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Full text of "The Loom Of Language"

Modern Descendants of Latin

383

Spanish verb are much closer (p 183) to those of its Latin parent than
are those of the French or Italian verb; but change of stress has led to
changes of the stem vowel, and irregularities so produced have been
levelled less than in French. So the stem of a verb, whose French
equivalent usually has the same vowel throughout, may ring the
changes on 05 KB, and Uzsmiduermo (I sleep), dortmmos (we sleep),

TO HAVE IN THE ROMANCE FAMILY


	FRENCH
	PORTUGUESE
	SPANISH
	LATIN
	ITALIAN

f
	j'ai
	hei
	he
	habeo
	ho


	tu as
	has
	has
	habes
	hai


	ila
	ha
	ha
	habet
	ha

Present   s
	nous avons
	bavemos
	hemos
	habemus
	abbiamo


	vous avez
	haveis or heis
	habeis
	habetis
	avete

I
	ils ont
	hao
	hag
	habent
	hanno


	j 'avais
	havia
	habia
	habebam
	avevo


	tu a\ais
	havias
	habias
	habebas
	avevi


	il avait nous avions
	havia haviamos
	habla nabiamos
	habebat habebamus
	aveva avevamc


	vous aviez
	havieis
	hablais
	habebatis
	avevate


	ils avaient
	haviam
	habfan
	habebant
	avevano

f
	j'eus
	houve
	hube
	habui
	ebbi


	tu eus
	houveste
	hubiste
	habuisti
	avesti

Past      j
	iJ cut
	houve
	hubo
	habuit
	ebbe

Definite   1
	nous eumes
	houvemos
	hubimos
	habuimus
	avenuno


	vous eutes
	houvestes
	hubisteis
	habuistis
	aveste

I
	ils eurent
	houveram
	hubieron
	habuerunt
	ebberc


	j'auisi
	haverei
	habre
	
	avrd


	tu auras
	haveras
	habras
	
	avrai


	il aura
	baveii
	habra
	see
	avr&


	nous aurons
	haver emos
	habremos
	P 183
	avremo


	vous aurez
	havereis
	habreis
	
	avrete


	ils auront
	haverao
	habran
	
	avranno


	j'aurais
	bavena
	habria
	
	avrei


	tu aurais
	havenas
	habnas
	
	avresti


	il aurait
	havena
	habria
	see
	avrebbe


	nous aunons
	havenamos
	habnamos
	p 183
	avremnio


	vous aunez
	haveneis
	habriais
	
	avreste


	ils auraient
	havenim
	habrlan
	
	avrebbero


	j'aie
	haja
	hava
	habeam
	abbia


	tu aies il ait nous ayons vous ayez ils aient
	hajas haja hajamos hajais ha> am
	hayas haya hayamos hayais hayan
	habeas habeat habeamus habeatis habeant
	abbia or abbi abbia abbiamo abbiate abbiano

Imperative f
	aie ayez
	ha havei
	hi habed
	habe habete
	abbi abbiate

Present   \ Participle / Past      \ Participle J
	ajant eu
	havendo havido
	habiendo habido
	habens habitum
	avendo avuto

Infinitrve
	AVOIR
	HAVER
	HABER
	HABERE
	AVERE

durmimdo (sleeping) The modern French equivalents are je dors, nous
dormons, dormant
Other internal irregularities of the written language are purely ortho-
graphiCjie they are penalties of the regularity of Spanish spelling Thus
a final -C standing for the hard K sound in the stem of a Spanish verb
becomes QU, if the verb ending begins with E or I This change^ which