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Syntax—The Traffic Rules of Language   145

(fy Conjunctive use of that as a link-word for which there is no substi-
tute, m such sentences as

I do not believe that the creation took only six days

We have therefore to enter as a separate item in our basic list of link-
words, "that (con] )"

(c) We cannot replace the English words who, whom, winch, and what
by that when they do not refer to a person or thing in the mam clause,
but introduce a clause expressing a note of interrogation, e g

I do not know whom you expect


We must therefore enter who-which in our basic list separately for

this string can be
fyr the reader
Vn&l & knife
TOT tying' parcel?


FIG 23
interrogative situations when that or whose cannot take the place of
which, who, or whom
(d) We also use our words which and that as pointer-words or demon-
stratives Whether we put in or leave out the word book is immaterial to
our choice of the pointer-word that in the sentence I have read that book
In some other languages we have to use one word when the name is
present, and a different one when it is left out This makes it necessary
to draw a distinction between a demonstrative adjective and a demon-
strative pronoun comparable to our own distinction between the posses-
sive adjective (e g my) and the possessive pronoun (e g mine) So m
making up a basic list of necessary pointer-words, we shall sometimes
need to indicate which pointer-word stands in front of a noun (adj ), and
which stands by itself (pron )
Anyone who is familiar with the Anglo-American language alone
might yield to the temptation of putting personal pronouns among the