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Full text of "The Loom Of Language"

Syntax—The Traffic Rules of Language    161

before the helper verb if it is compound When one or both objects are
pronouns, and therefore stand m front of the simple verb or in front
of the helper,, the negative particle precedes them French (pp 339 and
341) makes use of two particles simultaneously. The ne which corre-
sponds to the Italian nan and the Spanish no, occupies the position
stated The second (pa?, point^ jamais> guere) comes immediately after
the single verb., or after the helper

In some languages the question form, like negation in Indo-European
ones, is expressed by means of a particle Latin had an interrogative
particle, -ne equivalent to our eh^ The Anglo-American do or did might
almost be called interrogative particles, when used m questions From this
point of view the rules of language traffic in Finland are specially inter-
esting, because the Finnish way of expressing question and denial is the
mirror image of the common practice in the Indo-European family Finns
express interrogation by putting the interrogative particle ko> as we
express negation by putting the negative particle not> after the pronoun
To express negation. They attach e to the pronoun suffix which they put
in front of the verb, instead of after it That is to say, the negative state-
ment involves an inversion analogous to me inversion in the question
form of French or German

ole-mme-ko      = are we*                 emme-ole         «= we are not

ole-mme           = we are                  emme-ko-ole    = are we not?

So fai we have considered simple statements, commands, or ques-
tions which we cannot split up without introducing a new veib Link-
words may connect one or more statements to form compound or
complex sentences Such link-words are of two classes. One class,
represented by only three essential elements of a basic vocabulary for
English use, are the so-called coordinate conjunctions. In contradis-
tinction to these three essential link-words (and, ory and buf) there are
others called subordinate conjunctions. The most essential English
subordinate conjunctions are

after
	how
	so (as)
	as
	when

as (in such a
	if
	so
	that
	where

way that)
	in order that
	though
	
	whether

because
	than
	till
	
	why

before
	since
	
	
	

In addition to the particles given above, we also use the pronouns
whom* what, and that as subordinate link-words, e.g, (a) this is the
house that Jack built, (6) I know who he is