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Full text of "The Loom Of Language"

The Classification oj Languages         187

same conclusion, as the reader may see by comparing the forms of the
veibs to be and to have displayed m tabular form on pp 101 and
below Three of the most characteristic grammatical features of the
Teutonic group are the following

(i) Throughout the Teutonic languages, there is the same type
(see table on p 190) of companson (English thin, farmer,
thinnest, German dunn, dunner, dunnst, Swedish tunn, tunnare,
tunnast)

(11) All members of the gioup form the past tense and past participle
of the verb in two ways (a) by modifying the root-vowel
(English sing, sang, sung, German smgen, sang, gesungen,
Danish synge, sang, sunget), (fc) by adding d or t to the stem
(English punish, punished, German strafen, strafte, gestraft,
Danish sttaffe, straffede, straffet)
(111) The typical genitive singular case-mark is -s, as in English

day's, Swedish dags, Danish Dags, German Tages
If we follow out our third clue^ we find a very striking series of
sound-shifts characteristic of each language We have had one example
of consonant equivalence in the Teutonic group  Below is a single
example of vowel equivalence.

ENGLISH                  SWEDISH                     GERMAN

bone                      ben                       Bern

goat                       get                        Geiss

oak                        ek                         Eiche

stone                     sten                      Stein

whole                    hel                        heil

JO HAVE IN TEUTONIC LANGUAGES

1 NGUSH
	SWTDISH
	DANISH
		DUTCH *
	GERMAN*

I have
	jag "\
	7^    1
	
	z^heb
	ic/z habe

thou hast
	Du >har
	Du
	
	;z/ hcbt
	du hast

he has
	han}
	han
	* har
	hij heeft
	er hat

we    "i
	VI   ""1
	VI
	
	wy     1
	«nr haben

you   I have
	Ni lhava
	De
	
	julhe     f-hebben
	ihr habt

they }
	df<? j
	dc    *.
	
	ZIJ           J
	^e haben

I had
	
	
	
	ik -]
	ich hatte

thou iudst
	7^, etc y hade
	
	
	W  \ had
	<fa hattest

he      ]
	
	
	
	
	gr hatte

ws      \ you    j
	70^5 <;rc * hade
	;«!?> etc ,
		wij   1 7«//z*i L hadden
	wir hatten ihr hattet

r&ry   J
	
	havde
		ZIJ     \
	$te hatten

/ have load
	;## har haft
	;«3£ har haft
		ik heb gehad
	ich habe gehabt

/ shall have
	jag skall hava
	jc^ s>kal have
		ik zal hebben
	ich werde haben

* For polite address German has Sid third person plural, Dutch has U+
third person singular (p