370 The Loom of Language Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian is now the one used to address husband or wife, children, close relations, and intimate fnends There is a French verb tutoyer (German duzerf) which means to speak fami- liarly., that is, to address a person as tu in preference to the more formal vow (French vouzoyer, German siezen) In the days of the Roman Empire, nos (we) often replaced the em- phatic ego (I) This led to the substitution of vos for tu The custom began in the upper ranks of Roman society Eventually vos percolated through the tiers of the social hierarchy till it reached those who had only their chains to lose So vous is now the polite French for you The verb which goes with it has the plural ending, while the adjective or past participle takes the gender and number of the person addressed Thus the Frenchman says Madame, vous etes trop bonne (how kind of you, Madam), but Monsieur, vous etes trop bon In spite of the Revolu- tion of 1789, the French often use Monsieur, Madame> and Mademoiselle with the third person, e g Madame est trop bonne Spaniards and Italians have pushed deference further by substi- tuting a less direct form for the original vos (Span ) or voi (Ital) The Italian uses lei (or more formally ella) = she, with the third person singular, eg lei e americano* (you are American^) Let is the pronomial representative for some feminine noun such as vossignona (Your Lord- ship) The plural of lei is loro In Italian conversation we can often omit lei and loro Instead we can use the third person without pronoun, e g ha mangiato? (have you eaten^) When a Spaniard addresses a single individual who is not an intimate or a child, he uses usted (written V or Vd for short) instead of tu. The corresponding pronoun for use when addressing more than one person is ustedes (Vs or Vds). Usted is a contraction of vuestra merced (Your Grace) Consequently the verb appears in the third person, as in Italian, e g. como se llama usted? (what is your name?), como se llaman ustedes^ (what are your names ?), In very short statements or questions we can omit usted, e g. que dice> (what do you say?) Portuguese is more extravagant than either Spanish or Italian The usual equivalent for our you when it stands for a male is o senkor, and for a female a senhora, or (in Brazil) a senhonta. So the Portuguese for the simple English have you got ink> is tern o senhor (or a senhora} tinta? Our catalogue of pohte behaviour would be incomplete without the Balkan equivalent The Rumanian for the polite you is the periphrastic domnia voastra (Latin dormna vostra, Your Lordship) The pohte forms of our invariant YOU in Italian and Spanish are m the table below.