITEHALL POOL FREEDOM RADIO FORE- CAST OF FIRTH OF FORTH RAID ALIENIST ATTACK ON PENITENTIARY FOR PANSY BOY PLAIN WORDS TO ANTI-PANTIE PARSON * If we have to translate a language, such as Chinese, with no formal distinction between words we classify as nouns, verbs, pionouns, * In his book. The Study of Language,, Hans Oertel draws attention to the absence of any pretence at a subject-predicate form in advertisements which are also composed with due regard for economical use of words, e g FOR SALE A LARGE HOUSE WITH GARDEN ALL MODERN IMPROVEMENTS SANITARY PLUMBING SET TUBS A significant comment on the dead hand of classical paradigms follows this example "Many instances of this kind can be found they seem to be absent xn the literary remains of the classical languages^ or at least excessively rare I do not recall a single instance excepting list of names . . or super- scriptions or headings implying dates. . . Perhaps the reason is that the nominative endtngs (of which the modern languages have largely rid themselves) were too strongly charged with the 'functional9 meaning of the subject relation that therefore they could not well appear outside the sentence without the retinue of a verb,"