212 The Loom of Language ment officials (= five officials) The analogy should not be pushed too far, because Bantu classifiers no longer possess a clear-cut meaning., nor do they survive as independent words Particles 01 affixes used as classifiers aic not confined to the Bantu languages Capell* writes as follows about one of the Papuan dialects "In the languages ol Southern Bougainville nouns axe divided ijito upwards of twenty classes, and the adjectives and numcrah vary in agreement with the class to which the noun belongs One gets something of the same effect as in the Bantu languages, except that m the Papuan languages it is the end of the wend, not the beginning, that changes." In Kinwiman, a language of the Trobnand Islands, demonstratives as well as adjectives and numerals aie coupled with characteristic particles which are common to all members of a particular class of noun, and each noun belongs to such a class Professor Mahnowski, who has given an illuminating account}* of H, describes its essential peculiarities m the following passage "Let us transpose this peculiarity oi Kinwiman into hnghsh, following the native prototype very closely, and imagine that no adjective, no numeral, no demonstrative, may be used without a particle denoting the nature oi the object referred, to All names oi human beings would take the prefix 'human J Instead ol saying 'one soldier* we would have to say 'human-one soldier walks m rhe street/ Instead oi ^how many passengers were m the accident ?% 'how human-many passengers weie m the accident?' Answer, *human-seventeen.' Or again, m leply to *Are the Smiths human-nice people?' we should say, *No, they are human-dull1* Again, nouns denoting persons belonging to the female sex would be numbered, pointed at, and qualified with the aid oi the prefix 'female', wooden objects with the parucle *woodcn% flat or thin things with the particle leafy,' following in all this the precedent of Kiriwma Thus, pointing at a table, we would say, 'Look at wooden- tins*, describing a landscape, leaiy-brown leaves on the wooden-large trees', speaking of a book, leafy-hundred pages in it*; 'the women oi Spain arc female-beautiful*; 'human-this boy is very naughty, but female-this girl is good* " Thus the habit of labelling aU name-words with one of a lirruted number of affixes is not confined to the Bantu family. It is widely distributed among unrelated languages spoken by static and backward communities throughout the world, The number of such classes may 1937 t Classificatory Particles in Kmwina (Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, vol. i, 1917-20).