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230                The Loom of Language
impoitaiiL gumipatical consequence which will appear at a later stage
(p 264) The haul (? as m t*oat is generally the sound which concsponds
to the symbol in Geiman, Dutch, and Danish In Swedish ins usually
softened to out jy sound unless lollowed by a buck vowel (a n\fathery
aw in law, oo in hook} Swedish spelling does not reilect this softening,
but m Danish and Norwegian the softened// is tcplaccd by GJ, J or I,
and in new Norwegian^ is substituted for the soit# after o (Swedish
or Gexman o roughly equivalent to our n in \hnk} Ihus m German
eye is Augc, in Swedish it js o^t and in Noiwegian 0yc So also way is
Wc% m Get man, vag in Swedish, vq m Danish, m m Noiwegiun In
many Lnghsh words of I eutomc ongm the // lu's softened JP this way,
and V or W ate now its %riavestoms in the written language The Y
may stamp a diphthong as in CMC or ^uns or u may br ecjuivalent to
the soft Scandinavian (J or Gf as in v^//<w (Cicrman //<*, Swedish
^//) A IF m place oi // tutns up m the pan*cutcm?c word for bird
(Swed fdgdi CJcitnan V^cl) \v\u\\ we now spell as/nc/, as also m
bmo (S\ved,, hdgc, (German Ho^cn)
In a large class of hn^hsh woids, tb coniHuution ;;// is completely
silent The combination on<nnally stood for a breathy sound repre*-
sented by </i m (Jcrman, and still prouoniucd *s su< Is m Suns 'Ihus
the Scots words for nMtt +nd liht are dost* to ihe Gcimim Nacht
and Licht This sound, which Ins disappeared m 5tn'thsh elsewhere,
is almost absent m Scandinavian, Thus the Scandinavian word for mght
is natfi and Ijw, for light (Swedish) or /ys (I)amsh and Norwegian)
So far as the consonants cue concerned, the changes horn w to v and
from J? to t9 or from o to </, arc the sound-rJnfts which arc most impor-
tant to anyone who aims at learning Norwegian <>r Swedish- They arc
illustrated by*
INOUMI             SWH)lSn                   I,N<rUM3(           SWIDISH
waggon            v<\<\n                         thick                tjotk
water               vati<vn                     tint I                tjuv
weak                vck                         Unn                 uinn
week                vcTk.i                      thmg               nag
wild                 vUi                         think               uhika
wise                 vts                          thousuiul        tusen
wtnk                vctk                        three               trc
world               vmkl                      thread             tnkl
waim               varan                       tin one            tion
way                 vji                         thumb            unuinc
weather           v*idcr
well                 v8l
west               vaster