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Full text of "The Loom Of Language"

How to Learn the Basic Word List      247

LATIN
	ITALIAN
	SPANISH
	PORTUGUESE
	FRENCH
	ENGLISH

augusto
	agosto
			AOUT
	August

castigaie
	castigate
	castigat
		CHATIER
	to chastise

mtegro
	intero
	enteio
	inteiro
	ENTIER
	entire

fugire
	fuggite
	hmt
	fugit
	ruiR
	to flee

lege
	legge
	ley
	lei
	LOI
	law

bgate
	legate
	ligat
		LIER
	to tie

negate
	negate
	negat
		NIER
	to deny

mgro
	neto
	negro
		NOIR
	black

pacare
	pagaie
	pagat
		PAYER
	to pay

pagano
	pagano
		pagao
	PAIEN
	heathen

plaga
	piaga
	llaga
	praga
	PLAIE
	wound


	
	
	
	
	(plague}

ruga
	(btrada)
	(ccdle}
	tua
	RUE
	street

Another Fiench consonant-shift scarcely conceals the Latin equi-
valent A v which through phonetic loss has become final hardens to
/, or is mute., as shown in the next instalment for our vocabulary of
Romance words One reason for mentioning this is that it brings to life
a grammatical irregularity. The feminine form (p 357) of adjectives
which have the masculine singular ending -/takes ~ve m place of it

LATIN
	ITALIAN
	SPANISH
	PORTUGUESE
	FRENCH
	ENGLISH

bove
	bove
	buey
	boi
	BCEUF
	OX

breve
	breve
			BREF (-eve)
	brief

novo (-a)
	nuovo
	nuevo
	novo
	NEUF (-V6)
	new

novem
	nove
	nucve
	nove
	NEUF
	nine

clave
	chiave
	Have
	chave
	CLEF
	key

nervo
	nervo
	nervio
	nervo
	NERF
	nerve

ovo
	uovo
	huevo
	ovo
	CEUF
	egg

vivo (-a)
	vivo (-a)
			VIF (-ve)
	alive

Two vowel-shifts are peculiar to French (a) in an open syllable the
Latin stressed a became an e sound, spelt to-day E, fe, &, AI3 or -ER,
(V) in the same position the Latin stressed e changed to the diphthong
OL The combination now stands for a sound like wa in Scots we twa
French grammarians disapproved of this pronunciation tall the Revo-
lution put its seal on it Examples of these changes are overleaf
What 1$ most characteristic of modern French words is loss of body
through successive elimination of terminal vowels, medial consonants^
and final consonants The consequence is that French has a very large pro-
portion of monosyllables Indeed, almost every bisyllabic Latin word
which has left a direct descendant in modern French is now represented
by a single syllable* as illustrated by the following couplets m which a