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Full text of "The Loom Of Language"

338

The Loom oj Language

constructions^ g tradittisfuit (he was betrayed), or traditus ent (he will
be betrayed)

Two tense-forms of Classical Latin (future and future perfect)
disappeared A third (pluperfect} survived only in Ibenan Latin , and a
fourth lost some of its former territory To indicate completion of a
process or its final result, Latin, like other Indo-Euiopean languages
had a verb-form, the perfect^ which corresponds roughly to our com-

PRESFNT AND IMPERFECT TENSE-FORMS OF ROMANCE

VERBS


	FRENCH
	SPANISH
	LATIN
	ITALIAN

I love.
	j'aime
	atno
	anio
	amo

etc
	tu aunes
	amas
	amas
	ami


	il aune
	aria
	amat
	ama


	nous annons
	amamob
	amamus
	amiamo


	vous aimez
	am? is
	amatis
	amate


	ils aiment
	aman
	amant
	amano

I was
	j'aimais
	amaba
	amabam
	amavo

loving,
	tu aimais
	amabas
	amabas
	ainavi

etc
	il aimait
	amaba
	amabat
	amava


	nous aumons
	amabamos
	amabamus
	amavamo


	vous aimiez
	amabais
	amabatis
	amavate


	ils aimaient
	amaoan
	?mabant
	amavano

pound past, eg from set there (to write), wnpst (I have written), but
Caesar writes of himself, Caesar urbem occupatam habety which is
roughly equivalent to Caesar has occupied the &ty> and Cicero himself
writes, scnptum hdheo (I have written), satts kabeo ddiberatum (I have
deliberated enough) In late Latin the old synthetic perfect form
(cantam = I have sung) was gradually ousted by the periphrastic
construction with habere (to have) or esse (to be), i e cantam by cantatum
habeo, and ^everti (I have returned) by reversus sum The synthetic
form remainedj but came to be confined to the function of a past
definite (cantam = I sang) As such it still persists in literary Fiench,
as in spoken or written Spanish and Italian (he sang Latin tantavit^
French il chanta, Spanish cantd^ Itakan canfb) Frenchmen never
use it in conversation or informal writing
Another tense-form which disappeared in the later stages of living
Latin was the classical future While the verb to have kept its indepen-
dence as a helper to indicate past time, the new analytical future to