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Full text of "The Loom Of Language"

272

The Loom of Language

adjective All the Teutonic languages form three classes of derivatives
other than those usually called flexions  Some of them are important
For instance, it is less useful for the foreigner to know that a gander is a
male goose or that the plural of louse is hce, than to learn the trick of
manufacturing numberless new words such as fisher or writer by tacking

ENGLISH-TEUTONIC AFFIXES

ENGLISH
	EXAMPLE
	SWEDISH
	DANISH
	DUTCH
	GERMAN

(a) Noun
	
	
	
	
	

-DOM
	kingdom
	-DOM
	-DOM
	-DOM
	-TUM

-ER
	writer
	-ARE
	-ER
	-ER
	-ER

-HOOD (-HEAD)
	fatherhood
	-HEX
	-HED
	-HEID
	-HEIT

-ING
	warning
	-ING
	-ING
	-ING
	-UNG

-LING
	darling
	-LING
	-LING
	-LING
	-LING

-NESS
	kindness
	__
	
	-NIS
	-NIS

-SHIP
	friendship
	-SKAP
	-SKAB
	-SCHAP
	-SCHAFT

(fc) Adjective
	
	
	
	
	

-FDL
	wishful
	-FULL
	-FULD
	-VOL
	-VOLL

-ISH
	hellish
	-ISK
	-ISK
	1     -ISCH
	-ISCH

-LESS
	lifeless
	-LOS
	-L0S
	-LOOS
	-LOS

-LY
	lonely
	-LIG
	-LIG
	-LIJK
	-LICH

-SOME
	loathsome
	-SAM
	-SOM
	-ZAAM
	-SAM

-Y
	dusty
	-IG
	-IG
	-IG
	-ICH, -IG

UN-
	unkind
	O-
	U-
	ON-
	UN-

CO Adverb
	
	
	
	
	

-WARDS
	homewards
	
	
	-WAARTS
	-WARTS

-WISE
	likewise
	-VIS
	-VIS
	-WIJZE
	-WEISE

W) Verb
	
	
	
	
	

BE-
	behold
	BE-
	BE-
	BE-
	BE-

----
	
	-ERA
	ERE
	-EEREN
	-IEREN

FOR-
	forbid
	FOR-
	FOR-
	VER-
	VER-

FORE-
	foresee
	FORE-
	FORE-
	VOOR-
	VOR-

MIS-
	mistake
	MISS-
	MIS-
	MIS-
	MISS-

-er on to a verb The older Teutonic verbs readily combine with pre-
positions., eg undergo^ or overcome (Swedish overkomma), and with
other prefixes which have no separate existence Teutonic languages
have many adjectives or adverbs formed from nouns by adding -ly
(English), -hg (Swedish-Danish), -hjk (Dutch), and -lich (German),
corresponding to Old English -lie. In modern English this terminal is
characteristic of adverbial derivatives (see p in) but we still cling- to
a few adjectives such as godly> manly> brotherly> kindly* At least one of