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Full text of "The Loom Of Language"

336

The Loom of Language

In Teutonic languages the adverb may be the same as the neuter
singular (Scandinavian) or the predicative form of the adjective (Ger-
man) English alone is encumbered with a special form (p. in) Classi-
cal Latin had several types of adverbs denved from adjectives In
modern Romance languages,, nearly all the irregular ones have disap-
peared Notable exceptions are bene and male In French these have
become hen-mal, in Italian bene-male, and in Spanish bien-mal The
previous luxuriance of adverbs formed from adjective-roots has given
place to a standardized pattern like the English -ly derivative French
adverbs are formed by adding -merit to the adjective, e g facile-facile-
merit The procedure is the same throughout the Western Romance
languages In Italian the corresponding forms are faale-facilmente^ and
in Sparnshfactl-fdalmente

IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ROMANCE ADJECTIVES*

ENGLISH
	FRENCH
	SPANISH
	LATIN
	ITALIAN

good
	bon (-$)
	bueno (-a)
	bonzes (-a3 -urn)
	buono (-a)

better
	meilleur (-e)
	mejor
	melior
	migliore


	
	(mas bueno)
	
	(piii buono)

best
	le meilleur
	el mejor
	optima
	il migliore

bad
	mauvais (-e)
	malo
	malws
	cattivo (-a)

worse
	plus mauvais
	peor
	pejor
	peggiore


	(pire)
	(mds maid)
	
	(piti. cattivo)

worst
	le plus mauvais
	el peor
	pessimzw
	il peggiore


	(lepire)
	
	
	

big
	grand (-e)
	grande
	magnws
	grande

bigger
	plus grand
	mas grande
	major
	piu grande


	
	(mayor}
	
	(maggiore)

biggest
	le plus grand
	el mas grande
	maximzis
	il piu grande

small
	petit (-e)
	pequeno (-a)
	parvws
	piccolo (-a)

smaller
	plus petit
	mas pequeno
	minor
	pm piccolo


	(motndre)
	(menor)
	
	(minore)

smallest
	le plus petit
	el mas pequeno
	mirumws
	il piu piccolo


	(le moindrs)
	
	
	

The germ of this new structure appears in Classical Latin When the
Roman wanted to indicate that something was done in a certain way,
he sometimes used the ablative (mente) ofmens (mind), and qualified it
by means of an appropriate adjective, e.g obstinata mente (with an
obstinate mind)3 or bona mente (in good faith) Since mente always
* In italics alternatives which have a more restricted use m common speec}it
Jn Frencrj only bon has no regular comparative^