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How to Learn the Basic Word List      229
In other Teutonic languages, ]? has changed directly to t, or via 6 to d.
This is illustrated by many common words, such as our definite
article the, with its plural equivalent de in Swedish, Danish and Dutch,
and die in German; the English that with its neuter equivalent det in
Swedish and Danish, or dot in Dutch, the English they and theirs,
with modern Scandinavian equivalents, de and deras (Swedish), deres
(Danish), or the English thou with its equivalent Swedish,Danish, and
German du.
German equivalents of English words with the initial consonants J>
or 6, i.e. either sound represented by th in English spelling, start
with d
Dank3    thanks                   Dingy        thing
das,       that                     denken,     think
dann,     then                    drei,         three
day         theie                    Durst,,       thirst
dick,      thick                    Distel,       thistle
Dieb,      thief                     Dorn,       thorn
dunn,     thin                     Dor/,        thorp (= village)
In two ways English has changed as some of the Scandinavian
dialects have done One is that a sound which was SK in Old English
(then spelt sc) has now become SH, as in German, where the spelling
convention is SCH, e.g shade—Schatten, shame—Scham, (to) shed
—scheiden A partial change of this kind has occurred in Swedish, in
which the symbol SK, except when it precedes the back vowels a,
d, or o, is pronounced J, i e skepp has the same initial sound as its
equivalent ship The following words illusuate the English shift from
sk to sh. In the Swedish equivalents on the left, the symbols have their
original (hard) value Those of the right are paper survivals, the initial
sound being the same as in English:
SWEDISH           ENGLISH                           SWEDISH             ENGLISH
skaka             shake                        skepp              ship
skal                shell                         skida              sheath
skall               shall                         skimma           shimmer
skam              shame                       skina              shine
skarp              sharp                        skjuta             shoot
sko                shoe                         skold              shield
skrika             shriek
skur               shower
In the evolution of modern English there has also been a weakening
of the guttural g like the weakening of the guttural k illustrated by the
words now spelt with the arbitrary combination sh This has had an