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Full text of "The Loom Of Language"

Modern Descendants of Latin

363

correct form is one of the most troublesome things for a beginner. This
is so for several reasons:

ROMANCE PERSONAL PRONOUNS—STRESSED* FORMS


	ME
	(THEE)
	HIM
	HER
	us

FRENCH
	MOI
	TCI
	LUI
	ELLE
	NOUS

PORTUGUESE
	MIM
	TI
	ELE
	ELA
	NOS

SPANISH!
	MI
	TI
	EL
	ELLA
	NOSOTROS

ITALIAN
	ME
	TE
	LUI
 (ESSO)
	LEI
 (ESSA)
	NOT


	YOU
	THEM (m )
	THEM (f)
	REFLEXIVE

FRENCH
	VOUS
	EUX
	ELLES
	SOI

PORTUGUESE
	VOS
	ELES
	ELAS
	SI

SPANISH!
	VOSOTROS
	ELLOS
	ELLAS
	SI

ITALIAN
	VOI
	LORD
		SE


	
	(ESSI)           (ESSE)
		

* Stressed forms always used when preceded by a preposition
t There is a stressed neuter Spanish pronoun ELLO (== it). see footnote
p 359   For feminine forms of NOSOTROS, VOSOTROS see p 331

(i) Pronouns of the third person have separate direct object (accusative)
and indirect object (dative) forms,

(u) Pronouns of all three persons have separate unstressed (conjunctive)
forms as subject or object of an accompanying verb and stressed (disjunc-
tive) forms for use after a preposition and in certain other situations,

(111) The rules of concord for the possessive of the third person have
nothing to do with the gender of the possessor,

(iv) Pronouns may agglutinate with other words ,

(v) Pronouns of the second person have different polite and familiar
forms

The personal flexions of the Portuguese, Spanish, and Italian verb
are still intact It is customary to use Portuguese, Spanish, or Italian
verbs without an accompanying subject pronoun, though the latter is
handy for emphasis or greater clarity, e g :

ENGLISH
he is good

FRENCH

il est bofi

PORTUGUESE

e bom

SPANISH
es bueno

ITALIAN
e buono