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Full text of "The Loom Of Language"

BircPs-Eye View of Teutonic Grammar   279
active construction, when (as always in Swedish) the two are diffeient,
eg
jag bhr straff ad              I am being punished       jeg bfrver stiaffet
m bhr (bhva) straffade     we are bemg punished     v^ bhver straffede
Similarly we have
jag shall bhva straff ad     I shall be punished         jeg skal blwe straffet
jag har bhvit straff ad       I have been punished     jeg er blevet straff et
jag hade bhvit sttaffad    I had been punished       jeg var blevet stiaffet
The only flexions of the noun arc the genitive -s (see below) and the
plural ending, typically -2? in Danish, Norwegian, and many Swedish
nouns (-ar and -or in some Swedish) A few nouns form a plural
analogous to that of our ox-oxen. Two words of this class are common
to all three dialects —ear-ears ora-oron (Swed), 0re-0? en (Dan ,
Norweg ), and eye-eyes, oga-ogon (Swed ), 0je-0jne (Dan ), 0ye-0yne
(Norweg ) A large class like our sheep> with no plural flesion, includes
all monosyllabic nouns of neuter gender A few words (p 206) like our
mouse-mice^ man-men (Swed man-man^ Dan Mand-Maend, Norweg
Mann-Menn) form the plural by internal vowel-change alone As in
German, many monosyllables with the stem vowels o, a, have modified
plurals, e g book-books = bok-bocker (Swed), Bog-B0ger (Dan )
The so-called indefinite article (a or an} has two forms in official
Swedish and Danish Norwegian, like some Swedish dialects, now has
three. One, ett (Swedish) or et (Dan and Norweg) stands before nouns
classed as neuter The other, en, stands before nouns classed as non-
neuter (common gender) in Swedish and Danish, or masculine in
Norwegian, which has a feminine ei as well Thus we have en god
fader (a good father), and et(f) godt bain (a good child) The adjective
has three forms
(a) root + the suffix -a (Sw.) or -e (Dan and Norweg) when
associated with any plural noun or any singular noun preceded by a
demonstrative or possessive, e g
SWEDISH                         DANISH
good women            goda kvinnor            gode Kvinder
my young child         mitt unga barn          mit unge Barn
this good book          denna goda bok         denne gode Bog
(&) root alone^ when associated with a singular non-neute\ noun
which is not preceded by a demonstrative or possessive, e g
a good dog               en god hund          en god Hund