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BircFs-Rye View of Teutonic Grammar   291
(iv) Proper names and technical terms derived from foreign
roots such as TELEFON or RADIUM add -S in the genitive
and do not otherwise change
B   The DATIVE PLURAL of ALL nouns ends in -(E)N
(i) Add -EN to all polysyllabic femimnes (except Mutter and
Tochter) and to all the masculines mentioned under A(u)
(n) Masculines and neuters in -ER, -EL, -EN, -CHEN (diminu-
tives)., do not change, but many of the masculines and all
femimnes and neuters (duninutrves) have root-vowel
change (Umlaut) as stated under D
(m) Many monosyllabic masculines, femimnes, and neuters
take -E Some ^>f the masculines and all the femimnes
have Umlaut, e g der Sohn (son)ódie Sohm (sons)
(iv) The most common monosyllabic neuters (e g  Bild, Blatt,
Buch, Ei, Feld, Glas, Haus, Kind, Kleid, Land, Licht,
Loch   etc), and a few masculines of one syllable have
-ER (dative -ERN) All nouns of this group have Umlaut
(v) A small number of masculines and neuters show mixed
declension, i e -(E)S in the genitive singular and -(E)N in
the plural   None of them has Umlaut   Examples are
AUGE (eye), BAUCR (farmer), BETT (bed), DOKTOR (PRO-
FESSOR,   DIREKTOR,   REKTQR,   etc),   NACHBAR (neighbour),
OHR (ear), STAAT (state), STRAHL (ray)
D   The root vowels <2, o, w, and the diphthong au may change to
a, o, u, au in the plural
The genitive form of the German noun follows the thing possessed
as in der Hut meines Voters (my father's hat) In this example the
masculine singular noun carries its genitive terminal Since no plural
and no feminine singular nouns have a special genitive ending, the
beginner will ask how to express the same relation when the noun is
neither masculine singular nor neuter singular The answer is that it
usually comes after a pointer-word or adjective which does carry the
case trade-mark Thus my sister's hat is der Hut metner Schwester The
roundabout method of expression is common in speech, and is easier
to handle, e g der Hut von metnern Voter (the hat of my father), or der
Hut von meiner Schwester
To apply the rules given in the preceding and in succeeding para-
graphs we need to be able to recognize the gender class to which a
German noun belongs Each noun in the museum exhibits of Part IV is
so labelled by the definite article (nominative sing) der (m )> die (f.),
das (n ) The following rules are helpful: