Syntax—The Traffic Rules of Language 139 are content to wait until we have got used to them by meeting them often in books, we have to seek for another solution of our difficulty. The most effortless solution emerges fiom Mr. C. K. Ogden's work on the simplification of English for international use. The basic rule is: always try to be as explicit as possible. This means that when you are going to use a particle, you must first decide whether you are using it with its characteristic meaning If the answer is yes, your word-list can supply its correct equivalent. If the answer is no* the thing to do is to recast the statement without the use of the idiom in which it occurs. You can best see what this means with the help of an illustration. Let us suppose that we want to say in French or in German* I take no pleasure in skating. The word in has one characteristic meaning, and only one. In English, we say that A is in B, if B surrounds, encloses, or contains A. Since skating does not surround, enclose, or contain pleasure, we have got to ask ourselves whether we can say the same thing in other words We can get rid of the offending directive by putting this in the form: skating does not please me This is not quite satisfactory, because the English use of the -ing derivative of the verb is peculiar; and it is important to understand its peculiarities, if we want to become pro- fiaent in a foreign language. We use the -ing derivative of the English verb in three ways for which other European languages require at least two and usually three different words. One which corresponds with the so-called present participle in other European languages is its use as an epithet in such expression as an emng child A second is its use as a name for a process in the first of the three following equivalent expres- sions : Erring is human: forgiving is divine To err is human, to forgive divine Error is human forgiveness divine. When so used, grammar books call it a verbal noun. If it takes an object it is call^fl a g&undy as in the difficulties of learning Dutch* or the dangers of eating doughnuts * To this use as a name-word we have to add the duratwe construction with the verb "to be," as in / am walking, you * The Old English present participle ended in -ende> e g dbidende The -ing (-ung or -ing) terminal originally belonged to nouns, as in schooling Later it tacked itself on to verbs, as in beginning. So the same verb might have an, abstract noun derivative and an adjectival one or true participle, e g, abidung and ahdende Eventually the former absorbed the latter. That is why the modern -ing form does the work of a participle and a verb noun (gerund).